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CASE STUDY: PT TELKOMS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND TRAINING PROCESS

Agung Budiman Annisa Kusumawardhani Sabran Maria Grace Imanuella Ramavito Mountaino Yohann Mayo P

INTRODUCTION
Managing human resources is one of the most important things to support activities in a company. To attain profit sought by the company, they have to pay attention to the human resources available in fulfilling their goal. Companies need to meticulously plan and analyze the process of recruitment, selection, and training stage, to produce high-quality workforce. PT Telkom is a company that is trying to survive the constantly changing circumstances. In the past, many people were keen to work in PT Telkom, considering it as a pride. Today, with the Y generation searching for jobs in the labour market, the interest in working in the company has slowly diminished. Moreover, the existing new employees merely utilize PT Telkom as a stepping stone. PT Telkom needs new employees to perform daily activities and regeneration. Thus a strategy in managing human resources is an important factor in order for PT Telkom to sustain its business, and this becomes an interesting point of study. Therefore, by looking at the three topics, recruitment, selection and training; a wider understanding of the real case of PT Telkom will broaden the knowledge on the issue. 23 Oktober 1856 - layanan jasa telegraf elektromagnetik Jakarta (Batavia) Bogor (Buitenzorg) 1961 - Perusahaan Negara Pos dan Telekomunikasi (PN Postel) 1965 - PN Postel dipecah menjadi Perusahaan Negara Pos dan Giro (PN Pos & Giro) dan Perusahaan Negara Telekomunikasi (PN Telekomunikasi) 1974 - PN Telekomunikasi diubah namanya menjadi Perusahaan Umum Telekomunikasi (Perumtel) 1991 - Perumtel berubah bentuk menjadi Perusahaan Perseroan (Persero) Telekomunikasi Indonesia 14 November 1995 - IPO

THEORETICAL REVIEW
Recruitment Recruitment is the process where the company offers a job opening to the public for the opportunity to work at the company. The purpose of a recruitment procedure is to attract suitable candidates and carefully inspect their credentials in order to construct a shortlist for further screening (Anyim et al., 2012). Companies typically hold recruitment at a time when

companies need employees to support its performance. To ensure people would want to apply for work at the company, the company need to be an attractive workplace. If the company does possess the appeal, few people would be interested in applying, especially candidates with remarkable potential. However, if the company does possess the appeal, it could have potential job candidates trying to apply, even when there are no vacancies. In the recruitment process, companies typically determine the minimum requirements that must be possessed by the prospective employees. This is to make sure that candidates who are unqualified are filtered out. It also help smoothen the company to conduct the selection process. This requirement can include a minimum GPA, experience or majors.

Selection Selection is the process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings. The selection of candidates varies from one employer to another, depending on the type of vacancy being offered. It has been a common practice for many employers to select graduates via face-to-face interviews and tests, but a vast number of employers use other methods such as telephone interviews, assessment centres and online testing (Branine, 2008). The selection process should start with a job analysis. Research shows that complete and clear job specifications help interviewers differentiate between qualified and unqualified applicants and reduces the effect of an interviewers biases and prejudices. The number of steps in the selection process and their sequence will vary, not only with the organization, but also with the type and level of jobs to be filled. The example of steps in the selection process are submission of resume, completion of application, interviews, references and background checks, pre-employment tests, medical exam/drug test, and hiring decision. The employee selection process should provide as much reliable and valid information as possible about applicants so that their qualifications can be carefully matched with the jobs specifications. Employers use many different pieces of information to try to determine if an applicant will be successful on the job. The initial pieces of information for screening candidates include resumes, cover letters, and applications, and often the internet. Interviews are customarily used in conjunction with resumes, application forms, biographical information blanks, references, background information, and various types of pre-employment tests. Despite problems with its validity, the employment interview remains central to the selection process. Depending on the type of job, applicants could be

