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PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE/PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Present Tense Simple is used to express: 1. Habits an routines e.

g Karen usually deals with the clients. I often get junk emails from unknown . companies. &. Permanent/#eneral situations e.g I work for a big foreign trade firm. My parents live in England. ). *a(ts t"at are al+a's true e.g. !he sun sets in the "est. "ater boils at #$$ %. -. Timetables an pro#rammes e.g. )ritish *irways flight )*+$, leaves -ome at ../0 and lands in 1ondon at 2.00 3chool starts on the #0th of 3eptember. My plane takes off at 4 pm tomorrow. Time expressions : 6 every day/week/month/year etc. 6 usually, always, ever, never, often, seldom, sometimes. Present tense Continuous is used to express: 1. E!ents "appenin# at t"e moment o$ spea%in# or aroun t"e moment o$ spea%in# e.g. He is having breakfast at the moment. It is snowing hard today. &. Temporar'/parti(ular situations e.g. I am working in aris for two months. I am living in England for a while. ). ,nno'in# a(tions/(omplaints e.g. My car is always breaking down& 'ou are always arriving late on (ridays. -. *i.e $uture aran#ements e.g "e are spending our holiday in 5reece next summer. !hey are moving to the new premises in *pril. Time expressions : -y

PAST TENSE SIMPLE/PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS Past Tense Simple Is used to express: 1.An action completed at a stated time in the past e.g. The merchant bank went an!"upt in 1997. The first world war sta"ted in 1914. #. Actions which happened one a$te" anothe" %a se&uence o$ actions' e.g. He ente"ed the office pic!ed up the phone and sta"ted to talk. !esterda"#last week#ago Past Tense Continuous Is used to express: 1. An action that was in p"o("ess at a pa"ticula" moment in the past. e.g. $t 9 o%clock last night she was tal!in( on the phone. &hat we"e )ou doin( this time "esterda"' #. Two o" mo"e actions which we"e happenin( at the same time in the past e.g. The" we"e tal!in( to the clients while I was $illin( in a form.

*hile+ whe"eas+ as ,. *ith non-continuous .e" s %li!e+ lo.e+ hate+ p"e$e"+ elie.e+ "emem e"+ thin!+ unde"stand+ $o"(et+ !now+ want+ mean+ need+ seem+ see+ $eel+ taste+ smell etc'. e.g. (he wanted to bu" a mansion but she couldn%t afford it. . 0. Past actions which won1t happen a(ain. e.g. )harles *ickens wrote a lot of no+els. 0. Past actions which desc"i e the ac!("ound to the e.ents in a sto"). e.(. &e were skiing on the slope. It was snowing hea+il", ,. A past action that was in p"o("ess when anothe" action inte""upted it. e.g. *hile she was e/plainin( her proposal somebod" interrupted her.

The Past Tense Simple is often used with past time expressions: a' with p"epositions: - at two o%clock#at the end of the month#on )hristmas da" - on Monda)/on the 12th o$ Ap"il/on New )ea"1s 3a) - in Ma)/winte"/1445/the 1467s ' without p"eposition8 )este"da)/)este"da) mo"nin(/last wee!/last ni(ht/a $ew da)s a(o past tense simple I wo"!ed ha"d last wee!. 3id )ou wo"! ha"d last wee!9 I didn1t wo"! ha"d last wee!. :e went to the T"ade ;ai" two da)s a(o 3id he (o to :e didn1t (o Past Tense Continuous S<to e <=in( I was "eadin( *e"e )ou "eadin(

I wasn1t "eadin(

PRESENT PER*ECT SIMPLE S/ H,0E/0ER1) 1. In e$inite a(tion7 3omebody has broken the window. I have got my driving6license. &. Re(ent a(tion: 2 3ust 4 !he taxi has 3ust arrived. 2 alrea ' 4 Have you alrea ' talked to him8 Ha!e 'ou tal%e to "im 'et5 'es9 I have alrea ' talked to him. 2 not6'et : I haven7t talked to him 'et. 2 latel'/re(entl' : I haven;t talked to him re(entl'. 2 up to no+/so $ar 4 He has asked ten <uestions so $ar. 2 be$ore 4 Have you met be$ore8 "e haven;t met be$ore. ). , series o$ repeate a(tions in t"e past +"i(" ma' (ontinue into t"e present 8a !erbs o$ $re9uen(': 6 e!er : Have you e!er travelled by plane8 6 ne!er : I have ne!er travelled by plane. 6 al+a's : 3he has al+a's bought expensive clothes. 6 o$ten : !hey have o$ten visited their grandparents. 6 sel om 8rarel': : !hey have sel om visited their grandparents. -. ,n a(tion ta%in# pla(e in a perio o$ time +"i(" is not o!er 'et. 2 to a' 4 "here have you been to a'5 2 t"is 8+ee%; mont"; 'ear et(: 4 I have been very busy t"is +ee%. T"is mornin# It7s 11 am. <"ere "a!e 'ou been5 It7s 1 pm <"ere +ere 'ou5 To a' : I (ame "ome earlier to a'. =. ,n a(tion +"i(" is not o!er 'et or +"i(" "as a result $or t"e present moment. 6 Ho+ lon# have you known Mary8 6 I have known Mary $or 0 years. 6 I have known Mary sin(e 4$$4. *OR is used to express a perio o$ time

SINCE is used to express a point in time.



1.In e$inite a(tion7

e.g. 3omebody "as bro%en the window.

