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MINERALS

Minerals Video

The solid part of the Earth is made out of rocks. The rocks are made out of minerals. Around 4,000 different minerals MINERALS Naturally occurring, inorganic solid, that has its own specific chemical composition and structure (crystalline) Minerals are made out of ELEMENTS.

ELEMENT- Contains only one kind of atom. Ninety-two elements found in nature Others have been produced artificially Atomic number - number of positively charged protons in nucleus and electrons outside the nucleus
6
ELEMENT NAME ATOMIC NUMBER
Number on Chart

C
ATOMIC MASS
Number of Protons added to the number of Electrons

ATOMIC SYMBOL
Abbreviation

Carbon 12.011

Some minerals are made out of only one element. EXAMPLE: SULFUR (S) GOLD (Au) GRAPHITE (C) DIAMOND (C) Most minerals are made out of compounds (combinations of elements). EXAMPLE: QUARTZ HALITE (SiO2) (NaCl)

MOST ABUNDANT ELEMENTS IN MINERALS


***See Earth Science Reference Tables***

MINERAL STRUCTURE

Crust - most abundant elements are oxygen and silicon

Therefore, the most abundant group of minerals, THE SILICATES, contain oxygen and silicon. The silicate minerals chemical structure is in the form of a TETRAHEDRON.

OXYGEN ATOM

OXYGEN ATOM

SILICON ATOM

TETRAHEDRON

OXYGEN ATOM

OXYGEN ATOM

Four oxygen atoms at four corners around one silicon atom at center Different silicate minerals bond, or share oxygen atoms different ways

MINERAL PROPERTIES
Mineral have physical and chemical characteristics, make identifiable Elements in mineral and how they are arranged tell properties

1. CRYSTAL FORMHow strongly bonded and how arranged determines the shape of individual mineral EXAMPLE: Two silicate minerals: MICA- forms thin sheets. QUARTZ- forms six sided crystals.

2. CLEAVAGE / FRACTUREMinerals have a tendency to cleave or split smoothly if have weak bonds If there are no weak bonds than the crystal fractures or breaks CLEAVAGE - flat parallel sides. FRACTURE - jagged sides. EXAMPLES: Mica - cleavage Halite - cleavage Quartz - fracture

Cleavage

Rock showing Fracture

3. COLOR- determined by elements present Color alone should not be used for mineral identification. One mineral may come in many different colors. EXAMPLE: QUARTZ- White, red, green, etc. Many different minerals may be the same color EXAMPLE: QUARTZ, CALCITE, HALITE are white

Quartz Different Colors

Quartz, Halite, Calcite All white minerals

4. HARDNESS- minerals resistance to being scratched. a) THE MOHS HARDNESS SCALE: A list of minerals and their known hardness #1 the softest is Talc ... #10 the hardest is Diamond.

b) Hardness Test Scratches material = harder Does not scratch = softer

Hardness tests: Fingernail: ... Copper penny: . Iron nail: . Glass plate: . hardness 2.5 hardness 3.5 hardness 4.5 hardness 5.5

5. STREAKThe color of the powder of a mineral It is determined by scratching a mineral on a hard white porcelain plate. Streak gives the true color, better than color of mineral

6. LUSTER- The way the minerals surface reflects light There are two major groups: METALLIC: Minerals that look like silver or gold EXAMPLE: GALENA is silver PYRITE is gold NONMETALLIC: Minerals that look like glassy, dull, pearly, earthy, etc. EXAMPLE: QUARTZ is glassy TALC is dull MUCOVITE MICA is pearly

7. SPECIFIC GRAVITYA comparison of a minerals density to the density of water 1g/cm3 8. SPECIAL PROPERTIESCALCITE bubbles when acid touches it MAGNETITE is magnetic