interviewed by one person, members of work team, or other individuals in the organization. Structured interviews have been found to be better predictors of the performances of job applicants than non-structured interviews. Some interviews are situational and can focus on hypothetical situations or actual behavioural descriptions of a candidates previous work experiences. Although interviews have the danger of subjectivity, companies avoid such problems by having a panel of two or sequential interviews with different people which results in the benefit gained that is face-to-face contact and the ability to assess the social and communication skill of potential candidates for the work (Branine, 2008). A pre-employment test is an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behaviour that is used to gauge a persons knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics relative to other individuals. The different types of pre-employment tests are job knowledge tests, work sample tests, assessment centre tests, cognitive ability tests, biodata tests, personality and interest inventories, honesty and integrity tests, polygraph tests, physical ability tests, medical examinations, and drug tests. Fundamentally, an employer is interested in what an applicant can do and will do. Evaluating candidates on the basic information you have assembled should focus on the two factors. The can do factors include a candidates knowledge and skills, as well as the aptitude for acquiring new knowledge and skills. The will do factors include the candidates motivation, interests, and other personality characteristics. Both factors are essential to successful performance on the job. The employee who has the ability (can do) but is not motivated to use it (will not do) is will perform better than the employee who lacks the necessary ability. Recruitment and selection are both vital processes for organizations. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that the creation of a positive psychological contract with employees provides the basis for a positive outcome in terms of organizational commitment and motivation. Recruitment and selection are important tools in the formation of the expectations that create such a contract. (Anyim et al., 2012). Moreover, it is also argued that recruitment and selection extends to attracting suitable candidates, eliminating unsuitable candidates and converting the successful candidates to an effective employee (Anyim et al., 2012).

Training The strategic model of Training consists of four phases: 1. Needs assessment, this phase includes organizational analysis, which is the study of environment, strategies and resources to determine where to emphasize training; task analysis

which consists of the activities to be performed to determine the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in addition to person analysis that is the performance, knowledge and skills in order to determine who requires training. 2. Designing the training program, this phase consists of the instructional objectives which describe the skills and knowledge to be acquired and/or the attitudes to be altered; the trainee readiness and motivation which is whether the experience of the trainees has made them receptive to the training received and the link between their effort and the payoff; the principles of learning which considers the psychological principles of learning to help better understand how materials, make sense of it in their lives and transfer it to their jobs by materials grasped by employees and the characteristics of instructors that depends on teaching skills and personal characteristics. Studies shows that trainees believe the trainers in-depth knowledge, the ability to customize the training to the audience and the organizational skills of the trainer is relevant to the retention of the material (Woulfe, 2010). 3. Implementing the training program, this includes management development trainings such as seminars and conferences, on-the job experiences and corporate universities. 4. Evaluating the training program, this consists of the reactions of the employee, what they have learned, the transfer of learning and the result of the training. Effective communication and co-ordination between managers and human resource planners could result in the identification of training and development needs that is greater than the current requirements and therefore forecasting the number of personnel that may be required at any given time, consequently, smoothening the recruitment and selection process (Anyim et al., 2012).

ANALYSIS
Recruitment 280 employees were recruited during 2012, with an expenditure totalling to Rp 2 billion for the recruitment program. Because the company wishes to have a leaner organizational structure, it only recruits 20% of the number of employees that exists the company, whether due to resigning, retiring or death. Determining how recruitment is conducted could create greater interest from the job candidates the company searches, the top talent today are technically savvy and will search for companies that fit characteristics similar to their own (Stanna, 2010).

Internal recruitment is conducted by optimizing existing human resources via synergies across Telkom Group to enable efficiency in employee turnover expenses and obtain best candidates while simultaneously facilitating employee career development. Internal recruitment is done by Telkom when its subsidiary companies require the skill of the candidate elsewhere, they are placed in other companies within the group. Furthermore, when a candidate is considered to have potential, but not necessary in line with the values and qualifications of Telkom, the candidate will be recommended to its subsidiary companies. External recruitment is focused on recruitment of employees with higher-level educational background and those with specific competences currently lacking within Telkom. Recruiting externally is done through three sources: (1) Job fair, where Telkom attends various career recruitment fairs (2) Campus recruitment, in which Telkom goes directly to campuses with the required majors for the company, such as ITB and ITS, known for its electro programme (3) Online, where candidates all around Indonesia apply for the job. In Telkom, career development focuses on: leadership development, strategically support the companys aim and solving the discrepancy among the employees competencies. Telkomsels human resource development is based on: Corporate Strategy Scenario (CSS), the Master Plan for Human Capital (MPHC), the Training Needs Analysis (TNA), as well as organizational transformation and financial growth.

