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Chapter 1

c
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Exercise 1A

1 a {7, 9}
b {7, 9}
c {2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19, 23}
d {2, 3, 5, 11)
e {2}
f {2, 7, 9}
g {2, 3, 5, 7}
h {7}
i {7, 9, 15, 19, 23}
j (3, )
2 a {a, e}
b {a, b, c, d, e, i, o, u}
c {b, c, d}
d {i, o, u}
3 a {6}
b {2, 4, 8, 10}
c {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}
d {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10}
e {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10}
f {5, 7}
g {5, 7}
h {6}
4a
[3, 1)
b(4, 5]
c ( 2, 0)
1
e (, 3)
d , 3
2
f (0, )
g (, 0)
h [2, )
5 a (2, 3)
b [4, 1)
c [1, 5]
d (3, 2]
6a
3 2 1 0 1

Exercise 1B
1 a Domain = R
b Domain = (, 2]
c Domain = (2, 3)
d Domain = (3, 1)
e Domain = [4, 0]
f Domain = R

Range = [2, )
Range = R
Range = [0, 9)
Range = (6, 2)
Range = [0, 4]
Range = (, 2)

3
1
0

Domain = R
Range = [1, )

0 1

2 3

Domain = [3, 3]
Range = [3, 3]

b
2 3

2a

4 3 2 1 0 1

c
(4, 4)

4 3 2 1 0

f
0

1 2 3

Domain = [0, )
Range = [0, )

Domain = R + {0}
Range = (, 2]

2 1

(1, 2)

4 3 2 1 0 1

y
(4, 18)

4 5

7a
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

x
5

Domain = [0, 5]
Range = [0, 5]

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

682

2
0

x
4

Domain = [0, 4]
Range = [2, 18]

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Answers

4
0
1
(1, 5)

x
2 2

2
0

(6, 7)
(2, 3)

Range = [3, )

x
(2, 1)

Range = (, 1]

2
3

(4, 7)

(3, 11)
2
0

(6, 17)

(3, 4)
1 1
0

Range = (, 11)

Range = [7, )
e

1
2

Domain = R
Domain = [1, 2]
Range = (, 4]
Range = [5, 4]
3 a Not a function
Domain = {1, 1, 2, 3}
Range = {1, 2, 3, 4}
b A function
Domain = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2}
Range = {4, 1, 0, 3, 5}
c Not a function
Domain = {2, 1, 2, 4}
Range = {2, 1, 2, 4, 6}
d A function
Domain = {1, 0, 1, 2, 3}
Range = {4}
f Not a function
e A function
Domain = {2}
Domain = R
Range = Z
Range = {4}
g A function
h Not a function
Domain = R
Domain = R
Range = R
Range = R
i Not a function
Domain = [4, 4]
Range = [4, 4]
4 a g(2) = 10, g(4) = 46
b [2, )
5 a f (1) = 2, f (2) = 16, f (3) = 6
b g(1) = 10, g(2) = 14, g(3) = 54
c i f (2x) = 8x 2 8x
ii f (x 2) = 2x 2 4x
iii g(2x) = 16x 3 4x 6
iv g(x + 2) = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 26x + 14
v g(x 2 ) = 2x 6 + 2x 2 6
3
c
6a3
b7
2
2
7 a x = 3
b x > 3
cx=
3
8 a f : R R, f (x) = 2x + 3
4
b f : R R, f (x) = x + 4
3
c f : [0, ) R, f (x) = 2x 3
d f : R R, f (x) = x 2 9
e f : [0, 2] R, f (x) = 5x 3
y
y
b
9a

(2, 4)

1
3

1 0
(2, 7)

Range = [7, 17]

Range = (, 4]
y

(5, 14)

y
(4, 19)

(1, 2)
0

Range = [2, 14]

0
1 0.2
(2, 11)

Range = (11, 19)

10 a f (2) = 3, f (3) = 37, f (2) = 21


b g(2) = 7, g(1) = 1, g(3) = 9
c i f (a) = 2a 2 6a + 1
ii f (a + 2) = 2a 2 + 2a 3
iii g(a) = 3 + 2a
iv g(2a) = 3 2(2a) = 3 4a
v f (5 a) = 21 14a + 2a 2
vi f (2a) = 8a 2 12a + 1
vii g(a) + f (a) = 2a 2 8a + 4
viii g(a) f (a)= 2 + 4a 2a 2
 


2
2
2
, 1
b
,
11 a
3
3
3




1
2
c 0,
d (, 1)
,
3

3


2
2
e ,

,
3
3


1
f ,0
3
12 a f (2) = 2
b f (2) = 6
c f (a) = a 2 a
d f (a) + f (a) = 2a 2
e f (a) f (a) = 2a
f a 4 + a2

a+2
13 a {2}
b {x : x > 2}
c
3


 
8
13
d
e {1}
f
3
18
4
7
bk =6
ck =
14 a k =
3
3
2
1
fk =
dk =9
ek =
9
3
6
1
1
b
d1
e 1, 2
c
15 a
5
5
3

Answers

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

13 a

Exercise 1C

(3, 8)

1 One-to-one functions are b, d and f.


2 a Functions are i, iii, iv, vi, vii and viii.
b One-to-one
functions are iii and vii.

3y=
x + 2, x 2; range = R + {0}
y = x + 2, x 2;
range = R {0}
y
4a

2
x

b g1 (x) = x 2 + 2, x 0
g2 (x) = x 2 + 2, x < 0
5 a Domain = R
Range = R
b Domain = [0, )
Range = [0, )
c Domain = R
Range = [2, )
d Domain = [4, 4]
Range = [0, 4]
e Domain = R\{0}
Range = R\{0}
f Domain = R
Range = (, 4]
g Domain = [3, )
Range = [0, )
6 a Domain = R
Range = R
b Domain = R
Range = [2, )
c Domain = [3, 3]
Range = [0, 3]
d Domain = R\{1}
Range =

R\{0}
7 a R\(3)
b (, 3] [ 3, )
cR
d [4, 11]
e R\{1}
f (, 1] [2, )
g R\{1,
2}
1
i 0,
h (, 2) [1, )
3
j [5, 5]
k [3, 12]
8 a Even
b Odd
c Neither
d Even
e Odd
f Neither
y
9a

8
5
x

b Range = [5, )
14 a f (4) = 8
b f (0) = 0
1
c f (4) =
4
1 ,
a>0
d f (a + 3) = a + 3

2(a + 3), a 0

3
1

, a>
2
e f (2a) = 2a

4a, a 3
2

1 ,
a>6
f f (a 3) = a 3

2(a 3), a 6

15 a f (0) = 4
b f (3) = 2
c f (8) = 7 
a, a 0
d f (a + 1) =
4,
a<0

a 2, a 2
e f (a 1) =
4,
a<2
y
16

Range = [1, )

1
1
2

x 4,

1
17 y = 2 x 1,

x + 2,
2

x < 2
2 x 3
x >3

Exercise 1D

b Range = [2, )
10 Domain = (3, 0] [1, 3) Range = [2, 3)
11 Domain = [5, 4] Range = [4, 0) [2, 5]
y
12 a
(2, 10)

(4, 9)
6

c2
f4
(3, 3)
(, 5] [5, )
[1, 3]

1 2 3
x

b8
e 2

1a8
d 2
2a

b Domain = (, 2]
Range = [5, 10] {4}

(1, 5)
1

(, 8] [2, )

e
8 3

f
3 2 1

[3, 1]

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Answers
b

0
5 1 1

Range = [1, )

(4, 1)
5 3 0

Range = (, 2]

y
(1, 2)

Range = [1, )

1
1 0 3

1
(3x + 2)2
Domain = R +
3
b g(h(x)) = 2 + 2
x
Domain = R\{0}
1
d5
c
25
5 a ran f = [4, ), ran g = [0, )
b f g(x) = x 4, ran = [4, )
 
c ran f dom g
1
6 a f g(x) = x, domain = R\
,
2
 
1
range = R\
2
b g f (x) = x, domain = R\{0],
range = R\{0}
7 a ran f = [2, ) dom g = R + {0}
b f g(x) = x 2, x 0

4 a h(g(x)) =

(3, 2)
x

0 (4, 1)

Range = (, 2]

Exercise 1E
1 a ( f + g)(x) = 4x + 2
( f g)(x) = 3x 2 + 6x
dom = R
b ( f + g)(x) = 1
( f g)(x) = x 2 x 4
dom = (0, 2]
x +1
c ( f + g)(x) =
x
( f g)(x) = 1
dom = [1, )

d ( f + g)(x) =x 2 + 4 x
2
( f g)(x) = x 4 x
dom = [0, 4]
2 a i Even
ii Odd
iii Even
iv Odd
1
b ( f + h)(x) = x 2 + 1 + 2 even;
x
(gk)(x) = 1 even;
1
( f h)(x) = 1 + 2 even;
x
( f + g)(x) = x 2 + x + 1 neither;
1
(g + k)(x) = x + odd;
x
( f g)(x) = x 3 + x odd

0
1

x
1

8 a f g(x) = 4 |x| and


g f (x) = |4 x|

f (g(x)) = 4x 1, g( f (x)) = 4x 2
f (g(x)) = 8x + 5, g( f (x)) = 8x + 3
f (g(x)) = 4x 7, g( f (x)) = 4x 5
f (g(x)) = 2x 2 1, g( f (x)) = (2x 1)2
f (g(x)) = 2(x 5)2 + 1,
g( f (x)) = 2x 2 4
f f (g(x)) = 2|x| + 1, g( f (x)) = |2x + 1|
2 a f h(x) = 6x + 3
b h( f (x)) = 6x 1
c f h(2) = 15
d 11
e 21
f 7
g3
3 a 9x 2 + 12x + 3
b 3x 2 + 6x + 1
c 120
d 46
e3
fl

y
4

g o f(x) = |4 x|
f o g(x) = 4 |x|

4
x

b f g(x) = 9 |x|2 = 9 x 2 and


g f (x) = |9 x 2 |
y

y
f o g(x) = 9

g o f(x) = |9 x2|

x2

9
0

c f g(x) =

Exercise 1F
1a
b
c
d
e

Answers

3a

 
1
1
1
and g f (x) =   =
|x|
x
|x|

y
f o g(x) = 1

g o f(x) = 1

|x|

|x|

9 a f g is not defined since


ran g = [1, ) dom f = (, 3]
b g : [2, 2] R, g (x) = x 2 1
f g : {x: 2 x 2} R,
f g (x) = 4 x 2
10 a f g is not defined since ran g dom f
b g1 : {x: x < 3} R, where g1 (x) = 3 x

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


11

Domain

Range

[0, )

(, 3]

[0, )

a ran g domain f, f g exists


b ran f domain g, g f does not exist
12 a S = [2, 2]
b ran f = [0, 2], ran g = [1, )
c ran f = [0, 2] dom g = R,
g f is defined
ran g = [1, ) dom f = [2, 2],
f g is not defined
13 a [2, 3]

f g 1 (x) = 1 + x, dom g 1 = (0, 16),


1
ran g = (1, 3)
g g 1 (x) = x 2 + 1, dom g 1 = R + {0},
ran g 1 = [1, )

h h 1 (x) = 4 x 2 , dom h 1 = [0, 2],


1
ran h = [0, 2]
y
a
6
y = 2x + 4
(0, 4) y =
(2, 0)
0

Exercise 1G
b

y
3
3
2
0

3
2

3x

y= 2

y = 3 2x

(x) = 3 2x, dom = R, ran = R

y = (x 2)2

y = 2 + x
(0, 2)
0

(2, 0)

f 1 (x) = x + 2, dom = R + {0},


ran = [2, )
d

y
y = x + 1

1
0

(4, 0)
(0, 2)

x 4
, dom = R, ran = R
2

y=

x
b f 1 (x) =
1 a f 1 (x) = x + 4
2
4x
4x + 2
1
1
c f (x) =
d f (x) =
3
3
1
1
2 a f (x) = (x + 4), domain = [8, 8],
2
range = [2, 6]
1
b g 1 (x) = 9 , domain = (, 0),
x
range = (9,
)
c h 1 (x) = x 2, domain = [2, ),
range = R + {0}
1
d f 1 (x) = (x + 2), domain = [17, 28],
5
range = [3,
6]
e g 1 (x) = x + 1, domain = (0, ),
range = (1, )
f h 1 (x) = x 2 , domain = (0, ),
range = (0,
)
3 a g 1 (x) = x + 1 1, domain = [1, ),
range = [1, )
y
b

(x 4)
2

x
1

1
, dom f 1 = [3, 3]
2
x
5 a f 1 (x) = , dom f 1 = [2, 6],
2
ran f 1 =[1, 3]
x +4
, dom f 1 = [4, ),
b f 1 (x) =
2
1
ran f = [0, )
c {(6, 1), (4, 2), (8, 3), (11, 5)},
dom = {6, 4, 8, 11}, ran = {1, 2, 3, 5}
d h 1 (x) = x 2 , dom h 1 = R + ,
ran h 1 =
R
1
e f (x) = 3 x 1, dom f 1 = R,
ran f 1 = R

y = (x 1)2

(0, 1)

0 (1, 0)

f 1 (x) = x + 1, dom = R + {0},


ran = [1, )

4 f 1 (2) =

y
y = (x 2)2
(0, 4)
(0, 2)
(4, 0)
0

(2, 0)

y = x + 2

f 1 (x) = 2 x
+
dom = R {0}, ran = (, 2]

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November 3, 2005

16:7

Answers

Exercise 1H


1
y=x

4
if 0 x 2
4 + 2(x 2) if x > 2

4
if 0 x 2
=
2x if x > 2

1 f (x) =
x

687

1
(x) = , dom = R + , ran = R +
x

4
y = 12
x
1
x

y=

2 V (x) = 4x(10 x)(18 x)


Domain = (0, 10)
3 a A(x) = x 2 + 92x 720
b 12 < x < 60
c A

1
f 1 (x) = , dom = R + , ran = R +
x
h

(46, 1396)

y = 2x + 4
4

(60, 1200)

1
y = (x 4)
2

(12, 240)

4
2

7a

h (x) = 2x + 4, dom = R, ran = R


y
y
b
(1, 2)
(3, 3)

(0, 1)
x

0 (0, 0)

(3, 4)
(4, 3)
(2, 1)
x

0 (1, 0)
y

d Maximum area = 1396 m2


occurs when x = 46 and y = 34
4 a i S = 2x 2 + 6xh
3V
ii S = 2x 2 +
x
b Maximal domain = (0, )
c Maximum value of S = 1508 m2
1
1
3
,b =
, c = 45, d = , e = 75
5aa=
30
15
2
b S
7
75, 2

3
2

x
3
45, 2

3
3
3

(1, 1)
x
(0, 0)

(1, 1)

7
2
6 a C = 1.20 for 0 < m 20
= 2.00 for 20 < m 50
= 3.00 for 50 < m 150
b C ($)
c Range = 0,

3
0

y = 2

8aC
bB
cD
dA
9 a A = (, 3]

b b = 0, g 1 (x) = 1 x, x [3, 1]

Domain = (0, 150]


Range = {1.20, 2.00, 3.00}

m(g)

Answers

60
80
10
0
12
0
14
0
15
0

0521665175ans-1.xml

20
40

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

Multiple-choice questions
1E
6C

2B
7D

3E
8B

4C
9B

(5, 4)

5E
10 B

3
2

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
y

1a

f(x) = x2 + 1
(0, 1)
0

Domain = R

Range = [1, )

f(x) = 2x 6

2a

y = g(x)
x



3
,4
b Range of g =
2

3
1
,4 R
cg :
2
g 1 (x) = 2x 3
Range = [0, 5]


3
Domain =
,4
2
 
7
d {5}
e
2
 
1
3a
b {11}
5
y

(2, 3)

Domain = R

Range = R

0
5

x2 + y2 = 25

Domain = [5, 5]

Range = [5, 5]

y>
2x + 1
1
x

1
2

x
1 2
(0, 1)


5 a R\{3} b R\[ 5, 5]
d [5, 5]
e [5, 15]

Range = R

y
y<x3
3
0
3

Domain = R

c R\{1, 2}
f R\{2}

6 ( f + g)(x) = x 2 + 5x + 1
( f g)(x) = (x 3)(x + 2)2
7 ( f + g) : [1, 5] R, ( f + g)(x) = x 2 + 1
( f g) : [1, 5] R, ( f g)(x) = 2x(x 1)2

8 f 1 : [8, ) R, f 1 (x) = x + 1
9 a ( f + g)(x) = x 2 + 2x + 3
c {1, 3}
b ( f g)(x) = x 2 (2x + 3)
y
10
y=x

0, 4
3

Domain = R
e



1
c
10

(4, 0)

(2, 2)
0

4, 0
3

(0, 4)
x

Extended-response questions
Range = R

1 a C1 = 64 + 0.25x
C2 = 89

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689

Answers

C2

100
80
60
40
20

C1

20 40 60 80 100 120 x (km)

c x > 100 km
2 a S = 6x 2
2
3s
3a A=
4

4 a d(x) = 9 x 2 ,

b S = 6V 3
2
3h
bA=
3
b dom = [0, 3]
ran = [0, 3]

d
3
x

160x
x + 80
R,
6 a V1 : (0, 12) 
5 S(x) =


h2
h
4

b V2 : (0, 6) R, V2 (r ) = 2r 2 36 r 2
7a
domain
range
f
R
R
g
R
R
V1 (h) =  36

ran f = dom g, g f exists


g f (x) = 2 + (1 + x)3
b g f is one-to-one and therefore a function.
(g f )1 is defined, (g f )1 (10) = 1
8a
y

R, f 1 (x) =

13 a i f (2) = 3 f ( f (2)) = 2
f ( f ( f (2))) = 3
ii f ( f (x)) = x
x 3
b f ( f (x)) =
, f ( f ( f (x))) = x,
x 1
i.e. f ( f (x)) = f 1 (x)

Chapter 2
Exercise 2A

(3, 3)

a 

b xd
c
xc a
2x
b i f 1 : R\{1} R, f 1 (x) =
3x 3
 
3
ii f 1 : R\
R,
2
3x + 2
f 1 (x) =
2x 3
1x
iii f 1 : R\{1} R, f 1 (x) =
x +1
1
x
iv f 1 : R\{1} R, f 1 (x) =
x +1
c If a, b, c, d R\{0}, f = f 1 when
a = d.
11 a i YB = r
ii ZB = r
iii AZ = x r
iv CY = 3 r

x + 3 x2 + 9
br =
2
ci r =1
ii 1.25
q
12 b f (x) =
x
3x + 8
c i f 1 (x) =
= f (x)
x 3
ii x = 3 17
10 a f : R\

b i 3
ii 3
c S = (, 0]
 2
4x 4 if x
d f h(x) =
2x
if x
 2
2x 8 if x
h f (x) =
2x
if x
2
3t

,0 t 1
2
9 A(t) =

3t 3 , t > 1
2
Domain = [0, ]
Range = [0, ]

1
2
7
7
17
g
j
f
h 21
i2
5
2
9
2 a x = 12, y = 8
b x = 5, y = 8
c x = 3, y = 1
d x = 2, y = 1
e x = 17, y = 19
f x = 10, y = 6
3 80 km
4 96 km
5 Width = 6 cm, length = 10 cm
6 John scored 4, David 8
7 a w = 20n + 800
b $1400 c 41 units
8 a V = 15t + 250
b 1150 litres
c 5 hours, 16 minutes and 40 seconds
9 a V = 10 000 10t
b 9400 litres
c 16 hours and 40 minutes
10 a C = 25t + 100
b i $150
ii $162.50
c i 11 hours
ii 12 hours
1 a 10

<1
1
<2
2

b1

c4

d 28

e8

Answers

b C ($)

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

Exercise 2B
mn
a
5
dx=
pq
g x = 3a

bc
a
ab
=
1b
a 2 b2
=
2ab
1
=
3a b
5a
=
3

b
ba
m+n
ex=
nm

cx =

h x = mn

ix

bx=

1ax =

fx

pq
3ab
lx
kx=
p+q
ba
2
2
2
p + p t +t
mx=
nx
q( p + t)
c ad
d bc
, y=
4ax =
1 ab
1 ab
a 2 + ab + b2
ab
bx=
, y=
a+b
a+b
t s
t +s
,y =
cx=
2a
2b
d x = a + b, y = a b
e x = c, y = a
f x = a + 1, y = a 1
2a 2
5 a s = a(2a + 1)
bs =
1a
a
a2 + a + 1
ds =
cs =
(a 1)2
a(a + 1)
3a
fs =
e s = 3a 3 (3a + 1)
a+2
1
5a 2
g s = 2a 2 1 + 2
hs = 2
a
a +6
jx=

Exercise 2C


1
1 a 3, 7
2
y
2a
0

x
3

6C =

x
3
y

0
x

y
x
=1
3
4
d

0
0

x
y
=1
2
4

14
3

4
2

4
3
2
1

1
2
3

b 3x 5 = y
d y = 2x + 1
x
y
b + =1
4
6
y
x
d =1
6
2
y
b

y
x
+ =1
4
2





3 1
5
,
c
b , 2
2 2
2
y
b
x

3 a 2x 6 = y
c 5 = 3y 4x
y
x
4a =1
2
3
y
x
c =1
4
3
y
5a

x
6

y
x
=1
6
3

11
n + 2, $57
200

7 a C = 5n + 175
b Yes
c $175

b 2 1.414
8 a 5 2.236

c 29 5.385
d 2 82 18.111

f5
e 20 4.472
9 a i y = 2x + 4
ii 2y + x = 13
b i y = 2x + 7
ii 2y x = 4
10 y = 2x 3
11 y = 5 or 3
12 a i 5y + 2x = 13
ii 5y + 4x = 11
b i 2y 5x = 11
ii 4y 5x = 17
13 a 32.01
b 153.43
c 56.31
d 120.96
14 45
15 a = 12 or a = 8
16 a y = 3x 6
b (2, 0)
17 k = 5 and h = 4 or k = 2 and h = 3
4
18 a a + 2
b
5
1
b (5, 7)
19 a m =

2
c AB = 13, AC = 2 13
20 a 3y x = 22
b (14, 12)
c (16, 6)
d 80 square units
21 a (2, 3)
b y + 5x = 13
c i 2y = 3x 13
ii (3, 2)
iii (1, 8)

Exercise 2D

1a4T
b i 90T
c i T =1

ii 70(4 T )

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Answers

(litres)

5400

45 t (days)

e 45 days

f 120 litres per day

3 a C A = 0.4n + 1
C B = 0.6n

b Cost

CB

($)

CA

1
0

cn=5
dD
D = 1 0.2n

1
0

The difference in charges against kilometres


travelled.
9
b 24 622 m
4ay= x
4
855
27
5393
cy= x+
d
26
26
108
4
5 a i 4
ii
9
10
4
ii y = 4x + 30
bi y= x+
9
3
c Equation of AC: y = x, equation of BD: y = 4
d (4, 4)

Exercise 2E


1 a 0 1
6
4

d 4
0
g


3
0


6
5
3 2


b 1
0

2
2


e 2k
3k

k
2k


c 10
12



f 2 4
15 10

j2


2 a 1
4


1
3

h1

1
k 3
2
2
7
b

1
7

i
1


6
7


2 1
3
2

l2

1

14 c 1

3
0
14


0
1
k

1



1
1 0
1
3 A = 2
2 , B = 3 1
0 1
1
1


5
1

2
, (AB)1 = 2
AB =
3 5
3 1
2
2
1
1


1
2
1
2
1 1
A1 B1 =
2 , B A = 3 5 ,
3 1
2
2
(AB)1 = B1 A1

 1
5
7

3
0
7

2
c
4a
2
2 b 1 8
112 21

1 2
2
2


11 17
3 11
8
b 16 16
5a
18
3
7 1
4
4
16 16

16 14 42
5 7 7
b 0 10 48
7 a 6 11 12
24 13 30
14
2
0

9 18 15
24 24 16
d 18 30 18
c 66 16 6
36 3
0
0 22 16
1

3
1

1
1
2
2

f 6
1
3
e 3
1
1
10
0

2
2

9
1
4 1
g 6
h 6
8 6
18
8 1 0


3
3
7
7
8
8
48
24


4
11 8 4
i


3
18
9 j 3
5
4
5 5
18
18
27
27

17 3 23 8
54 22
8a

24 95
9 52
58
1
1 13
10
1

10 10 14 8

b
16 26 24 1
63 50 80 13
70 74 92 55

9 18 15 18
3
c

30 18 36
0 12 3
18
0 0 3
3

5 3
9 0
0 0

9 11
13 24
4 0
7
48
11
18
4
27

7
24

9
5
27

Answers

ii 90 km on freeway, 210 km on country roads


2 a L = 120t + 5400
b 5400 litres
d [0, 45]
c
V

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


1

1
12
8
2

0
9

7
1

36
8

37
1
36
8

3
5
4 7
8
5
10
1

e
1 2 1 5
0 7 7 1

3
6
f
2
0

1
9 a 0
0

11
24
1
9
7
72
1
72

1
12
2
9
7
36
1
36

4
3
8
4
8
1

8
3
4
14 15 1
11

24

10 a 9

13

72
43
72

2
b
12
2
1

b 3

6
11
6

Exercise 2G
1ax
cx
2ay
bx

= 2, y = 3, z = 1 b x = 3, y = 5, z = 2
= 5, y = 0, z = 7 d x = 6, y = 5, z = 1
= 4z 2
= 8 5, y = 4 2, z = 

