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th
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1
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
PROBLEMS
PROBLEMS
Dr. Dr. T. JAGADISH T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,
K.R.Road, V. V. Puram, Bangalore K.R.Road, V. V. Puram, Bangalore 560 004 560 004
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Jan 2009
2
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
1-D BAR ELEMENT
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Jan 2009
3
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
For the simple bar shown in figure determine the displacement, strain, stress and
reaction using two element discretization. Given length of the bar is 1000mm,
Cross Section of the bar is 10mmx50mm = 500mm
2
, P=1000N and Youngs
Modulus 2x10
5
N/mm
2
P
A, L, E
Analytical Solution:
Displacement in the bar at any section u
x
= x
P
AE
x
1000
500x2x10
5
=
Displacement in the bar at midpoint x=500mm is = = 5x10
-3
1000x500
500x2x10
5
= 0.005mm
Displacement in the bar at the free end x=1000 is =
1000x1000
500x2x10
5
= 1x10
-2
= 0.01mm
Axial strain in the bar at any section
x
= = 1x10
-5
(U)
x=l
L
1x10
-2
1000
= (Tensile)
or E
x
=
or
P
A
Axial Stress in the bar at any section
x
=
1000
500
Reaction Force at the fixed end R
x
= - 1000 N/mm
2
(Tensile)
1x10
-5
x2x10
5
= 2N/mm
2
27
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st
Jan 2009
4
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Finite Element Analysis Solution:
Discretize the given structure with two 1-D bar element of
equal length l
e
= 500mm
Q
1
Q
2
1
2
3
Q
2
1 2
Elemental Stiffness Matrix for a 1-D Bar Element of uniform
cross section is given by
EA
l
e
[k
e
] =
+1 -1
-1 +1
Then the Elemental Stiffness Matrix Element 1 is given by[k
1
] =
2x10
5
x500
500
Then the Elemental Stiffness Matrix Element 2 is given by[k
2
] =
[k
1
] = 10
5
+2 -2
-2 +2
Then we have
[k
2
] = 10
5
+2 -2
-2 +2
and
Then the Overall Stiffness Matrix 2 is given by
2x10
5
x500
500
+1 -1
-1 +1
2
3
2 3
+1 -1
-1 +1
1
2
1 2
[K
o
] = 10
5
2 -2 0
-2 2+2 -2
0 -2 2
1
2
3
1 2 3
=10
5
2 -2 0
-2 4 -2
0 -2 2
1
2
3
1 2 3
27
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Jan 2009
5
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Since in the element 1 there is no force acting at either of the
node the elemental Nodal force vector for the element 1 will be
Elemental Nodal force vector for a
concentrated force P
x
acting at x = a
is given by
[f
c
]=[N]
T
= a
[P
x
] =
N
1
N
2
P
x
=a
=
(1-)/2
(1+)/2
P
x
=a
(1-a)
(1+a)
=
P
x
2
{f
c
1
}=
0
0
1
2
In the element 2 there is a force P
x
=1000 N is acting at the
second node the elemental Nodal force vector for the element 2
will be
{f
c
2
}=
0
1
2
3
1000
Overall Nodal force vector will be {F
o
}=
0
0
1
1
2
3
1000
Characteristic equation for the over all problem is given by [K
o
] {Q} = {F
o
}
Apply the boundary conditions. Since at node 1 the
bar is fixed hence Q
1
=0, Then by elimination
approach eliminating the first row and column in the
characteristic equation we have
10
5
2 -2 0
-2 4 -2
0 -2 2
1
2
3
1 2 3
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
0
0
1
= 1000
27
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to 31
st
Jan 2009
6
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
For the Element 1
q
1
= Q
1
= 0 and q
2
= Q
2
= 0.005mm
=
10
5
2 -2 0
-2 4 -2
0 -2 2
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
0
0
1
= 1000
10
5
4 -2
-2 2
Q
2
Q
3
0
1
= 1000
Then we
Solving we get
Q
2
= 0.005mm and Q
3
= 0.01mm
Thus the solution for the displacements are Q
1
= 0, Q
2
= 0.005mm and Q
3
= 0.01mm
DETERMINATION OF OTHER UNKNOWNS
= -1
=+1
=0
1 2
q
2
q
1

