You are on page 1of 10

DCArcFlash:2013RegulatoryUpdatesand RecommendedBatteryRiskAssessmentGuidelines

WilliamCantor,P.E. TPI Exton,PA19341

StephenMcCluer SchneiderElectricITCorp. SeniorManager/ExternalCodes &Standards/NAMDallasTX

Abstract
Therecontinuestobeconfusioninthestationarybatterycommunityabouthowtoprotectbatterymaintenance personalfromchemical,electricalandarcflashhazards.Ifoneweretostrictlyinterpretthecurrentstandards publishedbyNFPAandIEEE,thePersonnelProtectiveEquipment(PPE)requiredwouldmakeitimpossibleor atbestunsafetoworkaroundbatteries.TheIEEEStationaryBatteryCommitteeCodesTaskForcehasspent considerabletimeworkingonproposalstoNFPA70EwiththeintentionofprovidingpracticalguidanceforPPE requiredforbatterymaintenance.ThistaskforcehasalsoworkedwiththeNFPA70Edctaskgroup. NFPA70Erecentlyhastakenaspecialinterestinseparatingthehazardfromtherisk,somethingithasnotdone previously. Thispaperproposesathoughtprocessthatcanbeusedto,first,evaluateifandwhereahazardmayexistin workplaceswheredcvoltagesourcesarepresent,thentodeterminethedegreeofrisk,andultimatelyto determinethePPEthatwouldbeappropriateforanygivenbatteryactivity.Aflowchartispresentedwith guidanceforhowtouseit. Thispaperwillalsoupdatethecommunityonthestatusofcodesandstandardsrelatingtodcarcflash.

Introduction
Whenitcomestosafetyaroundstationarybatteries,thereisnoonedefinitivesourcethatdictates,or recommends,theproperPPEneeded.Thiscausesconfusionintheindustryandasaresultmanybattery techniciansareeitherseverelyunderprotectedoroverburdenedwithsafetyequipment. TheOccupationalSafety&HealthAdministration(OSHA)hasjurisdictionovermostUSorganizationstoidentify andenforcesafeworkpractices.WhileOSHAdoesnothavecomprehensiveguidelinesforworkonoraround stationarybatteryinstallations,OSHAdoesrequireeachemployertofurnishtoeachofhisemployees employmentandaplaceofemploymentwhicharefreefromrecognizedhazardsthatarecausingorarelikelyto causedeathorseriousphysicalharmtohisemployees.Theinterpretationofthismandateisthatemployers needtofollowindustrybestpractices.Twoofthemostwellknownsourcesofstationarybatterybestpractice guidelinesarefromIEEEandNFPA. IEEEhasdevelopedaseriesofrecommendedpracticesforbatterymaintenance.Themostwellknownofthese documentsisIEEE450[1],whichistherecommendedpracticeformaintainingventedleadacidbatteries.While theserecommendedpracticesoutlinerequiredPPE,thedocumentsdonotprovideanyguidanceonwhentouse whatPPE.ItcouldbeassumedthatalllistedPPEshouldbeusedforanyworkonoraroundabattery.Thereality isthattheuserhastheburdentodeterminetheproperPPEforeachtask.Inaddition,theIEEErecommended practicesheretoforehavenotincludedthearcflashhazardintherecommendedsafetyPPE.Furthermore,the IEEErecommendedpracticesarenotcodessotheyaretypicallynonenforceable.MostofthePPE recommendationsintheIEEEdocumentsfocusonelectrolytesafety.