3 a y + 5z = 15, y + 5z = 15
b The two equations are the same.
c y = 5 15
d x = 43 13
4 a x =  1, y = , z = 5
b x =  + 3, y = 3, z = 
14 3
10 3
cx=
,y =
,z = 
6
6
26 3t
3(t + 2)
,x=
,
5 z = t, y =
4
4
t 2
;tR
w=
2
x = 4, y = 12, z = 14
6 a x = 1, y = 2, z = 3
(3  + 5)
5
, y=
, z=
bx=
3
3
2 3t
c z = t, y = 2(t 1), x =
2
812a 1
2a8
3a4

+
13a(a2) 13
13a(a2) 13a(a2)
7a
2(a+1)
12a
13a2
13a(a2)
13a(a2)
13a(a2)
16
13a(a2)

1610a
13a(a2)

1
13

3a8
13a(a2)

b a = 0, 2 c a = 0
26 t
t
, z = t; t R
dx= , y=
2
8
8 p = 3; z = t, y = 5 4t, x = 3(t 1)

Exercise 2F
3
1
,y=
2
2
37
7
31
51
dx=
,y =
,y =
cx=
10
5
38
38
2 Their graphs are parallel straight lines that do not
coincide.
3 x = t + 6, y = t where t R
4m =9
5 a m = 5
bm =3
6 a i m = 2
ii m = 4
4
2(m + 4)
bx=
,y=
m+2
m+2
3
7 a x = 2, y = 0 k =
2
3
bk =
2
8 a b R\{10}
b b = 10, c = 8
c b = 10, c = 8
1 a x = 4, y = 3

bx=

Multiple-choice questions
1E
6A

2E
7A

3D
8C

4C
9B

5B
10 C

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
7
5
2 a x = 2, y = 2

1 a 8
3a

c 30

b x = 44, y = 39
b

d7
y

0, 5
3

x
5, 0
2

0
(0, 6)

x
(6, 0)

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Answers

(0, 3)

(2, 0)

Exercise 3A
x

1
x4
Maximal domain = R\{0}, range = R +
Asymptotes at x = 0, y = 0

1 a f (x) =

4 a y = 2x + 5

b y = 2x + 2

1
1
cy= x+
2
2

5 13

d y = 2x + 3

Extended-response questions
1a

P
$

1
2 a i f (x) =
x
Maximal domain = R + ,
range = R +
Asymptotes at x = 0, y = 0

100
(100, 50)
0

1
b P = N + 100
2
c i $56
2 a p = 1448t + 7656
p
b

ii

ii N = 80

0
3

b i f (x) = x 5
Maximal domain = R, range = R

(8, 19240)
7656
0

c 22 136
5
3a y = x 4
3
d 15
4ay=

31
4
x+
7
14

d 1448 people per year




5
66 82
c
b
,
3
7 7
629
square units
e
14
59
b
14
65
d
square units
28

b 269
c 269

c 65


1
5 a 1,
2
10
33
4
13
ey=
x
dy= x+
13
26
10
5


7
15
f
,
g (26, 33)
2
4
1
2
6 a 125 litres
b x = 291 , y = 208
3
3
7 Brad 20, Flynn 10, Elizabeth 15

ii

c i f (x) = x 5
Maximal domain = R\{0}, range = R\{0}
Asymptotes at x = 0, y = 0
ii

Answers

Chapter 3

693

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

1
d i f (x) =
3
x
Maximal domain = R\{0}, range = R\{0}
Asymptotes at x = 0, y = 0

y=

1
25x2

ii

y=

1, 1

25

0
y

y=
(1, 3)

(1, 16)

3
2x

y=

3
1,
2

y=
0

16
x2

3
x

(1, 1)

1
x
x

(1, 1)

1,

e i f (x) = x
Maximal domain = R, range = R

3
2

(1, 3)

ii

f(x) = 3x

(1, 3)
0

3 a {x: 0 < x < 1}


b {x: 0 < x < 1}
4 a Odd
b Even
c Odd
d Odd
e Even
f Odd

Exercise 3B
y

1a

1,

(1, 4)
x

4
x2

2
x2

(1, 2)
x

0
y

d
y = 32
x

(1, 4)
0

y
y=

(1, 2)
0

y = 12
4x
0

y = 22

(1, 2)

2a

y=

d
y = 3x
(3, 3)
1, 1
3
x

0
1
y=
2x

y=4
x

1
2

(1, 3)
0

Range = R +
5 a Dilation of factor 5 from the x-axis
b Dilation of factor 4 from the x-axis
1
c Dilation of factor from the y-axis
5
2
6 a i y = 4|x|
ii y = |x|
3
1
iii y = 2|x|
iv y = |x|
5

2
b i y=43x
ii y = 3 x
3


x
3
iv y = 3
iii y = 2x
5
4
2
c i y= 3
ii y = 3
x
3x
1
125
iii y = 3
iv y = 3
8x
x
4
2
d i y= 4
ii y = 4
x
3x
1
625
iii y =
iv y = 4
4
16x
x
2
4
ii y =
e i y=
3
33x
x

1
5
iii y =
iv y = 3
3
2x
x
2
2 2
ii y = (x) 3
f i y = 4(x) 3
3
x 2
2
3
3
iv
y
=
iii y = (2x)
5
2
g i y= 4
ii y =
3
3
3x 4
x4
 3
5 4
1
iv
y
=
iii y =
3
x
(2x) 4

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Answers

1a

y = x

x
y = x

dom = [0, )
2 Reflection in the y-axis
3 a i y = |x|
ii

3
bi y= x
ii
1
ii
ci y= 3
x
1
ii
di y= 4
x
1
ei y=
ii
3
x

gi y=

ii y =

3
4

x
4 a Even
e Odd

y = |x|

y=3x
1
y= 3
x
1
y= 4
x
1
y=
3
x

b Odd
f Even

(2, 0)

Domain = [2, ), range = R + {0}


y

y= 1

x1

0
(0, 1)
x=1

Domain = R\{1}, range = R\{0}


y
1, 0
4

1
3
(x) 4

c Odd
d Even
g Neither odd nor even

y = 4
1
y= x 4

x = 2
0, 1
2

y= 1 +3
x
y= 1
x+2

Domain = R\{2}, range = R\{0}

Domain = R\{0}, range = R\{3}

y=

y=3

1
,0
3

Domain = R\{0}, range = R\{4}

Exercise 3D
1a

ii y = x 3

dom = (, 0]

f i y = (x) 3

y = x 2

1
,0
3

y= 1
x3

1
3
x2
1
,0
3

0
0, 1
3

x=3

y = 3

Domain = R\{0}, range = (3, )

Domain = R\{3}, range = R\{0}


y

c
y=

1
(x + 2)2

0, 1
9

0, 1
4
0

1
(x 3)2

x=3

x = 2

Domain = R\{2}, range = R

y=

Domain = R\{3}, range = R +

Answers

Exercise 3C

695

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16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

j
y=

c
x = 3

1
(x + 4)2

0, 1

0, 3

16

0
y = f(x + 3)

x = 4

Domain = R\{4}, range = R +


k

y = f(x) 3

y= 1 +1

1, 0
3

x1

y=1

0
y = 3

0
x=1

Domain = R\{1}, range = R\{1}

x = 1
(0, 1)

y= 1 +2
x2

0
0, 1

y=2

y = f(x + 1)

1
2

1 ,0

1
2

x=2

Domain = R\{2}, range = R\{2}


m

y = f(x) 1

(1, 0)
y=
1
2

1
4
x2

0
y = 1

1
2

0
y = 4

Domain = R\{0}, range = (4, )


2a

y
y = f(x 1)
0

(0, 1)
x=1

y
y = f(x) + 1
y=1
( 1, 0)

3 a Translation with mapping


(x, y) (x 5, y)
b Translation with mapping
(x, y) (x, y + 2)
c Translation with mapping
(x, y) (x, y + 4)
4 a i y = |x 7| + 1
ii y = |x + 2| 6
iii y = |x 2| 3
iv y = |x
+ 1| + 4

3
b i y=
x 7+1
3
ii y =
x +26
3
iii y =
x 23
iv y = 3 x + 1 + 4
1
c i y=
+1
(x 7)3
1
ii y =
6
(x + 2)3
1
iii y =
3
(x 2)3
1
+4
iv y =
(x + 1)3

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Answers
vi y =

d i y=

ii y =

+4

iii y =

+1

iv y =

v y=

vi y =

+4

e i y=

f i y = (x 7) 3 + 1

ii y =

ii y =
iii y =
iv y =

(x
(x
(x
(x

e i y=
3
ii y =
3
iii y =
3
iv y =
3

x 7
1
x +2
1
x 2
1
x +1

ii y = (x +
iii y = (x

2
2) 3
2
2) 3
2
1) 3

6
3

iv y = (x +
+4
1
+1
g i y=
3
(x 7) 4
1
6
ii y =
3
(x + 2) 4
1
iii y =
3
3
(x 2) 4
1
iv y =
+4
3
(x + 1) 4

iii y =
iv y =
v y=
vi y =

2
+8
(x 3)3
2
4
(x 3)4
2
+4
(x 3)4
2
4
(x 3)4
2
8
(x 3)4
2
+8
(x 3)4
2
+8
(x 3)4
2
4

3
x 3
2
+4

3
x 3
2
4

3
x 3
2
8

3
x 3
2
+8

3
x 3
2
+8

3
x 3

Answers

1
7)4
1
+ 2)4
1
2)4
1
+ 1)4
1

+1

d i y=

697

f i y = 2(x 3) 3 4
2

ii y = 2(x 3) 3 + 4
2

iii y = 2(x 3) 3 4
2

iv y = 2(x 3) 3 8
2

Exercise 3E
1a i
ii
iii
iv
v
vi
b i
ii
iii
iv
v
vi

y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y

c i y
ii y
iii y
iv y
v y

= 2|x 3| 4
= 2|x 3| + 4
= 2|x 3| 4
= 2|x 3| 8
= 2|x 3| + 8
= 2|x 3| + 8

= 2 3 x 3 4

= 2 3 x 3 + 4

= 2 3 x 3 4

= 2 3 x 3 8

= 2 3 x 3 + 8

= 2 3 x 3 + 8
2
4
=
(x 3)3
2
+4
=
(x 3)3
2
=
4
(x 3)3
2
=
8
(x 3)3
2
=
+8
(x 3)3

v y = 2(x 3) 3 + 8
2

vi y = 2(x 3) 3 + 8
2
4
g i y=
3
(x 3) 4
2
ii y =
+4
3
(x 3) 4
2
4
iii y =
3
(x 3) 4
2
8
iv y =
3
(x 3) 4
2
+8
v y=
3
(x 3) 4
2
+8
vi y =
3
(x 3) 4
y
3
2

(5, 4)

8
3

(8, 2)

(4, 3)

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16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


4a

b y = 2|x + 2| + 1

b
x = 1

(2, 1)
3
2

5
2

(0, 1)
(1, 0)

y = 1

5a

y= 2 1

b y = (1 2x) 3 2

x+1

Range = R\{1}
7
2

1
1
, 2
2

y=
0, 3
4

1 a A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis, followed


by a translation of 1 unit in the positive
direction of the x-axis and 3 units in the
positive direction of the y-axis.
b A reflection in the x-axis and a dilation of
factor 3 from the x-axis (in either order),
followed by a translation of 4 units in the
negative direction of the x-axis and 7 units in
the negative direction of the y-axis.
c A reflection in the y-axis and a dilation of
factor 4 from the x-axis (in either order),
followed by a translation of 1 unit in the
positive direction of the x-axis and 5 units in
the negative direction of the y-axis.
d A reflection in the x-axis, followed by a
translation of 1 unit in the negative direction of
the x-axis and 2 units in the positive direction
of the y-axis.
e A reflection in the y-axis and a dilation of
factor 2 from the x-axis (in either order),
followed by a translation of 3 units in the
positive direction of the y-axis.
f A translation of 3 units in the negative
direction of the x-axis and 4 units in the
negative direction of the y-axis, followed by a
reflection in either axis and a dilation of factor
1
from the x-axis (in either order).
2
y
2a

x=2

Range = R +
y

y=
(0, 1)
(1 2, 0)

(1 + 2, 0)
0

y = 1

x=1

Range = (1, )
y

x=3
0, 1
3

0
y = 1

x3

Range = R\{0}
y

x+2

x1

2
3

1 , 0

y=3
0

x = 2
x=1

Range = R\{0}

2
1
(x 1)2

y = 1 + 3

y= 3

3
(x 2)2

Exercise 3F

(0, 3)

Range = R\{3}

x
1
0, 2
2

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Answers
y

(2, 2)

(0, 52 2)

106
27

1
3

y = 5x + 2 2

,0

Range = (, 2]
y

Range = R\{4}
y

3a

x=2
0, 3
2

y = x 3
y = 3

x2

Range = R\{0}

Range = R {0}

x = 2
x

0
y = 4

(3, 2)
x

0 (7, 0)

0, 4

y = x 3 + 2

2
4
(x + 2)2

y=

Range = (, 2]

Range = (, 4)

i
(0, 6)

y = 2(x + 3)

3
,0
10

1
2

y = 5
y= 3 5
2x

Range = R + {0}

Range = R\{5}

y=

1
2x 3

0
0, 1
3

x=

3
2

Range = R\{0}

k
(0, 52)

1
2

Range = R\{5}

y = 5x + 2
x

11
5
0

Range = R {0}

Range = [5, )

Answers

699

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Answers

700

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16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

4a

2
0
7
2

y=

(0, 3)

Range = [2, )

(4, 1)
0
y = 3x 4 + 1

Range = (, 6]
y

5a

1
4 ,0
9

y = 52x + 4 + 1

(2, 1)
0

Range = [1, )

Exercise 3G

x+1

y=3
(0, 2)
0

2,0
3

x = 1
y

b
y = 4x 5

2x + 1

y=2
0

(0, 5)
1
x=

5,0
4

6a

(0, 11)
x

Range = (, 1]

y = 3x + 2

6
7

x=1

y
y= 2 +4
x3

y=4
0
0, 3

Range = (1, )

y
1

(1, 2)

y=1

Range = R\{2}

y = 2x 1 + 2

2
+1
(x 1)2

Range = R

7 2

1
2

2 ,0

1
3

x=3

Range = R\{4}
y

x=3

1 a (1, 6)
d (1, 2)

1
0
2
0 2


1 0
3a
0 1


1 0
d
0 2


1 0 x
4
0 3 y

b (2, 2)
e (2, 1)

c (1, 2)




0 1
0 1
c
1 0
1
0


3 0
e
0 1

x
2
= 
+
1
y


1
y
x = x  2; y =
3
 2
x
x2
x
x
+2 =
+4
5y=2
16
4
8
2
6 y = 2(x 3 + 2x)

x
3 x
7y=
+3
4
8y=
3
2 2
3
9 y = x 9
2
1
11
10 y = x +
6
2



x +1 3
y4
x +1
11
= 2
+6
2
4
4




2y
x +1 2
x +1 3
12
+6
+2
= 2
2
3
3

0, 5 1
3

y=4
0

(4, 0)

y= 4 +4
3x

Range = R\{4}

Exercise 3H
1 b = 1, B = 2, A = 1
2 A = 2, B = 3
3 A = 2, B = 1
4 b = 2, B = 3, A = 8
5 a = 2, b = 1
6 a = 3, b = 5

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Answers

1y

Exercise 3J
y

y = x + x

y = x + x + 2

y=x

(2, 4)

(2, 2)

y = x

(1, 1)

b f 1 : R\{0} R,
1
f 1 (x) = + 3
x
y

y=x

(1, 2)

1 a f 1 : [2, ) R,
f 1 (x) = (x 2)2

(0, 2)

y = x + 2

y=3

0,

(2, 2)

y=x

(1, 1)

(4, 2)

y = x x
0

(1, 0)
y = x

(1, 1)

d f 1 : R\{1} R, f 1 (x) =
y
y

(1, 2)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)
y=

1
x2

y=2

1 1
y= x + 2
x

3
+2
x 1

1, 0

1
y=
x

local min. at
2, 1
4

c f 1 : [4, ) R,
f 1 (x) = (x 4)2 + 2

1
3

(0, 1)

x=1
x

e f

: R\{1} R, f 1 (x) =
y

(1, 1)

5
+1
x +1

x = 1
(0, 6)

y=1

(6, 0) 0
y

5a

f f 1 : [1, ) R, f 1 (x) = 2 (x 1)2

y = x + 2

(2, 4)

(1, 2)

(0, 2)

1 + 2

(0, 0)
(2, 0)

2ay=

by
cy

y = 2 x
(2, 2)

(0, 22)
y = x + 2
2

dy

(2, 2)

ey
2

fy

3
, domain = R\{0}
x
= (x + 4)3 2, domain = R
= (2 x)2 , domain = (, 2]
3
, domain = R\{1}
=
x 1

2
= 3
+ 6, domain = R\{5}
5x
1
+ 1, domain = (2, )
=
4
(x 2) 3

y = 2x

x
y = x + 2 2x

Answers

Exercise 3I

701

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702

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

Multiple-choice questions

3a
3

1C
6B

2
1
3 2

0 1

y
4
3
2
1
4

1, 0
3
0

Inverse is not a function.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
1
2
3

1
3

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
1
2
3
x
4

1
2

Range = (4, )

y
x=1
(0, 2)

y=1

(2, 0)

Range = R\{1}
y

3a

b
y = 2x 3 + 1

(2 3, 0)

(3, 1)

(2 + 3, 0)
y = 1

0,
y

1
4

x=2

x=2
x

0
0,

y = 1

7
4

4y=

1
2
 
1
x +3
c f 1 : R\
R, f 1 (x) =
2
2x 1

x=2

x=1

Inverse is not a
function.
x +1
1
1
4 a f : R\{1} R
f (x) =
x 1
1
2
b f 1 : R +  {0}
 R f (x) = x + 2
2
2x
+3
c f 1 : R\
R f 1 (x) =
3
3x 2
5
domain
range
 
 
1
1
a
Since
f
R\
R\
2
2
ran f = dom f, f f is defined.

1
b f f (x) = x, x R\
2
y

y=4
0

Range = R\{3}

Inverse is a function.

y = 3

(0, 5)

3
2

4
3
2
1

Range = (0, )

Range = R\{3}

5
,0
3

Inverse is not a function.


e
d y

x=2

4
3
2
1

5D
10 A

y = 3

4A
9A

1 a Domain = R\{0}, 
range = R\{2}
2
b Domain =
, , range = (, 3]
3
c Domain = R\{2}, range = (3, )
d Domain = R\{2}, range = R\{4}
e Domain = [2, ), range = [5, )
y
b y
2a

Inverse is a function.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3
1
2
3

3D
8C

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)

2E
7B

6
+ 9, a = 6, b = 9
x
x +2
6 f 1 (x) =
f 1(x) = (x 4)2 + 2
1x
y=x

(6, 6)
(2, 4)
(4, 2)
0

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703

Answers

1 a R\{2}
b
Dilation of factor 24 from the x-axis
Translation of 2 units in the negative
direction of the x-axis
Translation of 6 units in the negative
direction of the y-axis
c (0, 6), (2, 0)
24
d i g 1 (x) =
2
x +6
1
ii Domain of g = range of g = (6, )
iii x = 4 + 2 7
y
iv
x = 2



4n
m
c i (x, y) x + , 2 y + n
2
m
4n 
m 2
+n
ii y = 2 x
m 
2 
4n
3m 2
iii y = 2 x
+n
m
2
 
4
4
b
4 a R\
3
 3
4 1
3
d x = 6.015
c f 1 (x) = +
3
3
x

6
y
e
y=

3
(3x 4)2

+6
y=x

y=6
4
x=
3

x = 6
y=x

y=

y=

4
3

1
3

4
3
+
x6
3

x=6

y = g 1(x)
02

y = 2

5 a f (x) =

y = g(x)

y = 6

50
20 x

y
5
2
0

2 a [3, )

1
from the y-axis
2
Dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis
Reflection in the x-axis
Translation of 3 units in the negative
direction of the x-axis
Translation of 4 units in the positive
direction
of the y-axis
c (0, 4 2 6), (1, 0)
(x 4)2
d f 1 (x) =
3
8
e Domain of f 1 = range of f = (, 4]

f x = 8 6 2 or x = 2 2 or x = 2 2
y
g

Dilation of factor

(3, 4)
y = f 1(x)

y=x

y = f(x)

(22, 22)
x

0
(8 62, 8 62)
(4, 3)

c g 1 (x) =

b ii
0

20

iii
iv
b i
ii
iii

3
ii (x, y) (x, y)
125
(x, y) (x + 25, y + 15)
3
y + 15)
(x, y) (x + 25,
125
3
2
(x 25) + 15
y=
125
(x, y) (x + 50, y)
3
y=
(x 75)2 + 15
125

20x
50 + x

50

6 a i y = f 1 (x 5) + 3
ii y = f 1 (x 3) + 5
x 
x
iv y = 3 f 1
iii y = 5 f 1
5
 3 
x b
1
b y = cf
+ d. The graph of
a
y = f (x) has undergone the following
sequence of transformations: a reflection in the
line y = x, then a dilation of factor c from the
x-axis and factor a from the y-axis, and a
translation of b units in the positive direction
of the x-axis and d units in the positive
direction of the y-axis.

(22, 22)

3a i

20

Chapter 4
Exercise 4A
1 A = 1, B = 3
2 a A = 1, B = 2, C = 6
3
b A = 4, B = , C = 5
2
c A = 1, B = 3, C = 5

Answers

Extended-response questions

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16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


33
x 3
b 5x 4 + 8x 3 8x 2 + 6x 6
26(x 2)
c x 2 9x + 27
x2 2
4 a 16
ba=4
5 a 28
b0
c f (x) = (x + 2)(3x + 1)(2x 3)
11
6bk =
2
7 a a = 3, b = 8
b (2x 1), (x 1)
92
8a=
,b = 9
9
9 81
10 b 6x 4
11 b x 2 3, x 2 + x + 2
1
c ,2
12 a 2, 4, 2, 3
b 0, 2
2
d 2, 2
e 0, 2, 2 f 0, 3, 3
3 a 2x 2 x + 12 +

1 3
1 1
h 1, 2
i 1, 2, ,
g 1, 2, ,
3 2
4 3
13 a (1, 0), (0, 0), (2, 0)
b (2, 0), (0, 6), (1, 0), (3, 0)
c (1, 0), (0, 6), (2, 0), (3, 0)


1
d , 0 , (0, 2), (1, 0), (2, 0)
2
e (2, 0), (1, 0), (0, 2), (1, 0)


2
f (1, 0), , 0 , (0, 6), (3, 0)
3


2
g (4, 0), (0, 16), , 0 , (2, 0)
5




1
1
h , 0 , (0, 1),
, 0 , (1, 0)
2
3


3
i (2, 0), , 0 , (0, 30), (5, 0)
2
14 p = 1, q = 6
15 33
16 a (x 9)(x 13)(x + 11)
b (x + 11)(x 9)(x 11)
c (x + 11)(2x 9)(x 11)
d (x + 11)(2x 13)(2x 9)
17 a (x 1)(x + 1)(x 7)(x + 6)
b (x 3)(x + 4)(x 2 + 3x + 9)
18 a (x 9)(x 5)(2x 2 + 3x + 9)
b (x + 5)(x + 9)(x 2 x + 9)
c (x 3)(x + 5)(x 2 + x + 9)
d (x 4)(x 3)(x + 5)(x + 6)

2a

b
y = 2(x

1)2
y = 2(x 1)2 2

(0, 2)

(2, 0)

0 (1, 0)

0
(1, 2)

y = 2(x 1)2
(1, 0)

0
(0, 2)

(1, 4) y = 4 2(x + 1)2


(0, 2)
x

(1 + 2, 0)

(1 2, 0)

y=4+2 x+

1,4
2

0, 4

1
2

y = 2(x + 1)2 1
(0, 1)
x

0
(1, 1)
1 1 , 0
2

1 +

1,0
2

y = 3(x 2)2 4

Exercise 4B
1 a Crosses the x-axis
b Does not cross the x-axis
c Just touches the x-axis
d Crosses the x-axis
e Does not cross the x-axis
f Does not cross the x-axis

1
2

2 23, 0
3

(0, 8)
x

0
(2, 4)
2+

23, 0
3

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Answers
y

b
y = (x +

1)2

(0, 0)
(2, 0)
(1, 1)

3
0

1 1
2 4

3 2

3
2

2

1
4

x
2

e
3.56

0.56
0

3 , 4 1
2

f
3.12

1.12
0

7
(1, 9)
y

0.095
1 0

(1, 1)

(0, 2)
(1 + 2 , 0)


1
1
Min. = 4 , range = 4 ,
4
4
b f (x) = (x 3)2 1
Min. = 1, range = [1, )
c f (x) = 2(x + 2)2 14
Min. = 14, range = [14, )
d f (x) = 4(x + 1)2 11
Min. = 11, range = [11, )


5 2 25
e f (x) = 2 x

4
8

25
25
Min. = , range = ,
8
8


1 2 22
f f (x) = 3 x +
+
3  3

22
22
Max. =
, range = ,
3
3


9 2 169
g f (x) = 2 x
+
4
 8

169
169
Max. =
, range = ,
8
8
y
4a
1

y
2 ,

3 a f (x) = x +

(1 2 , 0) y = 2(x + 1)2 4

(1, 4)

(0, 1)

1
,0
5

,0

(2, 2)

y = 5x2 1

2
4
(3, 1)

(1, 6)

2
2.095

Answers

705

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706

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November 3, 2005

16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

c
(1, 1)

1.71

0.29
0

(0, 1)

(1, 0)

1
y

d
0.3
x

1
4 3, 0

0.11

(0, 4)

1.09

(0.6, 0.6)

y
(1.08, 0.604)

2.09

0
0.08

e
x

(1, 0)

0.1

(1, 8)

5aB
bD
6aC
bB
cD
7 a m > 3 or m < 0
9 a k < 5 or k > 0

dA
bm =3
b k = 5

0
(0, 7)

Exercise 4C

(2, 0)

4 2
x
b y = x 2
25
2
c y = x + 2x
d y = 2x x 2
2
e y = x 5x + 4
f y = x 2 4x 5
2
g y = x 2x 1
h y = x 2 4x + 6
1 2
1
2 y = x + x + 1, y = x 2 + x 5
8
8
3 b = 2, B = 4, A = 1
1a y =4

(0, 4)

(1, 2)

(0, 4)
(1, 2)

(1, 2)
0

Exercise 4D
1a

(2, 0)

(2, 4)
2+

(1, 2)
0

h
b

(0, 28)

1
4
3, 0
3

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707

Answers
y

(0.435, 0)

(0, 10)

(1, 2)

Answers

(3.565, 0)

(2, 6)
y

d
1
2 3 + 1, 0

(2.159, 0)
(0, 161)

(0, 2)
(1, 4)

0
(3, 1)

(3.841, 0)
y

e
x

(4, 1)

31

(1, 32)

(5, 0)

(3, 0)

(0, 255)
0

(1, 2)
4

0 (2, 3)

2 a = 3, h = 0, k = 4
(0, 51)

3 a = 16, h = 1, k = 7
4 a y = 3x

b y = (x + 1) + 1

c y = (x 2) 3
3

d y = 2(x + 1)3 2
5a

ey=

x3
27

Exercise 4E
1a

(0.096, 0)

(0, 1)
0

(1.904, 0)

(1, 2)

c
(2, 0)

d
(0, 32)

1
2

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708

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November 3, 2005

16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

2a

y = f(x)

y = f (2x)
8.00

y = f (x)
6.00

0.62 0

1.62

y=f

4.00

4 , 0.19
3

2.00
(2.73, 0.75)

(0.73, 0.75)

2.00 1.00

y = f(x + 2) y = f(x) y = f(x 2)

(2, 1)

9 + 1, 81

1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00

Turning points for y = f (2x) are at


(0.18, 0.75) and (0.68, 0.75).
2a

(2, 1)

9
+ 1, 81
2
4

3.62
8

10
, 0.19
3

2
, 0.19
3

For clarity the graph of y = 3 f (x) is shown on


separate axes.

x
0 1

9 81
,
2 2

y = 3f(x)

9 81
,
2 2

3
y = f(x)
1

c
4
, 0.56
3

9 1, 81
2

Exercise 4F

9 1, 81
2
2

16

1a

1 0

y = f(x)
y

(0.37, 0.75)

(1.37, 0.75)

9, 0

9, 0
2

0
y = f(x)

0, 81

y = f(x 2)

y
9 , 85

9 , 85
2 4

2 4

x
2

x
(1.63, 0.75)

(3.37, 0.75)

Graphs of dilations shown on separate axes for


clarity.