1.>e$inite a(tion7
e.g. 3omebody bro%e the window on Mon a'.

e.g. I "a!e #ot my driving6license.

e.g. I #ot my driving6license in Aune. 4. ,n a(tion ta%in# pla(e in a perio o$ time +"i(" is o!er: ?ESTER>,?/L,ST <EE@ 8MONTH; ?E,R ETC:/,BO
e.g. "here were you yesterday8 e.g. I was busy last week.

4. ,n a(tion ta%in# pla(e in a perio o$ time +"i(" is not o!er 'et: TO>,?/THIS <EE@ 8MONTH; ?E,R ETC: e.g. "here "a!e 'ou been today8 e.g. I "a!e been busy this week. ). ,>0ER1S:
a= expressing a recent action7

2 3ust 2 alrea ' 2 not6'et 2 latel'/re(entl' 2 up to no+/so $ar. 2 be$ore

b= adverbs of fre<uency7 6 al+a's 6 e!er 6 ne!er 6 o$ten 6 sel om 8rarel': (: 2 "o+ lon# 2 $or 2 sin(e

PRESENT PER*ECT CONTINUOUS S / H,0E / 1EEN / 0ER1 4 INB 1. ,n a(ti!it' +"i(" be#an in t"e past an is still (ontinuin# no+: Ho+ lon# have you been driving the car8 I have been driving the car $or 0 years. I have been driving the car sin(e 4$$/. I have been driving the car sin(e I was #2. &. , past a(ti!it' +"i(" "as (ause a present result: I have been working all a'. >I;m tired now=. 3he has been travelling all ni#"t. >3he is exhausted=. +. *n action which finished ?just now@; Have you been crying8 >'our eyes are red=. He has been swimming. >His hair is wet=. Averdraft My account is overdrawn. My *%%ABC! I3 IC !HE -ED. My account is in the black. !o set up branchesEsubsidiaries !o set up a businessEcompany Facancies * vacant seat Head Affice My office is on the premises. lant !o recoup your investment !A 5A (reelance 6 freelancer 3elf6employed !o invest : investor 3tock market 3hares >).E= market share 3tocks >*.E= 3tock Exchange !o peakEto hit the bottom !o release figures !he last <uarter -evenueEincome !he company is sound

3haresEstocks 3hareholderEstockholder 3afe and sound Environment is sound !o peak

P,ST PER*ECT SIMPLE7 S/H,>/0) a past a(tion ta%in# pla(e be$ore anot"er past a(tion E.g. "e "a 3ust #ot into the car when it started raining. 3he "a alrea ' entere the house when the storm broke out. 3he "a not entere the house 'et when the storm broke out. He "a $inis"e the paper be$ore I rang him up. "e arrived at the airport after the plane "a lan e . He told me "e "a ne!er tra!elle by plane be$ore. P,ST PER*ECT CONTINUOUS S/H,>/1EEN/02INB E.g. He "a been spea%in# for an hour when we came. >he was still speaking when we came=. He had spoken for an hour when we came. >he was no longer speaking=. T"e' "a been ri!in# for an hour when the accident happened. T"e sin#le European (urren(' T"e sin#le European mar%et Tra e union Emplo'er/emplo'ee To emplo' Emplo'mentClabourC+or%/unemplo'ment Emplo'abilit' To be emplo'e /to be unemplo'e Cto be 3oblessCto be out o$ +or% To re3e(t 4 re3e(tion To resi#n 4resi#nation

To be (ommitte to/ "e is !er' (ommitte to "is +or% (ommitment poli(': e u(ational poli('; a (ompan'7s poli('; e(onomi( poli(' to be in!ol!e in politi(s $orei#n e.("an#e mar%et e(onomi( issues/e(onomi(al: It7s more e(onoi(al to o 'our s"oppin# "ere. E(onomi(s >eman in# person/3ob To #o on stri%e To ma%e people re un ant C to la' o$$ S/USE> TO/0ER1 He use to smo%e +"en "e +as 'oun#er. >i "e use to smo%e +"en "e +as 'oun#er5 He i n7t use to smo%e +"en "e +as 'oun#er. T"ere use to be an ol s"op t"ere. He use to be an arm' o$$i(er 8"e is retire no+: <oul M' #ran pa +oul smo%e a (i#arette a$ter lun(". S/to be use to8#et use to: /0in# I am not use to +or%in# so "ar . I (an7t #et use to +or%in# so "ar . 8I use to +or% !er' "ar +"en I +as 'oun#er: *UTURE TENSE SIMPLE 1.,$$irmati!e S / SH,LL/<ILL / 0ER1 81: I s"all leave tomorrow. 'ou +ill leave tomorrow. He 3he +ill leave tomorrow. It Let7s "a!e a brea%; s"all +e5 S"all +e lea!e no+5 "e s"all leave tomorrow. 'ou +ill leave tomorrow. !hey +ill leave tomorrow.

&. Interro#ati!e SH,LL/<ILL / S / 0ER1 81: S"all I leave tomorrow8 <ill you leave tomorrow8 He <ill she leave tomorrow8 it ). Ne#ati!e S / SH,LL<ILL / NOT / 0ER1 81: I shall not leave tomorrowEshan;t leave 'ou will not leave tomorrowEwon;t leave He 3he will not leave tomorrowEwon;t leave It "e shall not leave tomorrowEshan;t leave 'ou will not leave tomorrowEwon;t leave !hey will not leave tomorrowEwon;t leave Dupa "HEC9 *3 3AAC *39 )E(A-E9 *(!E-9 !I11EBC!I19 )' !HE !IME9 I(9 BC1E33 I will call you when I get back home. "e will play tennis as soon as the rain stops. "e will sell the products before the shop closes. I am afraid I will get to the airport after the plane landsEafter the plane has landed 3he will stay in hospital until she recovers completely. )y the time you get home9 dinner will be ready. 'ou will sell the products if they are of high <uality. 'ou won;t sell the products unless they are of high <uality. S"all we leave tomorrow8 <ill you leave tomorrow8 <ill they leave tomorrow8

AO,N I(GI don;t go out so much

>,NIEL I(GI stop smoking

do more work pass my exams go to university study economics become an economist earn a good salary

have more money save some every week be rich when I;m thirty have my own business make a lot of money retire when I;m forty

If I do not go out so much9 I will do more work. If I do more work9 I will pass my exams. If I pass my exams9 I will go to university. If I go to university9 I will study economics. If I study economics9 I will become an economist. If I become an economist9 I will earn more money.

