You are on page 1of 5

/

THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS, SRI LANKA


IESL ENGINEERING COURSE
PART 11/ EXAMINATION - OCTOBER/NOVEMBER

2012

304 WATER ENGINEERING


Answer five (05) questions.

Time allowed: 3 hours

Question 1

(a) In subcritical flow in an open channel, the wave speed is greater than the flow speed (Froude
number is less than one) and the disturbance is propagated upstream. Hence, it is necessary to
trace the surface profile towards upstream from the point of disturbance. Standard Step
Method and Direct Step Method are the most widely used methods to trace the water surface
profile in open channels. Briefly describe these two methods showing how they are applied.
(b) The normal depth of flow in a 1.2m wide rectangular channel is 0.6m when the discharge is
0.57m3/s. The bed slope is 1 in 1600. At a sluice gate constructed across the channel, flow
depth increases to 0.9 m. How far upstream will the depth be 0.75 m?

Question 2

(a)

By applying the Bernoulli equation or otherwise, show that the flow rate through a sharp
crested rectangular weir can be expressed as,

Q = C B.j2gH

h,

where C discharge coefficient, B crest width, H weir head and g

acceleration due to gravity.


(b) A sharp crested weir is used to measure the flow rate of water in a 5m wide horizontal open
channel. The height of the weir (hw) is 0.60 m. Calculate the flow rate when the water depth at
the weir is 1.5m. Discharge coefficient for this weir is given by the empirical formula,
C = 0.598

+ 0.0897 !!...., (in SI units) where H is the weir head.


hw

(c) Compare the use of rectangular weirs and throated flumes in measuring the flow rates in open
channels highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Page 10'5

Question 3
(a)

List the factors that affect the rate of infiltration.

(b)

Horton's model
to estimate

[f (t) = Ic + (fo - fJe-kt]

the amount

and index method are the most widely used methods

of infiltration.

Compare

the two

methods

emphasizing

their

applicability under different conditions.


(c)

Direct runoff due to a 12 hour storm (described in Table Q3) is 100 mm.

Calculate the

average infiltration rate during the same 12 hours period.


Table Q3
Time (hours)

Rainfall (mm)

0:00 -2:00

35.0

2:00 -4:00

60.0

4:00 -6:00

27.0

6:00 -8:00

15.0

8:00 -10:00

5.0

10:00 -12:00

2.0

Question 4
(a)

List three assumptions on which the unit hydro graph concept is based on.

(b)

Discuss how a unit hydro graph is developed. Clearly state the data needed and how the
assumptions that listed in the answer for Question 4 (a) are applied.

(c)

The six-hour unit hydro graph of a watershed having a drainage area of 393 km2 is given in
Table Q4.

Table Q4
Time (hr)

Unit hydro graph (rrr'(s) (for

1.8

12
30.9

18

24

85.6

41.8

30 .
14.6

36

42

5.5

1.8

a one centimeter of rainfall)

For a storm over the watershed having an excess rainfall of 5cm for the first six hours and
15cm for the next six hours, compute the stream flow hydro graph, assuming a constant base
flow of 100 m3 Is.

Page 20f5

Question 5
(a)

In extreme value analysis, it is very important to know to which probability

distribution

function that the data set belongs to. Briefly explain how it can be decided that a record of
annual maximum rainfalls belongs to extreme value distribution type I, II or III.
(b)

Flood frequency computations for a river at a proposed dam site using the Gumbel's method
resulted in flood peaks 1200 m3/s and 1800 m3/s for 25-year and 50-year return periods. If the
flood peak (XT) with return period T, is given by Xr =

O"n-l

Sn

Yr + X -

YnO"n-1

calculate the flood

Sn

peak with 100-year return period. YT is the reduced variate and given by Yr

= -In(ln~)

T-l

Other notations have their usual meanings.

Question 6
(a)

There is a system of subsurface, perforated, parallel pipes connected to a pumping station


constructed to drain excess water in a rectangular playground. If the steady state unconfmed
groundwater flow with a recharge R is governed by,
2

Ei h2 + 8 h2
(}x

= _ 2R

(with usual notations),

propose a simple field test to determine the

ay2

hydraulic conductivity, K of the unconfined aquifer under the playground. Assume


are laid on the top surface of the horizontal impermeable bed rock.
(b)

At a steady state, the pumping rate Q of a well in an unconfmed

Q = 7rK (~2-

rl

1n.

hJ)

the pipes

aquifer is given by,

(with usual notations). Explain why this equation gives only an approximate

r.

value for the hydraulic conductivity K, if the observation wells (where hI and hz are measured)
are very close to the pumping well.

Page 30(5

Question 7

(a) Small amplitude wave theory is the simplest form of wave theories used to explain ocean wave
characteristics. However, it is applicable only under certain conditions. List the conditions that
should be satisfied so that the small amplitude wave theory can express the wave
characteristics with a reasonable accuracy.
(b) A wave train is propagating normally towards the coast over a sea bed with straight and shore
parallel depth contours. The deep water wave length and height are 300m and 2m respectively.
What are the wave length and height at a depth of 30m? For small amplitude waves, the wave
length L, wave period T and the depth h are related to each other according to the equation,
L ---

gT

2rr

t an h -.
2rrh
L

(c) What is the wave height at 30m depth, if the deep water wave crests are oriented at 60 to the
depth contours? Ifnecessary, use the wave table provided with the question paper.

...