(0, 1)
0

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Answers

709

11
(x + 5)(x + 2)(x 6)
60
5
= (x + 1)(x 3)2
9
y = x3 + x + 1
y = x3 x + 1
y = 2x 3 x 2 + x 2
y = (2x + 1)(x 1)(x 2)
1
y = x(x 2 + 2)
4
y = x 2 (x + 1)

1y=
2y
3a
b
c
4a
b
c

d y = x 3 + 2x 2 x 2
e y = (x + 2)(x 3)2
5 a y = 2x 3 25x 2 + 48x + 135
b y = 2x 3 30x 2 + 40x + 13
6 a y = 2x 4 + 22x 3 10x 2 37x + 40
b y = x 4 x 3 + x 2 + 2x + 8
31 4 5 3 157 2 5
11
cy=
x + x
x x+
36
4
36
4
2

Exercise 4H



1 1
1 4k 2
, k
,
\{0}
2k
2 2
1
b x = 4a or 3a or 0
c x = 0 or x = a 3

k k 2 4k
dx=
, k > 4 or k < 0
2

f x = a
e x = 0 or x = a
g x = a or x = b

1
h x = a or x = a 3 or x = a if a > 0

1
b+c 3
7
2ax =
b x = (a) 3
a
 c  13
dx=
b
c x = (a c)n
a
 3
b
1
ex=
f x = (c + d) 3
a


1 1
b
,
, (0, 0)
3 a (0, 0), (1, 1)

2 2

3 13
3 + 13
, 13 + 4 ;
, 4 13
c
2
2
1ax =

4 a (13, 3), (3, 13)


b (10, 5), (5, 10)
c (11, 8), (8, 11) d (9, 4), (4, 9)
e (9, 5), (5, 9)
5 a (17, 11), (11, 17)
b (37, 14), (14, 37)
c (14, 9), (9, 14)
6 (2, 4), (0, 0)

5+5
5+5
7
,
,
2
2

5 5 5 5
,
2
2

130 80 2 60 64 2
8
,
,
41
41

80 2 130 64 2 + 60
,
41
41

1 + 21 1 + 21
,
,
9
2
2

1 21 1 + 21
,
2
2



4
6 5 3 5
10
,2
11
,
9
5
5


1
12 2,
13 (3, 2), (0, 1)
2 
 

8 15
27 10
,
b
,
, (5, 9)
14 a (3, 2),
4 
2 3
 5
12
, 10
c (6, 4),
5
2
15 c ac + b = 0

16 (1
161,
1 161),
( 161 1, 161 + 1)

4m + 25 + 5
4m + 25 + 5
17 a x =
,y=
2m
2

5 4m + 25
5 4m + 25
,y=
or x =
2
2m

25
2 5
bm =
, ,
4
5 2
25
cm <
and m = 0
4

Multiple-choice questions
1E
6A

2D
7C

3E
8E

4C
9C

5E
10 C

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
y

1a

h(x) = 3(x 1)2 + 2


(0, 5)
(1, 2)

0
y

y = (x 1)2 9

(2, 0)

(0, 8)

x
(4, 0)
(1, 9)

Answers

Exercise 4G

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Answers

710

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November 3, 2005

16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

c
y = x2 x + 6

(0, 6)

1 3
,5
2 4

(3, 0)
(2, 1)
x

(0, 9)

d
y = x2 x 6

(0, 26)
(2, 0) 0

(3, 0)

(2, 0)
x

0
(3, 1)

(0, 6)
1 25
,
2
4

e
y=

2x2

x+5
1, 1
2

(0, 2)

(0, 5)
1 , 39
4 8

x
(1, 0)

5a
y=

2x2

+
x

x1

2 1
1
2

+
x
0

1, 9
4 8

(0, 1)

4
1
4
1
2 y = x2 ; a = , b =
3
3
3
3

1
3 (1 31)
3
y
4a

+
x
0
4

2 1

(3, 0)
x

0
(0, 18)

(1, 16)

2
3

6a8
b0
c0
7 y = (x 7)(x + 3)(x + 2)
y
8a
y = f(x 1)

(1, 8)

(0, 7)
0 (1, 0)

3
2 83
2 , 4
3 3

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16:7

Answers

y = f(x + 1)

8
2 83
,
3 34
y

y = f(2x)

(6, 144)

1
,0
2

0
2

4,

224
3

(3, 45)

5 83
,
6 34

64
2,
3

y = f(x) + 2

(1, 2)

d x =
5. The depth is 5 cm.
h2
5 a r = 25
4
b V

(5.77, 302.3)

2 8
1 , 4 +2
3

9 y = x 3 + 7x 2 11x + 6

Extended-response questions
4
1ak =
3375
c i Rnew

b 11.852 mL/min

10

c V = 96cm
d h = 2, r =2 6, i.e. height = 2 cm and
radius = 2 6 cm, or h = 8.85 and r = 2.33
6 a V = (84 2x)(40 2x)x
b (0, 20)
c y
3

(15, 40)

(8.54, 13 098.71)
y = V(x)

20

ii 23.704 mL/min
d i Rout
40
0

20
(35, 20)

ii 11.852 mL/minute out


2 a i 2916 m3
ii 0 m3
b V (m3)
(0, 2916)

c 3.96 hours

9 t (hours)

20

d i x = 2, V = 5760 ii x = 6, V = 12 096
iii x = 8, V = 13 056 iv x = 10, V = 12 800
e x = 13.50 or x = 4.18 f 13 098.71 cm3
7 a i A = 2x(16 x 2 )
ii (0, 4)
b i 42
ii x = 0.82 or x = 3.53
c i V = 2x 2 (16 x 2 )
ii x = 2.06 or x = 3.43

8 a A = x 2 + yx
2
b i y = 100 x



100
ii A = 100x x 2
iii 0,
2

c x = 12.43 



2
x

100
d i V =
100 x , x 0,
50
2

ii 248.5 m3
iii x = 18.84

Answers

3 a V = x(96 4x)(48 2x) = 8x(24 x)2


b i 0 < x < 24
ii x 8,
maximum volume 16 500 cm3
c When x = 10, V = 15 680 cm3 .
d Max. volume = 14 440 cm3
e Min. volume = 9720 cm3
1
4 V = x 2 (18 x)
3
a i 64 cm3 ii 45cm3 iii 224 cm3
3
3
b 144cm3
c V

711

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Answers

712

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November 3, 2005

16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


1 2
17
1
x3
x +
x
12 000
200
120
b x = 20
29 2
1
1 3
x +
x
x
dy=
6000
3000
20
y
e i

9ay=

2a

y = 2 x +1 2

2
1

x
1

2
(40, 3)

Range = (2, )
b

40

80

ii Second section of graph is formed by a


reflection of the graph of
y = f (x), x [0, 40], in the line x = 40.

(0, 4)

Chapter 5

Range = R +

Exercise 5A
1a

y=0
x

y
y = 3x
y = 2x
y=0
(0, 1)
x

0
1

Range = (1, )
y

b
y = 3x

5
(0, 1)

y = 2x

y=0
x

2
1
0

x
1

Range = (1, )
e
y = 5x

(0, 1)
0

0, 2

y=0
x

1
4

y = 5x

(0, 1)

0
y

Range = (2, )
y

(0, 1)

y=0
x

0
(0, 1)

(0, 6)

y = (1.5)x

y = (1.5)x

2
0

Range = (2, )

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16:7

Answers
y

y = f(x 2)
(0, 1)

(2, 1)

y=0
x

0, 1
0

Range = R +
b

1
0

y = 10 x 1

Range = (1, )

Range = (, 1)

y = 1

3
y=0
x

Range = (1, )

2
0

Range = R +

e
1

5a

(0, 2)

y=0
x

y
x

y = 10 10 + 1

Range = (2, )

(10, 11)

(0, 2)

0
1

Range = (1, )

(0, 2)

y=1
x

0
y

y=2
0

y = f(x) + 2

(0, 3)

y = 2(10 x) 20

y = f(x) + 1

(0, 2) y = 0
x

b
y = f(x + 1)

(1, 1)

Range = (1, )
4a

y=1

(0, 18)

y = 20

Range = (20, )

x
y = 1

(0, 2)

(1, 0)

y = f(x) 1

y = f(3x)
0

y=1

y=f 2

(1, 8)
(0, 1) y = 0
x

(0, 1)
0

(2, 2)
y=0
x

y = 1 10 x

Range = (, 1)

y y = 10 x + 1 + 3

y = 2 f(x 1) + 1

(0, 13)
y=3

(1, 4)

(0, 2)

y=1
0

Range = (3, )

Answers

3a

713

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Answers

714

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

Exercise 5B

y = 2 10 10 + 4
(10, 24)

1a

y=4

(0, 2)

y=1

Range = (4, )

y = 1 ex

Range = (, 1)

(100, 408.024)

(0, 1)

b i $408.02
c 239 days
7 36 days
8a i

y
y = e x1 2

ii $1274.70
d ii 302 days

(0, e 1 2)
0

y = 5 x y = 3x
y = 2x

x
y = 2

Range = (2, )
f

(0,1)

y = 2ex
x

ii x < 0
b i

iii x > 0
1
3

y=

y
y=

1
2

(0, 2)

iv x = 0

1
5

Range = (0, )
y

g
(0,1)

y = 2(1 + ex)
x

ii x > 0
c i a>1

iii x < 0

(0, 4)

iv x = 0

y=2

ii a = 1

(0, 1)
0

0
y

y = ax

Range = (2, )

y=1
x

1
0

iii 0 < a < 1


y=2

y
0
(0, 1)
0

y = ax
x

y = 2(1 e x)

Range = (, 2)

Range = (0, )

Range = (, 1)
e

y
y = e 2x

y=1

y = 1 e x

Range = (1, )

y=1

6 a C1

y=

b
y = ex + 1

(0, 6)

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November 3, 2005

16:7

715

Answers

1
d
4
5
g
2
3a1

y = 2e x + 1

(0, 3)

y=1

e 2

Range = (1, )
j

i6
4 a 1, 2
e 1, 2
i 1, 2

(1, 2)

(0, 2e 1)

h6
b1
f4
3
j
5
b1
f 0, 1
j 1, 0

c4
f3

3
2
10
g
3
1
k
2
c2
g 2, 4
c

i4
d3
h

3
2

d1
h 0, 1

Exercise 5D

Range = (0, )
y

y=2
(0, 3e 2)
x

(0, 1) 0

y = 2

Range = (2, )
Range = (, 2)
2 a x = 1.146 or x = 1.841
b x = 0.443
c x = 0.703
d x = 1.857 or x = 4.536
y
3 a, b i
y = f(x)
1

y = f (x 2)
e 2
x

0
y

ii, iii
y = f (x)

y = f (x)
y=f x

Exercise 5C
1 a 6x 6 y 9

1
2
3
e
5

2a4

b 3x 6

d 18x 8 y 4

e 16

g 24x 5 y 10

h 2x y 2

6y 2
x2
5x 28
f 6
y

i x 2 y2

1a3
b 4
c 3
d6
e6
f 7
2 a loge 6
b loge 4
c loge 106 (= 6 loge 10)
d loge 7
1
e loge
(= loge 60)
60
f loge u 3v 6 (= 3 loge uv 2 )
g 7 loge x = loge x 7

h loge 1 = 0

3 a x = 100
b x = 16
cx =6
d x = 64
e x = e3 5 15.086
1
g x = 1
fx=
2
1
3
i x = 36
h x = 10 =
1000
4 a x = 15
bx =5
cx =4
1
d x = 1(x = is not an allowable solution)
2
3
ex=
2
5 a log10 27
b log2 4 (= 2)
a 1
a
1
2
c log10 = log10
2
b
b

10a
d log10
1
b3
 
1
e log10
(= 3 log10 2)
8
1
6a1
b1
c2
d3
e0
2
c0
7 a x
b 2 log2 x
3e
8ax =4
0.7814
bx=
5 + 2e

1 + 1 + 12e
9ax =
, i.e. x 0.7997
6
b x = loge 2 0.6931

Answers

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Answers

716

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


10

1
,2
4

x=2

 3
2
8
11 N =
=
3
27

(3, 0)
0

12 a

x=3

Domain = (2, ), range = R


y

g
0

x = 1

Domain = (3, ), range = R

(0, 1)

x = 3

(1.72, 0)

Domain = (1, ), range = R

(4.39, 0)

x=2

0.9

(0, 0.69)

Domain = (3, ), range = R

Domain = (, 2), range = R

x = 1

x= 4
3

1 0

(0.65, 0)
(0, 1)

x
(0, 0.39)

(0.43, 0)

y
x= 2

Domain =

y = log2 2x

(0.79, 0)


4
, range = R
,
3

13 a

0 2

Domain = (1, ), range = R


Domain =


2
, , range = R
3

b
0
(0, 1.4)

Domain = R +

x = 2

2 1

1, 0
2

x=5

y = log10 (x 5)
0

(6, 0)

Domain = (2, ), range = R


Domain = (5, )

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November 3, 2005

16:7

Answers
y

i
y = log10 x

Answers

717

1, 0
3

(1, 0)

0
y = 4 log2 (3x)

Domain = R

Domain = R +

x=2

y = 2 log2 (2 x) 6

y = log10 (x)

Domain = (, 2)
14 a x = 1.557
b x = 1.189
y
15 b i, ii

Domain = R
y

(6, 0) 0
(0, 4)

(1, 0)

x=5
y = f (x)

y = log10 (5 x)

y = f (x)

(0, log10 5)
x

(1, 0)

(4, 0)

(1, 0)

y = f(x)

Domain = (, 5)
f

iii, iv

y = f(3x)
y = f (x)

1
3

1
,0
4

(1, 0)
3
y=f

x
3

y = 2 log2 2x + 2

Domain = R +

Exercise 5E

y = 2 log2 (3x)
1,0
3

3 a = 200, b = 500

4 a = 250, b =

5 a = 3, b = 5

6 a = 2, b =

7 a = 2, b = 4

Domain = R +
h

1 a = 2, b = 4
14
14
2a=
,b=
(a 8.148,
e1
1e
b 8.148)

9 b = 1, a =

x = 5

10 a =
1
5100, 0

y = log10 (x 5) + 2

Domain = (, 5)

1
loge 5
3

1
loge 5
3
8 a = 2, b = 3

2
, c = 8 (a 2.885)
loge 2

2
,b = 4
loge 2

Exercise 5F
1 a 2.58
e 2.32
i 2.89
m 6.21

b 0.32
f 0.68
j 1.70
n 2.38

c 2.18
g 2.15
k 4.42
o 2.80

d 1.16
h 1.38
l 5.76

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Answers

718

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

16:7

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


2 a x < 2.81
b x > 1.63 c x < 0.68
d x 3.89
e x 0.57
loge 5
3ax =
2.3219
loge 2
loge 7
bx=
1.7712
loge 3
loge 8
c x = 0 or x =
1.8928
loge 3
4 a 10
b3
c8
5 a 2.9656
b 5.8329
c 2.0850
d 2.8551
e 4.6674
f 0.8273
6 0.544
b 549.3
2
1
9 a 9u
c
bu+
u
2
2
10 625
11
p

g f 1 (x) = 10x 1; domain = R,


range = (1, )
1
h f 1 (x) = loge x + 1;
2
domain = (0, ), range = R
y
4 a, c
f 1

y=x

y=1

f
x

0
x=1

f 1 (x) = loge (1 x),


domain = (, 1)

5 a, c

Exercise 5G

y=x

x = 3
(0, 2)

0 (2, 0) f 1

y
y=x

y = 3

(0, 4)
y=3

(4, 0)
x=3

y = f 1(x)

f (x) = e + 3
f 1 (x) = loge (x 3)



1
x +3
loge
,
2
5
domain = (3, )
f 1 (x) =

6 a, c

f 1

1
0, 2 loge 0.6

y = f (x)

f
x=1
y = f 1(x)
y=x

(0, 2)

0, e

1
2

y = f(x)
y=x

y=1
0

(2, 0)

f (x) = loge (x 1)
f 1 (x) = e x + 1
1
3 a f 1 (x) = e x ; domain = R,
2
range = R +
1 x1
b f 1 (x) = e 3 ;
2
domain = R, range = R +
c f 1 (x) = loge (x 2);
domain = (2, ), range = R
d f 1 (x) = loge (x) 2;
domain = R + , range = R
1
e f 1 (x) = (e x 1); domain R,
2

1
range = ,
2

1 x
f f 1 (x) =
e 4 2 ; domain R,

3
2
range = ,
3

f 1 (x) = e

7ax =e
cn=

1
2,

x
0

x1
2 , range

y5
2

loge

y

a
loge x

= R+
 
1
P
b x = loge
6
A
d x = log10

y

1 5y
ex= e 3
2
 y 
log
e
1
6
fn=

2
loge x
1 y
(e + 1)
2 

5
h x = loge
5 y

x +4
1
8 a f (x) = loge
2
b (0.895, 0.895), (3.962, 3.962)
gx=

x4

9 a f 1 (x) = e 2 3
b (8.964, 8.964), (2.969, 2.969)

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November 3, 2005

16:7

Answers
y = ex

y=x

y = loge x

1
0

f (x) = 10 x + 1
(0, 2)

y=1

ii

y
y=

x3
e2

y=x

y = 2 loge (x) + 3

h(x) =

1 x
(e 1)
2

3
e2

x
0

y=

3
e2

iii

y = 10 x

1
2

y=x
y=2
(0, 1)
x

y = log10 x

(loge 2, 0)

f(x) = loge (2x + 1)

b f (x) and g(x) are inverse functions

Exercise 5H

1 m = 0.094, d0 = 41.9237 2 k = 0.349, N0 = 50.25


3 a i N0 = 20 000
ii 0.223
b 6.2 years
4 a M0 = 10, k = 4.95 103
b 7.07 grams
c 325 days

x=2

y
x=1

0
(1 + e 1, 0)

Multiple-choice questions
1C
6C

2D
7B

3B
8A

4E
9C

h(x) = loge (x 1) + 1

5A
10 D

g(x) = loge (x 1)
(2, 0)

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
y

1a

x=1
y

f (x) = loge (1 x)

f (x) = e x 2
(loge 2, 0)
x

(0, 1)
y = 2
x=1

Answers

10 a i

719

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Answers

720

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

9:27

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


1
loge (x + 1)
2
x
b f 1 : R R, f 1 (x) = e 3 + 2
c f 1 : R R, f 1 (x) = 10x 1
d f 1 : (2, ) R, f 1 (x) = log2 (x 1)
3 a y = e2 x
b y = 10x c y = 16x 3
e3
x5
ey=
dy=
f y = e2x3
x
10
loge 11
loge (0.8)
4ax =
bx=
loge 3
loge 2
loge 3
cx=
loge ( 23 )
2
1
bx=
cx=
5ax =1
3
20
d x = log10 3 or x = log10 4
2 a f 1 : (1, ) R, f 1 (x) =

6 a = 2, b = 23 1
1
287
8 loge
9 2a
3
4
11 a = loge 5, b = 5, k = 2

7 10 5 1

8 k = 0.5, A0 = 100
9a x

x=8

b i 0 grams
ii 2.64 grams
iii 6.92 grams
c 10.4 minutes
10 a k = 0.235
b 22.7
c 7.17 minutes
11 a N(t)
20e10

10 R

10e10

Extended-response questions
1 a 73.5366 C
2 a 770
3 a k = 22 497,  = 0.22
4 a A = 65 000, p = 0.064
5a y

y=

00
10 0

b 59.5946
b 1840
b $11 627
b $47 200

00 t
+ 10

15

b i (12.210, 22 209.62)
ii t = 12.21
iii 22 210
c ii (12.21, 12.21)
d c = 0.52
1
6 a iii a = or a = 1
2
iv If a = 1, e2B = 1 and B = 0,
1
1
A R + . If a = , B = loge 2.
2
2
v A = 20 000
n
b

20 000

2 loge 10
loge (0.1)
1 =
6.644
1
loge 2
loge 2
2
After 6.65 hours the population is 18 000.
7 a 75
b 2.37
c 0.646
c

(0, 20)
0

50 70

b i N (10) = 147.78
ii N (40) = 59 619.16
iii N (60) = 20e10 = 440 529.32
iv N (80) = 220 274.66
c i 25 days
ii 35 days

Exercise 6A
t

y = 10e10

Chapter 6

y = 8000 + 3 2t
0

5
18
17
d
9
2 a 60
d 140
3 a 45.84
d 226.89
4 a 0.65
d 2.13
1a

34
45
7
e
3
b 150
e 630
b 93.97
e 239.50
b 1.29
e 5.93
b

25
18
49
f
18
c 240
f 252
c 143.24
f 340.91
c 2.01
f 2.31
c

Exercise 6B
1 a 0, 1
b 1, 0
d 1, 0
e 0, 1
2a0
b Not defined
d0
e Not defined
3 a 1
b0
d0
e1
4 a 0.99
b 0.52
d 0.92
e 0.67
g 0.99
h 0.44
j 2.57
k 0.95

c 1, 0
f 0, 1
c Not defined
c 1
f1
c 0.87
f 0.23
i 34.23
l 0.75

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Answers
d

1 a 0.52
b 0.68
e 0.52
f 0.68
2 a 0.64, 2.5
c 3.61, 5.816
3 a 17.46, 162.54
c 233.13, 306.87

c 0.52
d 0.4
g 0.4 h 0.68
b 0.64, 5.64
d 1.77, 4.51
b 66.42, 293.58
d 120, 240

e
f
g
h

Exercise 6D
1 0.6
3
61
7

2 0.6

3 0.7

4 0.3

7 0.3

8 0.6

9 0.6 10 0.3

5 0.3

Exercise 6E

1
1
3
,
,
2
2
3
1
1
c , ,1
2
2
1
1
e , ,1
2
2

1a

1
1
b , ,1
2
2

1
3
, , 3
d
2
2

3
1
1
,
f ,
2 2
3

1
3
d
c
2
2
1
1
h
g
2
2

1
3
k
l
2
2
1
1
o
p
2
2

1
1
b
2a
2
2
1
1
f
e
2
2
1
3
i
j
2
2
1
1
m
n
2
2
b 60 , 120
3 a 60 , 300
d 120 , 240
e 60 , 120

5


b or
4 a or
6
6
6
6
5
5
b
5a
6
6


d +b
e +b
2
2
4
7
b
6a
3
6
3
d
b
eb+
2
3 5
 3
7a ,
b
,
4 4
4 4
 7
7 11
e ,
,
d
4 4
6
6
5 7 13 15
,
,
,
8a
8 8
8
8
5 7 17 19 29
b
,
,
,
,
,
18 18 18 18 18
 5 13 17
c
,
,
,
12 12 12 12