Displacement in an element is given by {U} = [N]{q}


In which [N] = [ N
1
N
2
] is the Shape function matrix
{q} = q
1
is unknown nodal displacement vector
q
2
in which
N
1
=
(1-)
2
N
2
=
(1+)
2
are the shape functions of 1-D Bar Element.
and
Thus U(-1) = 0 at node 1 and U(+1) = 0.005mm = 5x10
-3
mm at node 2
Thus {U} = N
1
q
1
+ N
2
q
2
=
(1-)
2
(1+)
2
(0) +
(0.005)
2.5x10
-3
(1+) U()=2.5x10
-3
(1+)
Thus the displacement any where with in the element is given by U()=2.5x10
-3
(1+)
27
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to 31
st
Jan 2009
7
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Strain {} = [B] {q} But [B] =
1
le
[ -1 1]
{} =
1
500
[ -1 1]
Thus {} =
1
le
[ -1 1]
q
1
q
2
0
0.005
Stress {} = [D] {} = E = (2x10
5
)x(1x10
-5
) = 2 N/mm
2
(Tensile)
= 1x10
-5
(Tensile)
For the Element 2
q
1
= Q
2
= 0.005mm and q
2
= Q
3
= 0.01 mm
=
= -1
=+1
=0
1 2
q
2
q
1

Displacement in an element is given by {U} = [N]{q}


In which [N] = [ N
1
N
2
] is the Shape function matrix
{q} = q
1
is unknown nodal displacement vector
q
2
in which
N
1
=
(1-)
2
N
2
=
(1+)
2
are the shape functions of 1-D Bar Element.
and
Thus U(-1) = 0.005mm = 5x10
-3
mm at node 1 and U(+1) = 0.01mm at node 2
Thus {U} = N
1
q
1
+ N
2
q
2
=
(1-)
2
(1+)
2
(0.005) +
(0.01)
2.5x10
-3
(3+)
Thus the displacement any where with in the element is given by U()=2.5x10
-3
(3+)
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
8
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Strain {} = [B] {q} But [B] =
1
le
[ -1 1]
{} =
1
500
[ -1 1]
Thus {} =
1
le
[ -1 1]
q
1
q
2
0.005
0.01
Stress {} = [D] {} = E = (2x10
5
)x(1x10
-5
) = 2 N/mm
2
(Tensile)
= 1x10
-5
(Tensile)
Reaction forces are determined from the eliminated row of the characteristic equation
of the system i.e.
Thus 10
5
[2 -2 0]
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
= R
1
Thus R
1
=10
5
[2 -2 0]
0
0.005
0.01
Therefore R
1
= -1000 N
COMPARISON OF RESULTS
Analytical FEM
Displacements At Fixed End 0 0
Displacements Mid Length of Bar 0.005 mm 0.005 mm
Displacements Free End of the Bar 0.01 mm 0.01 mm
Strain 1x10
-5
1x10
-5
Stress 2 N/mm
2
2N/mm
2
Reactions -1000 N -1000 N
27
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st
Jan 2009
9
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
For the taper bar shown in figure determine the displacement, strain, stress and
reaction using two element discretization. Given length of the bar is 600mm, Cross
Section Area at the fixed end A
1
= 1200mm
2
and at the free end A
2
= 600 mm
2
, Load
P=1000N and Youngs Modulus 2x10
5
N/mm
2
P
A
1
L, E A
2
For the taper bar in the given length of 700mm,
Cross Section Area at the mid section is found to be
A
m
= 900 mm
2
Finite Element Analysis Solution:
Discretize the given structure with two 1-D bar element of
equal length l
e
= 300 mm
Q
1
Q
2
1
2
3
Q
2
1 2
Elemental Stiffness Matrix for a 1-D Bar Element
of uniform varying cross section is given by
E(A
1
+A
2
)
l
e
2
[k
e
] =
+1 -1
-1 +1
Then the Elemental Stiffness Matrix Element 1 is [k
1
] =
2x10
5
x(1200+900)
300 2
+1 -1
-1 +1
1
2
1 2
[k
1
] = 10
5
+7 -7
-7 +7
1
2
1 2
Similarly [k
2
] =
10
5
+5 -5
-5 +5
2
3
2 3
27
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to 31
st
Jan 2009
10
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Thus the overall stiffness matrix is [K
o
] =
+7 -7 0
-7 +12 -5
0 -5 5
1
2
3
1 2 3
10
5
Elemental Nodal force vector for a
concentrated force P
x
acting at x = a
is given by
[f
c
]=[N]
T
= a
[P
x
] =
N
1
N
2
P
x
=a
(1-a)
(1+a)
=
P
x
2
Since in the element 1 there is no force acting at either of the
node the elemental Nodal force vector for the element 1 will be
{f
c
1
}=
0
0
1
2
In the element 2 there is a force P
x
=1000 N is acting at the
second node the elemental Nodal force vector for the element 2
will be
{f
c
2
}=
0
1
2
3
1000
Overall Nodal force vector will be {F
o
}=
0
0+0
1
1
2
3
1000
{F
o
}=
0
0
1
1
2
3
1000
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
11
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Characteristic equation for the over all problem is given by [K
o
] {Q} = {F
o
}
Apply the boundary conditions. Since at node 1 the
bar is fixed hence Q
1
=0, Then by elimination
approach eliminating the first row and column in
the characteristic equation we have
10
5
7 -7 0
-7 12 -5
0 -5 5
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
0
0
1
= 1000
10
5
7 -7 0
-7 12 -5
0 -5 5
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
0
0
1
= 1000
10
5
12 -5
-5 5
Q
2
Q
3
0
1
= 1000
Then we Solving we get
Q
2
= 1.43x10
-3
mm and Q
3
= 3.43x10
-3
mm
Thus the solution is Q
1
= 0, Q
2
= 1.43x10
-3
mm and Q
3
= 3.43x10
-3
mm
For the Element 1
q
1
= Q
1
= 0 and q
2
= Q
2
= 1.43x10
-3
mm
DETERMINATION OF OTHER UNKNOWNS
= -1
=+1
=0
1 2
q
2
q
1

