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This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the significance of the study and the scope and delimitation of the study.

Background of the Study For the past years, it had been noted that the pollution in Metro Manila had become worst which can be attributed to smoke coming from vehicles. According to Philippine Daily Inquirer, based on the 2006 National Emission Inventory of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), 65 percent of air pollution comes from vehicles while 21 percent each comes from stationary sources, such as factories and waste burning. The Department of Health (DOH) has warned of a higher incidence of non communicable diseases (NCDs) in the summer caused by the worsening air pollution in the metropolis. Most NCDs, such as allergies, acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), cancer and cardio vascular diseases, are attributed to air pollution. Another article in ABS-CBN news says that Manilas air quality is getting worse. A jeepney driver said that, its been getting worse, with the rise in the number of vehicles over the years and these vehicles are using diesels. Air Quality Management Office data show that the pollutant concentrations in Manila air continues to exceed the annual guideline value for Total Suspended

Particulates (TSP) of 90ug/Ncm (micrograms per normal cubic meter) and the Particulate Matter 10 (PM10) standard of 60ug/Ncm per year. Based on the data collected from the offices air quality monitoring stations located in various parts of Metro Manila, the TSP level for 2012 was 119ug/Ncm, while PM10 was measured at 74ug/Ncm. Working under the framework provided by the Clean Air Act, Teresita Peralta , its Secretary, said that the Government is taking measures to improve air quality, such as campaign against smoke belching vehicles that involves emission test of vehicles conducted by special units. According to the Philippine Star News, a foreign businessman who was arriving in his private jet took a photo of the smog enveloping Metro Manila, providing that the bad air quality continues to pose health risks especially for kids, seniors, and people with lung-related ailments. The hot and humid weather condition is making the greenhouse effect even worse, exacerbated by traffic jams that result in more carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles getting stuck on streets. Thus, the Land Transportation Office (LTO) created the Emission Testing Centers in various parts of the country. Accredited by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC), emission testings objective is to encourage industries and motor vehicle owners to abate, reduce or prevent pollution. After brainstorming and researching, the researchers considered to have a study about the status of implementation of emission testing centers in Marikina due to

numerous vehicles which are still smoke belching along the road to prevent the spread of air pollution in the environment which causes different kinds of diseases. Statement of the Problem

The study aimed to evaluate the Status of the Implementation of Emission Testing in Marikina. The study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the status of implementation of emission testing in Marikina? 2. How many Private Utility Jeepneys (PUVs) and Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) passed emission testing? 3. How many Private Utility Jeepneys (PUVs) and Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) failed emission testing? 4. What are the suggestions offered by Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) drivers and Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV) owners to improve the implementation of Emission Testing? Significance of the Study The results of this study would be beneficial to the following: To professors, they may encourage students in innovating new products which can solve the problem in air pollution due to emission. To the students, this study will inform them all about the status of emission testing that can help them develop a research that can prevent smoke belching vehicles.

To future researchers, the result of this study will help future researchers in their quest for another research study in their respective field of specialization. This study will also guide them to make a parallel study to look into criteria/standards of emission testing centers. To the car owners and drivers, this study will inform them and make them realize that emission testing is very important when they use their cars.

Scope and Delimitation of the study This study was focused on the Status of the Implementation of Emission Testing in Marikina City. The respondents were Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) and Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV) like Toyota Innova, Toyota Fortuner, Honda CR-V and Hyundai Tucson throughout Marikina City. This study was undertaken during the second semester of Academic Year 2013 2014.