 7 3 5 17 23
,
,
,
,
,
12 12 4 4 12 12
 5 13 17 25 29
,
,
,
,
,
18 18 18 18 18 18
 3 9 11
,
,
,
8 8 8
8
5 7 17 19 29 31
,
,
,
,
,
18 18 18 18 18 18
5 7 13 5 7 23
,
,
,
,
,
12 12 12 4 4 12
 2 4 5
,
,
,
3 3 3 3

c 210 , 330
f 150 , 210
5
5
c
or
6
6
2
c
3

Exercise 6F
1 a i 2
2
bi
3
ci 

ii 3
1
ii
2
ii 3

g i 4
y
2a
2

2
3

Amplitude = 2
2
Period =
3
y

b
2

7
c
6

3
4

Amplitude = 2
Period = 
y

c
3
0

31
18

ii 2
1
ii
2
ii 2

d i 6

ei
2
f i 2

fb+
5 7
c
,
6 6
2 4
f
,
3 3

ii 3

3 3
2

9
2

Amplitude = 3
Period = 6

Answers

Exercise 6C

721

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Answers

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

Exercise 6G

1
3

1a

0
1
3

3
4

Amplitude =

Period = 

1
3

3
8

7
3

b
1

Amplitude = 3

Period =
2

4
3

2
Period = 2
Amplitude = 2
Range = [2, 2]

5
5
6

2
3

5
6
2
3

Period = 
Amplitude = 1
Range = [1, 1]

4
1
2

3
2

1
2

x
6 y = 2 sin
3
x
1
7 y = cos
2
3
1
x
8 y = sin
2
2

2
5
3
2 4
2
3
3

3
4

Period = 
Amplitude = 3
Range = [3, 3]

d
3
0

5
6

2
3
Amplitude = 3
Range = [ 3, 3]
Period =

7
6

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Answers

5
4
3
2
1

3
2
1
0
1

2
3
Amplitude = 2
Range = [1, 3]

2
3

2a

2
1

0
1
2
3
4

c
3a

Period = 
Amplitude = 3
Range = [4, 2]
y

g
4

3
2
1
0
1

7
6

Period = 
Amplitude = 2

Range = [ 2 + 2, 2 + 2]

3
2

0
1

Period =

Period = 
Amplitude = 3
Range = [1, 5]
 

1
1

y = cos
x
2
3
4


y = 2 cos x
 4 
1
y = cos x
3
3
Dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis
1
Dilation of factor from the y-axis
2
Reflection in the x-axis
Dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis
1
Dilation of factor from the y-axis
2
Reflection in the x-axis

Translation of units in the positive
3
direction of the x-axis
Dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis
1
Dilation of factor from the y-axis
2

Translation of units in the positive
3
direction of the x-axis
Translation of 2 units in the positive
direction of the y-axis
Dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis
1
Dilation of factor from the y-axis
2
Reflection in the x-axis

Translation of units in the positive
3
direction of the x-axis
Translation of 5 units in the positive
direction of the y-axis

Exercise 6H
0
1

1a

Period = 
Amplitude = 4
Range = [1, 7]

3
2
1
0
1

2
3

Intercepts:

4
3

x
2

 

4
2
, 0 ,
, 0
3
3

Answers

723

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

d
(0, 2 3 )

1
0
1
2
3

3
2

(0, 2 3)

(0, 2 1)
0

(0, 2 1)

Intercepts:

y
1 + 2
(0, 2)

(2, 2)

3
2

  7 
, 0 ,
, 0
4
4



1 2

Intercepts: (, 0),

2a
11
2 6

7
6

5
6

3
2

0
(2, 2)

2
(2, 2)
4
y

b
23
12
2

3
15
12

12

7
12

9
12

17
12

1 2

(2, 1 2)

(2, 1 2)
y

c
2

1
(2, 3)

(2, 3)

5
y

d
3
(2, 1)
2
11
6

Intercepts: (0, 0), (2, 0)


e

y
7
4
2

  11 
, 0 ,
, 0 ,
Intercepts:

 12

 12
13
23
, 0 ,
, 0
12
12


7
6

0
1

(2, 1)

5
6

x
2


3
,0
2

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Answers
e

725

23
12

19 15
12
12

11
12

7
12

12

5
12

9
12

13
12

17
12

21
12

2
2

(2, 2)

Answers

2
(2, 2)

f
(2, 2)

(2, 2)

21
12

17 13
12
12

9
12

5
12

12

3
12

7
12

11
12

15
12

19
12

23
12

g
2

2
(2, 1)

2
(2, 1)

3
2

1
2

Exercise 6I
y

y = sin + 2cos
2
4

2 1

4 3

x
1

1
y = cos2 sin
2

y = 2cos2 + 3sin2
2
2

y = 3 cos + sin 2

1
0
2
4

0
x

4 3 2 1
2

x
1

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9:27

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


5

4
(0, 2)

2
0

0 1

4 3 2 1

(2, 2)

3
4

5 7
4 4

4
y = 2sin 4 cos

(2, 1)

(0, 1)
0

3
2

Exercise 6J
y


3

4 A = 4, n =
6


4
3 A = 3, b = 5, n = 3

2 A = 0.5, =

1 A = 3, n =



, =
4
2
(Note: can take infinitely many values.)


6 A = 2, n = , =
3
6
(Note: can take infinitely many values.)


and d = 2
7 A = 4, n = , =
4
2
(Note: can take infinitely many values.)


8 A = 2, n = , =
and d = 2
3
6
(Note: can take infinitely many values.)
5 A = 4, n =

f y

3
2

Exercise 6K
1a


3

2a

b 2

2
3

d1

e2

2
0
4

3
4

5 3 7
4 2 4

3
2

2
3

5
6

1 1

7
6

4
3

3
2

5
3

11
6

1
2

3
2

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Answers

b


3
3
7
,
,
,
6 2
6
2

7 19 31 43


,
,
,
24 24 24 24
5 11 17 23
,
,
,
b
12 12 12 12
11 23 35 47 59 71
,
,
,
,
,
c
36 36 36 36 36 36

9 n = 3, A = 5
10 n = , A = 6
2
8a

5 a  , 7
6 6
 5 9 13 17 21 25 29
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
16
16 16 16 16 16 16 16
b
 7 13 19
c
,
,
,
12 12 12 12
5 11 17 23
,
,
,
d
12 12 12 12
 7 11 5 19 23
,
,
,
,
e ,
4 12 12 4 12 12
f 0.4636, 3.6052
g 1.1071, 4.2487
3 7 11 15
h
,
,
,
8 8
8
8
 7 13 19 25 31
,
,
,
,
,
i
18 18 18 18 18 18
 4 7 10 13 16
,
,
,
,
j ,
9 9 9
9
9
9
y
6 a, c
y = cos 2x sin 2x
1

3
4 2

0
4

y = cos 2x

3
4

y = sin 2x
x

7 a, c

 

5 1
 1
, ,
, ,
8
8
2
2

 

3 1
7 1
, ,
,
8
8
2
2
y

y = cos x + 3 sin x

Exercise 6L
1 a i 2
ii 4
iii 4
14 10
14 10
4 8
,
iii
,
ii
bi
,
3
3
3
3
3 3

2 a 2n , n Z
3

2n
2
2n
+ or
+
,n Z
b
3
9
3
9

c 3n + , n Z
3
 5
 11
 5
c ,
,
b
3a ,
3 6
12 12
6 6
11 7  5
4a
,
, ,
6
6
6 6
  5
, ,
5
3 3 3


6 a x = n or x = n , n Z
6
2
n

bx=
,n Z
2
12

5
or x = 2n , n Z
c x = 2n +
6
2
(4n 1)
or x = n, n Z ,
7x=
4


5

3
7
, , , 0,
, ,
4
4
4
4
n

2
8x=
;x =
or
or  or 0
3
3
3
3n + 2
6n 1
or x =
;
9x=
12
6
2 7 1 1 1 5 5 11
,
,
,
, , , , ,
x=
3 12 6 12 3 12 6 12

y = cos x

Exercise 6M
0

3
2

1
3

y = 3sin x

4
4
1 ,
5
3

2 6
, 2 6
3
5

12
5
,
13
12

Answers

4a

727

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November 3, 2005

9:27

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


b 5.89 metres
d 6 times
f 4.21 metres

Exercise 6N
1 a i Amplitude = 1

1
2

ii Period = 12
 
iii d(t) = 3.5 1.5 cos
t
6
iv 1.5 m
b [0, 3) (9, 15) (21, 24]
y
2a

Multiple-choice questions
1C
6C

1 a
c

2
t
2

14

20

24

b 2:00

c 8:00, 20:00


3 a A = 3, n = , = , b = 5
6
2
b i 2:21 a.m., 9:39 a.m., 2:21 p.m.,
9:39 p.m.
c y

e
g
h

y = h(t)

8
5

2E
7B

2a

y=5

5A
10 B

f (x) = sin 3x

12

18

24

4a5
b1
c t = 0.524 s, 2.618 s, 4.712 s
d t = 0 s, 1.047 s, 2.094 s
e Particle oscillates about the point x = 3 from
x = 1 to x = 5.
 
t

5 a 19.5 C
b D = 1 + 2 cos
12
c D

12

18

24

2
3

1
y

f(x) = 2 sin 2x 1
1

0 5
1 12 12

d {t : 4 < t < 20}.

6a

h
(metres)
31.5

f(x) = 2 sin 2x + 1
(120, 30.99)

16.5
1.5

4A
9E

 5
2 2 4
,
b
,
,
6 6
3
3 3
  11
, ,
6 6 6
3  5 7
,
,
,
4
4
4 4
 3 7
 5 7 11
f
,
,
,
,
,
4
4 4
6
6
6
6
3 5 3 5 11 13
,
,
,
,
,
8
8
8 8
8
8
7 11  5 13 17
,
, ,
,
,
,
18
18
18 18 18 18
25 29
,
18 18
y
1

1
2

3D
8C

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)

10
(0, 8)
6

c 27.51 seconds
e 20 times
g 13.9 metres

1
0

(0, 5.89)
13.5 31.5 49.5 67.5 85.5 103.5 120 t (minutes)

7
12

11
12

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729

Answers
c

f(x) = 2 sin x
4

5
4

3 + 2
y = 3

9
4

0
3 2

19 23 9
12 12 4

y = 3sin x

f(x) = 2 sin x

3
y

2
y

Answers

h(x) = 2 cos x
4

y=3

6 8

7
6

13
6

3 a 30, 150
b 45, 135, 225, 315
c 240, 300
d 90, 120, 270, 300
e 120, 240
y
4a

3
y=1
2

5
3

y = 2 sin x + 3 + 2

y = cos x

(0, 3 + 2)
y=2

0
1
x

2
3

7
6

5
3

3
2

y = sin 2x

a 4 solutions
c 2 solutions

b 4 solutions

6a
3

y=1

x
2
3

(0, 1 3 )

5
3

0
3

x
180

360

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November 3, 2005

9:27

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


b

2
,
4 a a = 20 000, b = 100 000, n =
365
5.77,


2t
i.e. y = 20 000 sin
+ 5.77 + 100 000
365
y
b

1
90
0

270
180

x
360

120000

80 000

360,

3
2

c i t = 242.7, t = 364.3
ii t = 60.2, t = 181.8
d 117 219 m3 /day
5 a i 1.83 103 hours ii 11.79 hours
b April 25 (t = 3.856), August 14 (t = 7.477)
6a D

3
2

0 30

210

360

13
10
7


3
2

b
or
or
4
4
3
3

3
7
5
or
or
or
c
8
8
8
8


5
2
or
or or
d
3
6
3
3

7a

Extended-response questions
1a

y
y = cos t + 4
6

5
4
3

3 6

t
3

12

15

18

21

24

y = 3 cos (2t)

0.5

1
second
3
d t = 0.196 second

12

c A ship
can enter 2 hours after low tide.
8 a i 25 3
ii 30
b 2.27, 0.53
d b = 8
e  = 0.927 or 1.837
fa=4 3
9c A
(3, 5.196)

d i 2.055
  ii 0.858 iii 0.0738
e nr tan

n 
cos
f i n sin
n
n
ii A

1
A=

ci t =

24

t
0

18

b 9:00, 15:00
c 8:00, 16:00
2 a Maximum = 210 cm, minimum = 150 cm,
mean = 180
 cm

t

b y = 30 sin

+ 180;
6
2


A = 30, n = , b = 180, =
6
2
c i 165 cm
ii 180 15 3 154 cm
d 4:24, 7.36
3 a a = 3, n = 2
b y
3

12

b {t: D(t) 8.5} = {t: 0 t 7}


{t: 11 t 19} {t: 23 t 24}
c 12.898 m
7 a p = 5, q = 2
b D

0
0

t
121 303.5 486

ii t =

1
second
6

(3, 1.3)
0

iv 0.0041

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Answers

Exercise 7A
1 a i f g(x) = 3 sin (2|x|)
g f (x) = 3 |sin 2x|
ii Range of f g = [3, 3],
domain of f g = R,
range of g f = [0, 3],
domain of g f = R
b i f g(x) = 2 cos (2|x|)
g f (x) = 2 | cos 2x|
ii Range of f g = [2, 2],
domain of f g = R,
range of g f = [0, 2],
domain of g f = R
c i f g(x) = e|x| g f (x) = e x
ii Range of f g = [1, ),
domain of f g = R,
range of g f = (0, ),
domain of g f = R
d i f g(x) = e2|x| 1, g f (x) = |e2x 1|
ii Range of f g = [0, ),
domain of f g = R,
range of g f = [0, ),
domain of g f = R
e i f g(x) = 2e|x| 1, g f (x) = 2e x +1
ii Range of f g = (, 3],
domain of f g = R,
range of g f = (1, ),
domain of g f = R
f i f g(x) = loge (2|x|),
g f (x) = | loge 2x|
ii Range of f g = R,
domain of f g = R\{0},
range of g f = [0, ),
domain of g f = R +
g i f g(x) = loge (|x| 1),
g f (x) = | loge (x 1)|
ii Range of f g = R,
domain of f g = R\[1, 1],
range of g f = [0, ),
domain of g f = (1, )
h i f g(x) = loge (|x|),
g f (x) = | loge x|
ii Range of f g = R,
domain of f g = R\{0},
range of g f = [0, ),
domain of g f = R +
2 a h(x) = f g(x) where f (x) = e x and
g(x) = x 3
b h(x) = f g(x) where f (x) = cos x and
g(x) = |2x|
c h(x) = f g(x) where f (x) = x n and
g(x) = x 2 2x

d h(x) = f g(x) where f (x) = cos x and


g(x) = x 2
e h(x) = f g(x) where f (x) = x 2 and
g(x) = cos x
f h(x) = f g(x) where f (x) = x 4 and
g(x) = x 2 1
g h(x) = f g(x) where f (x) = loge x and
g(x) = x 2
h h(x) = f g(x) where f (x) = |x| and
g(x) = cos 2x
i h(x) = f g(x) where f (x) = x 3 2x and
g(x) = x 2 2x
x 
1
2
c ex
b loge
3 a 2e2x
2
2
1
1
4 a f 1 (x) = loge x, g 1 (x) = (x 1) 3
2 3
b f g(x) = e2(x +1) , ran f g = R + ,
g f (x) = e6x + 1, ran g f = (1, )

1
51
1
bx=
5 a f (x) = 1
x
2
6 a f 1 (x) =
e x 1, dom f 1 = R,
g 1 (x) = x + 1 1, dom g 1 = (1, )
b loge (x 2 + 2x + 1)
 
1
f (x) + f g(x) = 0
7 f g(x) = loge
x
8x
9 a f (g(x)) = (x 2 8)(x 2 10),
g( f (x)) = (x 4)2 (x 6)2 4
bx =1

10 x = 6 or x = 2
12 a = 6 b = 0 g(x) = e6x

Exercise 7B
1aa=1
c, e y

b [2, )
y = f(x)

(1, 2)

y = f 1(x)

(2, 1)
0

d f 1 : [2, ) R, f 1 (x) = x 2 + 1,
domain
of f 1 = [2, ), range = [1, )

x
2a
= y, domain = R + {0}
2
x +1
b
= y, domain = [1, )
2
c y = x 1, domain = R + {0}
d y = x + 1 1, domain = [1, )
x 1
+ 1, domain = [1, )
ey=
2
f y = 1 x + 1, domain = (, 1]

Answers

Chapter 7

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


1
3 a g 1 : R + R, g 1 (x) = 2
x
b g 1 : (1, ) R, g 1 (x) = 1

6a
1

y = x2 + 3
y = x2

(3, 6)

x 1

(3, 6)

2
c g : R R, g (x) = 1
x

1 + x, y 1
, domain = [0, )
dy=
1 x, y < 1

x 1, y 2
, domain = [3, )
ey=
5 x, y < 2

1 + x,
y 1
,
fy=
3 x, y < 1
domain = [2, )
5

x 6 3
, domain = R
4 a f 1 (x) =
2
5

x 6 2
by=
, domain = [6, )
2
1

y=3

(3, 3)

(3, 3)
y

y = x2 + 2x + x
y = x2 + 2x
y = x
x

y
y = x

(1, 1)

Exercise 7C

(1, 0)

2x

1ai e
2x
ii
b i e +1 
ii
x
2 a i sin
2x
2 
x 
ii 2x sin
2
b i 1 
ii
x 
ii
3 a i cos
+ ex
2
bi 2
ii
y = x2 + 3x + 2 y
4

2xe
e

0
(1, 1)

2x

y = x2 + x
y = x2
y

7
2  x 
e x cos
2
1

(0, 1)
0

y = e 2x
x
y = e 2x 2x

y = ( f + g)(x)

y = 2x

y = 3x + 2

5 a y = ( f + g)(x) y

y = x2
x

y = 2e2x + x + 2
y = 2e2x

2
3

y=x+2

(2, 6)
2

(2, 3)

9 a i |x| + x

y = f (x)
x
(0, 0)
y = g(x)

y = f(x)

ii x|x|

(1, 1)

(1, 1)
(1, 0)

(1, 0)
(1, 1) (1, 1)

y = ( f + g)(x)

y = g(x)

x
0

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Answers
y

2
x

ii x|x|

4
x

5
c i x |x|

1
e y = x 4
m
c
ax=
bc2
2
cx
, domain = R
d f 1 (x) =
2
c c
1
f y = x +c
e
,
2
3 3


b b
b
,
a 0 and b
2 4
c i (0, 0) and (b 1, 1 b) ii b = 1
iii b R
\{1}

a 1 2 2
b 2 2
c a = 8, b = 16
a (,
2a]

1 + 1 + 8a 1 + 1 + 8a
b
,
2
2

c2 + c
ea=
2
a2
6 a (0, 0) and (a, 0) b (0, 0)
c
4
d a = 3 or a = 5
c
b
1
b ec a
7 a loge
b
a
a+1
loge (c) b
c
d
c
a
8 ax =a
b (a + 1, 0)
1
1
c (a + e c , 1) d c =
loge (2 a)
ca=1

ii x|x|

Exercise 7D
1 f (x y) = f (x) f (y)
2 f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) 3; a = 3
3 g(x) = 0 or g(x) = 1
4 f (x + y) = |x + y|. Let x = 2, y = 4.
f (x + y) = 2 = |2| + | 4| = f (x) + f (y)

5
5 f (x + y) = sin(x + y). Let x = 2 ,y = 2 .

5
f (x + y) = sin(3) = 0 = sin
+ sin
2
2
=2
2
7 a h(x + y) = (x + y) . Let x = 1, y = 1.
h(x + y) = 0 = h(1) + h(1) = 2
10
f (x y) = ax y. Let x = 2 and y = 3.
f (x y) = 6a and f (x) = 2a and f (y) = 3a
f (x) f (y) = 6a 2
6a 2 = 6a implies a = 0 or 1

Exercise 7E
4
b m 4 or m < 0
m
x +4
, domain = R
c f 1 (x) =
m 

4
4
d
,
, m R\{1}
m1 m1

1 a

da=3

9 a y = b

b (loge (b) + 1, 0)
1
1
ii 0 < b <
c i b=
e
e
10 a = 5 c, b = 1 where the rule
2
is y = ax + bx + c
3d + 4
11 a =
, b = 2 d and
6
(3d + 28)
c=
where
6
3
2
y = ax + bx+ cx + d

12 a c = 28 8 6 or c = 28 + 8 6

b (, 8) (28 + 8 6, ) (8, 28 8 6)
5d 9
41 10d
,b =
,
30
30
25d 2
where y = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d
c=
30
x 3
4k
3
4
+2
a
14 y 2 b y =
c
3x
2
k

a x
4
15 a
y +2
2
xa
b y =22 4 2 ca =0
13 a =

Multiple-choice questions
1B
6E

2E
7D

3E
8E

4D
9E

5B
10 B

Answers

b i |x| x

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
1 a i f g(x) = 3 cos (2|x|)
g f (x) = |3 cos (2x)|
ii maximal domain = R;
range = [3, 3]
maximal domain = R;
range = [0, 3]
b i f g(x) = loge (3|x|)
g f (x) = | loge (3x)|
ii maximal domain = R\{0};
range = R
maximal domain = R + ;
range = [0, )
c i f g(x) = loge (2 |x|)
g f (x) = | loge (2 x)|
ii maximal domain = (2, 2);
range = (, loge 2)
maximal domain = (, 2);
range = [0, )
d i f g(x) = loge (2|x|)
g f (x) = | loge (2x)|
ii maximal domain = R\{0}; range = R
maximal domain = (0, ); range = [0, )
2 a h(x) = f g(x) where g(x) = |2x| and
f (x) = cos x
(Note: answer is not unique.)
b h(x) = f g(x) where g(x) = x 2 x and
f (x) = x n
(Note: answer is not unique.)
c h(x) = f g(x) where g(x) = sin x and
f (x) = loge x
(Note: answer is not unique.)
d h(x) = f g(x) where g(x) = sin 2x and
f (x) = 2|x|
(Note: answer is not unique.)
e h(x) = f g(x) where g(x) = x 2 3x and
f (x) = x 4 2x 2
(Note: answer is not unique.)
 x 
+ ex
3 a i ( f + g)(x) = 2 cos
2
 x 
ii ( f g)(x) = 2ex cos
2
b i ( f + g)(0) = 3
ii ( f g)(0) = 2
2
4a
b (, 3]
3
c



2
3x
, range =
, ,
3
3
domain = (, 3]

d f 1 (x) =

2+

2
3, 3

2 + 3
3

5ay=

2 + 3
3

x 4
3

by=

3x
2

Extended-response questions
1 a D = 0.05t 2 0.25t + 1.8
b $3 000 000
7
23
2a=
,b =
, c = 7.5
48
24
35
At 12:00 noon, rate of rainfall =
mm/h
6
23
Rainfall was greatest
hours after
7
4:00 a.m., i.e. at 7:17 a.m.
3 a (0, 1), (, 0)
1
b f 1 (x) = loge x, g 1 (x) = + 1
x
1
ex
=
c i g f (x) = x
e 1
1 ex
y
ii

x
y = 1


d i (g f )1 (x) = loge
y

x
x +1

0
x = 1

4a i

(5, 2 )

y
0

2
,3
3

3, 2
3

2 + 3
3

ii [ 2, ) iii f 1 (x) = x 2 + 3,
domain of f 1 = [ 2, )

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Answers

Extended-response questions
1 a a = 0.09, b = 9 b DE = 2.79 m
c Length of bar = 2 30 10.95 m
1
2 a a = 3
b x = 1, x = , x = 2
2
3
7
c ii b = , c =
2
2
y
3a

y=x
(1, 4)
(4, 1)

5 a (0, 1]

b (0, 1]

 
1
c range of g domain of f , f g(x) = sin
x
d Not defined as range of f is not contained in
the domain of g
1
e g 1 (x) = , domain of g 1 = (0, 1], range
x
of g 1 = [1, )
f range of f = domain of g 1
1
g 1 f (x) =
sin x
domain = (0, ), range = [1, )
6 a i n = 5790
ii 1158
n
iii

x = 4 sin t

bi x =0
ii x = 4
iii x = 0
7
ct =
6
2
= 2 seconds
d Period =

4ai 0
ii 2.5
iii 0
b 1 second
y
c

5790

1158
0

179
100
loge
iv t =
3
1600
b i a = 2.518, b = 0.049, c = 5097.661
n
ii
n = 5097.661

1 t (s)

0.5

d t = 0.35 seconds
5 a k = 0.0292
b 150 106
c 6.4494 108
d 23.417 years
6 a 62.5 metres
b x (m)
40

1449.08
0

45

90

c 24 18

Chapter 8
Multiple-choice questions
1D
7C
13 A
19 B
25 D
31 E
37 C
43 C
49 C
55 B
61 A
67 E

2A
8A
14 E
20 D
26 E
32 D
38 D
44 D
50 D
56 A
62 A
68 C

3B
9B
15 D
21 C
27 A
33 E
39 C
45 B
51 B
57 B
63 D
69 C

4E
10 B
16 C
22 A
28 D
34 A
40 B
46 B
52 C
58 D
64 B
70 A

5A
11 C
17 E
23 C
29 D
35 A
41 E
47 E
53 C
59 D
65 D

6A
12 C
18 C
24 D
30 A
36 E
42 B
48 A
54 A
60 D
66 B

7 a A = 80, k = 0.3466
b 17.5 C
c 6 hours 18 minutes and 14 seconds after
2:00 p.m., i.e. 8:18:14
d T (C)
95C
15C
0

t (hours)
n

8 a Carriage A (0.83) I, carriage B 0.66(0.89)n I


b 6 stations
x
9 a Area = 0.02(0.92) 10
b 0.0199 mm2
c Load = 0.02(0.92)102.9x
d x < 2.59 m

