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Prasoon Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.

2(12), 2010, 7771-7784

IMPACT OF COAL MINING AND INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES ON LAND USE PATTERN IN ANGUL-TALCHER REGION OF ORISSA, INDIA
PRASOON KUMAR SINGH 1
Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, India Email: singhprasoon910@gmail.com, pks0506@yahoo.co.in

RUCHI SINGH
Senior Research Fellow, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad- 826004, India Email: ruchi.s.09@gmail.com

GURDEEP SINGH
Professor and Head Department of Environmental Science & Engineering Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad- 826004, India

Abstract: Mining and its allied industrial activities bring alteration in Land use pattern especially on forest cover and agricultural land in Angul-Talcher region of Orissa.The areas under forest cover and agricultural land have decreased from 38.67% to 27.96% and 42.14% to 28.92% over the study period (1973 2007) respectively. The water bodies have slightly decreased (0.07%) from 1973 to 2007. Mining areas have increased from 0.04% to 1.70% since 1973 to 2007. The areas under settlements/industries and barren land showed an increasing trend from 6.22% to 13.27% and 5.5% to 20.78% during the time period respectively.The present study revealed that mining and industrial activities were detrimental to the land use pattern. Thus, it is advisable that such activities have to be strictly regulated to avoid further damage and scientific mining has to be taken up in a proper manner to minimize the damage to the land use pattern. Keywords: Land use pattern; industrialization; mining; remote sensing. 1. Introduction

Ecosystem disturbance caused due to mining is an evitable fall out of industrialization and modern civilization. Forest ecosystems have important functions from an ecological perspective and provide services that are essential to maintain the life-support system on a local and global scale (Rao & Pant, 2001). The rate and the intensity of land use pattern change are very high in developing countries because of various human activities. Mining of coal both surface and subsurface causes enormous damage to the flora, fauna, hydrological relations and soil biological properties of the systems. Destruction of forests during mining operation is invariably accompanied by an extensive damage and loss to the system. The overburden of coal mines when dumped in unmined areas creates mine spoils which ultimately affects the surrounding vegetation. Mining operations, which involve minerals extraction from the earths crust tends to, make a notable impact on the environment, landscape and biological communities of the earth (Down & Stocks, 1997 and Bell et al.