*UTURE TENSE CONTINUOUS S/SH,LL/<ILL/1E/02in# 6 It is use to an a(ti!it' t"at +ill be in pro#ress at a parti(ular moment in t"e $uture. E.g. This time tomorrow I +ill be $l'in# to 1ondon. At three oclock tomorrow "e +ill be atten in# a meeting. This time next week I +ill be atten in# a training course in -ome. <"at +ill 'ou be oin# tomorrow afternoon8 He +ill be tra!ellin# all night. S"e +ill be +or%in# "ar all week. *UTURE PER*ECT TENSE S/SH,LL/<ILL/H,0E/0) 6 It is used for an action that will be completed before a particulat time in the future >together with the time phrase by= +E.g. <e +on7t "a!e repai the loan by March.

T"e' +ill "a!e sol all the goods by the time the !rade (air closes.Ehas closed *uture2in2t"e2past S"e promise me t"at s"e +oul "elp me. "*'3 A( EH -E33IC5 !HE (B!B-E


3I!A )E I5AIC5 !A IFE-)

1. ,$$irmati!e I am #oin# to spen my holiday in 3pain. 'ou are #oin# to spen your holiday in 3pain. He is #oin# to spen his holiday in 3pain. 3he is #oin# to spen her holiday in 3pain. "e are #oin# to spen our holiday in 3pain. 'ou are #oin# to spen your holiday in 3pain. !hey are #oin# to spen their holiday in 3pain. &. Interro#ati!e <"ere are 'ou #oin# to spen 'our "oli a'5 ). Ne#ati!e I am not #oin# to spen m' "oli a' in Spain. Uses: 1. imme iate a(tion: 1ook at the sky& It is going to rain. I$ 'ou eat so man' (a%es; 'ou are #oin# to be si(%. &. intention: "e are going to spend our holiday in 5reece next summer.

To be ue to/!erb
!he plane is due to take off in five minutes. "e are due to hand in the papers on Monday.

To be / !erb
"e are to talk to the manager tomorrow.

To be about to
!o be about to Iverb "e are about to leave T"e Se9uene o$ Tenses #."e arrived at the airport after the plane had taken off. 4. I didn;t know that John was your best friend. Exceptions7 !he teacher told us that water boils at #$$ degrees %. ). 3he promised me that she +oul help me. *uture in t"e past

To appraiseCto e!aluateCto assess


0I. Brammar pra(ti(e. Mo al 0erbs: are followed by an infinitive without Kto@ have only one form >there is no K6s@ in the third person singular and there are no forms with K:ing@ or K6ed@= do not form the interrogative or negative with the help of auxiliary verbs do not have forms for all the times and tensesL others expressions are used instead

MO>,L 0ER1 C,N 4 COUL>

8TO 1E ,1LE TO:

EFPRESSINB - ability

- possibility

- permission(less formal)

- polite requests offers an! instructions ("coul!# is more polite than "can#)

- with "see# "hear# "smell# "taste# "feel# to speak about something which is happening now - !e!uction (cant)

EF,MPLE I can speak English fluently. 3he can;t drive. He could ski when he was three. 'ou can come if you want. 'ou could come by plane. 'ou can leave your coat over there. %an I speak to you for a minute8 'ou can use my phone. 'ou can;t park over there. %an you help me with my luggage8 %ould you lend me your dictionary8 %an I help you8 "hen you finish9 you can turn off the light. I can;t see anything over there. %an you here me8 I can smell something burning. It can;t be !om. He is in aris now. 'ou can;t be hungry. 'ou have just eaten. May I use your phone8 May I leave now8 It may rain later in the afternoon. 3he might be at school but I am not sure. 'ou must do something about it. "e have to wear uniforms at school. 'ou mustn;t park your car over there 'ou don;t have to come with me. 3he must be at the office now. 'ou should see a doctor if you don;t feel well. !hey should invest more in *frica.


- permission ($ery formal) - possibility

- strong obligation (!ue to some personal circumstances) - strong obligation (!ue to some external circumstances) - inter!iction - lack of obligation - probability