Answers

ii h 1 (x) = x 2 + 3

b i p=3
y
iii

735

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

n=4

vi

1 2 1
n + n+1
2
2
b i f (4) = 8 + 2 + 1 = 11
25 5
ii f (5) =
+ + 1 = 16
2
2
c

10 a f (n) =

a=1

1
2

a=3
(2.5, 1)

7
9

(5, 1)

6
2

10

11

n=5



4 3
c i a,
a +a
27
4
4a
iii A =
81
v 3 4 375

13

12

11
10

3
1

iv a = 3

Chapter 9

15
4
16

Exercise 9A

1ah+9
b 9.1
c9
2ax +1
b 2x 3 + 1 c 40
e5
f1
g 2x + 1
i 3x 3 + x j 6x
3 a 2 + 3h + h 2
b2
4 2x + h, 2x
5 h + 6, 6


11 a y = h k cos

t
6

i 12 units
ii OQ = h k, OR = h + k
b

4 3 2a
a ,
27
3

14

2
6

ii

T
(C)

d0
h 3x

Exercise 9B

16.5
12
7.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 t
(months)

c h = 12, k = 4.5



1
1
12 a i 3 + , 0
3 ,0
a
a
1
ii
a
y
bi
a=1

a=2
a=3

(0, 1)

3 3
ii a =
2
iv a = 3

3 3
iii a >
2
1
v a=1
2

1 a 10x
b3
c0
d 6x + 4
e 15x 2
f 10x 6
2 a 5x 4
b 28x 6
c6
d 10x 4
2
e 12x + 12x + 2
f 20x 3 + 9x 2
g 4x + 4
h 18x 2 4x + 4
3 a 2
b0
c 15x 2 6x + 2
6x 2 8
e 4x 5
f 12x 12
d
5
g 50x 4
h 27x 2 + 3
4 a 8x 4
b 2x + 2
c 6x 2 12x + 18
d x 2 2x + 1
5 a (3, 16), gradient = 8
b (0, 1), gradient = 1
c (1, 6), gradient = 8
d (4, 594), gradient = 393
e (1,
 28),
 gradient = 92
1
f 2 , 0 , gradient = 0
2
6a1
b1
c (1, )
2
d (, 1)
e2
f 4 or 2
3
7 a {x: x < 1} {x: x > 1}
b {x: 1 < x < 1}
c {1, 1}
8 a (1, 0.5) (2, )
b (, 1) (0.5, 2)
c {1, 0.5, 2}

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Answers

Exercise 9C
1 a 6x 3 5x 2
15
8
c 4 3
x
x
2
e 2
x
4
2 a z2

15
x4
4
d 18x 6x 3
b 12x

18 2z
z4
2z 3 + z 2 4
4
d
c 3z
z2
6
6 12z
f 6x 2
e
x
z4
1
1
3
5
4 a = 1, b = 4
2
2
3
6 a = 9, b = 1
7 k = 0 or
2
1
3
c 1
d5
b
8 a 11
32
4
9a

f(x)

3
1
x
2
x3
x
6a
x2 + 2
2x + 2
c 
5
5 (x 2 + 2x)4
e

5 3
x2
2
3 1
20 2
x3
d x 2
2
3
1
1 5
f x 4 + 2x 2
4
5
2
d
c
2
9
3
b
2 4 3x
1
d
3
(4 3x)2



5x + 6
f3 x
2
3x 2 5
b 
3 3 (x 3 5x)2
b

Exercise 9F
1

1 20x 4 + 36x 2 + 4x

2 9x 2 +

3 3(2x 1)2 (8x 1)


4 8x(2x 2 + 1)(6x 2 + 1)

3 1
x 2
2

5x 2 8x + 1

2x 4
7 x 2 (3x 2 + 4x + 3)(3x 2 + 2x + 1)2
1

5 5(3x + 1) 2 (3x + 4)

2(2 + h)
(1 + h)2

Exercise 9G
c 4

Exercise 9D
1 a 8x(x 2 + 1)3
c 24(6x + 1)3

x 5
5
5 3
3 1
c x2 x2
2
2
6 13
e x 7
7
1
1
b
2a
12
27
1
3a
2x + 1
x
c
2
x +2
1a

8 2x 3 (5x 2 2)(2x 2 1) 2

2x 2 (x + 1)
9 2x 3 x 2 + 2x + 
3 3 (x 2 + 2x)2

f(x) = 22
x

b PQ =

Exercise 9E

b 20x(2x 2 3)4
d an(ax + b)n1
6x
e 2anx(ax 2 + b)n1
f
(1 x 2 )4

 

1 4
2
2
g 3 x 2
2x + 3
x
x
2
h (1 x)
2 a 6(x + 1)5
b 4x 3 (3x + 1)(x + 1)7

3 

2
2
d 4(x + 1)5
18x 2 2
c 4 6x 3 +
x
x
f (x)
3 a n[ f (x)]n1 f (x)
b
[ f (x)]2

4
b
(x + 4)2
 1

1

1 x 2 x2
d
c
2 (1 + x)2
2 + 2x x 2
e
f
(x 2 + 2)2
x 2 + 4x + 1
g 2
h
(x + x + 1)2
2 a 81, gradient = 378
1a

4x
(x 2 + 1)2
(x + 2)2 (x 3)(x 1)
(x 2 + 1)2
4x
(x 2 1)2
2(4x 3 + 3x 2 + 1)
(2x 3 + 2x)2
b 0, gradient = 0
1
d , gradient = 0
2

c 0, gradient = 0
1
3
e , gradient =
2
2
5
(7x 3 + 3x + 4)
2x 2 + x + 1
c
bx

3a 2
3
(x
+
3)2
2 x +1
x +1

Answers





1
1
9 a , 2 (2, )
b ,
4
4


1
c ,2
4


7
1
, 8
c
10 a (1, 9)
b (2, 8)
4
16


1 1
11 a , 3
b (2, 32) or (2, 32)
2 2
c (2, 6)
d (0, 0) or (2, 4)

737

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


g

Exercise 9H

y
dy

y = dx

1a

(0, 2)

dy
=2
dx

y
dy

y = dx

0
dy
= 3
dx

(0, 3)

x
3

1
dy
y = dx

dy
y = dx

1
y

j
d

3, 2
3

2
3

dy
y = dx

3, 5
3

5
3
y

x
0

0
dy

y = dx

(1, 2)
dy
y = dx

1 0

x
2
1

x
1

(3, 0.25)
(1, 2.5) (2, 2.5)

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Answers
2 a, b

y
y = f '(x)

1.5

1.5

ci 0
di 1

iv 96

y = f (x)

x
1

ii 0
iii 0
ii 0.423

y = f(x)



4
Gradient is 0 at 1,
.
3
Gradient is positive for R\{1}.
2

y = f '(x)
y = f (x)

Gradient is positive always; minimum gradient


where x = 0.
y
5a
y = f '(x)

y = f(x)

2
1
0

b i x = 1.495 or x = 0.798 ii x = 0.630


r

y = f '(x)
4
0

Answers

739

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Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


a Minimum value of f (x) is 4.
b x = 0.471 or x = 0.471
y
7a i

Exercise 9J
1a

(0, 12)

y = f'(x)

1
x

0.5

0.5

ii

0
(0, 16)

0.5

y = f'(x)
x

iii

c
0.5

d
(0, 32)

y = f '(x)
0

0.5

x
0.5

b Graphs and tables illustrate that as x 0 from


the left and from the right the value of g(x)
approaches the gradient of y = f (x) when
x = 2.

Exercise 9I
1 a 17

b3

c 4

e3

f4

i 2

j 12

g2
11
k
9

1
8
h2 3
1
l
4

2 a 3, 4
b7
3 a 0 as f (0) = 0, lim f (x) = 0, but
lim f (x) = 2

x0+


2 f (x) =

2x + 3
3
y

if x 0
if x < 0

x0

b 1 as f (1) = 3, lim f (x) = 3, but


x1+

lim f (x) = 1

x1

c 0 as f (0) = 1, lim f (x) = 1, but


lim f (x) = 0

x0

4 R\{1}

x0+

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741

Answers
2x + 2
2

if x > 1
if x < 1

1B
6C

4 Defined for
R\{1}
2x 2 if x > 1

f (x) =
2
if x < 1
y

0
2

b
c
d
6a
b

b (y + 1)2
26 3

Multiple-choice questions

5a

1
(1 x)2
5
25 3x(x 2 + 1) 2
24 a

2
1
R\{1}; f (x) = (x 1) 3
3
4
1
R\{0}; f (x) = (x) 5
5
2 1
R\{0}; f (x) = x 3
3
3
2
R\{2}; f (x) = (x + 2) 5
5

2x 4 if x > 4 or x < 0
f (x) =
4 2x if 0 < x < 4

2x
4 if x > 0
f (x) =
2x + 4 if x < 0

Exercise 9K
1a8
b 8
2aD
bF
cB
dC
eA
fE
2x 5 + 4x 3 2x
b {0}
3a
(x 4 1)2
4 a 7
b 14
1
1
b
5a5
2
8

6 2x 3x 2 + 1
7 a 4x 3
b 3
c {1}
3
2
8
12
10 24
11 (0.28, 0.14)
25
3
8x
15
24x

12
14 2
(x 2)2
1
2
17
16 63(5 7x)8
18
9
3
19 70
20 0
21 1
2
b 2
22 a
(2x + 1)2
23 a x = 0 or x = 2 b x > 0 or x < 2
c 2 < x < 0

2C
7D

3A
8E

4A
9A

5B
10 B

Short-answer questions
(technology-free) 2
x
1a1
1 x2
3
c
2 1 + 3x

b
d

3x 15
e
2 x 3
4x
g 2
(x + 1)2

f
h

2
10x
(2 + 5x 2 ) 3
3
1
k 4x(3x 2 + 2) 3
2 a 6
b1
y
3a

4x 2x + 12
(x 2 + 3)2
2
1

3
x2
2x 2
1 + 2x 2

1 + x2
x 2 + 1
(x 2 + 1)2
2x 2 2x + 4
(x 2 + 2)2

c5

dy
= 3
dx
y

y=

dy
dx
x

y=
0

dy
dx
x

1.5




3
9
9
, x =
42 4 2
4x +
x
x
2

1
6

Answers


3 Defined for R\{1} f (x) =

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9:27

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS





3
3
, (1, 4) =
,4
2
2

a
x
f
(x)
+
f
(x)
6
b f (x) if x [0, 4] and f (x) if
x (, 0) (4, )
2x f (x) 2x 2 f (x)
c
[ f (x)]3


5 b

Extended-response questions
1 a i 4
iv 18

ii 6
v 6

iii 18
1
vi
6

5
7
b a = , b = 1, c = , d = 6
2
2
2 a i 1 and 3
ii x > 3 and x < 1
b i 3 and 7
ii (3, 6) and (7, 1)



1
5
5
1
c i and
ii
,6
,1
2
2
2
2
d i 2 and 10
ii (2, 6) and (10, 1)
e i 2 and 10
ii (2, 18) and (10, 3)
3 a x =  or x = 
b (x )m1 (x )n1 ((m + n)x m n)
m + n
c x =  or x =  or x =
m+n
m + n
, x = 
d i x>
m+n
m + n
ii x <  or x >
m+n
nx n1
d0
ex >0
4b n
(x + 1)2

Chapter 10
Exercise 10A
1
1
1 y = 4x 5, y = x + 3
4
2
1
2 y = x 1
3
3 y = x 2 and y = x + 3
1
4 y = 18x + 1, y = x + 1
18


3
11
29
5
,
,c=
2
4
4
1
1
6 a i y = 2x 3
ii y = x
2
2
1
b i y = 3x 1
ii y = x 1
3
c i y = x 2
ii y = x
49
1
d i y = 8x + 2 ii y = x
8
8
2
3
ii y = x + 1
e i y = x +1
3
2
1
1
ii y = 2x + 3
f i y= x+
2
2

3
2
4
ii y = x +
x+
2
3
3
h i y = 4x 16
1
15
ii y = x
4
2
i i y = 2
ii x = 2
1
ii y = x +
j i y = 4x 4
4
3
1
7 a y = 1
by= x+
2
2
c y = 2x 1
d y = 4x + 5
8ax =4
b x = 5
1
cx =
d x = 5
2
g i y=

7
2

1
4

Exercise 10B
1 11.31 or 11 19
2 30.96 or 30 58
3 161 5
4 a tan1 (0.5) = 26 34
b tan1 (0.33) = 18 26
c tan1 (2.83) = 70 39
5 a (1, 1), (0, 0)
b 8 8 and 0
6 71 34
7 a (0, 0) = 45 , (1, 1) and (1, 1) = 26 34
b (0, 0) = 18 26 , (1, 2) and (1, 2)
= 12 32
c (1, 1) and (1, 1) = 63 26 d 14 2

Exercise 10C
dy
= 12x 2 16x
b 16
c 0.32
dx
1
1 3
2 a x 2
b
2000
2
3
c
d 0.0985
2000
h 3
e i y a 2
2
1
1
h

ii
3
a
a+h
2a 2
3 28q
23 p
230 p
4a
%
b
10
11
8
dy
= 5 2 ; y = 3p
5
dx
x
p
6 a 3p
b
2 a
6 p
d
8(2a
+ 1)3 p
c
(3a + 1)2
(2a 2 10a + 2) p
f
e 36a(6a 2 1)2 p
(a 2 + 1)2
5
2a
h
p
g
p
2
(a + 1)2
3(a 2 + 10) 3
31
1
9 0.48
8
cm
7
30
20
2
10 10 p cm
1a

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Answers

c x = 1, x =

ii 1

2(1 +
8
; 2.5%
17 a
5

ii f (0) =

1
x) 2

1
2

13 4%

15 a i f (x) =

 10
seconds
40 g

1
2

16
; 3.75%
b
5

max.

1
2
0

min.

d x = 3, x = 4
3

4
+

Exercise 10D
1 a (2, 16), (2, 16)
b (1, 2)
c (0, 0), (1, 1)
d (4, 48)

 

2 16
2 16
e (0, 0), ,
, ,
3 3
3 3




1
14
1 2
g (3, 2), , 20
,4
f
3
27
3 3
h (0, 10), (2, 6)
2aa=6
bb=3
3 a = 2, b = 4, c = 1
1
1
2
4 a = , b = 2 , c = 3, d = 7
3
2
2
5 a a = 2 and b = 9
b (1, 5)
1
1 4n
6 x = or x =


2
2n + 2  1 
1
or 1,
7 x = 1 or x = 0 8 1,
2
2



2 3 16 3
2 3 16 3
9 a (2, 4) b
,
,
,
3
9
3
9



8 256
c (0, 0),
,
d (0, 0), ( 2, 4), ( 2, 4)
3 27

min.

max.

e x = 3, x = 4
3
+

max.

f x = 0, x =

min.

27
5
27
5

0
+

max.

min.

g x = 1, x = 3
1
+

max.

min.

h x = 1, x = 3

Exercise 10E

1ax =0

3
+

0
+

min.

inflexion

b x = 2, x = 5
5
+

0
max.

0
min.

max.

2 a x = 2(max.), x = 2(min.)
b x = 0(min.), x = 2(max.)
1
c x = (max.), x = 3(min.)
3
d x = 0(inflexion)
e x = 2(inflexion), x = 0(min.)
1
1
f x = (max.), x = (min.)
3
3

Answers


dT
=
dl
lg
12 4%
1
14 a i
(1 x)2
11 a

743

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744

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November 3, 2005

9:27

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS



3 a i (0, 0) and
y


4
,0
3

e i (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0)


y

(1, 1)

(0, 0)
0

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

4, 0
3

(0, 1)

ii x = 0 (inflexion), x = 1(max.)

ii (1, 0)(inflexion), (0, 1)(min.),


(1, 0)(inflexion)
f i (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0)

b i (0, 0) and (6, 0)

(0, 1)

(0, 0)
0

(6, 0)

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

ii (1, 0)(min.), (0, 1)(max.), (1, 0)(min.)


4 a (2, 27)(max.), (1, 0)(min.)

7
b (1, 0) is a turning point. c , 0 , (0, 7)
2
y
d

(4, 32)

ii x = 0(max.), x = 4(min.)
c i (0, 0) and (3, 0)
y

(2, 27)

(2, 4)
(0, 7)

(3, 0)
0 (0, 0)

0 (1, 0)

7, 0
2

5 b a = 3, b = 2, (0, 2)(min.), (2, 6)(max.)




1
6 a (0, 256),
, 0 , (2, 0)
2




1
4
b
, 0 (inflexion),
, 40.6 (max.),
2
3
(2, 0)(min.)

ii x = 0(min.), x = 2(max.)
d i (4, 0), (1, 0), (0, 4)
y

(3, 4)

(0, 4)

(4, 0)
(1, 0) 0

4 , 40.6
3

(2, 0)

1, 0
2

ii x = 3(max.), x = 1(min.)
(0, 256)

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Answers

f (x) g(x)

1
2

1
2



1
1
1
x: x >

x: < x <
2
2
2

1
x: x <
2


66
ii x: x >

12



66
1
x:
<x <

12
2


1
x: < x < 0
2


14
4
8 a (2, 0)(max.),
, 18
(min.)
3
27
b No stationary points
9 a (0, 0) stationary point of inflexion, (1, 1)
minimum
b (0, 0) stationary point of inflexion,
(1.5, 2.6875) minimum
c No stationary points, gradient is always
positive
9
b
10 x
4
y
c

c x = 4, minimum
x = 0, maximum
d x = 3, minimum
x = 2, stationary point ofinflexion
13 a (0, 0) local
maximum; (2 2, 64)
and
(2
2, 64) local

minima
b (2 2, 64) and (2 2, 64) local maxima,
(0, 0) local minimum

m1
m 1 16m (m 1)
c 4
,
local
m
mm
maxima, (0, 0) local minimum
y
14 a

b i

y = f(x)

(1, 16)
(0, 11)
1 23

1 + 23
0

1
(3, 16)

y
(1, 32)
(0, 22)
1 + 23

1 23
0

(3, 32)

Graph dilated by factor 2 from x-axis


c

1 + 23

(3, 16)
1 23
3

(1, 16)

(1, 1)

9
, 1.305
4

Translated 2 to the left


x

3
(1, 16)
3 + 23

3 23

11

3
(5, 16)

(3, 351)
x

Translated 2 to the right


e

(3, 16)

(8, 1024)

12 a x
x
x
bx
x

= 1, stationary point of inflexion


= 1, minimum
= 5, maximum
= 0, maximum
= 2, minimum

1
1 23

0
(0, 11)

x
1 + 23

(1, 16)

Reflected in the x-axis

Answers

7a

745

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746

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November 3, 2005

9:27

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


15 a

Exercise 10F
(1, 4)

1 Absolute minimum = 30
Absolute maximum = 15
2 Absolute minimum = 20.25
Absolute maximum = 0
3 Absolute minimum = 8
Absolute maximum = 2304
4 Absolute minimum = 70
Absolute maximum = 2
dV
5b
= 30x 36x 2
dx


5 125
,
c Local maximum =
6 36
d Absolute maximum value is 3.456 when
x = 0.8
125
5
e Absolute maximum is
when x =
36
6
6 a 25 y 28
b Absolute maximum value is 125.
Absolute minimum value is 56.
1
dA
61
7b
= (x 5)
cx =5 d
metres
dx
4
8
8 Absolute maximum = 12.1
Absolute minimum = 4


1
1
5 4
9a

b
,
(x 4)2
(x 1)2
2 3
4
c Absolute minimum =
3
3
Absolute maximum =
2
1
1
10 a

(x 4)2
(x + 1)2
3 4
b( , )
2 5
4
c Absolute minimum =
5
5
Absolute maximum =
4
y
11

2
(1, 0) 0

(1, 0)
0

4
(1, 8)

y
(2, 8)

(1, 1)
x

1
(1, 3)

(0, 12)

(2, 0)

2
y = f (x)

(1, 1)

(8, 2)

(6, 816)

Absolute maximum = 2
Absolute minimum = 2

(7, 861)
(5, 645)

y = f(x)

(2, 96)
0

(1, 21)

16 a (a + l, 0) and (b + l, 0)
b (h + l, kp)
17 a, b y

9. 142

y = f'(x)

y = x 4 + 8x 3 + 10x 2 + 4x
local max. at (6.761, 867.07), no stationary
dy
= 4 when x = 0
point of inflexion,
dx
c 960 d x = 4.317 or x = 8.404

Exercise 10G
8
4
, second =
3
3
2 (1, 1)
3 12 C
4
4 8 mm for maximum, mm for minimum
3
5 625 m2
6 Maximum P = 2500
7 2 km 1 km = maximum of 2 km2
1 First =

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Answers

Exercise 10I
c 125 cm2

Exercise 10H
dS
dV
b
dr
dt
dV
dA
e
d
dh
dt
2 Wanes by 0.006 units per day
3 a 3 103 (90 t)2
c 7.29 108 m3
e
V
1a

dV
dx

b 90 days
d 80 days

(m3)
7.29 108

90

t (days)

f V'(t)
0

2.43 107

t3
(20 t)
4 a V (t) =
160
b
V'(t)
(mL/min)
(15, 105.47)

20 t (minutes)

c t = 15
5 a t 100, t 250, t 500
b 430 000 m3 /day
c 270 000 m3 /day
d (100, 250) (500, 600)
6 a V = 6t 2 18t + 12
b t = 1, x = 5; t = 2, x = 4
c 6 m/s2 , 6 m/s2
d 1.5 m/s
7 a 8 cm from O
b 2 cm/s
c 9 cm
d 2 cm/s2
from O after
1 s
2t
2
8a
b
3
t2 + 1
(t 2 + 1) 2
1
c 1 cm/s, cm/s2
2

3
cm/s
10
1
4
133
15
cm/s
6
62
1

1
3
cm/s
2 8 cm2 /s
8

5 2 10 cm3 /s

1
cm/minute
8
2
9
b 80 119
8 a 20x(x 5)
 3
x 3
64
9
m /year 10 a V =
b
cm/s
50
48
5
7

Exercise 10J
1 a f (x) = (x 1)(3x 2b
 1)
2b + 1 4(b 1)3
b
,
and (1, 0)
3
27
11
2b + 1
> 1 as b > 1 d b =
c
2
3



2
2
2 a Increasing 0,
Decreasing
,
3a
3a
1
1
by=
x + 2 c y = ax 1
a
a

4
d ,
27a 2
3 a i 2(a 3)
ii m = 2(a 3)
b (a, (a 3)2 )
c y = 2(a 3)x a 2 + 9
3+a
d
2
4 a h = 1 or 3
ba=2
c a = 48,b = 64
5 a (0, 0), ( 2, 4), ( 2, 4)
b (a,b), ( 2 + a, 4 + b),
( 2 + a, 4 + b)
6 a (a,
 0) and

a + 2 4(a 1)3
,
3
27
b (a,
0)
local
minimum,


a + 2 4(a 1)3
,
local maximum
3
27
2
c i y = (a 1) x (a 1)2
ii y = 0
(a 1)2
iii y =
(x a)
4
7 a 2(x 1)(x b)(2x
 b 1) 4 
b + 1 (b 1)
cb=3
b (1, 0), (b, 0),
,
2
16
1
1
1459
8aa=
, b = 0, c =
and d =
486
162
243
1x
1
3
b
=
[(y 3) 3(y 3) + 2918]
2
486
1
[(y 3)3 3(y 3) + 2918] + 1
or x =
243
45
9 a a = c 20 and b = 30 2c b
2

Answers

8
3
,q =
2
3 3
75x x
9 bV =
2

8p=

747

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748

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November 3, 2005

9:27

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


(2d + 3)
11 4d
4d 1
,b=
,c=
4
2
4
38
bd =
67

10 a a =

Multiple-choice questions
1A
6E

2E
7B

3E
8C

4B
9B

d x = 6, y = 4
e A = 96. The maximum area is 96 m2 .
3 a i $12.68
ii $12.74
14.40
b C = 12 + 0.008x +
x
c
C
(120, 13.08)

5A
10 B

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
1 a y = x
b (0, 0)
2 3a 2 and y = 6ax 3a 2
11
3 y = 3x 3, x =
3
4 a 5 sq. units/unit
b 6 sq. units/unit
5 a Max. at (1, 1); stationary point of inflexion
(0, 0)
b Max. at (1,
min. at (1, 4)
0);
c Max. at (
3,
6

3 + 1);
min. at ( 3, 6 3 + 1)
y
6

C = 12 + 0.008x
12
x

d 42.43 km/h
4 a V = 4(x 3 13x 2 + 40x)
b0<x <5
cx =2
d 2 cm, 12 cm, 6 cm e 144 cm3
f V
(2, 144)

(5, 0)

5 a i n = 125 ii Maximum daily profit = $6090


b P

(1, 4)

(125, 6090)

7 x = 1 stationary point of inflexion; x = 2


minimum
1
8 y = 9x + 7
9 (0, 2)
10 x =
2
1
4
11 a R\{1} f (x) = (x 1) 5
5
4
3
4
b y = x and y = x + 1
5
5
5
1
c (1, )
5
12 a 64 cm3 /s
b 64 cm3 /s

(1.61, 0)
(248.39, 0)

c 2 n 248
d n = 20
6 32
7 a T = 2w 2 + 25
b T
T = 2w2 + 25
25

Extended-response questions
1 a y = 4x x 2 b 0 < x < 4 c y = 4, x = 2
d Gradient to the left of x = 2 is positive and to
the right negative.
e y

