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Online Vibration Monitoring System Introduction

Prosig Offices PROSIG LTD. Link House, High St. Fareham Hampshire PO16 7BQ UK Tel: +44 (0)1329 239925 Fax: +44 (0)1329 239159 Email: sales@prosig.com PROSIG (USA), INC. Sales & Engineering Support Office Suite 100A 29200 Southfield Road Southfield MI, 48076 USA Tel: +1 248 443 2470 Tel: +1 248 872 9699 (Cell) Fax: +1 248 443 2706 Email: prosigusa@prosig.com

Web Site -

www.prosig.com

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Copyright Prosig Ltd All pre-existing rights reserved.

Confidentiality This document is confidential.

Liability In preparation of this document Prosig Ltd. has made reasonable efforts to ensure that the content is accurate, up to date and complete for the purpose for which it was intended. Prosig Ltd makes no warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of material supplied by the client or their agent.

Prosig Ltd. shall have no liability for any loss, damage, injury, claim, expense, cost or other consequence arising as a result of use or reliance upon any information contained in or omitted from this document.

The user of this document has the obligation to employ safe working practices for any activities referred to and to adopt specific practices appropriate to local conditions.

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Contents

The aim of this document is to provide an overview of the PROTOR system and some technical details on the PROTOR hardware and software components.

Initially a brief introduction to Prosig in general and the PROTOR product in particular is presented. This is followed by a summary of the main features of the PROTOR system.

Also provided are some details on a new development, unique to PROTOR, where a machine state is categorized by the combined reading of multiple plant process parameters. This state detection then allows historical data to be analysed for each and alarm or acceptance limits set based on previous vibration levels for that state.

The following sections provide a brief overview of both the PROTOR hardware and software.

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1. Introduction to Prosig
Prosig, established in 1977, provides off-the-shelf and custom solutions for the capture, analysis and display of data in the laboratory, on the workbench and under eld conditions. With headquarters in the UK, offices in the United States and

distributors world-wide, Prosig is well positioned to support both US and international programs in the Automotive, Aerospace, Manufacturing, Military & Power Generation industries.

Our North American Engineering Centre provides high level resource and support to present and future customers. Our global partners provide sales and support services world-wide.

Prosig staff consists principally of expert signal processing, software and hardware engineers who are supported by an efficient administrative group. Our distributors also have technical specialists available to provide international support.

Prosig designs, develops and manufactures all its products and is able to supply complete hardware and software solutions without reliance on third parties. The company is dynamic and technically advanced.

Prosig products are in use in more than 20 countries world-wide. Exports account for more than 50% of the companys business.

Prosig places great emphasis on research and development. Currently 60% of the technical staff are working full time on updating existing products or developing further extensions.

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1.1

Prosig Products

Prosig's main product lines include:

DATS

DATS has been developed and evolved over 30 years. DATS software has an unparalleled depth of signal processing functions including:
Data acquisition, Time domain analysis, Frequency domain analysis, Curve tting, Filtering, Statistics, Calculus, Trigonometry, Statistical counting , Signal manipulation, Import & export, Signal arithmetic, Math functions, Report generation

Signal Processing Software Toolkit

DATS includes specialist features for analysis automation and quality report generation. Additional processing packages enhance DATS include:

nvh analysis suite, rotating machinery analysis, fatigue analysis, structural animation, multiplane balancing, hammer impact analysis, sound quality audio replay, noise path analysis, human response biodynamics, time-frequency analysis, crash biomechanics analysis, acoustics analysis. modal analysis and sound mapping software

P8000

The P8000 is a family of compact, rugged, high specification data acquisition systems. The system supports continuous acquisition rates

Data Acquisition Systems

of upto 400K samples/sec and up to 24-bit resolution. Features include multiple tachometer inputs and split rate sampling. The tough casing makes it ideal for mobile use. Multiple units can be stacked to expand the system up to 128 channels.

PROTOR

PROTOR provides reliable, online vibration monitoring of rotating machines such as turbines, generators, pumps, fans or motors.

Online Vibration Monitoring

PROTOR is a networked system allowing front-line acquisition systems to be mounted around the site and close to signal sources. A server system collects and collates this information for real-time display, alarm functions and historical data access. PROTOR provide connectivity for both local and remote users and has the ability to share information with numerous other monitoring and control systems.