Displacement in an element is given by {U} = [N]{q}


In which [N] = [ N
1
N
2
] is the Shape function matrix
{q} = q
1
is unknown nodal displacement vector
q
2
in which
N
1
=
(1-)
2
N
2
=
(1+)
2
are the shape functions of 1-D Bar Element.
and
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
12
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Thus U(-1) = 0 at node 1 and U(+1) = 0.00143mm =1.43x10
-3
mm at node 2
Thus {U} = N
1
q
1
+ N
2
q
2
=
(1-)
2
(1+)
2
(0) +
(1.43x10
-3
)
= 7.15x10
-4
(1+)
U()=7.15x10
-4
(1+)
Thus the displacement any where with in the element is given by U()=7.15x10
-4
(1+)
Strain {} = [B] {q} But [B] =
1
le
[ -1 1]
{} =
1
300
[ -1 1]
Thus {} =
1
le
[ -1 1]
q
1
q
2
0
1.43x10
-3
Stress {} = [D] {} = E = (2x10
5
)x(4.77x10
-6
) = 0.9534 N/mm
2
(Tensile)
= 4.77x10
-6
(Tensile)
For the Element 2
q
1
= Q
2
= 1.43x10
-3
mm and q
2
= Q
3
= 3.43x10
-3
mm
= -1
=+1
=0
1 2
q
2
q
1