25
+ 2w
cA=
w

5 2
d i
kg 3.54 kg ii A = 10 2 14.14
2
48
8 b C = 3x 2 +
x
c C

x
(2, 36)

f0< y<4
2
2 a A = 4x y
b y = x +8
3


2
8
c A = 4x 8 x = 32x x 2
3
3

d i x = 2, h = 3 i.e. 2 m, 2 m, 3 m
ii 36 m2

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Answers
9 10 m, 10 m, 5 m


1
1 100 2

bA=
10 a A = a 2 
2
2 +2
1 2
m = 625 cm2
d
c=2
16
L
ii  = 2 iii maximum
11 b i r =
4
3
x
dT
12 b

=
2
dx
5
x + 900
c i x = 22.5
ii 71 seconds
d 63 seconds
20 + 16 2
13 b T =
2.84, 2.84 hours
15
14 1.16 hours after noon, 1.2 km apart
1
15 b 0 < x < 1
cx = ,y =1
2

dA=2
2, i.e. the maximum cross-sectional
area is 2 2
dA
16 c ii
= 3x 2 2ax + a 2
dx
17 a b = 5, c = 6
b i 6 weeks
ii 3.852 weeks
2
2
c 190 cm
3
18 a (1, 6)
b 3(x 1)2 + 3
2
c 3(x 1) + 3 > 3 for all x R\{1}
19 a a = 1, c = 1, b = 2, d = 0
1
b x: < x < 1
3
y
c

c V(mL)
1000

V'(t)
mL/s
(10, 75)

t (seconds)

20

e t = 10 seconds, 75 mL/s
2 
22 a i r =
2



2  2
ii h = 1
2

49 15
b
c 0.3281, 2.5271
1536
d i  = 1.153
ii Vmax = 0.403 m3
e 0.403 m3
y
23 a i
y = x3 + x 2 + x

1, 4
3 27

t (seconds)

20

(0, 0)

(1, 0)

20 a 53 109 671 m3
c V

dV
= (y + 630)2
dy

No stationary points
ii

(m3) (60, 82 165 214)

1, 5
3 27

0.618
0

(1, 1)

iii

(0, 13 765.51)

(1, 1)

(60, 12 521.44)
0

1.618

d Capacity = 82 165 214 m3


e dV
dt

21 a i V (0) = 0
ii V (20) = 1 000 mL
dV
3
b
= (20t t 2 )
dt
4

0.618
1.618

1, 5
3 27

749

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750

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

20:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


iv

(0, 0)

(0, 8)
(0.143, 7.57)
x

0
No stationary point


b i f (x) = 3x 2 + 2ax + b

a a 2 3b
ii x =
3
c ii (1, 1), (1, 1) stationary points of
inflexion
a = 3 or a = 3
iii, iv

y
y = x3 + 3x2 + 3x

y = f '(x)
0

x
a = 3, b = 3

ii
iii
iv
v
vi
vii

Min. at (0.143, 7.57)


g  (x) = 24x 3 3x 2 + 42x 6
0.1427
g  (0) = 6; g  (10) = 24 114
g  (x) = 72x 2 6x + 42
g  (x) > 0 for all x. Therefore g  (x) has no
turning points. only one solution
b+a
25 b i x = a or x = b or x =
2
ii x = a or x = b
c Stationary points (a, 0), (b, 0);


b + a (a b)4
,
2
16
y
e i

(1, 1)
y = (x a)4

iv

y = f '(x)

0
y = f (x)
(1, 1)

ii (a, 0), (a, 0), (0, a 4 )


y
iii

a = 3, b = 3
y = x3 3x2 + 3x

d a 2 < 3b

(0, a4)

24 a i a = 21
ii

( 0.15, 8.4)

4
3

1
0 1
2

(1.18, 0.88)

(1.45, 21.4)

3b + a
26 b i x = a or x =
4
ii x = a or x = b

3b + a 27
,
(b a)4 , local min.
c (a, 0),
4
256
(a,
point of inflection

 0) is a stationary
a 27a 4
and (a, 0)
e ,
2
16
a
fi b =
3

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751

Answers

(cm3)

10 r (cm)

ii V = 2418.4, r = 8.165, h = 11.55


iii r = 6.456 or r = 9.297
400r 6r 3
dV
c i
=
1
dr
(100 r 2 ) 2

4000 3
ii Vmax =
occurs when
9
20 6
10 6
r=
=
6
3

20 6
dV
d ii
> 0 for r 0,
dr
6
dV
iii
is increasing for r (0, 5.21)
dr
100 3r 2
28 a i h =
2r
r
(300 5r 2 )
ii V =
6

iii defined for 0 < r < 2 15


dV

iv
= (300 15r 2 )
dr
6
v
V
(cm3)

(4.47, 468.32)

2 a e x (x 2 + 2x + 1)
b e2x (2x 3 + 3x 2 + 6x + 5)
c 2e4x+1 (x + 1)(2x + 3)
8x 7
d

2e4x x + 1
x
2e x
3e 2e4x
b
3 a 3x
(e x 1)2
(e + 3)2
2x
8e
c 2x
(e 2)2
2x 3 (2 x)
b 2e2x+3
4a
e2x
1
3
e x (x 1)
c (2e2x + 1)(e2x + x) 2
d
2
x2
1 2
x
2
e xe 2
f x ex
x
e ( f (x) f  (x))
5 a e x ( f  (x) + f (x)) b
[ f (x)]2
c f  (x)e f (x)
d 2e x f  (x) f (x) + [ f (x)]2 e x

Exercise 11B
1a
d
g
j
2a
c

2
x
3x 1
x2
2
2x + 3
3
15 x
2x
x2 + 1
1 loge x
2
x

e e x loge x +

215 r (cm)

4 2
dy
2
by=
x
=
225
dt
27
50
ds
dx
5
c i
=
ii
=
dt
9
dt
54
100
3000
30 a i y = 2
ii s =
+ 60x 2
x
x
3000
ds
b i
= 2 + 120x ii 1538.978cm 2
dx
x
c 585 cm2 /s

29 a

c 12e4x + e x 2x
2

e (2x + 3)e x +3x+1


g 2e2x 2e2x

b 21e3x
e3x e x
d
e2x
2
f (6x 1)e3x x

3
x

1
x +1
6
i
2x 3

1
x

d 2x(2 loge x + 1)

f loge (x) + 1
x 2 + 1 2x 2 loge x
g1
h
x(x 2 + 1)2
1
b (e, e), m = 2
3 a (e, 1), m =
e
2e
c (e, log (e2 + 1)), m = 2
e +1
1
e (1, 1), m = 2
d (e, 1), m =
e
f (1, 0), m = 1
g (0, 0), m = 2
h (0, 0), m = 0
1
3
1 + 2x
4
6
72
82
5
2
2
5
1+x +x

Exercise 11A

c 2x +

b loge x + 1

Exercise 11C

Chapter 11
1 a 5e5x

2
x
3+x
e
x
2
h
2x + 3
3
k4
x 6
b

Answers

27 a i y = 100 r 2 and h = 2 100 r 2

ii V = 2r 2 100 r 2
b i
V

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752

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

20:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


2 {x: 2 < x < 0}

100
3 x < 1, max. value = 4 1.83
e
4 a Min. f (x) = f (0) = 0
5ay=2
by=x
e
c y = 4e2 x 3e2
d y = (x + 1)
2
e y = 3xe 2e
f y = 4e2
6 a (0, 1)(min)
by=x
y
c

y = loge 5x
y = loge x
(0.2, 0)
0

24 0

(1, 0)

23 a p

y=x

f (x) = x + ex

21 a y = 2x 1
b y = kx 1
c y = kx 1
22 Tangents are parallel for any given value of x.

b
25

p
2

p
a
26 0.01

dy
1 dy
t 2 + 1 dy
dx
2t
= ,
=
= 1,
= 2
,
dt
t dx
2t 2 dx
dt
t +1
dV
= ([loge (h + 1)]2 + h
28 a
dh
+ 2 loge (h + 1) + h + 1).
When h = 2,
dV
= ([loge (3)]2 + 2 loge (3) + 5) and
dh
dh
dh
=5
dt
dv
b When h = 10,
dV
= ([loge (11)]2 + 2 loge (11) + 21) and
dh
dh
dh
=5
dt
dv
27

7 t = 0, v = 0.4 m/s; t = 1,
v = 0.4e 1.087 m/s; t = 2,
v = 0.4e2 2.956 m/s
y
8a

b 2.02

y = 600

9 Maximum population is 44 (44.107) at t = 5


10 a 2y
b ky
11 a 0.18 kg
b 3.47 hours
c i 6.93 hours
ii 10.4 hours
d 0.2 m
12 2q
13 a f  (x) = aeax
b f (h) ha + 1
c f (b + h) eba (ha + 1)

29 a 2x loge x + x
y
d

cx =e

bx =1

1
2

b y 2ea p
14 a y pe 2
c y ea (1 + a) p
d y ea (1 a) p
dx
dy
= 2e2t
= et
15 a
b2
dt
dt
16 p = 1, q = 6, r = 9
5
5
b 5
17 a 4
e
e
2e2
18 4
e 1
2
19 a (8x 8)e4x 8x
b (1, e4 )
y
c

0
(1, e 4)

1
5
dy= x+
8
4
20 a Tangent y = x 1, normal y = 1 x
b Tangent y = x 1, normal y = x + 1

x
1

e 2, 1 e 1
2

Exercise 11D
1 a 5 cos 5x
b 5 sin 5x
c 5 sec2 5x
d 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x
e 3 sec2 (3x + 1)
f 2x sin (x 2 + 1)




g 2 sin x
cos x
4
 4 
= sin 2x
= cos 2x
2


h sin x
cos x
i
90
60

sec2 (3x)
j
60
1
b 1; 0
c 2; 0
2a ; 2
2
d 0; 0
e 1; 0
f 1; 4

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753

Answers

Exercise 11E
1 a y = 2x

b y = x +


2


+1
d y = 2x
2

f y = x 1 +
e y = 3x
2
2 3 2 sin x, gradient always positive

3 Distance = 1
5 18 26
4 45
2
6 a 4.197
b 0.4
p
7a i
ii 2 p
cos2 

b
+1
90
1
1
8 a ;
2
2
1
ii 0.6967
b i (1 h)
2
a 
1
b cos
p
9 a 2 sin (2a) p
2
2
1
2p
a  p
d
c
cos2 (2a)
2 cos2
2


a 
1
a p
e sin
f cos
p
4
2
2

5
,
10 a Max. at x = and
3
3
min. at x = 0,  and 2

5
b Max. at x = , min. at x =
,
6
6
3
point of inflexion at
2

3
c Max. at x = and
,
2
2
7
11
min. at x =
and
6
6
c y = 2x

d Max. at x =
min. at
11 a


, point of inflexion at x = ,
3

5
3

12
m/s
5

1
rad/s
5

Exercise 11F
1 a 0.69
b1
c 1.82
d 1.54
2 a Local max. (2.07, 1.61);
local min. (4.49, 0.53)
b Local max. (1.57, 0)
c Local max. (0.56, 0.55), (3.22, 2.85);
local min. (1.39, 0.087) (4.66, 1.24)
d Local min. (0, 0)
e Local max. (4.27, 3.56);
local min. (5.15, 3.56) 
 
f Local max. (0.32, 0.20),
, 1 , (2.82, 0.20),
2
(3.93, 0), (5.5, 0);
local min. (0.79, 0), (2.36, 0), (3.46, 0.202),
(4.71, 1), (5.96, 0.202)
5 a, c

y
y = ex 2

x = 2

x
y = 2

b (1.841, 1.841), (1.146, 1.146)


c y = loge (x + 2) d R\[1.841, 1.146]
e i a = 1
ii y = x
iii (0, 0)
iv y = loge (x + 1)
y
v
x = 1

y = ex 1

y=x

y = loge (x + 1)
0

x
y = 1

6b

dy
= 2 for y = 2e x 2
dx


dy
1
x +2
= for y = loge
dx
2
2

c y = 2x and y =

1
x
2

Answers

3 a 5 sin x 6 cos 3x b sin x + cos x


c cos x + sec2 x
d 2 tan x sec2 x
4 a 3x 2 cos x x 3 sin x
(1 + x) sin x cos x
b
(1 + x)2
c ex (cos x sin x)
d 3 2 sin x
e 3 cos 3x cos 4x 4 sin 4x sin 3x
f 2 cos 2x tan 2x + 2 sec2 2x sin 2x
g 12 sin x + 12x cos x h esin x (x 2 cos x + 2x)
i 2x cos2 x 2x 2 cos x sin x
j e x (sec2 x + tan x)
5 a 2
b 6
c e
1
d e
e
f0

6 a tan x
b tan x
2
2
=
7a
sin 2x 1
2 sin x cos x 1
7
7 5
b sec2 xetan x
c x 2 sin 3x + 3x 2 cos 3x
2

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November 3, 2005

20:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


d i f 1 : (a, )
 R, 
x +a
f 1 (x) = loge
a
1
ii y = ax and y = x
a
iv Pairs of graphs of this form intersect at the
origin.

Exercise 11G
1 a  = 0.1373, P0 = 30
b 9.625 hours
c i 4.120 units/hour
ii 1.373units/hour
200 3
1

km/h
b
rad/s = 1.9099 /s
2a
3
30
3 a 8 cos 
b Area =16 (1 + cos )sin ;
maximum area = 12 3 square units
75
seconds
4a
cos 
b 220 60 tan  seconds
dT
75 sin  60
d
=
d
cos2 
1 4
e  = sin
53 8
5
f T = 265 seconds; P is 400 metres from B for
minimum time

Multiple-choice questions
1C
6C

2B
7A

3D
8E

4E
9B

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
2x
b 3 cos (3x + 2)
+2


1
x
2
d (2x 2)e x 2x
c sin
2
2
1
e
f 2 cos (2x)
x 3
g 6 sin (3x + 1) cos (3x + 1)
= 3 sin (6x + 2)
1
2 2 loge 2x
h 
i
2x loge x
x2

1a

5D
10 C

b aeax+b
c beabx
4 a aeax
d abeax baebx
e (a b)e(ab)x
5 0.25 m/s; 0.25e m/s; 0.25e2 m/s; 0.25e4 m/s
6 a 25e100t C/second
b 25e5 C/second
7 y = ex
8 b 20 cm/year
10 2
11 a = 2 or a = 1

x

1
by= + 2
12 a y = x
e
2 2 2


1
3
dy=
x
cy=x
e
2

Extended-response questions
1a
b

 x 
dy
9
=
sin
dx
40
80
dy
dx
0

80

9
40

c Magnitude of gradient is a maximum at the


point (40, 12)
3 000 000e0.3x
2 a f  (x) =
(1 + 100e0.3x )2
b i 294 kangaroos/year
ii 933 kangaroos/year
3 a a = 30
b (0, 8 loge 6)(25, 0)
c f  (20) = 0.8

x
eR
d f 1 (x) = 5 6 e 8
y
f
(0, 8 loge 6)

x2

j 2x sin (2x) + 2x 2 sin (2x)


a
2 e x sin 2x + 2e x cos 2x
1 3 loge x
b 4x loge x + 2x
c
x4
d 2 cos 2x cos 3x 3 sin 2x sin 3x
2
= 2 sec2 2x
e
cos2 2x
f 9 cos2 (3x + 2) sin (3x + 2)
g 2x sin2 3x + 6x 2 cos 3x sin 3x
b0
3 a 2e2 14.78
c 15e3 + 2 303.28
d1

x
(25, 0)
x = 30

  3 1 
1
,e ,
,
c
,e
2
2 e
e
d 2 as g(x + 2) = g(x)
6 a i 30 g
ii 12.28 g
300et
dx
=
b
dt
(5et 3)2
c ii

4b



dx
dt

6.837

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755

Answers
2
tan 

d OP + OQ =

c NQ = 8 tan 
2
+ 8 tan  + 10
tan 

dx
= 2 cosec2  + 8 sec2 
d
f x = 18,  = 26 34
8 a f  (x) = e x + ex
b {0}
y
d
e

9 a x = 1 or x = e2
b Gradient of y = 2 loge x is 2, when x = 1;
gradient of y = (loge x)2 = 0, when x = 1
y
c

d When x = 6
bAebt
dy
=
13 b
dt
(1 + Aebt )2
e After 7 hours (to the nearest hour)
144
degrees per second = 1.833 degrees per
14
25
second
15 0.1 km/s
16 a y = ex
b y = 2ex
c y = kex
1
e i A unique real root k = or k 0
e
1
ii k >
e x
xe e x
17 a f  (x) =
x2
bx =1
c (1, e); minimum
x 1
f  (x)
d i
=
f (x)
x
f  (x)
ii lim
= 1, i.e. f (x) f  (x)
x f (x)
as x
y
e

y = (loge x)2
y = 2 loge x
(e2, 4)
0

x
(1, 0)

e2

1
45.27 years, minimum occurred
k
in 1945
1
18 a A = 1000, k = loge 10 0.46
5
dN
b
= k Aekt , where A = 1000 and
dt
1
k = loge 10
5
dN
c
= kN
dt
dN
d i
2905.7
dt
dN
ii
4.61 1012
dt
19 a t 34.66 years
b t 9.12 years
20 a D(t)
ft =

d {x: 2 loge x > (loge x)2 } = [x: 1 < x < e2 }


10 x = e
11 a h = a(1 + cos )
b r = a sin 
dV
1 3
3
d
= a [sin 
d
3
+ 2sin
 cos (1 + cos )]
1
1
70 32
 = cos
3
32 3
eV =
a cm3
81
12 a f  (x) = loge x + 1
b x 0.37, i.e. during the fourth month of its
life
y
c

13
10

1
e , 0.632
0

(1, e)

x
6

12

24

Answers

7 b MP =

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November 3, 2005

20:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


b {t: D(t) 8.5} = {t: 0 t 7}
{t: 11 t 19} {t: 23 t 24}
c i 0 metres/hour

ii metres/hour
2

iii
metres/hour
2
d i t = 0, 12, 24
ii t = 6, 18
1
21 a The height is reached th of a second after
6
t = 0.
2
b
3
1
c When t = , speed = 0.6 m/s
3
(moving downwards).
2
When t = , speed = 0.6 m/s (moving
3
upwards).
1
When t = , speed = 0 m/s.
6
1
22 a p = 12, q = 8, r =
6
4
b T  (3) = ; hours of night decreasing by
3
4
4
hours/month T  (9) =
, hours of night
3
3
4
hours/month
increasing by
3
8
c hours/month
3
d t = 9 (after 9 months)
23 a A = 2x cos (3x)
dA
= 2 cos (3x) 6x sin (3x)
b i
dx
dA
= 2.
ii When x = 0;
dx
 dA
.
When x = ,
6 dx
c i
A

ii x = 0.105 or x = 0.449
iii Maximum area = 0.374 when
x = 0.287
1 t
24 a i N  (t) = 1 + e 20
10
ii Minimum population is 974 and occurs
when t = 20 loge 10.
iii N (0) = 1002
iv N (100) = 900 + 2e5

(100, 900 + 2e5)

N
1002

y = N(t)
(20 loge 10, 974)
t

b i N2 (0) = 1002

ii N2 (100) = 990 + 2e 2
iv Minimum population is 974 and occurs
when t = (20 loge 10)2 .
c ii Minimum population is 297 and occurs
when t = 100.24.
3 1
1 t
d i N3 (t) = t 2 + e 20
2
10

2
sec 
25 c
180
26 a i BX = h tan 
h
ii R = (1 + tan2 )
2
h sin 

b i R =


180
cos3 
ii 0.1209
 
10
1
log
a
27
e
3
3
5
b i x = 0 and x =
2
4 + 5a 25a 2 + 16
ii x =
4a

Chapter 12
Exercise 12A
1 a 3.81 square units
b 1.34 square units
35
c
square units
2
2 a 13.2 square units
b 10.2 square units
3 a 10 square units
b 10.64 square units
4 a 0.72 square units
b 2.88 square units, decrease strip width
5 a 36.8 square units
b 36.7 square units
6 a 48 square units
b Distance travelled
7 11.9 square units
9
8 a square units
b 9 square units
2
c 4 square units

Exercise 12B
x4
+c
8
x4
x3 + c
c
5

1a

5 4
x x2 + c
4
5
d 2z + z 2 z 3 + c
2

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Answers

Exercise 12C
1
1
b
(t 2)4 + c
(2x 1)3 + c
4
6
3
2
1
d (3x + 6) 2 + c
(5x 2)4 + c
c
9
20
9
1
1
2
f (2x 4) 2 + c
e (3x + 6) 2 + c
9
3
3
7
2
1
h (2 3x) 2 + c
g (3x + 11) 3 + c
9
7
1
1
j
(3 4x)4 + c
i (5 2x)5 + c
16
10
1
1
2 a loge |x| + c
b loge |3x + 2| + c
2
3
3
c
loge |1 4x| + c d x loge |x + 1| + c
4
1
f
+c
e x + loge |x| + c
x +1
2
x
g
+ 2x + loge |x + 1| + c
2
h 2x loge |x + 1| + c
3
i
+c
2(x 1)2
b 3 loge |x 4| + c
3 a 5 loge |x| + c
c 5 loge |2x + 1| + c
3
e
d 3 loge |2x 5| + c
2x 1
1
f loge |3x 4| + c
3
1
4 a y = loge |x| + 1 b y = 10 loge |5 2x|
2
5 y = 10 loge |x 5|


|x 2|
6 y = 3 loge
+ 10
2


5
5
7 y = loge
+ 10
4
|2x 1|
1a

Exercise 12D
x
1 2x
e 2e 2 + c
b e x ex + c
2
x
x
2
d 15e 3 15e 5 + c
c e3x + ex + c
3
1
2 a y = (e2x x 2 + 9)
2
3
b y = x ex + 8
e
3 y = 9 2e2
1
1
4ak =2
b y = e2x + e2
2
2

1a

Exercise 12E
7
3
1
e
2

1a

1
4
1
g 15
3
c

b 20

d9

11
20
10
1
13
e
2 a 10
b1
d
c
441
3
3

1
2 3
1
h 2 22
f 34
g
22 1
i
3
15
1
1
b y = (3 e2 )
3 a y = (e2 1)
2
2
f

140
3

h 343

d y = e2 e2

c y = 6e 3 4

4 a 10  b17
c 5
1
1
b loge (3)
5 a loge
2
3

d9
3
c loge
2

e3 
19
7

Exercise 12F
1a3
b 44
c i 8
ii 10
1
1
1
4
d
c 121
b
2a
6
2
6
3
y
3a

e4 3

y = 2x + 1

1
1 0
2

x
1

y=3x

x
3

f 108

Answers

3
+c
2 a 3x 1 + c =
x
2
b 3 + 3x 2 + c
3x
3
5

2x 2
4 x3
2 x5
4x 2
+
+c =
+
+c
c
3
5
3
5
2
3z 2
20 9
9 4
+c
e
x4 +c
d x3
2
z
4
9
14 3
12 7
x4
x2 +c
f
7
3
x4
by=
+6
3 a y = x 2 3x + 3
4
3
2
1
22
c y = x 2 + x2
3
2
3
1
1
3
8
4 f (x) = x 3 + 8
5 s = t2 + 8
x
2
2
t
6 a k = 32
b 201

757

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758

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

20:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

10

y = x2

(4, 16)

11

1
2

Area = 0.5 square units

y = 4 2x2

3 2

2
3

y = x

1
11
log e
3
8

12

y=2

y = (1 x)(1 + x)2
1

log e 2 + 4

4 2 0

9
2

Exercise 12G

321
square units
4
10
y
5

1a

1
sin 3x
3

c sin 3x
1

3
sq. units
4
1
5
b 8 sq. units
6 a sq. units
6
6
7 a A (0, 3), B (1, 0)
b 2 sq. units
8 b Derivative = (loge a)e x loge a ,
e x loge a
antiderivative =
loge a
y
9
1

1 + x 3d x =



1
e cos 2x
2
3
1
1
g sin 4x + cos 4x
4
4

1

i sin 2x +
4
3
1
1
b
2a1
2
2
2
e1
f

3
1 3
j 2
i
4
3 2 + 2 square units
y
4a
1

7
y=3
0

3
0

x
1

Area = 2e2 + 1 15.78 square units


4
0

1
cos x d x =
2

1
b 2 cos x
2
1
d 4 cos x
2
1
1
f sin 3x cos 2x
3
2
1
1
h cos 2x + sin 3x
4
3
1
j cos x

1
d2
c1+
2
1
h4
g
2

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Answers
y

Answers

759


4 3


3

sin 2x d x =

3
4


4

2
5a
2
6 y


4


1
2

3
c
3

1 cos 2d =
b

1
3

1
d
2

1
3
2


6 4

0
4 6


6


2

cos  + sin d = 2

e
2


2

2 + sin 3x d x =

2
2
+
3
3

Exercise 12H


3

2
3

3
cos 2x d x =
2


6

sin 2 + 1 d = 1 +

5 3
2
2
d
2
c 12
b2
1a4
4
3
3
2
2
e
e4
g4
f
+ 4 loge 2
e
3
2
2
1
51
5 2
j
i 8 loge 2 +
h
+1
12
4
8
2 0.5 sq. units
3 a 139.68
b 18.50
c 0.66
d 23.76
e 2.06
f 0.43
4 b 5 loge 3 + 4 5 b 5 + 6 loge 2


1 7
dy
6a
= 4 1 x Hence
dx
2




1 7
1 8
1
1 x dx =
1 x +c
2
4
2
dy
b
= tan x.
dx

3
Hence
tan x d x = loge 2
0


2

1
7 f (x) = 1 2 cos x
2
1
8 a f (x) = sin 2x + 1
2
b f (x) = 3 loge x + 6
x

c f (x) = 2e 2 1

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760

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

20:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


9 sin3x + 3x cos 3x. Hence

6

1
x cos 3x d x =

18 9
0
10 a = 1, b = 2; area = 3 square units
11 a 1.450 square units
b 1.716 square units
12 0.1345
1
13 f (x) = (x 2 cos 2x + 3)
2

