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Teknologi Sensor

Target Kompetensi
1. Memahami kebutuhan sensor pada berbagai sistem teknik. 2. Memahami prinsip-prinsip kerja sensor dan sistem sensor. 3. Memahami prinsip-prinsip perancangan dan analisis sistem sensor. 4. Mampu merancang dan menganalisis sistem sensor. 5. Mampu merencanakan proses inovasi sistem sensor pada suatu sistem teknik.

Rencana Pembelajaran
NO TOPIK 1 Contoh-contoh Penerapan Sistem Sensor 2 Dasar-dasar Perancangan dan Evaluasi Sistem Sensor 3 Prinsip Kerja Beberapa Sensor 4 Perancangan Sistem Sensor 5 Ujian Akhir Semester Jumlah: VOL 0,3
0,7

3,5 2,5 1,0 8,0

Referensi
Ernest O. Doebelin: Measurement Systems: Applications and Design. Jacob Fraden: Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics, Designs, and Applications.

Contoh Penerapan Sistem Sensor

Contoh Penerapan Sistem Sensor

Contoh Penerapan Sistem Sensor

Contoh Bentuk Sensor

PERANCANGAN SISTEM SENSOR

Perancangan Sistem Sensor (1)


1 THE DESIGN PROCESS The design of a technical system involves making choices on the basis of
criteria (from a list of requirements), availability of parts and materials, financial resources, and time.
Sumber: 116: Selection of Sensors, Paul P.L. Regtien, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands in Handbook of Measuring System Design, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.

Perancangan Sistem Sensor (2)


Blanchard and Fabrycky (1998) distinguish six major phases of the design process:
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design and development; production/construction; operational use/maintenance; retirement.

Thus, sensor selection is a crucial activity in the systems design process, as it will make a great impact on the production of the measurement instrument and the performance during its entire lifetime and may even have consequences related to disposal.

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2 THE REQUIREMENTS Sensor selection means meeting requirements. Unfortunately, these requirements are often not known precisely or in detail, in particular when the designer and the user are different persons. The first task of the designer is to get as much information as possible about the future applications of the measurement instrument, all possible conditions of operation, the environmental factors, and the specifications with respect to quality, physical dimensions, and costs.

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The list of demands should be exhaustive. Even when not all items are relevant, they must be indicated as such. This will leave more room to the designer, and will minimize the risk of being forced to start all over again at a later date. Rework is an expensive process and should be avoided where possible by reducing errors as early as possible in the systems engineering life cycle process. The requirements list should be made in such a way as to enable unambiguous comparison with the final specifications of the designed instrument. Once the designer has a complete idea about the future use of the instrument, the phase of the conceptual design can start.

Perancangan Sistem Sensor (5)


Before thinking about sensors, the measurement principle has to be considered first. For the instrumentation of each measurement principle, the designer has a multitude of sensing methods at his or her disposal. For realization of a particular sensor method, the designer has to choose the optimal sensor type out of a vast collection of sensors offered by numerous sensor manufacturers.

Perancangan Sistem Sensor (6)


3 SELECTING THE MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE The design process is illustrated by using an example of a measurement for a single, static quantity: the amount of fluid in a container. The first question to be answered in this case is in what units the amount should be expressed volume or mass. It is important to have a sound understanding of the physics involved and the circumstances of the situation. These may influence the final selection of the sensor.

Perancangan Sistem Sensor (7)


Figure 1 shows the various measurement principles that could be used in this case: A: the tank placed on a balance, to measure its total weight; B: a pressure gauge on the bottom of the tank; C: a gauging-rule from top to bottom with electronic readout; D: level detector on the bottom, measuring the column height; E: level detector from the top of the tank, measuring the height of the empty part.
Figure 1. Measurement principles for the amount of fluid in a reservoir.

Perancangan Sistem Sensor (8a)


Obviously, many more principles can be used to measure a quantity that is related to the amount of fluid in the tank. In the conceptive phase of the design, as many principles as possible should be considered, even unusual or unorthodox ones. On the basis of the list of demands and not as a hunch, it should be possible to find a suitable candidate principle from this list, or at least delete many of the principles, on the basis of arguments.