- a!$ice opinion recommen!ation

,: Complete t"e senten(es +it" can; (an7t coul! coul!nt or be able to: #. I;m afraid I 666. 3oin you on the trip. 4. He GGGGGG.. arrive in time last night as he was stuck in a traffic6jam. +. I don;t think 666666.. to accompany you tomorrow. /. I 66666 skate really well when I was younger. 0. He 666666666to conclude a contract. M. Do you think 66666666. to take up that job8 .. I;m sorry9 6666.. attend the meeting last (riday. 2. I find Dutch very difficult. I GG.. understand it but 6666.. to speak it. >' Complete the sentences with may, might o" e allowed to/be permitted to8 1. !ou ???.. lea+e the office earlier toda". -. *o "ou think ???????to tra+el alone next "ear' .. (he ????.. be reading in the librar" but I%m not sure. 4. I ??. ? not come to "our part" as I%m +er" bus". /. The secretar" ??????????.. to take an" decisions. 0. !ou ???. recoup "our in+estment but I doubt it. 7. !ou ??????? to dri+e before "ou get "our dri+ing1license. 2. The" ???. agree on the price if "ou accept their terms. C' Complete the sentences with must, mustnt, have to/had to o" dont have to/didnt have to8 1. !ou ?????? remember to send out the letters b" the end of the programme. -. (he ????. go home earlier last night because she still had some work to do. .. !ou ???.. park "our car o+er there because it is a pri+ate parking place. 4. ??????.. pa" for the course in ad+ance' /. I ????? take part in the meeting last night so I could go to the concert. 0. I ??????. write lots of reports and I find it 3uite anno"ing. 7. ????????..attend that training seminar on 4onda"' 2. !ou ?????? tell an"one that we concluded the business. 3' Unde"line the co""ect modal .e" s8 1. !ou should/must talk to him seriousl". -. I don%t belie+e "ou5 it can1t/mustn1t be true. .. !our partners ma)/must be +er" pleased with this agreement. 4. I% afraid I ma) not/won1t e a le to arri+e at the airport in time. /. !ou shouldn1t/mustn1t talk to him like that. 0. The" ou(ht to/must bu" that house because it has a +er" good price. 7. I can1t/ma) not come to "our presentation as I alread" ha+e an appointment. 2. My opinion is that you s"oul /must 0II. Brammar pra(ti(e. Passi!e 0oi(e. Passi!e !oi(e is used when the focus is on the action. !he causer of the action9 however9 is not important or not known. >In contrast9 active voice focuses on the causer of an action=

*orm o$ Passi!e7 Sub3e(t / $inite $orm o$ to be / Past Parti(iple >+rd column of irregular verbs= Example7 * letter was written. "hen rewriting active sentences in passive voice9 note the following7 the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence the finite form of the verb is changed >to be I past participle= the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence >or is dropped= Mr. 3mith writes the delivery notes. Simple Present !he delivery notes +ritten >by Mr. 3mith=. are

Mr. 3mith is writing the delivery notes. Mr. 3mith +rote the delivery notes yesterday. Mr. 3mith was writing the delivery notes then. Mr. 3mith has written the delivery notes. Mr. 3mith had written the delivery notes. Mr. 3mith will write the delivery note. Mr. 3mith must +rite the delivery notes. 'ou s"oul $ollo+ his advice Mr. 3mith must have written the dilevery notes. 'ou should have followed his advice.

Present Pro#ressi!e/Continuous Simple Past

!he delivery notes are bein# +ritten >by Mr. 3mith=. !he delivery notes +ere +ritten >by Mr. 3mith=. !he delivery notes +ere bein# +ritten then >by Mr. 3mith=. !he delivery notes "a!e been +ritten >by Mr. 3mith=. !he delivery notes "a been +ritten >by Mr. 3mith=. !he delivery notes +ill be +ritten >by Mr. 3mith=. !he delivery notes must be written >by Mr. 3mith=. His advice s"oul be $ollo+e . !he delivery notes must have been written >by Mr. 3mith=. His advice s"oul "a!e been $ollo+e .

Past Pro#ressi!e/Continuous Present Per$e(t

Past Per$e(t


Mo al 0erbs 8I:

Mo al 0erbs 8II:

Mr. 3mith is going to write the delivery notes.

EBoin# to $utureE

!he delivery notes are going to be written by Mr. 3mith

He will have finished his paper by Monday.

*uture per$e(t

His paper will have been finished by Monday.

!hey are going to build a hotel next year. * hotel is going to be built next year. He must have written the delivery notes. !he delivery notes must have been written by him. "ho are the delivery notes written by8 "ho were the delivery notes written by8 "ho have the delivery notes been written by8 "ho will the delivery notes be written by8 "ho mustEshould the delivery notes be written by8 "ho was sthe parcel delivered by8 "ho was *merica discovered by8 "ho was the phone answered by8 "ho was the priNe given to8 "ho is your dog going to be fed by8 "hich building is going to be knocked down8 !hey are being served dinner by the waiter now. Dinner is being served to them now. 3he was made to clean the room by her parents. 3he had been warned that her job might be lost. He won;t be shown his marks by the teacher. His marks won;t be shown to him. Janet was offered a ride by Ken. * ride was offered to Janet by ken. *rnie has been taught a new dance step by Miss rice. * new dance step has been taught to *rnie by Miss rice. 'ou should have been ordered a taxi. * taxi should have been ordered to you. !he best restaurant in our town is owned by my parents. 1ast weekend the head waiter had been dismissed by my father as some stock from the cellar had been stolen. * new waiter is going to be hired by my father as all the work is being done by himself at the moment. I was asked to help serve the food. However9 all the orders had been mixed up and seeral complaints were made by the customers.

I;m sure that i will never be asked by my father to help him again. "ish #. 4. +. /. I wish you were here. I wish you joined us on the trip. I wish i could help you. I wish I had time to call on you.