Selection Selection is the next process of the stage where the eligible candidates has passed the initial qualification to work in PT Telkom. PT Telkom has several stages of selection process including: cognitive tests, personality tests ( psychological test ) and the interview test . Even after the candidate has passed the interview test, a medical test is conducted to ensure the employee is in a fit health condition to be able to perform well in the company. PT Telkom does not discriminate against women or disabled people, but only look at their qualifications. The initial test conducted by PT Telkom is the cognitive test consisting of a test of knowledge and also the TOEFL test. There is a minimum requirement from PT Telkom to be fulfilled by candidates in order to pass the test, such as a TOEFL score of at least 500 . If the candidate fails to pass the test then the candidate is not eligible proceed to the next stage. The next test is a personality test or psycho test. PT Telkom wants to gain an understanding of the candidate's personality to see if their values are congruent with the company. Core values of PT Telkom in the form of 3S (Speed Smart Solid) is reflected in the corporate philosophy that is integrity, enthusiasm and totality. The next part of the test, is the interview test where

human resources work with a psychologist to analyze prospective candidates. The concern of PT Telkom today is keeping up with the challenge of a younger generation who only enters the company as a stepping stone. After the candidate passes the interview test, a medical test is conducted to ascertain that the prospective employee is in good health. After the employee is accepted, they are on a one year orientation process, with a temporary contract. In one year, the employee will be trained in various matters relating to the daily work of PT Telkom and also the tasks that must be done. After a period of one year, employees who perform well will be offered a permanent contract.

Training Telkom allocates a total of Rp 158 billion for training and education programs on 2012, with an average of Rp 8 million for each participating employee. The spending on Global Talent Program (GTP), which ensures human resources have global exposure on how business is growing across geographical boundaries as a vehicle to face the global competition, is Rp 14 billion. Another competency development program includes expenditure on international certification which amounts to Rp 6 billion. In 2012, a total of 21,013 employees have attended various training sessions in competency development. The programs were conducted in Indonesia as well as abroad, with 3,899 employees attending the Telecommunication stream session, 3,951 employees for the Information stream session, and 139 employees for Media and Edutainment stream sessions. 934 employees have attended the Leadership Program, 488 employees for the New Culture program, and 295 employees for the Telkom Group Synergy program. Additionally, 473 employees have participated in a variety of certification programs. Competency development emphasizes on the following areas: (1) Cultural development, focusing on the internalization and reinforcement of core values as the foundation for building corporate culture, specifically 5C: Commitment to Long Term, Customer First, Caring Meritocracy, co-creation of Win-Win Partnership and Collaborative Innovation. (2) Role development, focusing on the personal qualities development as required by every category of the respective/defined role. (3) Skill development with reference to work requirements. The needs assessment of training by Telkom includes establishing competency development strategies through the Human Capital Master Plan, a form of organizational analysis which is continuously updated every year to adjust to the changing dynamics of the business. The approach of competency-based human resource management is used to asses

existing human capital competencies, by doing task analysis, such as Core Competency (values), Generic Competency (Personal Quality) and the Specific Competency (Skill & Knowledge). The development of these models are done to create a fair and transparent employee competency assessment. Telkoms design phase includes the instructional objectives which is a directory of competencies specifying the competencies required by Telkom that is constantly updated to keep pace with business progresses such as the skills and knowledge imperative for the business portfolio transformation into Telecommunications, Information, Media,

Edutainment and Services. Trainees have to be motivated by tailoring each training activities with clear goals, accommodating individual difference, feedback and reinforcement. To develop competencies for the companys future leader, Telkom engages in leadership development training programs, including: (1) Basic Level Leadership (Supervisory Leadership Fundamentals, Functional Supervisory Leadership); Intermediate Level Leadership (Functional Leadership, Public Leadership for Mid-Management) and (2) Senior Level Leadership (Functional Leadership, Training Commander, Public Leadership for Senior Management). To deliver the corporate values that is commitment to long-term and caring meritocracy, the company invests heavily on people shown by the establishment of Telkom Corporate University in 2012. The three main functions of Telkom Corporate University are: (1) Centre of chief ship (creating great leader), which is expected to create highly qualified future leaders who are and globally ready, capable of performing in successions to meet the grinding demands of the constantly changing world. (2) Centre of competence (creating great people), which is aimed to produce tough and highly qualified people to understand that it is always people that play the most important role in the success of the company. (3) Centre of certification (creating a global standard), which is intended to produce global Human Resources standards. Every leadership and competency development programs will be supported by international standards and create man of international certification and standards. Telkom Corporate Universitys program also includes international certification. In 2012 alone, 363 of Telkoms employees received international certificates in a variety of fields. Another Telkoms Corporate Universitys main program in 2012 was the GTP. Global exposure is essential as Telkom believes that operating in Indonesia does not make the company free from tough foreign competition in the in the industry, particularly due to the fact that competitors include global players. Telkom has gradually sent talents to GTP for

