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Force and velocity relations

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Chapter 3

Kinetics of Particles

A tennis player strikes the tennis ball with her racket when the ball is at the uppermost point of its trajectory as shown. The horizontal velocity of the ball just before impact with the racket is v1 50 ft/sec and just after impact its velocity is v2 70 ft/sec directed at the 15 angle as shown. If the 4-oz ball is in contact with the racket for 0.02 sec, determine the magnitude of the average force R exerted by the racket on the ball. Also determine the angle made by R with the horizontal.

v1

v2 15

t2

mg dt

t1

y mv 2 15 x

mv 1

Helpful Hints

+

t2 t1

=

Rx dt

t1 t2

diagrams, initial linear momentum goes in the rst diagram, all external linear impulses go in the second diagram, and nal linear momentum goes in the third diagram.

Ry dt

[m(vx )1

F dt m(v ) ]

t2 t1 x x 2

t2

t1

Rx dt, the

[m(vy )1

F dt m(v ) ]

t2 t1 y y 2

average impact force Rx is a constant, so that it can be brought outside the integral sign, resulting in Rx

t2

4/16 4/16 (0) Ry(0.02) (4/16)(0.02) (70 sin 15) 32.2 32.2 We can now solve for the impact forces as Rx 45.7 lb Ry 7.28 lb We note that the impact force Ry 7.28 lb is considerably larger than the 0.25-lb weight of the ball. Thus, the weight mg, a nonimpulsive force, could have been neglected as small in comparison with Ry. Had we neglected the weight, the computed value of Ry would have been 7.03 lb. We now determine the magnitude and direction of R as

2 2 2 R R2 x Ry 45.7 7.28 46.2 lb

Rx(t2 t1) Rxt. The linear impulse in the y-direction has been similarly treated.

t1

dt

Ans. Ans.

tan1

Ry Rx

tan1

Article 3/9

197

A 2-lb particle moves in the vertical y-z plane (z up, y horizontal) under the action of its weight and a force F which varies with time. The linear momentum 3 of the particle in pound-seconds is given by the expression G 2 (t2 3)j 2 3 (t 4)k, where t is the time in seconds. Determine F and its magnitude for the 3 instant when t 2 sec.

Up 2k lb y

equation becomes

] [F G

For t 2 sec, Thus,

Helpful Hint

Dont forget that F includes all external forces acting on the particle, including the weight.

The 50-g bullet traveling at 600 m/s strikes the 4-kg block centrally and is embedded within it. If the block slides on a smooth horizontal plane with a velocity of 12 m/s in the direction shown prior to impact, determine the velocity v2 of the block and embedded bullet immediately after impact.

4 kg

y 12 m/s 30 x

0.050 kg

600 m/s

Solution.

Since the force of impact is internal to the system composed of the block and bullet and since there are no other external forces acting on the system in the plane of motion, it follows that the linear momentum of the system is conserved. Thus,

16.83 m/s

v2 10.26i 13.33j m/s The nal velocity and its direction are given by [v vx2 vy2] [tan vy /vx] v2 (10.26)2 (13.33)2 16.83 m/s 13.33 tan 1.299 10.26 52.4 Ans. Ans. Ans. Helpful Hint

= 52.4 x

principle of conservation of linear momentum is clearly equivalent to working with the component form.

Article 3/10

213

A small sphere has the position and velocity indicated in the gure and is acted upon by the force F. Determine the angular mo O. mentum HO about point O and the time derivative H

z F = 10 N 2 kg O

v = 5 m/s

Solution.

write

3m 4m y

6m

Ans.

O MO H

rF (3i 6j 4k) 10k 60i 30j N m Ans.

As with moments of forces, the position vector must run from the reference point (O in this case) to the line of action of the linear momentum mv. Here r runs directly to the particle.

214

Chapter 3

Kinetics of Particles

The assembly of the light rod and two end masses is at rest when it is struck by the falling wad of putty traveling with speed v1 as shown. The putty adheres to and travels with the right-hand end 2 of the assembly just after mass. Determine the angular velocity impact. The pivot at O is frictionless, and all three masses may be assumed to be particles.

O 4m

m v1 2m

2l

If we ignore the angular impulses associated with the weights during the collision process, then system angular momentum about O is conserved during the impact. ( HO ) 1 ( H O ) 2

Solution.

v1 CW 19l Ans.

Note that each angular-momentum term is written in the form mvd, and the nal transverse velocities are expressed as radial distances times the common 2. nal angular velocity

Article 3/14

Relative Motion

253

The atcar moves with a constant speed v0 and carries a winch which produces a constant tension P in the cable attached to the small carriage. The carriage has a mass m and rolls freely on the horizontal surface starting from rest relative to the atcar at x 0, at which instant X x0 b. Apply the workenergy equation to the carriage, rst, as an observer moving with the frame of reference of the car and, second, as an observer on the ground. Show the compatibility of the two expressions.

x0

X x m P v0

x=0 b

Solution.

X

x

P dx Px

for constant P

x0

The change in kinetic energy relative to the car is x 2 0) Trel 2 m( The work-energy equation for the moving observer becomes [Urel Trel] Px 1 2 2 mx Helpful Hints

1

P dX P(X b)

2 v 0 2 ) T 2 m(X

The work-energy equation for the xed observer gives [U T]

2 2 P(X b) 1 2 m(X v0 )

velocity of the carriage is v0 so its 2 initial kinetic energy is 1 2 mv0 .

To reconcile this equation with that for the moving observer, we can make the following substitutions: X x 0 x, Thus, P(X b) Px P(x0 b) Px mx (x0 b)

v0 X x,

X x

and

Px mx x v0t Px mv0

2 v0 2 (v0 2 X x 2 2 v 0 x v 0 2) x 2 2 v 0 x

The work-energy equation for the xed observer now becomes Px mv0 x1 x 2 mv0 2 mx which is merely Px 1 2, as concluded by the moving observer. We see, there2 mx fore, that the difference between the two work-energy expressions is U Urel T Trel mv0 x

motion from x 0 to x x. The displacement x0 b of the carriage is its velocity v0 times the time t or x0 b v0t. Also, since the constant acceleration times the time equals the velocity change, xt x.

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