#. I wish I had seen the match last night. 4. I wish I had listened to the %hristmas concert. 3he wishes she would spend her holidays in greece next year. Hypothetical constructions #. If only i could help you. 4. If only I had time to call on you. #. If only I had had enough money to buy this car. 4. If only I had had time to call on you. It s high time you got down to work6 It s high time for you to get down to work. It s high time you talked to him : it s high time for you to talk to him. *s if6as though 3he talks as if she knew the truth. 3he behaves as if she were rich. 3he talked as if she had known what happened. 3he behaved as if she had been very rich.
1.).). THE BERUN>

1.).-.1. BR,MM,R IN , NUTSHELL> !he gerund is used after verbs expressing7 1: be#innin# >to begin9 to start=9 (ontinuit' >to continue9 to go on9 to keep on=9 stop >to stop9 to finish9 to end9 to cease= a= He started working for an advertising company. b= 3he continued buying stocks for several days hoping to earn more money c= I finished spending more money for advertising. 4= li%es and isli%es7 >to like9 to enjoy9 to love9 to prefer9 to adore9 to dislike9 to hate= I enjoy going to the company where I earn a good salary Mr. 3mith prefers selling his car instead of destroying it. 'ou love travelling in the world even if you go on business trips. Miss Jennifer likes searching new business opportunities for her company. Mrs. Margaret adores giving presents to her children. Michael hates

being lied by his boss. money in any situation.

Mr. -obert dislikes wasting

+= mental a(ti!ities7 >to remember9 to remind9 to imagine9 to fancy9 to call9 to admit9 to deny9 to avoid9 to try9 to mean9 to keep9 to postpone9 to delay9 to forget9 to regret9 to suggest9 to consider= I can;t fancy him wearing that tie. %ould you remind me to call 5eneral Manager later8 I am busy and might forget about it. !he 5eneral Director admitted taking a bribe. !he banker denied making this mistake. !he 5eneral Manager remembered writing a memo to his employees. !he engineer;s secretary imagined herself being very highly <ualified. Mr. 3mith considered calling him9 but he decided it was better to write him. May I suggest postponing the meeting for next month8 Mr. 3mith kept trying to discover the most talented workers in his company. -: !erbs $ollo+e b' prepositions: >to succeed in9 to give up9 to accuse of9 etc= 'ou would have succeeded concluding the contract if you had been more flexible. Do not give up trying if your business doesn;t make any profit during the few first months. =: to be / a 3e(ti!e / preposition 8to be #oo at; to be prou o$9 to be intereste in He is proud of winning the contract. 3he is good at writing accounting reports. . Mr. !racy is interested in concluding agreements with foreign partners. Miss EliNa is interested in climbing the career ladder. G: prepositions7 He left without talking to me. H: i$$erent e.pressions7 (an7t stan 8(an7t bear= 7 I can;t stand listening to the speech of our 5eneral Manager. (an7t "elp7 I can;t help remembering the mathematics. it7s no use7 It;s no use talking to him. t"ere is no point in7 !here is no point in trying to convince him. it is no #oo 7 It is no good behaving like this. it7s +ort"7 It;s worth visiting the museum. to loo% $or+ar to: I;m looking forward to hearing from you soon. I: t"e !erbs: nee 7 !he house needs paintingEto be painted +ant: !he wants repairingEto be repaired re9uire7 !he roof re<uires mending Eto be mended. 1.).-.&. BR,MM,R PR,CTICE 1. Put t"e !erb in parent"eses in t"e (orre(t $orm an $inis" t"e senten(es a((or in# to t"e mo el: Model7 I often regret >spend= GGGG.. I often regret spending too much money. AI often regret spending too little time with my children. #. I enjoy >meet= GGGGG. I enjoy GGGGGGGG. 4. "ould you mind >help= GGGGGG.

"ould you mind GGGGGGGGG +. /. 0. M. .. 2. ,. #$. ##. #4. #+. #/. . #0. #M. #.. Have you ever thought about >have= GGGGGG.. Have you ever thought about GGGGGGGGG. He should keep >learn= GGGGGGG. He should keep GGGGGGGGGG 3he;ll never stop >look for=GGGGG. 3he;ll never stop GGGGGGGGG I can;t stand >wait= GGGGGGGG. I can;t stand GGGGGGGGGGG I;m looking forward to >meet= GGGGGGGG... I;m looking forward to GGGGGGGGGGG.. *re you interested in >work= GGGGGGGGG. *re you interested in GGGGGGGGGGGG. 3he apologiNed for >be= GGGGGGG. 3he apologiNed for GGGGGGGGG. "e can;t afford >buy= GGGGGGGG. "e can;t afford GGGGGGGGGG.. 3top >talk= GGGGGGGGGGGG.. 3top GGGGGGGGGGGGGGG 3he thanked me for >lend=GGGGGGG 3he thanked me for GGGGGGGGG. He;s not capable of >do= GGGGGGG... He;s not capable of GGGGGGGGG.. 3he often avoids >answer= GGGGGGG. 3he often avoids GGGGGGGGGGG. He considers >get= GGGGGGGGGGG He considers GGGGGGGGGGGG.. !hey never mentioned >attend= GGGGGG. !hey never mentioned GGGGGGGGG.. I;ll soon give up >write= GGGGGGGGG. I;ll soon give up GGGGGGGGGGGG

#2. He couldn;t stop >ask= GGGGGGGGGG He couldn;t stop GGGGGGGGGGGG. #,. !he )oard of Directors suggested >organiNe= GGGGGG.. !he )oard of Directors suggested GGGGGGGGG 4$. 3he denied >read= GGGGGGGGGGG. 3he denied GGGGGGGGGGGGG.

4#. He misses >be= GGGGGGGGGGG He misses GGGGGGGGGGGGG 44. 3he didn;t recall >plan= GGGGGGG.. 3he didn;t recall GGGGGGGGGG 4+. 4/. 40. 4M. He risked >lose= GGGGGGGGG.. He risked GGGGGGGGGGGG !hey couldn;t resist >search= GGGG !hey couldn;t resist GGGGGGG. !he manager won;t tolerate >report= GGGGG. !he manager won;t tolerate GGGGGGGG. He admitted >cheat= GGGGGG He admitted GGGGGGGGG

4.. !hey recommended >sell= GGGG.. !hey recommended GGGGGGG 42. 4,. 1.).-. 3he dislikes >make= GGGGGGG 3he dislikes GGGGGGGG..