Displacement in an element is given by {U} = [N]{q}


In which [N] = [ N
1
N
2
] is the Shape function matrix
{q} = q
1
is unknown nodal displacement vector
q
2
in which
N
1
=
(1-)
2
N
2
=
(1+)
2
are the shape functions of 1-D Bar Element.
and
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
13
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
in which
N
1
=
(1-)
2
N
2
=
(1+)
2
are the shape functions of 1-D Bar Element.
and
Thus U(-1) = 1.43x10
-3
mm at node 1 and U(+1) = 3.43x10
-3
mm at node 2
Thus {U} = N
1
q
1
+ N
2
q
2
=
(1-)
2
(1+)
2
(1.43x10
-3
) +
(3.43x10
-3
) = 10
-3
(2.43+)
Thus the displacement any where with in the element is given by U()=10
-3
(2.43+)
Strain {} = [B] {q} But [B] =
1
le
[ -1 1]
{} =
1
300
[ -1 1]
Thus {} =
1
le
[ -1 1]
q
1
q
2
1.43x10
-3
3.43x10
-3
Stress {} = [D] {} = E = (2x10
5
)x(6.67x10
-6
) = 1.334 N/mm
2
(Tensile)
= 6.67x10
-6
(Tensile)
Reaction forces are determined from the eliminated row of the characteristic equation
of the system i.e.
Thus 10
5
[7 -7 0]
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
= R
1
Thus R
1
= 10
5
[7 -7 0]
0
1.43x10
-3
3.42X10
-3
Therefore R
1
= -1000 N
{
x
}
= 6.67x10
-6
(Tensile)
= -1000 N
27
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Jan 2009
14
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Finite Element Analysis Solution:
Discretize the given structure with two 1-D bar element
Q
1
Q
2
1
2
3
Q
2
1 2
Elemental Stiffness Matrix for a 1-D Bar Element of
uniform varying cross section is given by
Aluminum
Steel
10 kN
For the Stepped bar shown in figure an axial load of
10 kN is applied at 20
o
C as shown. When the
temperature is raised to 80
o
C determine the
displacement, strain, stress and reaction using two
element discretization. Rise in Temperature is 60
o
C
Aluminum Steel
L 500mm 250 mm
A 1000 mm
2
500 mm
2
E 0.7x105 N/mm
2
2x105 N/mm
2
A 23x10-6 /
0
C 11.7x10-6 /
o
C
EA
l
e
[k
e
] =
+1 -1
-1 +1
For the Element 1 [k
1
] =
0.7x10
5
x1000
500
+1 -1
-1 +1
1
2
1 2
10
5
1.4 -1.4
-1.4 1.4
1
2
1 2
=
Similarly [k
2
] =
10
5
4 -4
-4 4
2
3
2 3
10
5
[K
o
] =
1.4 -1.4 0
-1.4 5.4 -4
0 -4 4
1 2 3
1
2
3
Overall stiffness matrix
Elemental Nodal force vector for a
concentrated force P
x
acting at x = a
is given by
[f
c
]=[N]
T
= a
[P
x
] =
N
1
N
2
P
x
=a
(1-a)
(1+a)
=
P
x
2
27
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st
Jan 2009
15
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Since in the element 2 there is no force acting at either of the
node the elemental Nodal force vector for the element 2 will be
{f
c
2
}=
0
0
1
2
In the element 1 there is a force P
x
=10 kN acting at the second
node the Elemental Nodal force vector for the element 2 will be
{f
c
1
} =
0
1
1
2
10
4
Overall Nodal force vector will be {F
o
}=
0
1+0
0
1
2
3
10
4
{F
c
o
}=
0
1
0
1
2
3
10
4
The Elemental nodal force vector due to temperature change T is {f
int
} =
-1
1
{F
o
} = {F
c
o
} +{F
int
o
}
EAT
Elemental Nodal force vector due to temperature in the element 1 and 2 will be
{f
int
1
} =
-1
1
1
2
0.7x10
5
x1000x23x10
-6
x60
=
-9.66
9.66
1
2
10
4
{f
int
1
} =
-1
1
1
2
2x10
5
x500x11.7x10
-6
x60
=
-7.02
7.02
2
3
10
4
Thus {F
int
o
} =
-9.66
2.64
7.02
1
2
3
10
4
Thus {F
int
o
} =
-9.66
9.66 7.02
7.02
1
2
3
10
4
Overall Nodal force vector due to
combined temperature and
concentrated load will be
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
16
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
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FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Thus the overall Nodal force vector
due to combined temperature and
concentrated load will be
{F
o
} =
0
1
0
1
2
3
10
4
+
-
9.66
2.64
7.02
1
2
3
10
4
F
o
=
-
9.66
3.64
7.02
1
2
3
10
4
Characteristic equation for the over all problem is given by [K
o
] {Q} = {F
o
}
Apply the boundary conditions. Since at node 1 and 3 the bar is fixed hence Q
1
= Q
3
=0,
Then by elimination approach eliminating the first and the third row and column in
the characteristic equation we have
Then we 5.4x10
5
Q
2
=3.64x10
4
Solving we get
Thus the solution is Q
1
= 0, Q
2
= 0.068 mm and Q
3
= 0
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
10
5
1.4 -1.4 0
-1.4 5.4 -4
0 -4 4
1 2 3
1
2
3
-
9.66
3.64
7.02
1
2
3
= 10
4
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
10
5
1.4 -1.4 0
-1.4 5.4 -4
0 -4 4
1 2 3
1
2
3
-
9.66
3.64
7.02
1
2
3
= 10
4
Q
2
= 0.068 mm
Q
2
= 0.068 mm
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
17
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
For the Element 1
q
1
= Q
1
= 0 and q
2
= Q
2
= 0.068 mm
DETERMINATION OF OTHER UNKNOWNS
= -1
=+1
=0
1 2
q
2
q
1