14 a
b

(1, 4)

f (x) 4 d x = (x 2 + 1)3 4x + c

3h(x) d x = 3 sin x 2 + c

1
, tan x
cos2 x
6x
19
1
b 2
, loge
3x + 7 6
7

x
, loge (1 + 2)
c1+
1 + x2

15 a

y=

2
+4
x1

0
(0, 2)

b 20

y = sin x

y = sin 2x

1
square units
2
8 P(loge 3, 3); area 2.197 square units

x
2 3
x=1


2
+ 4 d x = (2 loge 2) + 4
x 1

Exercise 12J
2
2
2
c
b
d0


3
2 10(e5 1)e5 C 9.93 C
3a v
1a

(5, 100)

(2, 1)

50
0

5
square units
6

y=4

17

1
c 4 square units
d 4 square units
2
1
e 4 square units
2
4 a 2 square units
b e + e1 2 1.086 square units
5 3.699 square units
1
6 square units
4

16

3 a 36 square units

f (x) d x = (x + 1)3 + c

3 

(2, 1)

( f (x) + h(x)) d x = (x 2 + 1)3


+ sin x 2 + c

f(x)

Area = 9 square units


2 36 square units

g(x)

h(x) d x = sin (x 2 ) + c

f (x) d x = (x 2 + 1)3 + c

c
d

Exercise 12I

x
2

1
2x 4 + 1 d x = 2 2 + 1
3
2
5

1
22
4 2 2
c loge 4
b

18 a
3
3
3
3

2
1
e 2
d loge 3 + 3
f2 22
3
2

(0, 0)

24
48

t
4

1 2
(e e2 )
2

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761

Answers

b 18 m2
a 
c i y 3 + 3 cos
3
1
 a  (x a)
=
sin
3
ii 5.409

3( 2 + 2)
18 a i 9
iii 12
ii
2
b Maximum value is 12, minimum value is
0.834
48( + 1)
litres
c

17 a 6 metres

v
(5, 1 e 5)
(4e5 + 1)e 5
t

a2
147
m/s 5
6
10
2
6 a 3000(2 20.9 ) N/m
0.1
b 1000(4 1) N/m2
c0
7 a x = t 2 3t b x = 0
3
9
e m/s
d metres
2
2
2t 3
8 a Displacement =
4t 2 + 6t + 4
3
Acceleration = 4t 8
20
b When t = 1, displacement =
m
3
When t = 3, displacement = 4 m
c When t = 1, acceleration = 4 m/s2
When t = 3, acceleration = 4 m/s2
9 Initial displacement 3 m
10 Velocity = 73 m/s
646
Position =
m
3
11 a Velocity = 10t + 25
b Height = 5t 2 + 25t
5
c s
2
125
d
m
4
e 5s
y
1
1
12 a f 1 (x) = e x
y = ex
2
2
4

c 4 loge (2)

3
2

dt
7/4
1
200
60

120

3B
8C

4B
9C

5A
10 D

5a 2
65
55
b0
c
1a
d
3
4
3
1
f1
g0
h0
e
2
23
33
44
5 820
2
2
5
5
85
8
7
6
3
3
4
c

9 d
f (x) g(x)d x +
g(x) f (x)d x +
c
b
b
f (x) g(x)d x
a

13 a H
dH

1/4
0

2C
7E

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)

0 1
2

3
2

1E
6D

y = loge 2x

1
2

Multiple-choice questions

180 240

b t [10, 50] [130, 170]


c t = 30 or t = 150
d i 120 kilojoules
ii 221.48 kilojoules
2
14 71 466 m3
3
15 a 46 5 m2
b 46 500 m3
16 1.26 m

10 a P(3, 9), Q(7.5, 0) b 29.25 square units


20
bp=
11 a 5
7
12 3.45 square units
1
b 15 square units
13 a A(0, 6), B(5, 5)
6
125
c
square units
6
14 a 2 square units
b e + e1 2 1.086 square units
y
15 a

y = ex + 1

(0, 2)

0
b e2 + 1 8.39

Answers

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762

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

20:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


y

16 a

y = e x

y = ex

(0, 1)

b 2 2e2
17 a e 1 1.72
b 2(e 1) 3.44 square units
18 2 + e2 9.39 square units
1
19 3
square units
12
y

1 0

20 a e2 + 1
2
+1
c
8

 
3
2
b loge

3
2

 

1
1
1
5
d
loge
8 + 10
2
6
e
e

1 a When t = 0, 1000 million litres/hour.


When t = 2, 896 million litres/hour.
b i t = 0 and t = 15
ii 1000 million litres/hour
c dV
dt
1000

10 15

d i 5000
ii 5000 million litres flowed out in the first
10 hours.
2 a When t = 5, 17.9 penguins per year;
when t = 10, 23.97 penguins per year;
when t = 100, 46.15 penguins per year.
b R

R(t) = 10 loge (t + 1)

d i 3661
ii The growth in the size of the penguin
population over 100 years (assuming zero
death rate).
3 a 4y 5x = 3


3
9
c (1, 0)
b
,0
e 9 : 49
d
5
40
1
5 a square units
3
n1
2
d1
=
square units
n+1
n+1
9 99 999
e
,
,
11 101 1001
f area between curves approaches 1
6 a 968.3
b (C)

Extended-response questions

t = e 10 1; R 0


t
R 1 (t) = e 10 1

(0, 30)

t (min)

c 2.7 min
d 64.5 C/min
2
4
7 a 5 10 m/s
b Magnitude of velocity becomes very small
c 5 104 (1 e20 ) m
d v(1 et )
e
x (m)
v

t (s)

d
8 a (e3x sin 2x) = 3e3x sin 2x
dx
+ 2e3x cos 2x

c e3x sin 2x d x
1 3x
(3e
sin 2x + 2e3x cos 2x)
13
4
3
4
9 a i tan a =
ii sin a = cos a =
3
5
5
b 2 square units
e
dy
10 a
= loge x + 1,
(loge x) d x = 1
dx
1
dy
= (loge x)n + n(loge x)n1
b
dx
e
d
(loge x)3 d x = 6 2e
1

3
11 s = ba 2

3
r = b2 a
=

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November 3, 2005

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763

Answers

13 a i R(0) = 0

ii R(3) = 0
 
t
10
b R  (t) =
cos
3
3
 
t
sin
3
c i 1.41, 4.41, 7.41, 10.41
ii (1.41, 8.65) (7.41, 4.75) local maxima
(4.41, 6.41) (10.41, 3.52) local minima
d t = 0 or 3 or 6 or 9 or 12
e y


t
e 10

12

f i 16.47 litres
iii 8.27 litres
g 12.99 litres
14 a

1E
7D
13 B
19 E
25 B
31 A
37 D
43 B
49 C
55 C
61 B

2D
8A
14 E
20 D
26 A
32 C
38 A
44 B
50 A
56 D
62 B

3E
9D
15 D
21 B
27 D
33 D
39 A
45 C
51 C
57 C
63 D

4D
10 D
16 E
22 E
28 D
34 B
40 A
46 D
52 B
58 B
64 E

5B
11 A
17 B
23 B
29 A
35 A
41 B
47 B
53 E
59 D
65 B

6C
12 B
18 C
24 D
30 C
36 E
42 D
48 D
54 C
60 C
66 D

Extended-response questions
1 a 54.06 g
b s
80

(10, 54.06)

50

y = R(t)

Chapter 13
Multiple-choice questions

1
ds
c
= 6e 5 t
dt
e 0.8 g/litre
2 a 60 C
b T

ii 12.20 litres

1
ds
= (s 50)
d
dt
5
f 17 seconds

y
area required
in d

,1
2

1
0
, 3
2

b
0


6

20

t
0

f (x) d x = 2

60

area required
in b


3
6

c f 1: [3, 1] R,
(x + 1)
f 1 (x) = sin1
2
1

2

1
d
f (x) d x =  f (x) d x
2
0
6
5
=
3
6

15 b 1
4

dT
c
= 14.4e0.36t
dt
dT
d
= 0.36(T 20)
dt
3 a 1.386 minutes
b 2200, 5.38%
c 66.4 spores/minute
d 0.9116 minutes
e
1200
1000
f
g
0

0.91

t (minute)

Answers

dy
x x
= e 10 and
dx
10
1
dy
= x(100 x 2 ) 2
dx
dy
b When x = 0,
= 0 for both functions
dx
c e
d 6.71 square units
e 8.55%
f (25 50) square units
g i 10(10e 20)
ii (25 100e + 200) square units

12 a

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764

CUAT018-EVANS

November 3, 2005

20:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


4a

60
60
b 9.61 km
13 a 9.61 km
39
39


12
m 2.7 m
14 4
7

V
100

15 a {x: x > 1}

b i 20e

0.2t

V
m/s2
ii 20
5

m/s

c 8.05 s
5 b 0.028
c 0.846 C/minute
6 a i 0.1155
ii 0.2
b 13.86 days
7 100
8 $600
9 a = 3, b = 2 y

b {x: 0 < x < 2}



3
c {x: x > 1}, x: 0 < x <
2


n+1
d {x: x > 1}, x: 0 < x <
n

1
6
b 2, 2 3
16 a (1, 1), (1, 1)

n 

c 2n+2 n, n 2n+2

108
17 a A = 48 + 16x +
x
b
A
(m2)

y = 48 + 16x
(2.6, 92.14)

2
3

x = 2
3

10 a 5 104 m3
c 3500 m3/day
e V

b 12 500 m3/day
d After 222.61 days

(m3) (0, 5 104)

11 a

t (days)

C
($'000)

N
2
3

($)

(20, 12 000)
V (km/h)

d V = 20, C = 12 000

2a 2
4 3
d2:3
c
a
3
3
1
c a = 1 or a = 2
20 a 5
3
21 a i 50e1 litres/minute
ii t = 5
iii 2 minutes 18 seconds
iv 3 minutes 48 seconds
b 14.74 litres
c 53 seconds
h 2 sin 
22 a S =
cos2 
100(1
+ sin2 )
b i
cos3 
100(2 cos2 )
ii S =

cos3 
2 cos2  100
v 29.1

iii
cos  sin 
1
b

4(N 3 + 16) 4
c Rate of change of cost in $1000s with respect
to the increase in the number of bottle tops
produced
160 000
bC =
+ 10V 2
12 a $17 000
V
c C

(0, a2)

3N

A
(a, 0)

( a, 0)

(10, 5.65)

x (m)

4 3
3 3
m, width =
m
c Height =
2
3
2
d 172 m
18 p = 4, number of items = 50
19 a (a, 0), (a, 0)

e 12 560

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November 3, 2005

20:32

Answers

Exercise 14A
2
b
3

9
250
b 0.35
b 0.047

5 5%
7 a 0.5

Second die

1
8 0.39
9
7
24
11 0.0479
10
59
12 a 0.486
b 0.012
2
5
2
14 a
5
5
15 a
14
13 a

16 a 0.735
3
17
44

1
15
7
b
40

d 0.4

c 0.138
c

7
15

3
5
24
b
53
b

Exercise 14B
1 a Discrete
b Not discrete
c Discrete
d Discrete
2 a Not discrete
b Discrete
c Not discrete
d Discrete
3 a {HHH, THH, HTH, HHT, HTT, THT,
TTH, TTT }
b
Experimental outcome
Value of x
HHH
THH
HTH
HHT
HTT
THT
TTH
TTT

2
3
4
5
6
7

First die
3
4

3
4
5
6
7
8

4
5
6
7
8
9

3
2
2
2
1
1
1
0

1
c
2
4 a {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), . . . , (6, 1), (6, 2),
(6, 3), (6, 4), (6, 5), (6, 6)}

1
6
=
36
6
1
d Pr(Y = 3|Y < 5) =
3
1 2 3 4 5 6
5a
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2 2 2
3 1 2 3 3 3 3
4 1 2 3 4 4 4
5 1 2 3 4 5 5
6 1 2 3 4 5 6
b 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
c 0.19
6 a 0.288
b 0.064
c 0.352
d 0.182
7 a See 4a.
1
1
5
b Pr(A) = , Pr(B) = , Pr(C) =
,
6
6
12
1
Pr(D) =
6
1
1
c Pr(A|B) = , Pr(A|C) = ,
6
5
1
Pr(A|D) =
6
d A and B are independent. A and D are
independent.

Exercise 14C
1ac
2a

p(x)

1
5

1
5

1
5

3
5
x

p(x)
4a

5 6 7
6 7 8
7 8 9
8 9 10
9 10 11
10 11 12

c Pr(Y < 5) =

200
= 0.519
385

8
15
7
c
16

1
2
3
4
5
6

41
500

6
7
c

b 0.385

41
125

1 2

1
5
1
c
3
2

1
5

0.36 0.48 0.16

p(x)

27
125

54
125

36
125

8
125

p(x)

5
30

15
30

9
30

1
30

Answers

b Y = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

Chapter 14
1
1a
2
17
2a
500
3 a 0.65
4 a 0.067

765

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766

CUAT018-EVANS

November 8, 2005

10:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


5 a See 4a of Exercise 14B.
b

2 3

p(x)

Exercise 14D
7

10 11 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1
36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36

c p(x)

1 a No unique mode, median = 5, E(X ) = 4.6


1
b No unique mode, median = ,
2
E(X ) = 0.5
c Mode = 2, median = 2, E(X ) = 2.38
d Mode = 0.6, median = 0.6, E(X ) = 0.569

6/36
5/36
4/36
3/36
2/36
1/36

e Mode = 7, median = 7, E(X ) = 7


f No unique mode, median = 0, E(X ) = 0
2 a c = 0.35
bX =1
c2
d E(X ) = 2.3
e Var(X ) = 1.61; sd(X ) = 1.27
f 0.95

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 x

5
7
d
e
18
10
6 a {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), . . . , (6, 4), (6, 5), (6, 6)}
0
1
2
y
b
5
2
11
p(y)
18
18
18
c p(y)

1
b5
15
d E(X ) = 3.667
f 0.9333

3ak =

c4
e Var(X ) = 1.556

4 Expected profit = $3000


5 A loss of 17c
6 1.54
7 a E(X ) = 7 b Var(X ) = 5.83
8 a E(X ) = 4.11
c E(5X 4) = 16.55

11/18

c 0.944

b E(X ) = 78.57
 
1
dE
= 0.255
X
3

9 a Var(2X ) = 64
c Var(1 X ) = 16

b Var(X + 2) = 16
d sd(3X ) = 12

10 a 3

5/18
2/18
0
7a

b
8a

Pr(X = x)

1
3

8
15

2
15

b 1.5
c 0.9688
1
b E(X ) = 2
c Var(X ) = 3.5
11 a p =
16
20
91
1
c
b
12 a k =
9
21
21
13 a
x 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 12 16
Pr(X = x)

7
15

b i
x

10

20

100

14 a

Pr(X = x)

3
4

6
25

1
100

15

20 30 40 110 120 200


9 9 36 3
3
1
Pr(Y = y)
16 25 625 200 625 10000

1
4
b {EENE, ENEE, ENNN, NEEE, NENN,
3
NNEN},
8
3
c
8

1
4

1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1
16 8 8 16 8 8 16 8 16
ii

21
4

25
4

7
12

x 1 2 3 4 5 67

Pr(X = x)
E(X ) =

275
16
497
c
48
iii

10 11 12

1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
0
6 6 6 6 6 36 36 36 36 36 36
49
12

9a

Multiple-choice questions
1A
6E

2D
7C

3B
8C

4A
9B

5D
10 D

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November 8, 2005

10:32

Answers

40
81
4 0.4
5 a 0.1
3a

b
b1

5
9

c1
d 1.3
53
b
256

29 3
d
2
p x 2 2

6 a 21.5
c 630.75
7a

4
x 2
5

e 2.01

1
5

4
5

Pr(P = p)
b

Pr (A B)
= Pr (A B)

c x > $2.50

47
8 a 0.47 b
70
9 21.5%
1
17
10 a
b
24
24

5
6

11
18

Extended-response questions
1 a 0.1
2a

b 0.2
0.6
J

0.3

c4
J

0.7

0.4

0.6

0.6

b i 0.396
c i

0.4

0.4

0.6

A
J

0.4

ii 0.604
x
2
Pr(X = x)

0.6 0.4

ii 2.4
d 0.46
25
3 a 0.5
b 0.05
c 0.033 d
33
4 a i 1.21
ii Var(P) = 1.6659, sd(P) = 1.2907
iii 0.94
b i
t
1 0.40 0
p(t)

0.39 0.27 0.34

ii E(T ) = 0.498 0.50

iii 1

p(b)

0.677 0.270 0.053

ii E(B) = $37.60
7 a mean = 13.5%, sd = 16.2%
b 0.95
c E(G) = 6.9%, sd(G) = 9.726%
8 Yes
9 $1.00
10 a i 0.65
ii 0.2275
iii 0.079625
iv 0.042875
b Expected cost = 8.439 375 million dollars
c Expected profit is 10.703 125 million dollars.
1
2
c 27
11 a (304 2x)
bx =2
3
9
1 49
12 b x = ,
2 288
8
1
4
ii
iii
13 a i
81
81
81
4
56
iv
v
27
81
b 4.4197 cents. (As the lowest value coin is 5c/,
he can settle for that.)

Chapter 15
Exercise 15A
1 a and b
2 a 0.0595
b 0.0512
c 0.0081
3 a 0.05358
b 0.0087
c 0.0623
55
54
4 a 5 0.0804
b 5 0.4019
6
6
5 a 0.1156
b 0.7986
c 0.3170
6 0.6791
7 a 0.1123 b 0.5561 c 0.000 01 d 0.000 01
8 0.6836
9 0.544
10 0.624
11 0.1356
12 a 0.0138
b 0.2765
c 0.8208
d 0.3368
 6
1
13 a
= 0.000 24
b 0.1694
4
14 0.9744
15 0.5432
b 0.001 23
16 a (0.8)8 0.168
c 0.002 1
17 a (0.15)10 0.000 000 006
b 1 (0.85)10 0.803 1
c 0.567 4
18 0.962
19 a 0.002 455
b 0.003 37
20 a 0.011 529
b 0.002 59
c 0.0392

Answers

5 $14
6 a E(Y ) = 2.002
b Var(X ) = 2.014; sd(X ) = 1.419
b
0
100 200
c i

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
1 Yes, as Pr(A B) = 0
2

767

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Answers

768

CUAT018-EVANS

November 8, 2005

10:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

Exercise 15B
1a4
2

Exercise 15C

b 10

1 a Mean = 5, variance = 4
b Mean = 6, variance = 2.4
500
1000
c Mean =
, variance =
3
9
d Mean = 8, variance = 6.4
2a1
b 0.2632
3 37.5
1
4 n = 48, p = , Pr(X = 7) = 0.0339
4
3
, Pr(X = 20) = 0.0076
5 n = 100, p =
10
6 Mean = 10, sd = 5
The probability of obtaining between 6 and
14 heads is 0.95.

7 Mean = 120, sd = 4 3
The probability that between 107 and 133
students attend a state school is 0.95.

c 16

.40
.30
.20
.10
x
1

9 10

Legend:
p = 0.3, skewed positively
p = 0.6, slightly skewed positively

p = 0.9, skewed negatively


3
.40

Exercise 15D

.30

1 a i (0.8)5 0.3277
ii 0.6723 b 14
2 a i 0.1937
ii 1 (0.9)10 0.6513
b 12
37
47
5 10
6 42
7 86

.20
.10
x
1

9 10

Multiple-choice questions
Legend:
p = 0.5; n = 6
p = 0.5; n = 10
Both plots are symmetrical:
( p = 0.5; n = 6) is symmetrical about x = 3
( p = 0.5; n = 10) is symmetrical about x = 5
4

1D
6B

16
81
54
2
125

7 a, b, c

c The distribution in
part b is a
reflection of the
distribution in part
a in the line X = 5.
d When p = 0.5 the
distribution is symmetric,
when p = 0.2 it is
positively skewed and
when p = 0.8 negatively
skewed.

3E
8C

4B
9E

5A
10 B

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
1a

6 a, b

2A
7C

32
81

3 0.40951

16
27

3 5
b
5
b 4 p(1 p)3
5 a (1 p)4
c 1 (1 p)4 d p 4
e 1 (1 p)4 4 p(1 p)3
4a2

6 120
5 p(1 p)4
7
1 (1 p)5
5
8
16
32
9
625

65
81

P2: FXS

052161547Xans-4.xml

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November 8, 2005

10:32

Answers

1 a 0.0173
2

b 0.2131

Probability that a batch is accepted

0
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.5
1

1
0.9044
0.8171
0.5987
0.3487
0.1074
0.00098
0

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.1 0.2

0.5

3 a 0.0582
b Mean = 0.4, sd = 0.6197,
 2 = 0.4 1.2394
c Yes
4 0.0327
5 a i 0.0819
ii 0.9011
b i 15 p 2 (1 p)4
dP
= 30 p(1 p)3 (1 3 p)
dp
1
b n = 6, p =
6a2
3
c
No. in
group
wearing
glasses
0
1
2
3
4
ii

Theoretical 17.56 52.68 65.84 43.90 16.46 3.29 0.27


frequencies
7 a 0.9139
8 a 0.0735
1
9 q1
3

 
 

Pr(L i )
0.35 0.1
Pr(L i+1 )

=
b 0.8
0.65 0.9
Pr(Ti+1 )
Pr(Ti )
5 a 0.214
b 0.096
i 
 


0.57 0.47
Pr(A1 )
Pr(Ai+1 )
=

c
0.43 0.53
Pr(E i+1 )
Pr(E 1 )
i 0.536
ii 0.5236
6 a 0.007

  b 0.398 i 

Pr(Ri+1 )
0.43 0.16
Pr(R1 )
c
=

0.57 0.84
Pr(Fi+1 )
Pr(F1 )
i 0.781
ii 0.219


4a

Exercise 16B

b 0.04145
b 0.5015

c 10.702
c 27

Exercise 16A
1 a 0.36
b 0.26


0.65 0.44
2a
b 0.5492
0.35 0.56
 

 

Pr(Wi )
Pr(Wi+1 )
0.7 0.4

=
3a
0.3 0.6
Pr(L i+1 )
Pr(L i )
b 0.517

769



 
67.7
59
1a i
ii
32.3
41


0.7150 0.7126
b
0.2850 0.2875




70.31
67.7
c i
ii
29.69
32.3




194.8
204.568
2a i
ii
185.2
175.432


0.6223 0.5396
b
0.3777 0.4604

 

211.015
204.568
c i
ii
168.985
175.432




0.2 714
0.23
3a i
ii
0.7 286
0.77




0.3038
0.41
b i
ii
0.6962
0.59
17
2


iii

70.31
29.69


71.4195
28.5805


211.015
iii
168.985


iii



218.078
161.922


0.280 435
iii
0.715 965


0.280 624
iii
0.719 376
iii



ii 36
iii
4 a i 3
1
19
36
107
33


b i 8
ii 192
iii
85
5
192
8
0.636
0.28
5 a i 0.04 ii 0.1596 iii
0.2044
0.68

0.4024
0.34
b i 0.48 ii 0.2782 iii
0.3194
0.18

0.2966
0.80
c i 0.19 ii 0.1251 iii
0.5783
0.01


0.85 0.2
6a
0.15 0.8
b 186
179 at Surfside

 at Bayside,
0.6 0.3
b 57 200
7a
0.4 0.7


0.92 0.88
b 91.7%
8a
0.08 0.12



0.5162
0.4838


0.5160
0.4840

0.4718
0.1664
0.3618

0.4761
0.1673
0.3566

0.4808
0.1679
0.3513

Answers

Extended-response questions

Probability that a batch is accepted

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Answers

770

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November 8, 2005

10:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS



0.91 0.13
0.09 0.87
b 53.6%
at school
A, 46.4% at school B


0.5 0.28
10 a
0.5 0.72
b i 0.359 ii 0.359
0.2 0.7
11 a
0.8 0.3
b i 0.6
ii 0.475
12 a 2000 young, 18 000 middle-aged
b 6500 young, 3420 middle-aged, 10 080 old

60
0.80 0.40 0.35
13 a 0.15 0.30 0.30
b 25
15
0.05 0.30 0.35

63.3
65.4
c 21.0
d 20.2
14.4
15.8
14 a 0.279
b 0.285


9a

Exercise 16C
1a


0.6
0.4

0.5
0.5

b
Game (n) Pr(X n = 1|X 0 = 0) Pr(X n = 1|X 0 = 1)
1
0.4
0.5
2
0.44
0.45
3
0.444
0.445
4
0.4444
0.4445
5
0.4444
0.4445
6
0.4444
0.4444
4 5
d ,
c 0.4444, 0.5556
9 9


0.85 0.95
2a
0.15 0.05
b
Day (n) Pr (X n = 0|X 0 = 0) Pr(X n = 0|X 0 = 1)
1
0.85
0.95
2
0.865
0.855
3
0.8635
0.8645
4
0.8637
0.8636
5
0.8636
0.8636
6
0.8636
0.8636
c 0.8636, 0.1364

19 3
,
22 22

3 64.3%,
35.7% 

0.74 0.14
4a
0.26 0.86
b 338 at store A, 451 at store B
c 276 at store A, 513 at store
200B


18.1818

5a
b 11
31.8182
350
11




0.4167
5
b
0.5833
12

0.2743
0.2743
b 0.3521
7 a 0.3521
0.3735
0.3735

0.2743
c 0.3521
d All the same
0.3735


0.70 0.25
8a
0.30 0.75
b 105 in Melbourne, 125 in Ballarat
9 80% sad, 20% happy
10 5405 young, 4865 middle-aged, 9730 old
11 28.4% cool, 22.3% mild, 21.6% warm,
27.6% hot


6a

Exercise 16D
1 a 0.0034
3 a 0.0864
4 a 0.1029
c 0.0189
5 a 0.0625
6 a 0.0655
7 a 0.0696
8 a 0.0226

2 0.0154
b 0.0384
b 0.0353
d 0.0005
b 0.0366
b 0.0439
b 0.0700
b 0.0656

Multiple-choice questions
1C
6C

2A
7E

3C
8B

4B
9D

5B
10 D

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)




0.2
0.8

1a

0.34
0.66





0.64
0.1
b
2a
0.36
0.3
4 2

37 5
4 0.34 5 0.36
3 3
7 5
6 59.3% club A, 40.7% club B
7 0.1029

Extended-response questions
1a

20
81

c i

1
9
7
ii
18

b
5
12

3
5

P1: FXS/ABE

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November 8, 2005

10:32

Answers

0.1

10

Exercise 17A

10

b 0.190
11 a k = 1000
2
12 a
3
13 a 0.202
14 a 0.45
y
15 a

Chapter 17
11
2
6
3 a, c

10 a

Answers


0.84 0.23
b 356 bus, 317 train
0.16 0.77
c 397 bus, 276 train d 0.0218


0.56 0.26
3a
0.44 0.74
b i 36.95% in Camberwell, 63.05% in
Hawthorn
ii 37.14% in Camberwell, 62.86% in
Hawthorn


2a

771

b 0.5
17
b
30
b 0.449
b 0.711

1
y

2.5
2

iii e 2

b i 1 e 2
ii e1
f (x)
16 a

1.5
1

2a

0.5
x
0.5

5
b Pr(X < 0.5) =
16
4a1
b 0.865
y
5a

ba=

1
4

0.4

Exercise 17B

0.2

1
1 a F(x) = x if 0 < x 5 and 0 if x 0 and
5
x >5
3
b
5
2
2 a F(x) = 1 ex if x 0 and 0 if x < 0

x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

b 0.259
6 b i 0.024
7 a 0.005
y
8a

ii 0.155
b 0.007

bk=1
9a y

b e4

3ak =

3
4

b 0.406

3
2

x
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

c 0.0182
1
48

Exercise 17C
1
1
2
c
d Does not exist
b
2
3
3
2a1
b 2.097
c 1.132 d 0.4444
3 a 0.567
b 0.458

1a

1
36

P1: FXS/ABE

P2: FXS

052161547Xans-4.xml

Answers

772

CUAT018-EVANS

November 8, 2005

10:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


2
,B=3
9
6a2
b 1.858
7a1
b 0.5
8 a 0.632
b 0.233
c 0.693
9 0.1294
10 2.773 minutes
2
11 a f (x) = 12x 2 (1 x), 0 x 1
b
3

12
2
13 a 1
b1
c1
14 a 0.714
b 0.736
15 a 12
b 12

19 1
b
16 a 0.4
c1
6
(kx
+
1)
17 a kekx ,
ekx
k
y
c i,ii,iii
5A=

40

bk =

1
9

d 4.5

Exercise 17E
1 1300
2 a 0.708, 0.048
b $98.94, $0.33
3 a 0, 5.4
b 3, 0.6
x2
c g(x) =
if 3 x 3 and 0 otherwise
18
4 a 7.5, 8.5
b (1.669, 13.331)
5 35, 10

Multiple-choice questions
1B
6B

2D
7C

3D
8E

4A
9A

5E
10 A

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)

1.5
1
0.5
x

d The graph of ex is dilated by a factor of


from the x-axis and  from the y-axis.