I can;t tolerate >be= GGGGGG.. I can;t tolerate GG IN*INITI0ES ,N> IN*INITI0,L CONSTRUCTIONS

1.).).1. Brammar in a nuts"ell 0erbs $ollo+e b' to %IN*INITI0E agree demand hesitate offer refuse want arrange deserve hope plan seem would like attempt expect learn prepare tend claim fail manage pretend threaten

afford decide guarantee neglect promise train

Passi!e $orms: the passive infinitive is formed by to be / past parti(iple. E.g. He expects to be appointed %EA of the company. 0erb / ob3e(t / in$initi!e advise allow ask enable encourage force invite order persuade remind tell warn

E.g. "e have advised them to take the necessary steps. Everybody has encouraged him to go on with his studies. !hey invited the foreign guests to visit the company. lease9 remind me to make a phone call this afternoon.

0erbs $ollo+e b' s"ort in$initi!e >without Kto@=. !hey are used after the following categories of verbs7

a= Mo al !erbs: E.g. 'ou can;t run this company properly. !he meeting might be postponed for next week. !he minutes must be written accurately. 'ou should send e6mails instead of making phone calls. b= 0erbs o$ per(eption: !he verbs see, watch, notice, hear, listen to and feel are followed by a short >bare= infinitive or by an : ing form >present participle=. If we want to say that we heard or saw the whole action from beginning to end9 we usually use the bare infinitive7 e.g. I saw him enter the office If we want to say that we only saw or heard part of the action9 we use the : ing form >present participle=7 E.g. I heard him talking to the deputy Manager a few minutes ago. c= !he verbs make9 let and help plus ha! better and woul! rather. E.g. !he Head of Department makes all employees write monthly reports. "hy don;t you let him make his own decisions8 'ou should help your subordinates solve this problem. >also Kto solve@=. He had better speak on behalf of his colleagues. I would rather work in a multinational company. Spe(i$i( (onstru(tion +it" t"e in$initi!e:

a: T"e Nominati!e / In$initi!e !his construction is used with7 !erbs o$ per(eption 8to hear9 to see9 to taste9 to smell9 etc.=9 verbs denoting mental a(ti!ities 8to believe9 to suppose9 to think9 to know9 to consider9 to expect9 etc.= and with the verbs to ma%e; to report an to sa' in a passive form7 E.g. !he train was seen to disappear in the railway station. 3he is known to speak English perfectly. !hey are believed to be very good organiNers. !he meeting was reported to be very successful. He was made to take down the minute as the secretary was not present. the phrases to be sure and to be (ertain9 to be li%el'; to be unli%el'. E.g. !he report is certain to be useful for you. !he sales are likely to decrease during the next weeks.

b= too or enough + infinitive E.g. !his company is too big for this number of employees. !he sales are not good enough to have a great profit. 1.).).&. Rep"rase t"e $ollo+in# senten(es usin# to2in$initi!e !erbs: a= Michelle7 I must speak to the %EA. Michelle demanded GGGG. to the %EA.

b= *nn7 Ak. I;ll buy that dictionary. *nn decided GGG. that dictionary. c= !he waiter7 If you don;t pay9 I;ll call the police. !he waiter threatened him GGG. d= (rank7 I;ll help you if you want. (rank offered GGGGG. him. e= )rad7 I;ll come back as soon as I can9 I promise. )rad promised GGGG.. as soon as possible. 1.).).). Re+rite t"e $ollo+in# senten(es usin# a !erb / ob3e(t / to2in$initi!e: a= KDon;t forget to call me.@ He reminded me GGGG.. b= K!ake the trip. It will be funny.@ 3he encouraged me GG. that trip. c= KDon;t forget to call the suppliers.@ 3he reminded me GGG. d= K'ou may not see that document.@ !hey didn;t allow him GG e= K lease9 go to the bank.@ 3he asked me GGGG f= K"hy don;t you buy a new car8@ )en suggested meGGGG g= K'ou are supposed to come to the meetings on time.@ !he manager expects us GGGG h= K5ive me all of your money.@ !he robber forced him GGGG i= KDon;t press that button.@ !he man warned her GGGG. j= K(ind me a good job.@ He wanted me GGGG. k= K!hat hotel is too expensive for me.@ He couldn;t afford GGG.. 1.).).-. Use too or enough % infiniti$e to (ombine t"e senten(es. a= !he children may not play outside. It;s too cold. It;s too (ol >for the children= to pla' outside. b= !his dress is so small. I can;t wear it. !his dress is GGGGGGG.. c= Mike couldn;t negotiate the contract. He was weak. Mike was GGGGGG d= I can;t reach that shelf. I;m not tall enough. I;m GGGGGGG. e= 3he can;t even speak. 3he;s so upset& 3he;s GGGGGGG. f= He cannot trust anybody. He;s very suspicious. He is GGGGGGG..