Displacement in an element is given by {U} = [N]{q}


In which [N] = [ N
1
N
2
] is the Shape function matrix
{q} = q
1
is unknown nodal displacement vector
q
2
in which
N
1
=
(1-)
2
N
2
=
(1+)
2
are the shape functions of 1-D Bar Element.
and
Thus U(-1) = 0 at node 1 and U(+1) = 0.068mm at node 2
Thus {U} = N
1
q
1
+ N
2
q
2
=
(1-)
2
(1+)
2
(0) +
(0.068)
= 0.034(1+) U()=0.034(1+)
Thus the displacement any where with in the element is given by U()=0.034(1+)
Strain { -
int
}=[B] {q} - T
1
500
[ -1 1]
0
0.068
Stress {} = [D] {
t
} = E
t
= (0.7x10
5
)x(-1.244x10
-3
) = -87.08 N/mm
2
(Compressive)
=
1
le
[ -1 1]
q
1
q
2
= T
- 23x10
-6
x60
(Compressive)
Strain
t
={ -
int
} = -1.244x10
-3
Stress {} = - 87.08 N/mm
2
(Compressive)
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
18
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
For the Element 2
q
1
= Q
2
= 0.068 mm and q
2
= Q
3
= 0
DETERMINATION OF OTHER UNKNOWNS
= -1
=+1
=0
1 2
q
2
q
1

Displacement in an element is given by {U} = [N]{q}


In which [N] = [ N
1
N
2
] is the Shape function matrix
{q} = q
1
is unknown nodal displacement vector
q
2
in which
N
1
=
(1-)
2
N
2
=
(1+)
2
are the shape functions of 1-D Bar Element.
and
Thus U(-1) = 0.068 mm at node 1 and U(+1) = 0 at node 2
Thus {U} = N
1
q
1
+ N
2
q
2
=
(1-)
2
(1+)
2
(0.068) +
(0)
= 0.034(1- ) U()=0.034(1- )
Thus the displacement any where with in the element is given by U()=0.034(1- )
Strain { -
int
}=[B] {q} - T
1
250
[ -1 1]
0.068
0
Stress {} = [D] {
t
} = E
t
= (2x10
5
)x(-9.74x10
-4
) = -194.8 N/mm
2
(Compressive)
=
1
le
[ -1 1]
q
1
q
2
= T
- 11.7x10
-6
x60
(Compressive)
Strain
t
={ -
int
} = - 9.74x10
-4
Stress {} = - 194.8 N/mm
2
(Compressive)
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
19
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Reaction forces are determined from the eliminated rows of the characteristic equation
of the system i.e.
Therefore R
1
= -9520 N R2 = -2720 N
Thus
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
10
5
1.4 -1.4 0
0 -4 4
1 2 3
1
3
=
R
1
R
3
Then we have 10
5
1.4 -1.4 0
0 -4 4
1 2 3
1
3
=
R
1
R
3
0
0.068
0
= 10
5
R
1
R
3
1.4x0 1.4x0.068 + 0x0
0x0 4x0.068 + 4x0
=
-9520
-2720
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
20
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
For the simple bar shown in figure determine the displacement,
strain, stress caused due to self weight using two element
discretization. Given length of the bar is 0.5m, Cross Section Area of
the bar is 0.1m
2
, =7848 kg/m
3
and Youngs Modulus 2x10
11
N/m
2
.
A,
L,
E