Perancangan Sistem Sensor (8b)


For instance, where the fluid must remain in the tank during measurement, principles based on volume or mass flow are excluded. If the tank contains a chemically aggressive fluid, a noncontact measurement principle is preferred, placing principles B, C, and D lower on the list, and so on. Also, method A can possibly be eliminated because of its high costs for large containers. In this way, the conceptual design ends up with a set of principles having related pros and cons, ranked according to the prospects of success.

On the basis of the list of demands and not as a hunch, it should be possible to find a suitable candidate principle from this list, or at least delete many of the principles, on the basis of arguments.

Perancangan Sistem Sensor (9)


4 SELECTING THE SENSING METHOD After having specified a list of candidate principles, the next step is to find a suitable sensing method for each of them. In the example in Figure 1, we will further investigate principle E, a level detector placed at the top of the tank.

Again, a list of the various possible sensor methods is made. This may be
1. a float, connected to an electronic readout system; 2. an optical time-of-flight measurement; 3. an optical range measurement; 4. an electromagnetic distance measurement (radar); 5. an acoustic time-of-flight (ToF) measurement; and so on.

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5 SENSOR SELECTION The final step is the selection of the components that make up the sensing system. Here, a decision has to be made between a commercially available system and the development of a dedicated system. The major criteria are costs and time: both are often underestimated when a new development is considered.

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In this phase of the selection process, sensor specifications become important. Sensor providers publish specifications in data sheets or on the Internet. However, the accessibility of such data is still poor, making this phase of the selection process critical and time consuming, in particular for nonspecialists in the sensor field. Obviously, the example of the level sensor is greatly simplified here. Usually, the selection process is not that straightforward. Since the sensor is often just one element in the design of a complex technical system, close and frequent interaction with other design disciplines is necessary.

EVALUASI INSTRUMEN

Evaluasi Instrumen Pengukuran (1)


Tests under reference conditions Standard tests as indicated by IEC 60770-1. Basic accuracy: Average error, repeatability, hysteresis, and linearity determined from three to five upscale and downscale full-range traverses, measuring at least six points. Dead band: The smallest change results in a detectable output change at 10, 50, and 90% output. Frequency response: The frequency response measured with a 20% span peak-to-peak input.
Sumber: 218: Instrument Evaluation, Steve Cork, Sira Test and Certification Ltd, Kent, UK, in Handbook of Measuring System Design, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.

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Step response: Record the step response time and the time for the output to reach and remain within 1% of itsfinal steady value, for varying input steps corresponding to 10 and 80% of the output span. Start-up drift: Output monitored for 4 h after power is switched on. Long-term drift: Output monitored for 30 days with an input of 90% span.

Evaluasi Instrumen Pengukuran (3)


Tests under influence conditions Presented below is a selection of standard tests from IEC 60770-1, which maybe applied to an electrically powered transmitter. Ambient temperature: Specified tests to determine effects of exposing the instrument to
1. dry heat (+55 C maximum or higher if applicable); 2. cold (25 C or as applicable)

in comparison to the operation under reference conditions.

Evaluasi Instrumen Pengukuran (4)


Humidity: Specified tests to determine the effects of exposing the instrument to 40 C, 93% relative humidity in comparison to the operation under reference conditions. Vibration (sinusoidal): Effect of vibrating the instrument along three mutually perpendicular axes at specified peak displacements, or peak accelerations, over a specified frequency range. The effects being looked at for being both changes on the output and any mechanical resonances that may result in a premature failure.

Evaluasi Instrumen Pengukuran (5)


Mounting position: Effect on output of 10 inclination about two planes at right angles to each other. Over-range: Measurement of residual changes at 0 and 100% span, which result from over-ranging the input by 50% for a period of 1min and after allowing a 5-min recovery period. Accelerated life: Measurement of the change in performance of the instrument after the application of 100 000 cycles of amplitude equal to half the span.

Evaluasi Instrumen Pengukuran (6)


Supply voltage and frequency variations: Effect at 0 and 100% span of changing the supplied voltage (and supply frequency where appropriate) between specified limits. Short-term supply voltage interruptions: Measurement of the output changes, and recovery time, following a series of interruptions of specified duration. Common mode interference: The effect of applying extraneous voltages between earth and each input and output terminal. Initially, by applying 250V rms at mains frequency, followed by positive and negative 50V DC potentials.