11

IEEE1584[2]isaguideforperformingarcflashhazardcalculations.Unfortunately,neithertheexistingversionof IEEE1584northeproposedrevisionincludesguidancefordcarcflashanalysis. TheNationalFireProtectionAssociation(NFPA)createsseveralcodesandstandardstohelpmitigatefireand otherhazards.ThemostwellknownNFPAdocumentisNFPA70[3],theNationalElectricCode(NEC).TheNEC isadoptedbymostofthejurisdictionsacrosstheUnitedStates.NFPAalsopublishesNFPA70E[4],whichisthe StandardforElectricalSafetyintheWorkplace.NFPA70Eisnotacodeandistypicallynotadoptedby jurisdictions,butitisusedextensivelytoidentifyelectricalhazardsandrequiredPPEandisreferencedbyOSHA. NFPA70Ehasprovidedguidanceforarcflashhazardsinacsystemsforanumberofyears.Inthe2012version, guidanceonarcflashhazardsindcsystemswasadded.Thisadditionhascausedconcerninthestationary batteryindustrysincearcflashPPEinthestationarybatteryworldhasbeenmostlyignoreduptothispoint. ArcflashisdefinedinthelatestdraftofIEEE1584[5]asahazardouseventusuallycausedbyametallictool,test probe,underratedtestinstrumentorlooseequipmentpartcontactingenergizedbarepartsandcreatinga shortcircuitorgroundfault.Itisanexplosionwithaloudnoise,brightlight,smokeemitted,andpartsthrown.A personstandingnearbymaybeinjuredorkilled.Themostcommoninjuryissevereburnscausedbytheintense heatwhichcanigniteclothing.

StationaryBatteryHazards
Thepredominantstationarybatterychemistryisleadacid.Thesecondmostpredominantchemistryisnickel cadmium.Therearemanynewtechnologiessuchaslithiumionbutatthetimeofthiswritingsuchtechnologies haverelativelylowpenetrationsintothestationarybatterymarket.Thispaperwillfocusonleadacidbatteries, althoughmostofthepracticeswouldapplytonickelcadmiumaswell.Allofthesepracticesdiscussedherein cancertainlybeadaptedtoanyoftheothertechnologies. Thefourmajorstationarybatteryhazardsarechemical,shock,arcflash,andthermal.

Chemicalhazards.Thehazardthatmostpeoplethinkofwhenconsideringbatterysafetyisthechemical
hazard.Forleadacidbatteries,thechemicalistheelectrolytethatconsistsofadilute(~<30%)mixtureof sulfuricacidandwater.ForNiCdbatteries,theelectrolyteisahydroxidesolution.Whileeitherelectrolytecan behazardous,formostbatteryrelatedactivitiestheriskisminimal.Damagetothehumaneyesisthemost seriousconcernwithelectrolyte. Shockhazards.Theshockhazardisawellunderstoodrisk.TheNationalElectricCode(NFPA70)andNFPA70E bothidentifyashockhazardforanysystem(acordc)over50voltsnominal.Thisistypicallyunderstoodto excludeany48dcvoltsystemeveniftheactualfloatvoltageisabove50volts(typical48voltsystemsoperate between52and54volts). Thedatashowthatthedcshockthresholdisatleasttwicethevoltageoftheacshockthreshold.Tables1,2and 3arefromIEC604795[6]anddemonstratethispoint(reproducedherebypermissionsfromtheIEC).Similar dataispublishedinNFPA70EHandbookforElectricalSafetyintheWorkplace2012[7][table340.1]

12

Table1CurrentThresholdValues[6] TypeofThreshold Currentofstartlereaction Strongmuscularreaction Ventricularfibrillation

CurrentPath Handtohand Bothhandstofeet Onehandtofeet Handtohand Bothhandstofeet Onehandtofeet Handtohand Bothhandstofeet Onehandtofeet

a.c.current (mA) 0.5 0.5 0.5 5 10 5 100 40 57

d.c.current (mA) 2 2 2 25 25 25 350 140 200

Table2Ventricularfibrillationforalternatingcurrent50/60Hz[6]

Table3Ventricularfibrillationfordirectcurrent
[6]

DCArcFlashHazard.Thearcflashhazardaroundbatteriesispotentiallythemostsevere,yetitistheleast
understood.A2012Battconpaper[8]summarizedthepotentialarcflashhazardwithrespecttobatteriesanddc systems.Theproblemwithdcarcflash,aswasoutlinedinthe2012paper,isthatthereisverylittledcarcflash testdataavailabletobeabletocreateaccuratemodels.Themodelsthatareavailableareveryconservativeand donottakeintoaccountthedynamicenergyofanelectrochemicaldevice.

13

NFPAandIEEEhavebeencollaboratingtofundandsupportresearchandtestingtoincreasetheunderstanding ofthearcflashphenomena[9].Althoughdctestingisafuturegoalofthiscollaboration,thedctestingportion hasnotyetbeenaccomplished. Thermalhazard.Thefinalhazarddiscussedhereinistheriskofaburnfromathermaleventotherthananarc flashevent.Becausebatterieshaveagreatdealofenergythatcanbereleasedquickly,ashortacrossacellora portionofthebatterycanmeltmetalandcausesevereburns.Ifthevoltageishighenough,anarcflashcan occur.However,therearemanysituationsinwhichtheshortcircuitpotentialhasinadequateenergyforanarc flashtooccur.

BatteryHazardRiskAssessment
Asdiscussedintheprevioussection,astationarybatteryhasmanyhazardsthatcancausesevereinjuriesor death.Withoutconsideringtherelativerisk,itwouldbenearlyimpossible,orimpossible,tobeabletoperform batterymaintenancebecausethePPErequiredwouldbesorestrictiveastopreventthetechnicianfromdoing anythinguseful.Inaddition,itmaybeimpossibleforsomeonetopurchaseshockandarcflashratedgearthat wouldalsoberatedforthechemicalhazard.

SpecialconsiderationsforselectingPPEforbatterysystemsbasedonthetypeof activity
Becausestationarybatteriescomeinavarietyofforms,sizesandtypes,andbecausestationarybatteriescannot bedeenergized,thePPErequiredhastobecarefullyevaluatedforeachsituation.Thehazardanalysiswill dependnotonlyupontheproximityoftheworkertothebatterysystem,butalsoupontheworkbeing performed. TheflowchartinFigure1canbeusedtohelpwiththePPEanalysis.Allfourhazardsneedtobeconsidered.

14

Figure1RiskAnalysisFlowChartStationaryBatteries

15

Inallcases,safetyglassesshouldbeworn.Additionally,insulatedtoolsmustbeusedwheninthevicinityofa stationarybattery.Testequipmentshouldcomplywithapplicablecodesandstandards.Conductivearticlesof jewelryandclothing(suchaswatchbands,bracelets,rings,keychains,necklaces,metalizedaprons,clothwith conductivethread,metalheadgear,ormetalframeglasses)mustnotbeworn. Itshouldbenotedthatbatteriesaretypicallypartofdcsystemwhichcanincludemanyotherelectricalhazards. Whileallofthehazardsneedtoevaluated,theuseofeverydayworkclothing[4][tableH.2]isrecommendedasa minimumclothingstandardwhileworkingaroundstationarybatteries.

ChemicalHazard
ReferringtotheyellowsectionoftheflowchartinFigure1,chemicalPPEisonlyrequiredifelectrolyteisbeing handled.Activitiesthatwouldbeconsideredhandlingofelectrolytewouldincludeacidadjustmentandremoval ofexcesselectrolyte.Mostnormalbatterymaintenanceactivitiesdonotinvolvehandlingofelectrolyteand thereforedonotrequiretheuseofchemicalglovesoraprons. Utilizingabulbhydrometercouldbeconsideredashandlingelectrolyte.However,mostelectronicdensity metersonlyrequireafewdropsofelectrolyteandwouldnotbeconsideredashandlingelectrolyteandtheuse ofchemicalPPEwouldbeoptional. Ifelectrolyteishandled,thefollowingchemicalratedPPEisrecommended: Protectivegloves,apronsandsafetyshoes Gogglesandfaceshields

ThermalHazard
ReferringtothebluesectionintheflowchartinFigure1,ifthereareactivitiesthatcouldproduceaspark, thermalglovesmayberequired.Theseactivitiesmayincludeconnectingordisconnectingcablesand/orintercell connectionswhencurrentisflowing.Therequireduseofglovesforchemical,arcflashand/orshockmay precludetheneedforthermalgloves.Mostnormalbatterymaintenanceactivities,suchasroutineinspection andmeasurements,donotinvolveariskofasparkandthereforedonotrequiretheuseofthermalgloves.

Arcflashandelectricshockhazards
ReferringtotheredsectionoftheflowchartinFigure1,thereareseveralconditionsthatwouldprecludethe needforanyarcorshockPPE.Ifthesystemvoltageislessthanorequalto100volts,thereisaninsignificantrisk ofshockorarcflashandPPEforthesehazardsisnotneeded. The2012versionofNFPA70Ehasaminimumshockthresholdof50voltsforbothdcandac.AsshowninTables 1,2and3,theminimumlethalvoltageofdcisatleasttwicethatofacvoltages.Inaddition,GordonandCartelli [10] statedthatresearchoverthepastcenturysupportsa100vdcthresholdforshock. Theminimumdcvoltageforarcflashisnotwelldocumented.Inthe2012versionofNFPA70E,nominimum voltageforarcflashismentioned.Whilethedcarcflashtablesin70Estartat100voltsdc,thisisnotconsidered theminimumarcflashvoltagebyNFPA.Usingthe70E2012guidance,the2012Battconpaper[8]foundthat theoreticallya10voltbatteryhasthepotentialofanarcflash.

16

Realistically,thereisaminimumdcvoltagewhereitwouldbeimprobabletohaveanarcflash.Forexample,dc arcwelderscanhaveanopencircuitvoltageofupto80voltsdcwhichisknownnottobeanarcflashrisk.In addition,telephonecompanieshavebeenusing48voltdcsystemsfornearly100yearswithoutaconcernfor arcflashprotection.Itiswellknownthatashortofalarge48batterycanvaporizemetalandcausesignificant contactburns,butthisismainlyathermalhazardandnotanarcflashhazard.Onlytestingcandeterminethe minimumvoltagewherearcflashisarealisticrisk.However,apreponderanceoftheevidencesuggestsstrongly thatsystemsbelow100voltsdchaveaminimalriskofarcflash. Ifthestationarybatteryisgreaterthan100voltsbutitcanbeisolatedfromthesystemandsegmentedinto sectionslessthan100volts,arcflashandshockPPEisoptional.However,inordertosegmentthestationary battery,arcflashandshockPPEmayberequired. Onetypicaltechniquetosegmentastationarybatteryistohaveamultipolecircuitbreakerthatsegmentsthat batteryinthemiddle.Anothertechniqueistoinstallquickdisconnectconnectorsbetweenbatterycellsorunits. Thismethodisoftenseenbetweenshelvesofbatterycabinets.Ifthesegmentsareabove100volts,shock/arc flashPPEwillstillberequired,butanysegmentingofthebatterywillreducethepotentialenergyforanarc flash. Ifthesystemvoltageisover100voltsandthebatterycannotbesegmented,otherconsiderationsmustbe assessed.Forexample,ifthebatteryisungroundedandtheworktobeperformedwillnotsubjectpersonnelto thepossibilityofreachingacrossmorethan100volts,shockprotectionisoptional.Topreventpersonnelfrom reachingacrossmorethan100volts,protectivematerialcanbeplacedonthemainbatteryterminalsand/oron thebatteryconnections. Themajorityofhighvoltagebatteries(>100volts)areungroundedandemploygrounddetectorcircuitsand limitthecurrentbetweenthebatteryandgroundtoanonlethalvalue.Ifthebatteryisungroundedandthe grounddetectorisdesignedproperly,isoperatingproperly,andisnotdetectinggroundfaults,thenpersonnel touchinganypointonthebatterywhilegroundedshouldbesafefromelectrocution.Noneoftheconditions shouldbeassumedanditistheresponsibilityoftheworksupervisortoensurethattheaforementioned conditionsexistastopreventashockhazardbetweenthebatteryandground.Ifthebatteryissolidlygrounded orisreferencedtogroundwithenoughpotentialcurrenttocauseharm,shockprotectionmustbeemployedfor allpersonnelwhomaytouchthebatteryatanypoint. ReferringtothegreensectionoftheflowchartinFigure1,thearcflashhazardmustbeassessedusingeither Table130.7(C)(15)(b)inNFPA70E2012orcalculatedusingtheformulasinAnnexDofNFPA70E2012.Ifthe batterysystemparametersarenotinlinewiththeoneslistedinthetable,thecalculationmustbeused.Work ormaintenanceonabatteryshouldnottakeplaceuntilthearcflashhazardisassessed. Inordertouseeitheroftheaforementionedassessmentmethods,themaximumbatteryshortcircuitcurrent mustbeknown.Itisrecommendedthatthemaximumshortcircuitforeachcellorunitbeobtaineddirectly fromthebatterymanufacturerandcalculatedfortheentiresystem.Thereisnouniversallyacceptedmethodto determinethesystemshortcircuitvalueusingthemanufacturersratesheets. Inordertodeterminetheworstcasearcflashpotential,severalfactorsmustbetakenintoconsideration.First andforemostistocalculatetheavailableshortcircuitcurrentfromthebatteryasdiscussedabove.Theshort circuitvalueobtainedfromthemanufacturermayormaynothavetakenintoconsiderationtheresistanceof intercell/interunitresistances.Todeterminethemaximumarcflashpotentialoftheentirebatterysystem,all cableandconnectionresistancesmustbeconsidered.

17

Also,thetimeofthearcisasignificantfactorinthearcflashcalculation.Sincemostbatteriesdonothavean internalovercurrentprotectivedevice(OCPD),thetimeofthearcisindeterminate.Forlackofbetterguidance, asustainedarcoftwosecondsistypicallyused.Theworkingdistanceisalsoanimportantfactor.Typically18is usedtoaccountforthereachofaperson.

Locationofactivity.
Oncethemaximumarcflashhazardisknown,theactualriskforworkingonallpartsofthebatterysystem needstobeevaluated.Themaximumarcflashhazardisbasedonaconservativeestimateofashortofthe entirebatterysenergy. (a) Proximitytomainterminals.Ifthemainbatteryterminalsarefullyprotectedfromashortand/orno workisbeingdoneonthemainbatteryterminals,creatingthemaximumarcflashisnotpossible.The actualhazardcouldbemuchlessorevennonexistentfurtherdownthebatterystringfromthe terminals.Forexample,anungroundedopenrackbatteryhasverylittleornochanceofcreatinganarc flashwhenworkingonpartsofthestringawayfromthemainterminals.Abatterywithadisconnect devicethatbreaksthestringinthemiddlecanreduceoreveneliminatethearcflashhazardformost locationsonthebattery. (b) Batteriesincabinets.Incontrast,abatterywithinacabinetinwhichthemainpositiveandnegative busesareincloseproximitywitheachothermayactuallybeatanevengreaterarcflashhazardthan NFPA70Etables/formulaswouldindicate.Thisisduetotheconcentratedblastthatwouldbedirected towardtheopeninginthecabinet.Becausebatterycabinetsdiffergreatlyfromonetothenext,the hazardwillalsovary,soanalysismustbedoneonacasebycasebasis. (c) Otherhigharcflashpotentiallocations. Abatterydisconnectcabinetisanotherlocationwherethemaximumarcflashhazardmaybepresent. Agroundedbatterymaybeanotherlocationwhereanarcflashriskmaybepresentthroughoutthe batterystring.

Shockhazardanalysis
Theshockhazardalsoneedstobeassessed.Theshockhazardisfullydependentonthemaximumreachable voltage.Althoughthebatteryvoltagemaybeashighas500volts,ifthemainterminalsareprotected(ormore than6feetapart),theremaybenoriskofshockifpersonnelcannotreachacrossmorethan100volts.Ifashock hazardexists,electricalinsulatinggloves,ratedforthemaximumworkingvoltage,arerequired.

Recommendations
Therearemanyhazardsassociatedwithstationarybatteries.Themosteffectivemethodologyforensuring workersafetyistoprovidepropertrainingandemploysafeworkpractices.Onlypersonneltrainedinbattery anddcsystemsshouldbeallowedtoperformbatteryinstallationsormaintenance,andonlyonthetype(s)of batteryonwhichtheyhavebeentrained.Itisrecommendedthatbatterypersonneltrainingprogramsfollow theguidelinesofIEEE1657[11].Handtoolsutilizedonbatteryinstallationsmustbeinsulated,beratedforthe propervoltage,andmeettheindustrystandardssuchasASTMF1505.Inaddition,itiscriticalthatpersonnel removeallconductivejewelryandconductiveclothingpriortoworkingonoraroundstationarybatteries.

18

Manyhazardscanbemitigatedoreliminatedthroughgooddesignpractices.Astationarybatteryshouldbe designedsothattherearelargegapsbetweenpointsonthebatterywherethedifferentialvoltageisabove100 volts.Thenegativeandpositiveterminalsofthebatteryshouldneverbedesignedsothattheyareinclose proximity,especiallyinhighvoltagedcsystems.Ideallythemainbatteryterminalsshouldbespacedfarapartto eliminateanypossibilityofashort.Forstationarybatteriesabove100volts,themainbatteryterminalsshould beprotectedwithnonconductivematerialtopreventpersonnelfromcontactingtheterminals.Whilethese protectivecoversshouldberemovableformaintenance,theyshouldremaininplaceatanytimeswhenaccess toenergizedcomponentsisnotabsolutelyrequired. Systemdesignersshouldincludeamethodforsegmentingthebatterytoreducetheshockandarcflashhazard duringbatterymaintenanceactivities,especiallyincabinetizedbatterysystems. Thesystemdesignersmustberesponsibleforcalculatingthearcflashhazardandprovideclearlabelingtoallow maintenancepersonneltobeabletoproperlyassesthearcflashpotentialrisk.Arcflashcalculationsshouldonly beperformedbyqualifiedengineeringpersonnel.Whiletheguidanceforcalculatingdcarcflashislimitedand conservative,NFPA70EandtheBattcon2012[8]paperprovidesufficientinformationtoallowthearcflash potentialtobedetermined.Thejobofcalculatingarcflashpotentialsandboundariesshouldnotbeleftupto maintenancetechnicians. Personnelwhoareresponsibleforprovidingbatteryinstallationandmaintenanceservicesmustassessthe hazardsandtheriskoftheworktheywillbeperformingforeveryjob.Itisrecommendedthatthemethodology showninFigure1(anddescribedherein)beutilizedtoassessthesehazards.Basedonthehazardsfora particularjob,properPPEmustbeutilizedandexcessivePPEcanbeavoided. Personnelsafetycanonlybeensuredifthesystemdesigners,siteowners,serviceorganizationsand installation/maintenancepersonneleachtakeownershipoftheirresponsibilityinhazardprevention, preparation,avoidanceandprotection.

RegulatoryUpdates
Atthetimeofthiswriting,NFPA70Eisinthemiddleofanupdatecycle.Proposalsweresubmittedtoincrease theminimumshockvoltagefordcsystemsto100voltsandtoprovidepracticalguidancefordcarcflashPPE. TheseproposalswererejectedattheinitialNFPA70Etechnicalcommitteemeeting.Basedonthisoutcome,it appearsthattheguidancefordcarcflashwillhavefewchangesfromthecurrentversion. TheCanadianStandardsAssociation(CSA)hasasimilardocumenttoNFPA70E,CSAZ462.Therehasbeenan interestfromsomemembersofthetechnicalcommitteeofCSAZ462toincorporatetheguidancefromFigure1. NFPAandIEEEarecollaboratingonanarcflashresearchproject.Thisprojectisfundedthroughdonations.Arc flashtestingofacsystemshasbeenconductedandcontinuestobeconductedthroughthisproject.Itis expectedthatthisprojectwillconductdctestingbytheendofthiscalendaryearorearly2014.Thistestingwill helptobettercharacterizethearcflashhazardfordcsystemsandshouldresultinimprovedPPE recommendationsandguidance. IEEE1584[2]currentlyprovidesforguidanceforperformingarcflashcalculationsonlyinacsystems.This documentiscurrentlybeingrevised.Althoughtheoriginalplanwastoincorporatecalculationsfordcsystems intothenextrevisionofIEEE1584,thatisnolongerthecase.Itisexpectedthatthenextrevisionwillbe ballotedaftertheNFPA/IEEEacarcflashtestingiscompletedlaterthisyear.Oncethedcarcflashtestingis completed,dcguidancemaybeincorporatedintoIEEE1584oritmaybeplacedinanotherIEEEdocument.

19

Appreciation
TheauthorswouldliketoacknowledgetheworkoftheIEEEStationaryBatteryCommittee'sCodesWorking GroupwhoseworkledtothecreationoftheflowchartinFigure1. TheauthorsthanktheInternationalElectrotechnicalCommission(IEC)forpermissiontoreproduceinformation fromitsInternationalStandardIEC604795ed.1.0(2007).AllsuchextractsarecopyrightofIEC,Geneva, Switzerland.Allrightsreserved.FurtherinformationontheIECisavailablefromwww.iec.ch.IEChasno responsibilityfortheplacementandcontextinwhichtheextractsandcontentsarereproducedbytheauthor, norisIECinanywayresponsiblefortheothercontentoraccuracytherein.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. IEEE,IEEERecommendedPracticeforMaintenance,Testing,andReplacementofVentedLeadAcid BatteriesforStationaryApplications,inIEEEStd45020102010:NewYork,NY. IEEE,IEEEGuideforPerformingArcFlashHazardCalculations,inIEEEStd158420022002:NewYork,NY. NFPA,NFPA70NationalElectricalCode,2011:Quincy,MA. NFPA,NFPA70EStandardforElectricalSafetyintheWorkplace,2012:Quincy,MA. IEEE,IEEEDraftGuideforPerformingArcFlashHazardCalculations,inIEEEP1584D22012:NewYork, NY. EC604795ed.1.0EffectsofcurrentonhumanbeingsandlivestockPart5:Touchvoltagethreshold valuesforphysiologicaleffectsCopyright2007IECGeneva,Switzerland.www.iec.ch Sargent,J.,&Fontaine,M.,Handbookforelectricalsafetyintheworkplace2012,Quincy,Mass:National FireProtectionAssociation. Cantor,W.,Zakielarz,P.,Spina,M.DCArcFlash,TheImplicationsofNFPA70E2012onBattery Maintenance.inBattcon2012InternationalBatteryConference.2012.Hollywood,FL. IEEE/NFPA.IEEESAArcFlashResearchProject.2013[cited2013;Availablefrom: http://standards.ieee.org/about/arcflash/. Gordon,L.B.andL.Cartelli.Acompleteelectricalhazardclassificationsystemanditsapplication.in ElectricalSafetyWorkshop,2009.IEEEIAS.2009. IEEERecommendedPracticeforPersonnelQualificationsforInstallationandMaintenanceofStationary Batteries.IEEEStd16572009,2009:p.C196.

110