g= Mary is very intelligent. 3he;ll be able to find a solution to this problem. Mary is intelli#ent enou#" to $in a solution to this problem. h= He;s a kind person. He;ll help you. He is GGGGGGGGG. i= I can;t make this presentation in English. I;m not so good. I;m not GGGGGGGGG j= He won;t take the risk. He is not that courageous. He isn;t GGGGGGGG. k= 3he will be given the job. 3he;s very experienced. 3he;s GGGGGGGG.. l= I;ll win this match. I trained a lot. I GGGGGGGGGGG m= Kate can be the new manager. 3he is very ambitious. Kate GGGGGGGG.. n= Kevin didn;t study for his exam as he should have. He won;t pass it. Kevin GGGGGG. o= Mr. )rown can;t buy that company. He is not that rich. Mr. )rown GGGGG. p= Jane will pass the exam. 3he is smart. Jane GGGGGGGG. 1.).&. Berun !ersus In$initi!e 1.).).1. 0erbs $ollo+e b' to infiniti$e or &ing with a change in meaning $or#et / to in$initi!e C not remember to o somet"in# e.g. I;m sorry9 I forgot to bring the catalogue. remember / to in$initi!e C not $or#et to o somet"in# e.g. -emember to bring the contract so that we may sign it. go onEcontinue I to infinitive O finish doing something and start doing something else e.g. *fter finishing his business trip9 Mr. 3mith went on to type his report. Mean / to in$initi!e C inten to e.g. Mr. %hurchill means to buy another company. Re#ret / to in$initi!e C $eel sorr' to o somet"in# e.g. Mrs. )rown regrets to tell you that there isn;t any available position for you in her company. $or#et / -ing $orm C not remember a past e!ent E.g. Mr. 5eorge forgot taking part in that symposium. Remember / -ing $orm C re(all a past e!ent E.g. I don;t remember doing business with that (rench company. #o on/(ontinue / -ing $orm C %eep on oin# t"e same somet"in# E.g. Mr. 5ordon went on talking about the new contract for two hours. Mean / -ing $orm C in!ol!e e.g. Hiring new people means providing new training courses. Re#ret / -ing $orm C "a!e se(on t"ou#"ts about somet"in# one "as alrea ' one E.g. Mrs. Johnson regrets having discussed with her employee about the company;s financial problems.

Tr' / to in$initi!e C ma%e an e$$ort or attempt e.g. Aur 5eneral Manager is trying to get a new contract today. +ant/ to in$initi!e C +is" e.g. Mr. Johnson wants to extend his company abroad. stop/ to in$initi!e C pause $or a +"ile e.g. Mrs. Hillary stopped to take some documents before continuing her business trip. be sorr' $or/ to in$initi!e C apolo#ise $or a present a(tion e.g. Mr. Fincent is sorry to hear they lost their contract be a$rai / to in$initi!e C un+illin# to o somet"in# be(ause o$ $ear e.g. Mrs. 3impson is afraid to fly and she never goes overseas. Nee / to in$initi!e Cne(essit' E.g. I need to talk to you .

tr'/ -ing $orm C o somet"in# as e.periment "hy don;t you try writing a report for your manager8 +ant/ -ing $orm C re9uire; nee E.g. !his contract wants improving. stop/ -ing $orm C $inis" E.g. 3top asking about the contract9 please& be sorr' $or/ -ing $orm C apolo#ise $or a pre!ious a(tion E.g. Mr. Fincent is sorry for being late for the meeting be a$rai / -ing $orm C be $ri#"tene J feeling fear that something happen E.g. Mr. "ellington is afraid of losing his contract in the near future Nee / 2in# $orm C +ant; re9uire E.g. !he photocopier needs replacing.

1.).).&. Complete t"e senten(es +it" t"e (orre(t $orms o$ t"e !erbs in parent"eses: a. 3he is sorry >to hear= GGGwhat happened with that contract.

b. *fter a brief interruption9 the lecturer continued >speak= GGGG.. on a different topic. c. "e are sorry for >to arrive= late

d. He continued >talk= GGGG all through the concert. e. f. I need >sign= GG. this contract. !his contract needs >sign= GGGGG ..

g. I remember >visit= GGGG -ome when I was ten. h. Did you remember >phone= GGGG Mary yesterday8 i. j. Have you forgotten >meet= GGG.. me at a conference last year8 Don;t forget >post= GGG. the letter for me.

k. I regret >say= GG. I can;t attend the meeting. l. I regret >do= GGG. what I did.

m. I tried >stop= GGG him9 but he wouldn;t listen to my advice. n. "hy don;t you try >take= GGGG.. a pill if you want to get rid of your headache. o. He was angry because his wife stopped >look= GGGG. at every dress in that mall.

p. 3top >talk= GGGGG and listen to what he is saying. <. 3he went on >tell= GG.. us what had happened to her. r. s. t. He graduated from high school and went on >attend= GGGG university courses. He didn;t mean >break= GGGGG the law. He wants to emigrate to the B.3.*. !his means >apply= GG.. for a visa.

u. !he secretary >be afraid=GGGG..the manager what happened. v. I have never been on a cruise9 I;m afraid >to sail=GGGGG #./. 3elf6assessment guideline

1.).G. ,RTICLES T"e ,rti(le in English always precedes the noun7 t"e e$inite arti(le the#; t"e in e$inite arti(le "a an# an t"e so2(alle K arti(le +"i(" in i(ates in $a(t t"e la(% o$ arti(le. ,. T"e >e$inite ,rti(le !he form of the definite article7 the boy the eagle the song the hair