Page 4 0'5

Table of
Wave
Functions

-v

Ln
0.00010
0.00050
0.00100
0.00150
0.00200
0.00250
0.00300
0.00350
0.00400
0.00450
0.00500
0.00550
0.00600
0.00650
0.00700
0.00750
0.00800
0.00850
0.00900
0.00950
0.01000
0.01100
0.Ot200
0.01300
0.01400
0.01500
0.01600
0.01700
0.01800
0.01900
0.02000
0.03000
0.04000
0.05000
0.06000
0.07000
0.08000
0.09000
0.10000
0.15000
0.20000
0.25000
0.30000
0.35000
0.40000
0.45000
0.50000
0.55000
0.60000
0.65000
0.70000
0.75000
0.80000
0.85000
0.90000
0.95000
1.00000

L
0.00399
0.00893
0.01263
0.01548
0.01788
0.02000
0.02192
0.02369
0.02534
0.02689
0.02836
0.02976
0.03110
0.03238
0.03362
0.03482
0.03598
0.03711
0.03821
0.03928
0.04032
0.04233
0.04426
0.04612
0.04791
0.04964
0.05132
0.05296
0.05455
0.05611
0.05763
0.07135
0.08329
0.09416
0.10430
0.11394
0.12321
0.13220
0.14098
0.18330
0.22512
0.26788
0.31212
0.35789
0.40496
0.45304
0.50183
0.55108
0.60063
0.65037
0.70021
0.75012
0.80007
0.85004
0.90002
0.95001
1.00001

kh
0.02507
0.05611
('.07936
0.09726
0.11234
0.12566
0.13773
0.14885
0.15922
0.16895
0.17819
0.18699
0.19541
0.20345
0.21124
0.21878
0.22607
0.23317
0.24008
0.24680
0.25334
0.26597
0.27809
0.28978
0.30103
0.31190
0.32245
0.33276
0.34275
0.35255
0.36210
0.44831
0.52333
0.59162
0.65534
0.71591
0.77415
0.83064
0.88580
1.15171
1.41447
1.68314
1.96111
2.24869
2.54444
2.84653
3.15309
3.46254
3.77387
4.08640
4.39955
4.71314
5.02699
5.34096
5.65499
5.96909
6.28325

tanh(kh)
0.02506
0.05605
0.07919
0.09696
0.11187
0.12501
0.13686
0.14776
0.15788
0.16737
0.17633
0.18484
0.19296
0.20069
0.20815
0.21536
0.22229
0.22903
0.23557
0.24191
0.24805
U.25987
0.27114
0.28193
0.29225
0.30216
0.31172
0.32100
0.32993
0.33863
0.34706
0.42050
0.48026
0.53106
0.57525
0.61437
0.64934
0.68082
0.70931
0.81832
0.88844
0.93327
0.96117
0.97797
0.98775
0.99328
0.99636
0.99804
0.99895
0.99944
0.99970
0.99984
0.99991
0.99995
0.99998
0.99999
0.99999

Page 50f5

sinh( kh)
0.02507
0.05614
0.07944
0.09742
0.11258
0.12599
0.13816
0.14940
0.15989
0.16976
0.17914
0.18808
0.19665
0.20486
0.21282
0.22053
0.22800
0.23529
0.24239
0.24932
0.25606
U.26911
0.28169
0.29385
0.30559
0.31698
0.32807
0.33893
0.34950
0.35990
0.37006
0.46347
0.54754
0.62675
0.70326
0.77865
0.85383
0.92950
1.00627
1.42375
1.93563
2.59832
3.48325
4.68488
6.32878
8.58496
11.68279
15.93324
21.76265
29.75407
40.70094
55.69638
76.23326
104.35397
142.85541
195.57328
267.76172

cosh(kh)

1.0003
1.0016
1.0032
1.0047
1.0063
1.0079
1.0095
1.0111
1.0127
1.0143
1.0159
1.0175
1.0192
1.0208
1.0224
1.0240
1.0257
1.0273
1.0290
1.0306
1.0323
1.0306
1.0389
1.0423
1.0457
1.0490
1.0524
1.0559
1.0593
1.0628
1.0663
1.1022
1.1401
1.1802
1.2225
1.2674
1.3149
1.3653
1.4187
1.7398
2.1787
2.7841
3.6239
4.7904
6.4073
8.6430
11.7255
15.9646
21.7856
29.7709
40.7132
55.7054
76.2398
104.3588
142.8589
195.5758
267.7636

0.9998
0.9990
0.9979
0.9969
0.9958
0.9948
0.9937
0.9927
0.9916
0.9906
0.9896
0.9885
0.9875
0.9865
0.9854
0.9844
0.9834
0.9823
0.9813
0.9803
0.9792
0.9772
0.9751
0.9731
0.9710
0.9690
0.9670
0.9649
0.9629
0.9609
0.9588
0.9388
0.9192
0.8999
0.8811
0.8627
0.8448
0.8273
0.8103
0.7325
0.6677
0.6163
0.5777
0.5501
0.5314
0.5192
0.5115
0.5068
0.5040
0.5023
0.5013
0.5008
0.5004
0.5002
0.5001
0.5001
0.5000

~nOc%c
4.4668
2.9883
2.5154
2.2744
2.1185
2.0052
1.9174
1.8463
1.7871
1.7366
1.6928
1.6542
1.6199
1.5892
1.5613
1.5358
1.5124
1.4908
1.4707
1.4521
1.4347
1.4032
1.3752
1.3500
1.3274
1.3068
1.2879
1.2705
1.2545
1.2396
1.2258
1.1254
1.0643
1.0228
0.9932
0.9713
0.9547
0.9422
0.9327
0.9133
0.9181
0.9323
0.9489
0.9641
0.9760
0.9847
0.9905
0.9942
0.9966
0.9980
0.9988
0.9993
0.9996
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000