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Prasoon Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7771-7784 2001). Unscientific mining of minerals poses a serious threat to the environment, resulting in reduction of forest cover, erosion of soil at a greater scale, pollution of air, water and land and reduction in biodiversity (UNESCO, 1985). The problems of waste rock dumps become devastating to the landscape around mining areas (Goretti, 1998). Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of India but deteriorate the environment (Tiwary, 2001). Coal is the primary source of energy and it become essential to meet the energy demand of India. Seventy percent of total electricity generation in India is from coal based thermal power plants (Shanmugam, Kulshreshtha, 2005). Due to mining various allies industries have been develop around the area. Demands of lands have been increased with increased in industries. Mining for minerals and fossil fuels causes vast tracts of forest lands to be cleared (Aryee et al. 2003; Sarma 2005). Destruction of forests during mining operation is invariably accompanied by an extensive damage and loss to the system. The overburden of coal mines when dumped in unmined areas creates mine spoils which ultimately affects the surrounding vegetation. Mining has altered landscapes all over the world such as forested regions of the Appalachian Mountains (Townsend et al. 2008), Ghana (Yelpaala and Ali 2005), Germany (Huettl 1998), and others. India is also endowed with important mineral resources (Vagholikar et al. 2003; Ghose 2003), and over the years, extraction of these have resulted ecosystems degradation (Swer and Singh 2004). Angul-Talcher region is one of the major industrial zones in the state of Orissa. The extensive Talcher Coal Fields and Mahanadi Coalfield Limited (MCL) are located in this region. Coal mining has been most extensively practiced in the Angul districts of Orissa, as a result of this, the original lush green landscape have been converted to mine spoils. Large scale destruction of forest cover and degradation of agricultural lands are some of the conspicuous implications of coal mining and its allied industries. A detailed understanding of the impact of coal mining and its allied industries on changes in land use/land cover pattern on time and space is pre-requisite for the district. Therefore, present study was undertaken to analyze the process of human induced landscape transformation in the coal mined and its allied industries affected areas of Angul-Talcher region of Orissa by interpreting the temporal remote sensing data using geological information system. In order to achieve this objective the land cover types (forest cover, agricultural land, barren land, settlements, water bodies and mining area) were delineated. 2. Study Area The study area is located in the Angul district of Orissa. (Fig.1). Geographically it is bounded by latitudes 20o 44to 21o 08North and longitudes 84o 56 to 85o 20 East, encompassing a total area of about 1800 sq km. Angul is situated at an average height of 139 meters above mean sea level and at a distance of 160 Km. from the State capital, Bhubaneswar. The area experiences tropical monsoon climate with three distinct seasons in a year viz. summer, rainy and winter. The summer season extends from March to May, rainy season from June to September and winter season from November to February. The Brahmani valley portion exposes mainly granites and its variants and gneiss with occasional hillocks of Khandolites, while the remaining part from west of Murhi and north of Angul upto the western end of the district is characterised by considerably flat country underlain by sedimentary rocks of Gondawana group having large deposits of coal (Talcher Coal Fields). 3. Materials and Methods 3.1 Topographic Maps The study area is covered by nine no. of SOI topographic maps (73C/16, 73D/13, 73D/14, 73G/4, 73H/1, 73H/2, 73G/8, 73H/5, and 73H/6) either in full or in part. Survey of India (SOI) topographic maps on 1:50,000 scales (surveyed between 1973 and 1981) were used as the base map for preparing the land-use/ land-cover map of the study area. 3.2 Satellite data used Satellite imageries (IRS-P6) were collected from NRSC (National Remote Sensing Centre) Hyderabad of 2007. 3.3 Software used Satellite data used were preprocessed using Erdas Imagine Version 9.1 and AUTOCAD 2007 software used for digitization. MS office 2007 3.4 Preparation of Base map Survey of India topographic maps numbered 73C/16, 73D/13, 73D/14, 73G/4, 73H/1, 73H/2, 73G/8, 73H/5, and 73H/6 on 1:50,000 scale surveyed between 1973 to 1981 were used to prepare the base map. All these maps were electronically scanned and digitised through AUTOCAD 2007 software. Surface features like railway lines, roads, settlements, rivers, streams and drainage pattern, etc. were digitized.

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Fig. 1: Location map of the study area 3.5 Preparation of Land-use/ land-cover map IRS-P6/1C Satellite Imageries (2007) were used for the preparation land use/ land cover map. False Colour Composite (FCC) satellite imagery of LISS-III and its corresponding digital satellite data were used to prepare recent land-use map of the study area. The LISS-III data in 4 Bands, i.e., Band 2 green, Band 3 - red, Band 4 near infra red and Band 5 mid infra red, acquired by the IRS-P6 satellite on 13th Dec., 2007 (Path no. 105 and Row no. 57, 58) and 18th Dec., 2007 (Path no. 106 and Row no. 57, 58) were used. The Path no. and Row no. were calculated from soft copies of satellite imagery. Supervised classification of the study area was done using ERDAS 9.1software. However, visible interpretations were also done on the imagery for doubtful area, and

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Prasoon Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7771-7784 better clarification followed by groundtruthing. FCC hard copy satellite imagery on 1:50,000 scales in 9 coloured photographic sheets were prepared by National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad. These were geo-coded, i.e., rectified to match the Survey of India topographic maps, free of cloud cover with 12.5 m spatial resolution. 3.6 Land-use Classification A generalized land-use classification was adopted based on the land-use classification system developed by NRSA, 1989. Similar land-use types were grouped into one generalized land-use type to form the following six main land-use types in the study area. 1) Mining area consisting of both quarries and overburden dumps. 2) Settlements which consists of built-up land, industries, roads and railway lines. 3) Water bodies consisting of rivers, streams, nalas, wet lands, reservoirs and ponds. 4) Forest land consisting of dense forest, open forest, scrub forest, forest plantation and shifting cultivation. 5) Agriculture land that consists of kharif, rabi, double crop and all types of land capable of doing agriculture, either presently cultivated or fallow land 6) Barren land/ waste land consisting of gullied, barren rock, land with scrub, and land without scrub but excluding mining area (mining area has been considered as a separate land-use unit in the study area). Ground truth verification of land-use map prepared from remote sensing data was done to verify the interpreted land-use features along random traverses wherever approachable and feasible. The ground verification was performed by visual inspection of the interpreted land-use features in the field and also by using Global Positioning System (GPS). The past land-use/ land-cover was deduced from the Survey of India topographic maps (1973). 3.7 Area estimation of land-use units Two land use maps of the area have been prepared. The area in sq km of the six land-use units of the recent (Dec., 2007) and past (1973) land-use maps were estimated grid-wise for the whole of the study area. The total study area (1800 sq km) has been divided into 36 grid and area of one grid is 50 sq km (Fig. 2). A digital planimeter was used for this purpose. This was done to assess the area covered by each land-use unit and its percentage of occurrence compared to the total study area. Comparison between different land-use features was also done.

Fig. 2: Grid map of the study area

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Prasoon Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7771-7784 4. Results and Discussion

Mining and industrialization in Angul-Talcher region have been more than double in last 34 years. The infrastructure of the study area has been changed. Grid wise changes in land use pattern have been shown in Table 1 & Table 2. Comparison of the areas and change of the six Land use classes between 1973 & 2007 have been shown in Table 3 & Fig. 3. Maximum reduction has been found in forest area (192.83 sq. km) and agricultural land (237.92 sq km) and maximum increase in barren land (275.1 sq km) in 34 years, which has been shown by Land use map of the study area ( Fig. 4 & 5) of 1973 and 2007 respectively. The impact of mining and its allied industries on land use pattern of the study area have discussed below 4.1 Mining Coal is the major mining product in the district. Talcher area has extensive coal mines. Other minerals/ores include fire clay and sand, but in terms of area, output and value these are very less as compared to coal. In 1973 mining had been found only in two grids 21 (0.44 sq. km) and 22 (0.25 sq. km) which has been increased in 2007 upto five grids 9 (3.41 sq. km), 15 (7.97 sq. km), 16 (2.5 sq. km), 21(12.89 sq. km) and 22 (3.89 sq.km). The agricultural land and forest cover area have been decreased in these grids due to increased in opencast mining activities. Because of heavy machineries and extra activities the compactness of soil has increased so qualities of soil have been decreased in and around mining area. Huge amount of overburden dumps and other mining wastes has been dump on useful land. 4.2 Settlements/ industries There is a significant reduction in settlements in grids 15 (0.46 sq. km) and 21 (0.25 sq. km) people are replaced in some other places by governments due to mining activities. So mining has been increased in same grids 15 (7.97 sq.km) and 21 (12.45 sq.km). Except these two grids (15 and 21) the settlements have been increased in all the grids and maximum increased in Grids 17 (20.66 sq.km), 18 (10.98 sq.km), 23 (13.73 sq.km), 24 (9.5 sq.km), 28 (9.45 sq.km) and 29 (13.4 sq. km). Settlements increased because population has been increased in Grids 9 (15733), 16 (17638), 17 (19023), 18 (19327), 23 (21178), 24 (20201) 28 (18672) and 33 (17765). These grids are nearer to Talcher coalfield area and urban area (Angul) so because of mining activities lots of industries like NALCO, Talcher Thermal Power Plant, Kanhia Thermal Power Plant etc has been established there which provide the employment of local people. Because of urbanization better hospital, school colleges and some markets are open which provide the better facilities of people. Urbanization also finds expression principally in outward expansion of the built-up area and conversion of prime agricultural lands and forest land into residential and industrial uses. 4.3 Water bodies Water bodies have been similar in all the grids except two grids 21 and 27. In grid 21 water bodies has been decrease upto 0.45 sq. km and grid 27 upto 0.9 sq. km. In grid 21 and grid 27 water bodies are affected by mining activities due to mining depletion of ground water level in and around the mining area. Surface water and ground water are mainly used for irrigation and industrial purposes. Especially huge amount of water used in mining and industrial purposes which are responsible for the depletion of water level in the study areas. 4.4 Forest land Angul-Talcher region has rich Sal forests in addition to mixed forests as well as pure bamboo crops. There is no highly dense forest in the district as per this analysis (Revised work Plan of Angul Forest division, 2007-2008 to 2016-2017). There are significant reduction forest lands in grids 8 (9.55 sq. km), 15 (7.45 sq. km), 21 (7.84 sq. km), 33 (17.84 sq.km) and 34 (8.81 sq. km). Forest area has been decrease in grids 15 and 21 due to mining activities. The mining activities start in these grids so removal of trees is the first step of mining activities. The rural population has been increase in grids 8, 33 and 34 and people use the forest for their livelihood. Sal seed, kendu leaf, and several other non-timber forest products (NTFP) hold the potential to support the livelihood of the forest dwellers. 4.5 Agricultural land Agricultural land have been decreased in all the grids but maximum decreased in grids 1(8.55 sq.km), 9 (9.72 sq.km), 15 (9.79 sq.km) and 21 (10.855 sq.km). Agricultural lands have been affected by mining activities which have been increase in grids 9, 15 and 21. Mining allied industries increased in Talcher region because of this lost of agricultural land have been used for various purposes in this area. Lack of irrigation facilities is also the major constraint in the development of agriculture in many parts of the study area. Lift irrigation from bore wells is a failure in mining areas due to depletion of ground water level. Mining activities play a major role in depletion of groundwater level in and around mining area.

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Prasoon Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7771-7784 4.6 Barren land Barren lands have been increased in all the grids but maximum increased in grids 1 (11.69 sq.km), 7 (9.66 sq.km), 15 (9.38 sq.km), 30 (9.34 sq.km), 33 (21.87 sq.km), and 34 (14.81 sq.km). Populations have been increase in grids 1, 7, 30, 33, and 34. Mining activities have been increased in grid 15 and huge amount of mining waste like overburden are dumps on land which destroy the quality of soil and decrease their productive capacity because of this barren land has been increased in grid 15. Grid 7, 15, 30, 33 and 34 rural population have been increased they use the natural resources like forest as livelihood. In 34 years various villagers cuts the forest for fuel wood and other for sale in small industries the land left after cutting the trees. Because of this, the upper fertile soil runoff with rainfall. Quality of soil has decreased and these lands converted into barren lands.

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Prasoon Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7771-7784 Table 1: Grid-wise past (1973) and recent (2007) land use pattern in the study area in sq km

Grid no.

Active mining area

Settlements, industries

Water bodies

Forest land

Agricultural land

Barren land

1973 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 -

2007 3.41 7.97 2.5 -

1973 1.75 2.07 2.93 1.19 4.37 1.46 2.25 1.06 3.38 3.11 4.88 3.73 2.75 1.25 6.64 3.76 8.4 3.5

2007 5.12 5.87 5.43 3.91 7.02 3.1 5.1 3.68 6.75 5.65 6.98 5.98 5.12 4.12 4.53 6.81 20.66 10.98

1973 2.37 1.07 5.44 0.69 4.88 2.25 3.75 4.38 3.43 0.37 5.31 3.08 7.75 2.76 1.88 3.54 3.31 3.18

2007 2.37 1.07 5.44 0.69 4.88 2.25 3.75 4.38 3.43 0.37 5.31 3.08 7.75 2.76 1.88 3.54 3.31 3.18

1973 13.59 22.5 22.19 20.75 12.25 28.37 16.37 19.31 15.94 22.65 7.9 13.23 19 33.49 21.03 22.56 11.75 10.2

2007 10.08 17.95 15.79 15.57 8.32 24.91 11.18 9.76 12.41 18.04 5.86 12.87 14.18 29.32 13.58 18.33 2.21 5.92

1973 31.34 19.98 17.2 21.19 26.63 15.65 19.44 13 26.75 21.37 31.91 29.96 17.5 6.5 20.45 17.86 26.48 33.12

2007 19.79 13.76 15.89 17.38 22.93 12.43 12.12 11.79 15.03 15.48 23.44 25.78 15.22 3.75 12.66 9.21 14.22 19.71

1973 0.95 4.38 2.24 6.18 1.87 2.27 8.19 12.25 0.5 2.5 0 0 3 6 0 2.28 0.06 0

2007 12.64 11.35 7.45 12.45 6.85 7.31 17.85 20.39 8.97 10.46 8.41 2.29 7.73 10.05 9.38 9.61 9.6 10.21

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Prasoon Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7771-7784 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Total 0.44 0.25 0.69 12.89 3.89 30.66 0.75 0.47 7.25 4.23 5.25 2.63 0.56 1 2 3.25 7.75 2.42 1.26 1 2.89 4.26 2.36 4.06 111.87 3.12 2.74 3.45 12 13.73 9.5 2.94 3.74 8.18 9.45 13.4 7.92 3.32 3.87 4.92 7.92 5.65 6.24 238.9 5 4.07 0.75 2.56 0.76 3.94 0.5 7.97 12.47 10.5 0.5 3.43 0.12 0.38 3 6.25 9.12 3.25 134.01 5 4.07 0.3 2.56 0.76 3.94 0.5 7.97 11.57 10.5 0.5 3.43 0.12 0.38 3 6.25 9.12 3.25 132.66 34.63 24.1 21.35 3.92 9.25 8.77 45.19 18.53 11.25 12.94 12.23 17.88 33.05 37.9 34.55 12 12.67 12.75 696.04 30.87 17.44 13.51 2.13 5.65 5.87 36.24 13.43 6.3 9.02 9.39 11.71 26.1 31.2 17.71 3.19 8.98 8.19 503.21 8.87 16.17 18.46 34.78 33.61 33.39 3.75 13.25 23.5 21.81 28.76 24.16 13.57 8.72 9.5 21.63 25.73 22.44 758.43 6.7 13.32 8.61 16.32 23.97 25.69 2.25 11.23 15.1 14.28 19.62 15.94 9.12 5.59 4.44 12.97 17.88 16.89 520.51 0.75 5.19 1.75 4.26 1.13 1.27 0 9.25 0.78 1.5 0.76 2.11 2 2 0.06 5.86 0.12 7.5 98.96 4.31 12.43 11.24 13.1 5.89 5 8.07 13.63 8.85 6.75 7.09 11 11.34 8.96 19.93 19.67 8.37 15.43 374.06

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Prasoon Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7771-7784 Table 2: Grid-wise past (1973) and recent (2007) land use pattern in the study area in percentage

Grid no.

Active mining area

Settlements, industries

Water bodies

Forest land

Agricultural land

Barren land

1973 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.82 0 0 0 0 0 15.94 5 0 0

1973 3.5 4.14 5.86 2.38 8.74 2.92 4.5 2.12 6.76 6.22 9.76 7.46 5.5 2.5 13.28 7.52 16.8 7

2007 10.24 11.74 10.86 7.82 14.04 6.2 10.2 7.36 13.5 11.3 13.96 11.96 10.24 8.24 9.06 13.62 41.32 21.96

1973 4.74 2.14 10.88 1.38 9.76 4.5 7.5 8.76 6.86 0.74 10.62 6.16 15.5 5.52 3.76 7.08 6.62 6.36

2007 4.74 2.14 10.88 1.38 9.76 4.5 7.5 8.76 6.86 0.74 10.62 6.16 15.5 5.52 3.76 7.08 6.62 6.36

1973 27.18 45 44.38 41.5 24.5 56.74 32.74 38.62 31.88 45.3 15.8 26.46 38 66.98 42.06 45.12 23.5 20.4

2007 20.16 35.9 31.58 31.14 16.64 49.82 22.36 19.52 24.82 36.08 11.72 25.74 28.36 58.64 27.16 36.66 4.42 11.84