Analytical Solution:
Displacement in the bar at any section u
x
= x
gl
2E
x
7848x9.81x0.5
2x2x10
11
=
Displacement in the bar at the free end x=0.5 is =
= 4.812x10
-8
7848x9.81x0.5
2
2x2x10
11
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
21
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Finite Element Analysis Solution:
Discretize the given structure with two 1-D bar element of
equal length l
e
= 0.25 m
Q
1
Q
2
1
2
3
Q
2
1
2
Elemental Stiffness Matrix for a 1-D Bar Element of uniform
cross section is given by
EA
l
e
[k
e
] =
+1 -1
-1 +1
Then the Elemental Stiffness Matrix Element 1 is given by[k
1
] =
2x10
11
x0.1
0.25
Then the Elemental Stiffness Matrix Element 2 is given by[k
2
] =
[k
1
] = 10
10
+8 -8
-8 +8
Then we have
[k
2
] = 10
10
+8 -8
-8 +8
and
Then the Overall Stiffness Matrix 2 is given by
2x10
11
x0.1
0.25
+1 -1
-1 +1
2
3
2 3
+1 -1
-1 +1
1
2
1 2
[K
o
] = 10
10
8 -8 0
-8 8+8 -8
0 -8 8
1
2
3
1 2 3
=10
5
8 -8 0
-8 16 -8
0 -8 8
1
2
3
1 2 3
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
22
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Characteristic equation for the over all problem is given by [K
o
] {Q} = {F
o
}
Apply the boundary conditions. Since at node 1 the
bar is fixed hence Q
1
=0, Then by elimination
approach eliminating the first row and column in the
characteristic equation we have
10
10
8 -8 0
-8 16 -8
0 -8 8
1
2
3
1 2 3
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
1
2
1
962.36
The elemental load vector due to body force is given by
gl
e
2
[f
b
] =
1
1
Then the Elemental load vector in the element 1 is given by
7848x9.81x0.1x0.25
2
[f
b
1
] =
1
1
1
2
= 962.36
1
1
Similarly Elemental load vector in the element 2 is given by
2
3
= 962.36
1
1
Then the Overall Nodal Force Vector due to self weight will be
{F
o
}=
1
2
1
962.36
1
2
3
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
23
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
For the Element 1
q
1
= Q
1
= 0 and q
2
= Q
2
= 3.61x10
-8
mm
10
10
8 -8 0
-8 16 -8
0 -8 8
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
1
2
1
962.36
10
10
16 -8
-8 8
Q
2
Q
3
2
1
962.36
Then we
Solving we get
Q
2
= 3.61x10
-8
mm and Q
3
= 4.81x10
-8
mm
Solution for the displacements are Q
1
= 0, Q
2
= 3.61x10
-8
mm and Q
3
= 4.81x10
-8
mm
DETERMINATION OF OTHER UNKNOWNS
= -1
=+1
=0
1 2
q
2
q
1

Displacement in an element is given by {U} = [N]{q}


In which [N] = [ N
1
N
2
] is the Shape function matrix
{q} = q
1
is unknown nodal displacement vector
q
2
in which
N
1
=
(1-)
2
N
2
=
(1+)
2
are the shape functions of 1-D Bar Element.
and
Thus U(-1) = 0 at node 1 and U(+1) = 3.61x10
-8
mm at node 2
Thus {U} = N
1
q
1
+ N
2
q
2
=
(1-)
2
(1+)
2
(0) +
(3.61x10
-8
)
2.5x10
-3
(1+)
U()=1.805x10
-8
(1+)
Displacement any where with in the element is given by U()=1.805x10
-8
(1+)
=
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
24
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Strain {} = [B] {q} But [B] =
1
le
[ -1 1]
{} =
1
0.25
[ -1 1]
Thus {} =
1
le
[ -1 1]
q
1
q
2
0
3.61x10
-8
Stress {} = [D] {} = E = (2x10
11
)x(1.444x10
-7
) = 2.888x10
4
N/mm
2
(Tensile)
= 1.444x10
-7
(Tensile)
For the Element 2
q
1
= Q
2
= 3.61x10
-8
mm and q
2
= Q
3
= 4.61x10
-8
mm
=
= -1
=+1
=0
1 2
q
2
q
1

Displacement in an element is given by {U} = [N]{q}


In which [N] = [ N
1
N
2
] is the Shape function matrix
{q} = q
1
is unknown nodal displacement vector
q
2
in which
N
1
=
(1-)
2
N
2
=
(1+)
2
are the shape functions of 1-D Bar Element.
and
Thus U(-1) = 3.61x10
-8
mm at node 1 and U(+1) = 4.81x10
-8
mm at node 2
Thus {U} = N
1
q
1
+ N
2
q
2
=
(1-)
2
(1+)
2
(3.61x10
-6
) +
(4.81x10
-8
) 10
-8
(4.21+0.6)
Thus the displacement any where with in the element is given by U()=10
-8
(4.21+0.6)
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
25
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
Strain {} = [B] {q} But [B] =
1
le
[ -1 1]
{} =
1
0.25
[ -1 1]
Thus {} =
1
le
[ -1 1]
q
1
q
2
3.61x10
-8
4.81x10
-8
Stress {} = [D] {} = E = (2x10
11
)x(4.8x10
-8
) = 9600 N/mm
2
(Tensile)
= 4.8x10
-8
(Tensile)
Reaction forces are determined from the eliminated row of the characteristic equation
of the system i.e.
Thus 10
11
[8 -8 0]
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
= R
1
Thus R
1
=10
11
[8 -8 0]
0
3.61x10-8
4.81x10-8
R
1
= -28.88x10
3
N
27
th
to 31
st
Jan 2009
26
Dr. T. JAGADISH
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bangalore Institute of Technology
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ON
ON
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS