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NURSING RESEARCH Instruction: Choose the correct answer from the choices below. Erasure means wrong 1. he ma!

or reason for con"ucting research is to: a. im#ro$e nursing care for clients b. "ocument the cost%effecti$eness of care c. #romote the growth of the nursing #rofession ". ensure accountabilit& for nursing #ractice ". research #rocess

'. (. +.

he #lan for how a stu"& will be con"ucte" is calle": a. "esign b. "ata collection metho" c. h&#othesis

o obtain the "esire" "ata in a stu"&) which of the following t&#es of "efinition is mot essential* a. theoretical b. conce#tual c. "ictionar& ". o#erational Collecting "ata from a sam#le to "etermine the characteristics of a #o#ulation is the #ur#ose of what t&#e of research* a. correlational b. e,#erimental c. sur$e& ". historical .hich of the following metho"s is a##ro#riate for the #resentation of research fin"ings a. narrati$e #resentations c. tabular #resentations b. gra#hical #resentations ". all of the abo$e .hat communication me"ium is most li0el& to reach the largest #ercentage of nurses* a. "issertation "efense c. !ournal article b. conference oral #resentation ". #oster #resentation A communit& health nurse of a maternit& clinic "eci"es to con"uct a stu"& to "etermine the number of clients seen "uring the #re$ious &ear who became anemic at some time "uring their #regnanc&. he nurse2s research is classifie" as which t&#e of stu"&* a. Anal&tic b. Cohort c. 3escri#ti$e ". E,#erimental A gra"uate nursing stu"ent is collecting "ata for a research stu"& an" a##roaches the assigne" nurse for #ermission to see a #atient2s chart. he nurse2s first most a##ro#riate ste#s is to "etermine: a. if informe" consent has been obtaine" c. the #ur#ose of the stu"& b. If the su#er$isor has a##ro$e" the stu"& ". the s#ecific "ata re5ueste" .hich statement about informe" consent in nursing research is true* a. 7nce #artici#ants ha$e signe" consent) the& are e,#ecte" to com#lete the stu"& b. 8artici#ants are informe" of the sam#ling metho" use". c. 8artici#ants recei$e a full e,#lanation of the stu"&) $ali"it& testing an" h&#otheses ". he consent form states the researchers names) a""resses) an" tele#hone number he three essential elements are informe" consent are: a. accountabilit&) beneficence) an" #aternalism b. confi"entialit&) truthfulness) an" a"$ocac& c. financial ris0) rule of utilit&) an" #rotection of #ri$ac& ". information) com#rehension) an" free"om from coercion

-.

/.

1.

4.

6.

19.

11. .hen writing a grant #ro#osal for a "omestic $iolence #re$ention #rogram) the author a""resses characteristics of the target #o#ulation that are relate" to: a. current health care nee" c. ris0 factors #re$alent among its members b. recent utili:ation of health care ser$ices ". s#ecific health con"itions 1'. Sur$e&ing clients2 0nowle"ge of resources) i"entif&ing resource eligibilit& criteria) an" com#aring income le$els with agenc& fee structures are ste#s in which #art of the grant #ro#osal #rocesses* a. ;u"geting b. E$aluation c. Nee"s assessment ". #rogram "esign 1(. he "iabetes clinician "esigns a stu"& to e,amine how a consistent an" structure" e"ucational interaction between "iabetes e"ucators an" hos#itali:e" "iabetes #atients woul" affect the #atients2 an,iet& le$els. wo grou#s of #atients) ages (9 to 49 &ears) are stu"ie". he first grou# recei$es "ail& $isits from the same e"ucator. he secon" grou# recei$es one $isit of basic s0ills teaching. A stan"ar"i:e" an,iet& scale is a"ministere" to both grou#s on a"mission an" again after at least ( "a&s of hos#itali:ation. <ort& #atients a"mitte" between Se#tember 1 an" Se#tember (9 ser$e as sub!ect for the first grou#) an" +9 a"mitte" between 7ctober 1 an" 7ctober (9 ser$e as sub!ects for the secon" grou#. .hat are the in"e#en"ent an" "e#en"ent $ariables in this stu"&* a. In"e#en"ent $ariable: "ail& interaction= 3e#en"ent $ariable= #atient an,iet& le$el b. In"e#en"ent $ariable: one $isit of basic s0ills teaching= 3e#en"ent $ariable= "ail& interaction c. In"e#en"ent $ariable= #atient an,iet& le$el= "e#en"ent $ariable= "ail& interaction

". In"e#en"ent $ariable= #atient an,iet& le$el= "e#en"ent $ariable= $isit of basic s0ills teaching 1+. In the "iscussion section of a research article) the author states that the lac0 of statistical significance ma& ha$e been cause" b& the small sam#le si:e an" suggests the nee" for re#lication of the stu"& with a large sam#le. In e$aluating the author2s statement) which statement is a##ro#riate to consi"er* a. An e,act re#lication ma& #ro"uce the same results b. If the stu"& was otherwise well "esigne") re#lication ma& be a"$isable c. Sam#le si:e is not relate" to statistical significance) so the author2s suggestion is illogical ". Sam#le si:e is not im#ortant if the a##ro#riate statistical techni5ues are a##lie". 1-. he #rimar& consi"eration when e$aluating a research sam#le is its: a. generali:abilit& b. #robabilit& c. ran"omi:ation ". re#resentati$eness

1/. Statistical sources for #o#ulation age "istributions) an" socioeconomic characteristics inclu"e: a. census "ata b. morbi"it& "ata c. ser$ice utili:ation "ata ". $ital statistics 11. he most effecti$e wa& to asses the health care nee"s of ol"er #ersons in a communit& is to: a. Con"uct #ersonal inter$iews with local health care #rofessionals an" social ser$ices staff. b. Rel& on intuiti$e im#ressions obtaine" from wor0ing with ol"er #ersons c. Re$iew "emogra#hic "ata from the most recent census ". Sur$e& a ran"om sam#le of a"ult chil"ren who "o not resi"e in the communit&

>an& nurses left the countr& for better wor0ing con"itions. Hos#ital an" nursing school a"ministrators are 5uestioning the commitment of #rofessional nurses to their organi:ation. Nurse Carmencita was commissione" to con"uct research ami" this nursing crisis. 14. .hich of the following will be the #riorit& action of Nurse Carmencita* a. <ormulate an" "elimit the research #roblem b. <ormulate research h&#othesis c. 3e$elo# a conce#tual framewor0 of the stu"& ". Con"uct literature search on the to#ic 16. A basic characteristic of a research #roblem is that it is researchable) which means that: a. It can be in$estigate" through the collection an" anal&sis of "ata b. It can ma0e great to#ics for "ebate c. It "eals with #hiloso#hical or ethical issues ". It has no #ractical significance '9. After the research #roblem an" #ur#ose increase in clarit& an" conciseness) Nurse Carmencita has greater "irection in "etermining the feasibilit& of the stu"& which inclu"e: a. 1)')( 1. ime an" mone& commitment b. 1)')+ '. Researcher2s e,#ertise c. 1)()+ (. A$ailabilit& of sub!ectis) facilit& an" e5ui#ment ". 1)')()+ +. Stu"&2s ethical consi"erations '1. After the #roblem has been carefull& "elineate" an" clearl& state") Nurse Carmencita is now rea"& to con"uct a literature re$iew. he re$iew of relate" literature in$ol$es which of the following: a. S&stematic i"entification of literature sources b. ?ocating "ocuments c. All of the abo$e ''. he ma!or #ur#ose of re$iewing the literature is to: a. <amiliari:e oneself with "ifferent t&#es of research stu"ies b. <in" a similar stu"& an" re#licate c. <amiliari:e oneseft with research formats use" b& "ifferent authors ". o "etermine what has alrea"& been "one that relates to &our #roblem

'(. After ha$ing ac5uainte" herself with the librar&) Nurse Carmencita shoul" ma0e a list of 0e& wor"s to gui"e her in the literature search. 8ossible 0e& wor"s that she can use in the search woul" inclu"e: a. 1)' 1. Commitment b. 1)( '. 7rgani:ational commitment c. 1)()+ (. Nurses ". 1)')()+ +. Nursing crisis '+. She consi"ers accessing electronic "atabase for her literature search. .hich of the following is the most a##ro#riate "atabase for nurses* a. ERIC b. 8s&chIN<7 c >E3?INE ". CINAH?

'-. .hen rea"ing a !ournal article she first starte" rea"ing the brief summar& of the article #lace" at the beginning of the !ournal re#ort. his is referre" to as the: a. Intro"uction b. bac0groun" c. abstract '/. She note" that the researcher himself who con"ucte" the stu"& wrote the !ournal article she is rea"ing. his refers to the: a. ;ibliogra#h& b. Secon"ar& source c. 8rimar& source '1. .hich of the following research "esign is most a##ro#riate for this stu"&* a. 3escri#ti$e b. Historical c. Case Stu"& ". 8henomenological '4. Nurse Carmencita #lans to collect "ata from nurses b& using a 5uestionnaire. 8rior to a"ministering the 5uestionnaire) she shoul" first "etermine the "egree to which the test consistentl& measures what it measures. his is calle". a. @ali"it& b. normalit& c. reliabilit& ". sensiti$it& '6. She shoul" also con"uct a small%scale trial run of her research stu"& which is referre" to as: a. Rehearsal b. sam#ling c. Hawthorne stu"ies ". #ilot stu"& (9. She shoul" also consi"er ethical consi"erations in$ol$e" in all research stu"ies that inclu"e: a. 1)' 1. Sub!ects shoul" not be harme" in an& wa& b. 1)')( '. Inform sub!ects concerning the nature of ris0 in$ol$e" c. 1)')+ (. Sub!ect2s right to #ri$ac& shoul" be consi"ere" ". 1)')()+ +. Res#ect for the "ignit& an" welfare of the #artici#ant (1. A 5uestionnaire was "istribute" b& mail bearing an I3 number in one corner. Res#on"ents are assure" their res#onses will not be in"i$i"uall& "i$ulge". his is calle": a. informe" consent b. anon&mit& c. confi"entialit& ('. Selection of sam#le in this stu"& is an im#ortant ste# in "oing research. A goo" sam#le is: a. 7ne that inclu"es both male an" female nurses b. 7ne that shows a balance in the number of nurses from hos#ital an" school c. 7ne that is re#resentati$e of the #o#ulation from which it was selecte" ". 7ne that can be mani#ulate" an" controlle" ((. he actual #o#ulation of stu"& #artici#ants selecte" from a larger #o#ulation is 0nown as: a. 8o#ulation b. Cluster c. arget #o#ulation ". accessible #o#ulation

(+. Sam#ling criteria ma& be use" b& Nurse Carmencita to "e$elo# the "esire" sam#le. Characteristics that must be #resent for a sub!ect to be inclu"e" in the sam#le is calle": a. Inclusion criteria b. e,clusion criteria c. re#resentati$eness (-. <rom a sam#ling theor& #oint of $iew) each in"i$i"ual in the #o#ulation shoul" ha$e an e5ual an" in"e#en"ent chance of being selecte" for the sam#le. his is "on through: a. 8ur#osi$e sam#ling b. 5uota sam#ling c. ran"om sam#ling (/. Nurse Carmencita "e$elo#s a sam#ling frame that in$ol$es ran"om selection of #ro$inces in the "ifferent regions of the countr& an" ran"oml& selecting nurses in the selecte" #ro$inces. his is an e,am#le of which t&#e of ran"om sam#ling* a. Sim#le ran"om sam#ling b. stratifie" ran"om sam#ling c. cluster sam#ling (1. .hen "ata of nurses in the sam#le are categori:e" into gen"er an" em#lo&ment status) what le$el of measurement is use"* a. Nominal scale b. or"inal scale c. inter$al scale ". ratio%scale (4. he nurse2s le$el of e"ucation in this stu"& is classifie" in which le$el of measurement* a. Nominal%scale b. or"inal scale c. inter$al scale ". ratio%scale

(6. .hen Nruse Carmencita organi:es her "ata using fre5uenc& "istributions an" com#utation of means) she is using which a##roach to "ata anal&sis* a. 3escri#ti$e statistics b. Inferential statistics c. #arametric statistics +9. Nurse Carmencita is now "one with anal&:ing the "ata. Her challenge is to reach the final stage of the research #rocess which is: a. Con"uct #ost%sur$e& b. .rite the final "raft c. communicate results

+1.

he following are #ossible wa&s b& which Nurse Carmencita2s stu"& coul" be share" to others for "issemination #ur#oses) EACE8 : a. 7ral #resentation at conferencesBcon$entions b. 8ublication in research !ournals c. Gi$ing #oster #resentation at con$entions ". Cee#ing it in her #ersonal !ournal he #rocess of "isseminating an" using research%generate" information to ma0e an im#act on or change in the e,isting #ractices in nursing is calle": a. Cnowle"ge management b. 0nowle"ge utili:ation c. research criti5ue

+'.

+(. Nurse Carmencita is intereste" in con"ucting another stu"&. She was as0e" b& her su#erior to submit a written #lan i"entif&ing the ma!or elements of the stu"&. his is referre" to as: a. 8ro#osition b. 8ilot Stu"& c. research #ro#osal ". hesis ++. A well written #lan woul" inclu"e the following) EACE8 a. Research #roblem b. Re$iew of Relate" ?iterature an" heoreticalBConce#tual <ramewor0 c. >etho"s an" 8roce"ures ". Research <in"ings +-. he following shoul" be inclu"e" in the metho"s an" #roce"ure section of her #lan) which #ro!ects e,#enses an" facilitates com#letion of the #ro!ect on sche"ule. a. ;u"get b. timetable c. a an" b ". b onl&

Research is the 0e& to 0ee# our 0nowle"ge base an" our #ractice in nursing current. It #ro$i"es a soli" foun"ation on which to base our #ractice. ;ecause of this it is im#ortant that nurses "irectl& or in"irectl& #artici#ate in research acti$ities in or"er to a"" 0nowle"ge in the #rofession. +/. .hich of the following is the first ste# in the conce#tual #hase of the research #rocess* a. <ormulation an" "elimiting the #roblem c. "e$elo#ing a theoretical framewor0 b. Re$iew of Relate" ?iterature ". <ormulation of h&#othesis +1. .hich of the following characteristics "o N7 "escribe scientific in$estigation* a. 8lanne" an" con"ucte" in s&stematic an" or"erl& manner b. ;ase" on em#irical "ata that ha$e been sub!ecte" to re#eate" in$estigation c. Con"ucte" to "e$elo# theories an" stu"& a"$ance 0nowle"ge ". 7bser$ations are ma"e an" $erifie" not necessaril& on the basis of actual obser$ation +4. .hich of the following isBare sourceBs of research #roblem* a. ?iterature b. e,#erience c. theor& ". all +6. his research a##roach uses numerical "ata to obtain information about the worl": a. E,#erimental b. sur$e& c. 5ualitati$e ". 5uantitati$e

-9. In which of the following t&#e of research "oes a researcher control the in"e#en"ent $ariable but has no wa& of assigning sub!ects to treatment con"itions in a ran"om manner* a. E,#erimental c. e,#lorator& b. Duasi%e,#erimental ". Correlational -1. .hich of the following is RUE in an e,#erimental stu"&* a. Sub!ects who are li0el& to #erform better are assigne" un"er e,#erimental grou# b. he control grou# is gi$en the theor& being teste" c. Assigning sub!ects to both the e,#erimental an" control grou#s are "one ran"oml& ". Con"itions affecting the sub!ects are not controlle" to allow generali:ation of fin"ings Gi$en the following e,am#les of h&#othesis) answer the following 5uestions: Cancer #atients recei$ing #re#arator& #atient e"ucation E88EF inter$ention e,#erience lower le$els of an,iet& that those who recei$e outline information. E8oroch) 166-F -'. he statement abo$e is an e,am#le of which t&#e of h&#othesis* a. 1)' 1. Associati$e b. 1)( '. Causal c. ')( (. Null ". ')+ +. Sim#le

-(. In this h&#othesis) the in"e#en"ent $ariable is:

a.

Cancer #atients

b. 88E inter$ention

c. an,iet& le$el

-+. In causal relationshi#s) the $ariable that is mani#ulate" b& the researcher is the: a. In"e#en"ent $ariable b. "e#en"ent $ariable c. acti$e $ariable --. he h&#othesis that is use" for statistical testing an" inter#reting statistical outcomes in research is referre" to as: a. Research h&#othesis b. null h&#othesis c. "irectional h&#othesis his t&#e of $ariable e,ists in all stu"ies an can affect measurement of stu"& $ariables an" the relationshi#s among these $ariables. a. In"e#en"ent $ariables b. 3e#en"ent $ariable c. e,traneous $ariable c. e,traneous $ariable

-/.

-1. In research) the $ariables that is the #resume" cause is the: a. In"e#en"ent $ariables b. 3e#en"ent $ariable

-4. Characteristics or attitu"es of the sub!ects that are collecte" to "escribe the sam#le li0e age) e"ucational le$el) gen"er) income) etc are referre" to as: a. En$ironmental $ariables b. confoun"ing $ariables c. "emogra#hic $ariables Un"er RA 611( Section '4e) one of the "uties of a nurse is research. ;ecause nursing is a #rofession) nurses shoul" contribute to the generation of nursing. 8rofessional nurses therefore shoul" be e5ui##e" with 0nowle"ge of the research #rocess an" be able to a##l& it. -6. .hich of the following is the correct se5uence of ste#s in "oing 5uantitati$e research* a. 1)')()+)1. <ormulating research #roblem an" #ur#ose b. 1)+)-)')( '. 3e$elo#ing #lan for "ata collection an" anal&sis c. 1)+)()-)' (. <ormulating research 5uestions an" h&#othesis ". 1)()+)-)' +. Re$iew of rele$ant literature an "e$elo#ing a framewor0 /9. Common sources of research #roblems in nursing are: a. 1)' 1. Nursing #ractice b. ')( '. 8atterns tren"s c. 1)')( (. Somebo"& else2s com#lete" research ". 1)')()+ +. Researcher2s intellectual an" scientific interests /1. Researchers ha$e been e,#loring alternati$e "esign strategies that might increase $ali"it& of stu"ies. >ost recent interest is the combine" use of two or more theories) metho"s) "ata sources) or metho"s of anal&sis in a stu"&. his is referre" to as: a. Research Combo b. Stratification c. raingulation /'. he following are the characteristics of 5uantitati$e research EACE8 : a. 7b!ecti$e c. Element of anal&sis number b. 3e$elo#s theor& ". basic is 0nowing: cause%an"%effect relationshi# c. Ethnogra#hic

/(. .hich of the following is not a 5ualitati$e research metho"* a. Correlational b. 8hemoenological

/+. In or"er for a stu"& to be consi"ere" a true e,#eriment) it must ha$e three essential characteristics. .hich of the following is N7 a characteristic of an e,#erimental stu"&: a. In"e#en"ent $ariable must be mani#ulate" b& the e,#erimenter b. 3e#en"ent $ariable must be mani#ulate" b& the e,#erimenter c. Sub!ects must be ran"oml& assigne" to grou#s ". A control grou# must be incor#orate" within the "esign /-. .hich of the following is an e,am#le of mani#ulation of $ariables in e,#erimental research: a. Assigning sub!ects in a ran"om manner b. Gi$ing the control grou# a stan"ar" treatment as basis for com#arison c. Creating more grou#s ". ;& assigning sub!ects to $arie" con"itions) gi$ing inter$ention to one grou# an" withhol"ing it from another grou#. //. In e,#erimental stu"ies) the researcher shoul" control biases. he bias that occurs when sub!ects 0now that the& are being in$ol$e" in a stu"& is calle": a. Hawthorne effect b. Hawthorne stu"ies c. Halo effect /1. A "escri#ti$e stu"& "esign that e,amines changes in the same sub!ects o$er an e,ten"e" #erio" of time is calle":

a.

Cross%sectional "esign

b. ?ongitu"inal "esign

c. ren" "esign

/4. .hich of the following stu"ies that e,amine relationshi#s between $ariables "o not establish causalit&* a. E,#erimental b. Duasi%e,#erimental c. Correlational /6. In e,#erimental stu"ies where two or more in"e#en"ent $ariables) with in"e#en"ent grou#s of sub!ects ran"oml& assigne" to $arious combination of le$els of the two $ariables) the "esign is calle" a. 8retest%#osttest control grou# "esign c. <actorial "esign b. 8osttest%onl& "esign 19. .hen an e,#eriment lac0s ran"omi:ation or com#arison grou#s it becomes which of the following: a. rue e,#erimental c. Duasi%e,#erimental b. 8seu"o%e,#erimental ". "escri#ti$e correlational 11. .hich of the following is not true about sam#le si:e "etermination in research* a. he larger the sam#le) the more re#resentati$e it is li0el& to be b. he more re#resentati$e a sam#le is) the more generali:able the results woul" be. c. ?arge sam#les can lea" to erroneous results when not well selecte" ". he more generali:able the sam#le is) the more re#resentati$e will be the results 1'. In a #o#ulation of ')999 nurses in the list of #rofessional nurses in the region) &ou #lan to ha$e 49 as the "esire" sam#le si:e. Using s&stematic sam#ling techni5ue) what will be &our Cth factor&* a. '9 b. 1c. ". '+ 1(. .hat "oes this statement refer to* he le$el of e"ucational attainment of the mothers is not correlate" with their "egree of com#liance to the treatment regimen. a. ?imitation of the stu"& b. h&#othesis c. assum#tions 1+. .hen a sub!ect of a research $erbali:es her intention to with"raw her #artici#ation in the stu"&) which is consi"ere" an ethical action on the #art of the research* a. A"$ise him to #ut it in writing c. Allow him to with"raw an&time b. Remin" him of his "ut& as a #artici#ant ". ell him his with"rawal has legal im#lications 1-. .hich of the following is N7 one of those grou#s who are $ulnerable to coercion an" "ece#tion "ue to inabilit& to gi$e informe" consent in research* a. Chil"renBminors b. >entall& im#aire" a"ults c. new RN 1/. If a researcher stu"ies the effect of a sche"uling assignment on nurses2 morale) the sche"uling assignment woul" be referre" to as the: a. In"e#en"ent $ariable b. "e#en"ent $ariable c. #o#ulation 11. .hat ethical #rinci#le is $iolate" when a researcher "o not consi"er free"om to #artici#ate or not #artici#ate in research a. 8rinci#le of res#ect for #ersons b. beneficence c. !ustice 14. Cuasalit& in research means: a. here must be no correlation between $ariables b. he cause ma& not alwa&s be #resent whene$er the effect occurs c. hings ha$e causes an" that causes lea" to effects 16. >easures of Central en"enc& an" $ariabilit& are e,am#les of a. 3escri#ti$e statistics b. inferential statistics c. @ital statistics

49. E,ten"ing the im#lications of the fin"ings from the sam#le stu"ies to a larger #o#ulation is calle": a. Generali:ation b. Conclusion c. ?imitation 41. .hich of the following t&#es of research ma0es use of #ast e$ents to answer a #roblem* a. E,#ost%facto anal&sis c. Case stu"& b. <iel" e,#eriment ". Historical 4'. .hich of the following actions of a researcher ensures anon&mit&* a. 7btain informe" consent b. 8ro$i"e e5ual treatment to all the sub!ects of the stu"& c. Release the fin"ings of the stu"& to the sub!ects onl& ". Cee# the i"entifies of the sub!ects secret 4(. After the anal&sis of the "ata) which of the following ste#s will the researcher "o ne,t*

a. b. c. ".

Inter#ret the "ata .rite the conclusion an" recommen"ation 7rgani:e the "ata using fre5uenc& "istributions 3isseminate the results of the stu"&

4+. If $ariable A increases as $ariable G increase in a s#ecifie" #o#ulation) this reflects which of the ff* a. 8re"icts a #ositi$e relationshi# c. 8re"icts no relationshi# b. 8re"icts a negati$e relationshi# 4-. .hen a researcher woul" li0e to stu"& the li$e" e,#eriences of #atients with #rostate cancer confine" in their homes) most li0el& the t&#e of research that he will "esign is: a. rue e,#erimental b. ethnogra#hic c. #henomenological 4/. 41. 44. he sam#ling techni5ue use" in this 0in" of stu"& woul" be a. Cluster sam#ling b. 5uota sam#ling c. #ur#osi$e sam#ling he t&#e of setting that is a##ro#riate for this 0in" of stu"& woul" be: a. Natural setting b. clinical setting c. controlle" setting he outcome that the in$estigator is intereste" in un"erstan"ing e,#laining) or #re"icting is "escribe" as: a. 3e#en"ent $ariable b. in"e#en"ent $ariable c. e,traneous $ariable

46. In a certain stu"&) the researcher was as0e" to consi"er the $ariable #ain. 8ain is classifie" in what scale of measurement* a. Nominal b. 7r"inal c. Inter$al ". Ratio 69. .hat #art of the research re#ort contains the bac0groun" of the #roblem* a. Intro"uction b. ?iterature Re$iew c. >etho"olog& ". Results H 3iscussion

61. .hen a researcher gi$es a "escri#tion of how $ariables or conce#ts in the stu"& will be measure" or mani#ulate" in the stu"& she is actuall& gi$ing which t&#e of "efinition* a. conce#tual "efinition b. o#erational "efinition c. #ersonal "efinition he following are e,am#les of sam#ling metho"s ta0en from stu"ies. I"entif& which t&#es of sam#ling metho" the researcher use": 6'. <i$e hun"re" nurses were ran"oml& selecte" using table of ran"om numbers from a list of all registere" nurse in the 8hili##ines a. sim#le ran"om b. stratifie" ran"om c. s&stematic ran"om 6(. Gen"er was use" to stratif& a sam#le of 199 ran"oml& selecte" sub!ects. a. Sim#le ran"om b. stratifie" ran"om c. s&stematic ran"om 6+. A sam#le of -9 a"olescents was obtaine" at a fast%foo" restaurant a. Con$enience sam#ling b. #ur#osi$e sam#ling c. cluster sam#ling 6-. I"entif& the t&#e of stu"& in the following research #ur#ose: o e,amine the health #ractices of Ibanag woman an" the im#act of these #ractices to their families. a. 8henomenological b. ethnogra#hic c. historical 6/. I"entif& the in"e#en"ent $ariable in the following e,am#le of h&#othesis. 7,&gen inhalation b& nasal cannula of u# to / litersBminute "oes not affect oral tem#erature measurement with an electronic thermometer. a. 7,&gen inhalation b& cannula c. Electronic thermometer b. 7ral tem#erature measurement ". / liters #er minutes 61. A s#ecial t&#e of obser$ation where researchers immerse themsel$es in the setting so the& can e,#erience the realit& as the #artici#ants "o is: a. Natural obser$ation b. #artici#ant%as%obser$er c. obser$er%as%#artici#ant 64. wo nurse #ractitioners are as0e" to combine their researcher fin"ings with those of some colleagues who are stu"&ing the same grou# of #atients. he nurse #ractitioners2 res#onse is to: a. agree because combining the fin"ings will ma0e for some statisticall& rele$ant research b. agree on con"ition that #ro#er cre"it is gi$en to the institution where it was con"ucte" c. refuse because of incongruence between stu"& #ur#oses ". refuse because the& "i" not obtain the #ro#er #atient consent to share their fin"ings

66. After rea"ing a research article that "escribes a tool for measuring #arental an,iet&) a #e"iatric clinical nurse s#ecialist uses the tool in a re#lication stu"& on the unit. he re#eale" uses of the tool #ro$i"e inconsistent an" inaccurate results. In criti5uing the tool) the clinical s#ecialist conclu"es that it is : a. not reliable an" not li0el& to be $ali" c. reliable but not $ali" b. reliable but not consistent ". $ali" but not reliable 199. he sub!ects of a research #ro!ect ha$e been informe" that onl& summar& grou# "ata will be release". wo staff members re5uest their #atients2 test results. he #rinci#al in$estigator2s res#onse is to: a. E,#lain wh& onl& aggregate results can be share" b. >eet with the staff members in"i$i"uall& to "etermine wh& the& nee" the information c. Set u# a meeting to "iscuss the stu"& ". ell the staff members that onl& "ata #ro!ections are a$ailable on their #atients

G773 ?UCC AN3 G73 ;?ESSI