'ses of a !efinite article: - with nouns already mentioned or known to the speaker7 e.g. I saw a computer on the table. The girl was working hard. ave you called the client! 6 with nouns followed by a prepositional phrase9 a relative clause or an apposition7 e.g. The business letter from (on!on arrived today at our company. "his is the man who ga$e me the computer. #r. $mith, the !eli$eryman is an )nglishman. 6 with adjectives in the superlative degree7 e.g. "his is the ol!est successful business of our company 6 with proper nouns in the plural9 denoting a family7 e.g. The *hites are nice people. 6 with proper nouns denoting countries9 if they are in the plural9 or if they represent a union : e.g. the %nited $tates, the %nited &ingdom, the 'etherlands 6 with proper nouns denoting geographical nouns such as7 mountains9 deserts9 oceans9 seas9 rivers9 etc7 e.g. the (lps, the $ahara, the )acific *cean, the 'orth $ea, the +anube, etc. 6 with proper nouns denoting hotels9 shops9 institutions7 e.g. the ilton, the ,ritish #useum the -ity ,ank. 6 with proper nouns denoting ships9 trains9 planes7 e.g. the "itanic, the *rient E/press, the 0ufthansa. - with proper nouns denoting newspapers and magaNines7 e.g. The Independent, The *bserver. 6 in phrases7 e.g. to play the fool, to tell the time, by the way, on the whole. ,. T"e In e$inite ,rti(le The forms of the in!efinite article & "aE before a word beginning with a consonant or

semi6vowel >e.g. a manager a win!ow a year a uni$ersity a )uropean citi+en) 6 K anE before a word beginning with a vowel >e.g. an in$oice an en!orsement=L before an abbreviation >e.g. an )' citi+en an ,-. agent an /-A = 'ses of the in!efinite article: 2 with nouns representing a single item of a class7 e.g. 5ive me a pen9 please& 6 instead of the numeral one7 e.g. I1ve bought a computer and four chairs. 6 with singular noun used in a general sense7 e.g. A baby re2uires special care. 6 with nouns denoting a profession9 religion9 class7 e.g. $he is an accountant. e is a -hristian. "hey called him a fool. 6 in certain expressions of measurement7 e.g. I have 3rench lessons two times a week. *ranges are 45p. a poun! 6 with proper nouns denoting an unknown person9 a member of a family9 or a person with certain characteristics7 e.g. "he letter is from a /r. 0ohnson. e is a ,or!. e is a 1on 0uan. 6 in phrases7 to be in a hurry, to have a headache, all of a sudden, as a matter of fact, to take an interest in. 1. T"e Lero ,rti(le Uses o$ t"e Mero arti(le 6 with uncountable nouns or plural nouns used in a general sense7 e.g. *il is lighter than water. -ooks are his best friend. 6 with proper nouns denoting persons7 e.g. 6ichard, 7ennifer, 8eneral $mith, )rofessor (tkins 6 with proper nouns denoting continents9 countries9 regions9 towns7 e.g. (frica, 3rance, 0ancashire, )arisL 6 with proper nouns denoting picks9 lakes9 capes7 e.g. #ount Everest, 0ake ,aikal, -ape -od L 6 with proper nouns denoting buildings9 streets9 bridges7 e.g. -ovent 8arden, #arseilles $treet, (le/ander ,ridge 6 with nouns like school, church, work, bed, hospital, prison, where we imply the use made of the building7 e.g. 6ichard goes to school 9to learn: 6 with nouns denoting meals and seasons7 e.g. I have !inner at eight. *inter is coming. 6 with nouns denoting languages7 e.g. $he speaks ,rench. 6 with nouns denoting a profession or an office held at one time by one person onlyL e.g. "hey appointed him )xecuti$e /anager. 6 in phrases7 day by day, in case of, by sea, at sunset, to be in trouble, by mistake, in silence. 1.).G.1. *ill in t"e blan%s +it" an/ a; t"e or N 8no arti(le:: #."here is GG.. file that I gave you yesterday8 4. 66tourists were enchanted by 6..folk art in -omania. +. G..girl was a bookkeeper and nobody knew that. /. He works for GG %oca6%ola in -omania. 0. GGMont )lanc is the tallest pick of 6.*lps. M.3he is GGG H- Manager.

H66.)lack 3ea is important for G..countries which surround it. 2. 6..Bnited 3tates has G..most important economy in ,. GG.Europe is a medium siNed continent #$.I need to go abroad on GGmeetings about five times G.. year. ##GG.)ritish Museum in one of the most important of the world. #4. 6..3miths told their friends about their voyage on 66.. acific Acean. #+. 6..3ahara is a desert in 66north of GG*frica. #/. !wo years ago they made GGcruise onGG.ship which was calledG..Pueen Mary. #0. He;s not motivated by GG. perks. #M. 66.-iver !hames reaches GG.1ondon in G.3outh of 6..Bnited Kingdom. #..'ou;ll find G.. information you need on G..Internet. #2. Fincent works with 6.15 %ompany. #,. 6.manager controls his company with GGsuccess 4$.Everybody makes GG. mistakes. 4#. In G.future just remember 6.!imes can be bought in 6.morning 44. GG.. mistakes he had made cost us too much money. 4+. I;d like to take upG..M)* in GGCew 'ork. 4/.Have you ever been inG.resort onG..Mediterranean shore8 40.I want to buy G. laptop. %ould you help me choose one8 1.).G.&. Corre(t t"e mista%es in t"e $ollo+in# senten(es: Model7 3he is 5eneral Manager. 3he is a 5eneral Manager. a= b= c= d= e= f= g= Mike works in the public relations. GGGGGGGGGGGGG.. 3he works for the (rench supermarket company. GGGGGGGGGGGGG.. He has good salary. GGGGGGGGGGGGG.. He founded %omputadoras %reativas 40 years ago. GGGGGGGGGGGGG.. !he career paths are no longer what they used to be. GGGGGGGGGGGGG.. 3he is also an owner of the company she works for. GGGGGGGGGGGGG.. %ompany has built itself a corporate logo. GGGGGGGGGGGGG..

h= 1et me present you independent )ritish company with #0 employees. GGGGGGGGGGGGG..