1973 62.68 39.96 34.4 42.38 53.26 31.3 38.88 26 53.5 42.74 63.82 59.92 35 13 40.9 35.72 52.96 66.24

2007 39.58 27.52 31.78 34.76 45.86 24.86 24.24 23.58 30.06 30.96 46.88 51.56 30.44 7.5 25.32 18.42 28.44 39.42

1973 1.9 8.76 4.48 12.36 3.74 4.54 16.38 24.5 1 5 0 0 6 12 0 4.56 0.12 0

2007 25.28 22.7 14.9 24.9 13.7 14.62 35.7 40.78 17.94 20.92 16.82 4.58 15.46 20.1 18.76 19.22 19.2 20.42

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Prasoon Kumar Singh et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7771-7784 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 0 0 0.88 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25.78 7.78 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0.94 14.5 8.46 10.5 5.26 1.12 2 4 6.5 15.5 4.84 2.52 2 5.78 8.52 4.72 8.12 6.24 5.48 6.9 24 27.46 19 5.88 7.48 16.36 18.9 26.8 15.84 6.64 7.74 9.84 15.84 11.3 12.48 10 8.14 1.5 5.12 1.52 7.88 1 15.94 24.94 21 1 6.86 0.24 0.76 6 12.5 18.24 6.5 10 8.14 0.6 5.12 1.52 7.88 1 15.94 23.14 21 1 6.86 0.24 0.76 6 12.5 18.24 6.5 69.26 48.2 42.7 7.84 18.5 17.54 90.38 37.06 22.5 25.88 24.46 35.76 66.1 75.8 69.1 24 25.34 25.5 61.74 34.88 27.02 4.26 11.3 11.74 72.48 26.86 12.6 18.04 18.78 23.42 52.2 62.4 35.42 6.38 17.96 16.38 17.74 32.34 36.92 69.56 67.22 66.78 7.5 26.5 47 43.62 57.52 48.32 27.14 17.44 19 43.26 51.46 44.88 13.4 26.64 17.22 32.64 47.94 51.38 4.5 22.46 30.2 28.56 39.24 31.88 18.24 11.18 8.88 25.94 35.76 33.78 1.5 10.38 3.5 8.52 2.26 2.54 0 18.5 1.56 3 1.52 4.22 4 4 0.12 11.72 0.24 15 8.62 24.86 22.48 26.2 11.78 10 16.14 27.26 17.7 13.5 14.18 22 22.68 17.92 39.86 39.34 16.74 30.86

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Table 3: Comparison of the areas and change of the six Land use classes between 1973 & 2007 Sl. No. Area in sq km 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mining area Settlements/Industries Water bodies Forest land Agricultural land Barren land Total 0.69 111.87 134.01 696.04 758.43 98.96 1800 Land Use Pattern 1973 Area in % 0.04 6.22 7.45 38.67 42.14 5.50 100 Area in sq km 30.66 238.9 132.66 503.21 520.51 374.06 1800 2007 Area in % 1.70 13.27 7.37 27.96 28.92 20.78 100 29.97 127.03 -1.35 -192.83 -237.92 275.1 1.67 7.06 -0.07 -10.71 -13.22 15.28 Change in 34 years

in sq km

in %

Fig. 3: Comparison of Land use classes (in Percentage) between 1973 & 2007

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Fig. 4: Land use map of the study area (1973)

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Fig. 5: Land use map of the study area (2007) 5. Conclusion It is evident from the above discussion that the mining its allied industrial activities in Angul- Talcher region are detrimental to the land use pattern. The general trend observed by present study is decrease in forest cover and agricultural land due to mining and its allied industries in the study area. It is advisable that such activities have to be strictly regulated to avoid further damage and scientific mining has to be taken up in a proper manner to minimize the damage to the land use pattern. The present land use pattern analysis can be useful to find out the change in different land use/land cover pattern in mine affected areas and it will be also helpful to delineate the vegetation areas under risk due to mining activities. The findings of the study could be useful while formulating the Management Plan for the district. References
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