global exposure and global experience to enable competing with global professionals. In 2012, Telkom sent 109 employees to countries like Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia, Timor Leste and Myanmar. In 2012, Telkom held various trainings to improve the competence of Board of Commissioners members, such as: (1) Jusman Syafii Djamal; Update on Technological Advances Stockholm, Sweden 2 8 October 2012 and GCG Assessment Jakarta, Indonesia 6 November 2012 (2) Johnny Swandi Sjam; Mobile World Congress 2012 Barcelona, Spain 27 February 1 March 2012, National Association of Broadcaster Show 2012 Las Vegas, USA 16 19 April 2012, Update on Technological Advances Stockholm, Sweden 2 8 October 2012 and GCG Assessment Jakarta, Indonesia 6 November 2012 and (3) Virano Gazi Nasution GCG Assessment Jakarta, Indonesia 6 November 2012. To enable maintaining and improving auditors competence in performing audit tasks and securing business growth, auditors receive training. During 2012, Internal Audit (IA) actively engages its auditors in preparation to gain international certifications, including CISA and CIA. Internal Audit (IA) continuously make efforts consisting of: (1) Engaging IA auditors in trainings, seminars and workshops on technical subjects and (2) Engaging IA auditors in continuous learning programs that have local and international Certifications. Training on work safety is also done by Telkom, the K3, which includes activities such as: (1) Training for General K3 Expert conducted in Semarang training centre (2) Simulation of Earthquake Emergency Response in Telkom East Jakarta (3) Simulation of Air Attacks Emergency (4) Response against vital object in collaboration with the Air Force at Cibinong SPU Satellite (5) Tsunami Emergency Response Training and simulation at Telkom Aceh (6) Earthquake Emergency Response Training and simulation in various locations including at Telkom Padang, Manado and Surabaya. In the evaluation of training program, Knowledge Management is part of competency development in which employees can exchange ideas and concepts and share information by articles made accessible to all of them. An objective performance assessment system is created for the purpose of evaluation training programs. Employee assessment is conducted on two aspects: results-based on individual targets and process-based on required competencies. An online assessment is employed to evaluate the demonstrated behaviours of employees at work, which illustrates whether effective application of principles learned are congruent to what is needed for the job.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


Telkom has to bring back the sense of pride working for the company, by continuously improving its performance, they can emphasize on the ability to contribute to Indonesias development by working in BUMN to attract potential employees. An advantage not other companies possess. Furthermore, they always have to be prepared for Gen Y, a generation which requires a different kind of treatment, to meet changes in demand they must create job challenges and a dynamic job environment. Furthermore, Telkom can improve its training program by a clear evaluation method. To know whether the training programmes are in fact effective, the company can assess participants reactions, understand what they have learned during the programme, how the training impact their job and measure the results in terms of its Return on Investment.

REFERENCES
Anyim, F.C., Ekwoaba, J.O & Anthony, I.D (2012). The Role Of Human Resource Planning In Recruitment And Selection Process. British Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(2), 68-79. Retrieved from http://www.ajournal.co.uk/ (MAIN JOURNAL) Bohlander, G.W. & Sneall, S.A. (2013). Principles of Human Resource Management. China: South Western Cengage Learning Branine, M. (2008). Graduate recruitment and selection in the UK: A study of the recent changes in methods and expectations. Career Development International, 13(6), 497513. Retrieved from ProQuest Education Journal Database. Stanna, B. Recruitment & Selection in the Near Future. Oil & Gas Journal, 108(15), page S1. Retrieved from ProQuest Education Journal Database. Telkom. (2013). Annual Report 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.telkom.co.id/ Woulfe, M.R. (2010). Corporate Training: Pulse Check. Proquest Research Libray, 64(9), 62-66. Retrieved from ProQuest Education Journal Database.