Evaluasi Instrumen Pengukuran (7)


Magnetic field interference: Effect on output of a mains frequency magnetic field of 400Am1. Open and short-circuit of input/output: Effect of interrupting each input connection in turn for 5min, followed by the effect of shorting the connection. Test repeated for each output connection. Radiated electromagnetic interference: Effect on output of subjecting instrument to a specified field strength, typically 10Vm1, over a specified frequency range, typically 80MHz to 1 GHz.

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Output load variations: Effect on the instrument performance of varying the output load within specified limits. Degree of protection provided by enclosure: Determination of the effectiveness of the enclosures protection to water and dust ingress by performing appropriate tests as defined in IEC 60529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).

Evaluasi Instrumen Pengukuran (9)


Assessment of construction standards, ease of use and literature quality Standards of construction and finish: Overall design quality, robustness, and quality of components. Packaging: Adequacy and method of delivery. Use: Ease of operation in terms of installation and commissioning, general operation, maintenance requirements, and component accessibility.

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Safety: Clarity of labeling, accessibility to live terminals, whether certified for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. Documentation: Quality, comprehensiveness and language(s) of documentation, adequacy of installation, operating and servicing instructions, inclusion of circuit diagrams, troubleshooting routines.

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Review of manufacturers quality assurance system and instrument status Quality assurance system: The manufacturer is asked to provide details of any structured quality assurance policy that they may have adopted, if so, on which national/international standard it is based and if it is registered under any particular scheme. Instrument status: The manufacturer is requested to confirm the expected life expectancy of the instrument, the guarantee period for the equipment and for how long after manufacture the product would be supported.

FASILITAS EVALUASI INSTRUMEN

Fasilitas Evaluasi (1)

The facilities that are used during an evaluation fall into three categories. Those that are used to supply an input to the equipment under test, those that are used to measure the instruments response, and finally, there are the facilities that are used to generate an influence on the equipment.

Fasilitas Evaluasi (1)


Input generating devices For the vast majority of evaluations, these would be wellproven devices, such as a pressure balance for the evaluation of pressure transmitter or a temperature bath and reference thermometers combination for the evaluation of a temperature device. It would be normal to expect the input device to be traceable to a national standard and its uncertainty to be significantly better than the quoted performance of the instrument under test. However, in occasional circumstances, for example, where a reference standard does not exist, it maybe acceptable to have an input that has been shown to be repeatable but the absolute performance is unknown.

Fasilitas Evaluasi (2)


Output measurement devices A growing number of instruments tested either have a digital display or a digital output, which can be read using some form of communicator or communications software. usually supplied with the instrument. In these cases, the laboratory may at most need to provide a personal computer for taking output measurements. However, many instruments still provide what would be regarded as standard outputs, whether they be voltage, current, frequency, or even pneumatic. In all these cases, the laboratory would be expected to have suitable measurement equipment, which would be traceable to national standards.

Fasilitas Evaluasi (3)


Influence generating facilities From the list of possible tests given previously, it is clear that a wide range of facilities are required to perform a comprehensive evaluation program. Again, traceability of the measurement of the influence is important in order to demonstrate that any test criteria have actually been met. In addition, by ensuring traceability it is possible at some point in the future to replicate the test conditions either on the same piece of equipment, possibly in the case of a dispute, or on a subsequent device for comparative reasons.

TUGAS KELOMPOK
Konteks: Sebuah taman seluas 2 hektar dibuka untuk umum setiap hari dan dalam keadaan normal taman tidak boleh dimasuki oleh pengunjung maupun petugas taman dari pukul 22.00 04.00. Untuk kemudahan pengawasan keamanan diperlukan sistem sensor untuk memantau kehadiran orang di taman. Tugas: Lakukan perancangan konseptual sistem sensor pemantau kehadiran orang tersebut yang mencakup: tuntutan rancangan, analisis prinsip pemantauan, analisis metode penginderaan , konsep rancangan sistem sensor. Susun rencana bagaimana sistem sensor tersebut akan diuji. Susun perlengkapan yang diperlukan untuk pengujian.