1


1a2
b 0.21
1
2 a = ,b = 2
3

3 mean = median = mode =
2
1
1
b
4a
2
2
y
5a

1
2

2 , 16
3 9

Exercise 17D
1 a 0.630

c 0.44

b 0.909

c 0.279

2
1
, sd(X ) =
b Var(X ) =
18
6

2 a 0.366

3a

b 1.386

1
loge 9
5 a 0.366
6 0.641
7 a 0.732

b E(X ) = 3.641 Var(X ) = 4.948


b E(X ) = 0.333 Var(X ) = 0.056
4
2
b E(X ) = Var(X ) =
3
9
16
b
c 2.21
3
b2 5

8 a 0.0004
3
9a 3
4a
y
10 a

1
2

5
16


2
2
16
6 a k = 12 b x =
c Pr X <
=
3
3
27


1
2
3
d Pr X < |X <
=
3
3
16
2

1
e
b
7 a 1 e2
e23
1
1
b e4 e4
8 a e2
1
c f (x) = , 1 < x < e
x
9 (320, 340)
10 (246, 254)
b Pr(X < 0.5) =

0.5

4a

Extended-response questions

3k

2
81
1
2a
4
1a

x
1

x 2 200x + 10 000
b 700 hours c
810 000

5 5
1 8
b
c ,
5
3 15

P1: FXS/ABE

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November 8, 2005

10:32

Answers

5
c
32
2
2
d
b
3
3
2
b E(X ) = 2, Var(X ) =

3
4 5
d
5

7 a 25
1
8ak =
4
3
c
4

f (x)

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

7 a  = 0,  = 3
f (x)
b

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Chapter 18
Exercise 18A
1c
2

3a1

1
b i E(X ) =
x e 2
3 2
ii 2


c i E(X 2 ) =

x2
3

1
x2 e 2
3 2

iii 3

ii 13
4a1

2

1 x+4

1
2
5
b i
x e
dx
5 2
ii 4

2

1 x+4

1
2
2
5
c i
x e
dx
5 2

ii 41
iii 5
5 a  = 3,  = 10
b

f (x)

30 20 10 0

x
10 20 30 40

6 a  = 3,  = 1

2

x2
3

dx

2

dx

8 a Translation of 3 units in the positive direction


of the x-axis; dilation of factor 2 from the
y-axis; dilation of factor 12 from the x-axis
b Translation of 3 units in the positive direction
of the x-axis; dilation of factor 12 from the
y-axis; dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis
c Translation of 3 units in the negative direction
of the x-axis; dilation of factor 2 from the
y-axis; dilation of factor 12 from the x-axis
9 a Translation of 3 units in the negative direction
of the x-axis; dilation of factor 13 from the
y-axis; dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis
b Translation of 3 units in the negative direction
of the x-axis; dilation of factor 2 from the
y-axis; dilation of factor 12 from the x-axis
c Translation of 3 units in the positive direction
of the x-axis; dilation of factor 12 from the
y-axis; dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis

Exercise 18B
1 Mean = 135, sd = 5
4
2 Mean = 10, sd =
3
3 16%
4 a 68%
b 16%
c 0.15%
5 21.1 and 33.5
6 68% of the values lie within one standard
deviation of the mean;
95% of the values lie within two standard
deviations of the mean;
99.7% of the values lie within three standard
deviations of the mean.
7 2.5%
8 a 16%
b 16%
9 a 68%
b 16%
c 2.5%
10 a 95%
b 16%
c 50%
d 99.7%

Answers

10
3
b E(X ) = 6, Var(X ) = 4.736
7
b $22.13
4a
25
8
5c= ,4
3
6 b E(X ) = 2, Var(X ) = 0.2
3 a Median = 6, IQR =

773

P1: FXS/ABE

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Answers

774

CUAT018-EVANS

November 8, 2005

10:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


5
b
c 1.5
4
12 a 1.4
b 1.1
c 3.5
13 Michael 1.4, Cheryl 1.5; Cheryl
14 Biology 1.73, History 0.90; Biology
15 a Mary: French 1, English 0.875,
Mathematics 0
Steve: French 0.5, English 1,
Mathematics 1.25
Sue: French 0, English 0.7,
Mathematics 0.2
b i Mary
ii Mary
iii Steve
c Mary

11 a 0

Exercise 18C
1 a 0.9772
b 0.9938
c 0.9938
d 0.9943
e 0.0228
f 0.0668
g 0.3669
h 0.1562
2 a 0.9772
b 0.6915
c 0.9938
d 0.9003
e 0.0228
f 0.0099
g 0.0359
h 0.1711
3 a 0.6827
b 0.9545
c 0.9973
4 a 0.0214
b 0.9270
c 0.0441
d 0.1311
5 c = 1.2816
6 c = 0.6745
7 c = 1.96
8 1.6449
9 0.8416
10 1.2816
11 1.9600
12 a 0.9522 b 0.7977
c 0.0478 d 0.1547
13 a 0.9452 b 0.2119
c 0.9452 d 0.1571
14 a 9.2897
b 8.5631
15 a c = 10
b k = 15.88
16 a 0.7161
b 0.0966
c 0.5204
d c = 33.5143
e k = 13.02913
f c1 = 8.28; c2 = 35.72
17 a 0.9772
b 0.9772
c 10.822
d 9.5792
e c2 = 10.98; c1 = 9.02

Exercise 18D
1 a i 0.2525
ii 0.0478
iii 0.0901
b 124.7
2 a i 0.7340
ii 0.8944
iii 0.5530
b 170.25 cm
c 153.267
3 a i 0.0766
ii 0.9998
iii 0.153
b 57.3
4 a 10.56%
b 78.51%
5 mean = 1.55 kg; sd = 0.194 kg
6 a 36.9%
b 69
7 a 0.0228
b 0.0005
c 0.0206
8 1004 ml
9 a small 0.1587
medium 0.7745
large 0.0668
b $348.92

10 a i 0.1169
ii 17.7
b 0.0284
34
b
11 a 0.0228, 0.1587
3

Multiple-choice questions
1A
6E

2C
7D

3B
8C

4B
9A

5E
10 D

Short-answer questions
(technology-free)
1 a 1 p b 1 p c 2p 1
2 a a = 1 b b = 1
c 0.5


x 8
3 (x, y)
, 3y
3
q
1 p
4a
b1q
c
p
1q






5 a Pr Z < 12
b Pr Z < 12 c Pr Z > 12




e Pr 12 < Z < 1
d Pr 12 < Z < 12
d 0.68
c 0.16
b 0.5
6 a 0.84
d 0.02
c 0.32
b 0.34
7 a 0.16
d 0.68
c 0.15
b 0.19
8 a 0.69
9 Best C, worst B

Extended-response questions
high
1 > 63
[56, 62]
moderate
[45, 55]
average
[37, 44]
little
< 37
low
2 3.92
3 a i 0.1587
ii 0.9747
iii
b 53 592
c 3.7 1011
4 a 3.17 105 b False
c c1 = 13.53, c2 = 16.47
5 0.0802
6 0.92%
7 a 0.9044
b 5.88
d 0.2651
e $17.61
8 a  = 0,  = 2.658
9 a  = 60.058;  = 0.2
10 a 0.1056
b 0.0803

0.0164

c 9.044
b 0.882
b 10%
c 0.5944

Chapter 19
Multiple-choice questions
1E
6D
11 B
16 E
21 A
26 C
31 D
36 E
41 B

2D
7D
12 D
17 A
22 D
27 E
32 C
37 C

3A
8C
13 C
18 A
23 C
28 B
33 E
38 A

4B
9E
14 B
19 D
24 A
29 B
34 A
39 B

5E
10 C
15 E
20 B
25 D
30 C
35 B
40 B

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November 8, 2005

10:32

Answers

9
16
3 a 0.27
c i 0.6
d 0.4995


2 $0.76

1b

4a P =

b 0.3025
ii 0.27
0.75x 0.5s,
0.5s 0.25x,

b $5.95
c E(P) =

s


x s
x >s

(0.75x 0.5s) p(x)

x = 24

30


(0.5s 0.25x) p(x)

x=s+1

d 27

1
1
ii
36
6
41
4
ii
b i
100
25
121
c
600
3 1
11

i
7 a 4 2
1 1
16
4 2
1
b
3


0.85 0.06
8a
0.15 0.94

iii

6a i

1
6

20
120
b E(X ) =
49
49
6180
c Var(X ) =
2401
3
18 a i 0.2
ii 0.7
iii 0.125
iv
160
128
ii
b i 0.360 15
625
c 0.163 08
19 a i 0.0105
ii 0.0455
1149
b 0.4396
c
1909
20 a i  = 4.25
ii  = 0.9421
iii 0.94
iv 0.9
b i Binomial
ii 18
iii 1.342
iv 0.3917
17 a C =

Chapter 20


1a i

1
, 8
2

ii Minimum

x
(60 5x)
12
iii Maximum area is 15 cm2 .
2 a p = 1, q = 3, k = 2
b i m = 2 ii y = 2x 3 + 10x 2 14x + 6
y
iii
b ii A =

ii

85
128

6
4
2

b i 51% Dr Laslett, 49% Dr Kildare

7 , 64
3 27
x

c Yes, Dr Laslett during the 9th year


9 a 0.6915
b 0.1365
10 a 0.0436
b 0.2667
c 183
d 59 271
11 a i 0.1587
ii 511.63
b 0.1809
12 a 1
b 28.847
c 0.5276
1
13 a i
ii X : 0.6915, Y : 0.5625
8
iii E(X ) = 10, E(Y ) = 10.67,
machine 1
3
b
4
16
1
ii
iii 0.8281
iv 0.7677
14 a i
3
2500
b 0.9971
15 a i
Pr(X > 80) = 0.98

Pr(X >
104) = 0.04
80

104

ii  = 92.956,  = 6.3084
b i 16.73% of sensors
ii 81 C
16 a 0.1056
b Machine should be set at 1027.92.

3a

1
2
3
(1, 0)
Local minimum at (1, 0)
7 64
Local maximum at ,
3 27

y
a , a2
2 4

a3
square units
6
a3
2a 2
2a 2
c i y=
iii
square units
,y =
162
9
9
3
1
4ay= x+
2
2
dy
b i
= cos  2 sin 
d
 
1
ii  = tan1
= 26.57
2
iii (26.57, 2.2361), exact values

 


1
, 5
tan1
2
b

Answers

Extended-response questions

775

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776

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November 8, 2005

10:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


iv r =
v

5,  = 63.435
y

iii

1
2

5, Tan1

y = f (x)
y = f (x)

y = sin + 2 cos

2
y = 2cos

0
2

(90, 1)

1
A reflection in the
y-axis

90

x
1

iv

y = sin

c i Q (2 sin , 2 cos )
iii  = 74.4346

y = f (x)

5 a i f
(t) = 100e 10 (t 2 30t + 144)

t
10e 10 (t 2

50t + 444)
ii f

(t) =
b i t (6, 24)

ii t (25 181, 25 + 181)


(11.546, 35)
iii t (11.546, 24)
6 a i A = x 2 5x + 50
ii (0, 10)
A
iii

2
y = f (x)

A reflection in the x-axis


y

y = f (x+ 2)
y = f (x)
0

(10, 100)

(0, 50)

A translation of 2 to the left

b f does not have an inverse function as it is


not one-to-one.
y
c

(2.5, 43.75)
x

y=x

iv Minimum area = 43.75 cm2


1
b i f (x) = (10 x)x
2
ii y

y = g1(x)
2
y = g(x)
0

5 , 25
2
f (x) =

1
(10 x)x
2

10

c AYX : OXYZ : ABY : CBYZ = 1 : 2 : 2 : 3


y
7a i
y = f(x)
0

x
1

d i Gradient = 15
1
ii Gradient =
15
8 a i 0.995
ii x = 0.2
1
b i h(x) = (x )2 1
2
0.989 98
9 a S = (60x 6x 2 )
cx =5
d

ii

y = 2f(x)

b 0 < x < 10

(5, 150)

A dilation of factor 2
from the x-axis
y

y = f(2x)

y = f(x)
x
0
1

A dilation of factor 1
2
from the y-axis

10

1
sin 
1 cos 
ii BQ =
sin 

10 a i OP =

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10:32

Answers

19 b i h =
c i

3
y = 2a
r

y = 400 cos


6

, 200


6

ii Coordinates of local minimum


2 

 

2
5
3
3
0.6 a, a 2
0.6
+
3
0.6 3


+ 3

20 a 0.0023
b

, a + 3
6
6
2a

Maximum at

Q s 1 1

, a
2 2

3
4

Pr(Q = q)

a
.
Minimum value for T is
2
12 a iii x = 1 or x = k 2
b i b = 3 2a; c = a 2 ii h = a 2
iii a = 0, b = 3, c = 2
iv a = 1, b = 5, c = 3
1
13 a Z = (7t 2t 2 )
2
7 , 49
b Z
4 16

7
2

c Maximum value of Z =
4
3
ii
15
8
8
27
ii
b i
125
125
b
15 a k = 2
a
b
b
x+
b i y=
2a
2
d S1 : S2 = 27 : 37

(37.3333, 289.0798)

40, 284 4
9

1, 11
18

ii The maximum value of P is 289.0798


tonnes.
x
(56 x)
cA=
90
A
i

28, 8 32
45

7
49
, when t =
16
4

14 a i

16 a i 0.9332

1
4

3
3
s
c E(Q) = s 1 sd(Q) =
4
4
21 a 0.091 21
b 0.2611
c 0.275
dP
1
22 a
=
(112x 3x 2 )
dx
90
P
b i

Z = 1 (7t 2t2)
2

3
2
y = 2a + 5r
r
3

, 100
2

y = 200

5r 2
2a 3
+
r
3

2
y = 5r
3

y = 200( + 2 cos )

ii S = 

400

3a 3 2r 3
3r 2

1, 11
18

38
iii
125

ii

a b
,
2 4

40, 7 1
9
x

32
ii Amax . = 8
tonnes/man, x = 28
45
y
23 a i

ii 0.0668 iii 0.1151 iv 0.1151

b i 33.3% ii 866.4 iii 199.4

17 90 8 3 metres from A towards E


18 a i y =en x+ en n + en
1
1
b i n 1
e
e

(0, 2)

y = 2(x 1)2

ii x = n + 1
ii e : e 2

x
(1, 0)

Answers

3
d Minimum value of S =
2

2 33
AP =
units
3
11 b y
, 200 + 3

777

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778

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November 8, 2005

10:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS


ii

7
d
2
e

y = 16x + 2

3
+2
(x + 1)2

y=
(0, 5)

y=2

1
8

iii

(0, 2)
x
(7 + 52, 0)

(7 52, 0)


2 3k (2 3k)2 + 2(k + 2)
,
k+2
k+2


 
2
2
i k: 2 < k <
ii
3
3


14
{k: k < 2}
iii k: 0 < k <
9


14
iv {k: 2 < k < 0} k: k >
9
c k < 2
14
14
ii 0 < k <
d i k = 0 or k =
9
9
24 a x = 2 loge 2
dy
b i
= 2e22x + 2ex
dx


1
iii 2, 2
ii x = 2
e
y
iv
b

(0, e2 2)

c i 1250 square units


14 375
ii
square units
18
36 875
square units
iii
18

27 c  =
6
d A
, 123
6

16

y=

T = 21 + 79e0.02t

2ex
x

T = 21

2, 1
e2



1
c 2,0
e
25 a

d Average rate of change = 1.6 C/minute.


e i 2.0479 C/minute
ii 0.8826 C/minute
3
bb=4
30 a
16A
c

(0, ba2 + c)
(0, ba2)

y = b(x + a)2

(0, 1)

y = x2

(a, c)
y = (x + a)2
a

y = b(x + a)2 + c

The maximum value of A is 12 3.


28 a  = 5.0290,  = 0.0909
b $409.28
1
79
loge
0.02, A = 79
29 a k =
10
63
b Approx 2 : 44 p.m.
T
c
(0, 100)

e22x

26 a i y = 50
ii y = x 25
25
1
c=
ba=
15
3

(7, 100)
y = 2x2 28x + 2

y= 1
x2
x

A dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis


A translation of 1 unit in the negative
direction of the x-axis
A translation of 2 units in the positive
direction of the y-axis

d i 0.076
ii 0.657
e i A
( p) = 20 p(1 p)3

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Answers
ii

A'

Answers

ii

(50, 11.5)

11.5

(37.5, 4)
x

1 , 135
4
64

1
4
iv Most rapid rate of change of probabilities
1
is occurring when p = .
4
31 a 91.125 cm
b [0, 15]
c V = 0.64 (4.5 0.3t)3
d h is a one-to-one function.
1
10t 3
h 1 (t) = 15
3
dom of h 1 = [0, 91.125]
y
e
iii p =

b (2.704, 10), (22.296, 10)


y
c
(62.5, 30)

(0, 15)

(125, 15)

(250, 15)

(187.5, 0)


 
(x 10)
d i h(x) = 15 + 15 sin
125
ii y

(0, 91.125)
(72.5, 30)
y = h(t)

(0, 15)

(260, 15)
y = h1(t)

(15, 0)

(10, 15)
t

(91.125, 0)

32 a 0.065 36
b i 0.6595
c i 23.3%
33 a i 0.32
b 0.64
c i 0.043 95
34 a, b y

ii 0.198 14
ii c = 0.1075
ii 0.18
iii 0.5
ii 0.999

iii

y = ex + 1
x
y = ex

y= 1
x
x

1
x
c y = +e
x
1
dy
= 2 + ex
dx
x
d ii 2 loge x < 0, x (0, 1)
y
iii
y = 2 loge x

7
128

(197.5, 0)

36 a k = 4

13
10 2
2
ii
b i E(X ) =
iii
6
4
12
c 0.1857
2
37 a k = 2
a
a
a2
b E(X ) = , Var(X ) =
18
3

64 2
c
d a = 1000( 2 + 2)
9
1
cy=
x loge 10
38 a 7
10
d ii 36.852
n+1
39 a k = n + 1
b E(X ) =
n+2
n+1
c
(n + 2)2 (n +3)
n+1 1
d Median =
e Mode = 1
2

dy
x
40 a
b(0, 2 6)
=
dx
x 2 + 24
c Even
d
y

10
0

x
(0.7, 0.7)

y=x

y=x

26
x

y = x

y = 5x + 10

iv (0.7, 3.4)
35 a i e = 12.5, g = 15, d = 37.5,
a = 7.5, b = 7.5

e y = 5x + 10

779

f 14 units/second

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780

CUAT018-EVANS

November 8, 2005

10:32

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

35
h 12 loge ( 7 1) 2 7 +

2 3
x
3x
b
V
=
a
r
=
41
9
3
60
dx
1 2
dV
=
d
= x
c
dt
x 2
dx
3
1 8
1
53 23 3
180t
3
f
ex =
3

42 a i 0
ii 0.6745
iii 0.6745
iv 1.3490
v 99.3%
vi 0.7%
b i 
ii  0.6745
iii  + 0.6745
iv 1.3490
v 0.9930
vi 0.7%

Appendix A

n+1


i4

i=1

3a
b

n

i=1
5


i=0

4


x i 25i = 32 + 16x + 8x 2
+ 4x 3 + 2x 4 + x 5
x i 2i 36i = 36 + 2 35 x
+ 22 34 x 2 + 23
33 x 3 + 24 32 x 4
+ 25 3 x 5 + 26 x 6
(x xi )i = (x x1 ) + (x x2 )2

i=0

Exercise A1
1 63
4 a 5040
5 a 120
6 18
7 a 5 852 925
8 100 386
9 a 792
10 a 200
d 462

2 26
b 210
b 120

3 336

4

i=1
5


i 3 = 1 + 8 + 27 + 64 = 100
k 3 = 1 + 8 + 27 + 64 + 125 = 225
(1)i i = 1 + 2 3 + 4 5 = 3

i=1

(k 1)2 = 0 + 1 + 4 + 9 = 14

k=1

4
1
1
(i 2)2 = (1 + 0 + 1 + 4) = 2
3 i=1
3
6

h
i 2 = 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 = 91

i=1

2a

n

i=1

x 2i . 22i

(2x)3i . 3i

i=0

c6

i=1

i=0

3


Exercise A3

b 336
b 75
e 81

5
1
1
i = (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) = 3
d
5 i=1
5
6

i = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = 21
e
4


x 5i . 3i

+ (x x3 )3 + (x x4 )4
5

b
x 5i . (3)i

b 1 744 200

k=1

5


i=0
2

i=0

Exercise A2
1a

4a

5


5

1
i
i=1

xi = x + x2 + x3 + + xn

i=0

6
c

11

i=1

xi

10
1 
xi
10 i=1

1 a x 6 + 36x 5 + 540x 4 + 4320x 3 + 19 440x 2 +


46 656x + 46 656
b 32x 5 + 80x 4 + 80x 3 + 40x 2 + 10x + 1
c 32x 5 80x 4 + 80x 3 40x 2 + 10x 1
d 64x 6 + 576x 5 + 2160x 4 + 4320x 3 +
4860x 2 + 2916x + 729
e 64x 6 1152x 5 + 8640x 4 34 560x 3 +
77 760x 2 93 312x + 46 656
f 16x 4 96x 3 + 216x 2 216x + 81
g x 6 12x 5 + 60x 4 160x 3 + 240x 2
192x + 64
h x 10 + 10x 9 + 45x 8 + 120x 7 + 210x 6 +
252x 5 + 210x 4 + 120x 3 + 45x 2 +
10x + 1
2 a 960x 3
b 960x 3
c 960x 3
d 192 456x 5
e 1 732 104x 5 f 25 344b7 x 5
16 7
x
3
4 336 798x 6
243
5 (x + 1)11 = x 11 + 11x 10 55x 9
+ 165x 8 330x 7 + 462x 6
462x 5 + 330x 4 165x 3
+ 55x 2 11x + 1
6 a 40
b 160
c 80
d 181 440
e 432
f 1080
7 83 026 944
8 768