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1.2

Some Major Users of Prosig Systems

ABB Power Generation American National Power BAE Systems CIS Amrein DERA Dynamic Technology Inc ETW Ford Motor Company Ford Canada GE BEL (India) GTRE (India) Hyundai International Power Jaingling Motors Klippan Lockheed-Martin MGA Research Motor Coach NWS (Earle) Oakland University Ricardo Vehicle Systems Rover Seabank Power Texas A & M University TRW TXU-Europe University of Cracow US Steel Research Verizon VW Mexico Woco USA

AK Steel Australian National Power BNFL Magnox Daimler Chrysler Dow Automotive Eaton Corp FAW (China) Ford Australia Ford UK GEC Hazelwood Power IABG ISVR KAB Seating Land Rover Mazda Midland Powertrain NASA Newcastle University Powergen (E-ON) Rolls Royce RWE nPower Siemens Energy & Automation Trentec TTX Company United Defense LP University of Rome Vattenfall Vibrotec Westinghouse

Alstom Axicon Centrica Energy Deance Dow Chemical EMAT First Inertia Ford Brazil GE General Motors Honeywell Iberdrola Jaguar Killingholme Power Leybold Systems MG Rover Group MIRA National Technical Systems Nottingham University Qinetiq Roush Scottish Power Spalding Energy Transport Research Labs TUV University of Coventry US Army Veridian Visteon Westland Helicoptors

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PROTOR History

Prosig have produced systems for the analysis of vibration data from rotating machines for over 20 years. In the early years the systems were Offline Systems and used a combination of computer hardware, Analogue to Digital Convertors (ADC), Digital Signal Processors (DSP), analogue filters and proprietary synchronous sampling clock generators to capture data from analogue tape recorders, frequency analyze the data and produce graphs of harmonic amplitude and phase components versus rotational speed. The initial Prosig systems were based around the DATS signal processing package.

The first Online PROTOR system (PROTOR1) was installed around 1990. This consisted of a PC based data acquisition system connected to Prosig's AD2000 Data Acquisition and Signal Conditioning hardware. The PC system included a DSP and Ethernet interface for connection to a PROTOR Host system. In this version the PROTOR Host was a DEC VAX/VMS system. The host system provided limited realtime displays such as Mimic diagrams and simple trends. Data was stored to disk for fuller historical analysis. Data was accessible remotely using modems. The last

PROTOR1 system in operation was upgraded in 2004.

The system was upgraded to PROTOR2 around 1993. The front-end data acquisition and analysis remained much the same but the PROTOR Host system was replaced with a Unix workstation which gave greatly improved real-time and historical graphics. The PROTOR graphical user interface was designed and developed. The local and remote access and graphical capabilities was greatly improved. One PROTOR2 system is still in operation today. The graphical user interface developed at this time forms the basis of the current PROTOR interface.

The first PROTOR3 system was installed around 1997. For this system the front-end data acquisition systems were completely redesigned. Special purpose data acquisition and control cards based on transputer technology were designed and manufactured. This provided a modular design which was scalable and configurable and allowed a fully unitised solution to be provided. Signal conditioning modules were standardised for most popular transducers. The PROTOR User interface was

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extended and improved. A large number of PROTOR3 system are still in operation around the world today.

The first PROTOR4 system was installed in 2002. The front-end data acquisition system was redesigned to make use of emerging technologies such as embedded processing and USB communications. This provided a significant cost advantage and significant remote programmability improvements. The PROTOR host software was migrated to a PC-based system, also running Unix software, for reliability and more cost-effective maintenance. Remote access capabilities such as VPNs, firewalls and Internet tunnels was introduced. A large number of PROTOR4 system have now been successfully installed.

1.4

Installed PROTOR Systems

United Kingdom

Station Aberthaw Barking Reach Blackburn Cockenzie

Company RWE Npower Barking Power Scottish Power Scottish Power

Date Installed 1992 1998 2012 1994

Fuel Coal Gas Gas Coal

Items monitored 2 steam turbines and generators. Upgraded 2009 to PROTOR4 2 steam turbines and generators, 5 gas turbines and generators 1 steam turbine and generator, 1 gas turbine and generator 4 steam turbines and generators, 4 main boiler feed pumps, 8 standby feed pumps, 8 forced draft fans, 8 induced draft fans, 6 PA fans 2 gas turbines and generators, 1 steam turbine and generator 4 steam turbines and generators, 4 main boiler feed pumps. 4 Gas Turbines 2 Steam Turbines 1 gas turbine and generator 4 steam turbines and generators Gas turbine and compressor for gas storage facility 2 steam turbines and generators, 2 feed pumps. 1 steam turbine and generator, 3 gas turbines and generators. 1 steam turbine and generator, 2 gas turbines and generators.

Deeside Didcot A Didcot B Esso Fawley Fawley Hatfield Ironbridge Killingholme

International Power RWE Npower RWE Npower RWE Npower RWE Npower Scottish Power Powergen Centrica

1998 1998 2010 1999 1992 2008 1999 1999

Gas Coal Gas Gas Oil Gas Coal Gas

Little Barford

RWE Npower

1995

Gas

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Littlebrook Pembroke

RWE Npower RWE

2004 2011

Oil Gas

2 steam turbines and generators, 2 feed pumps. 5 single shaft gas turbine and steam turbine generators. 2 steam turbines and generators, 2 main boiler feed pumps and 4 standby pumps. 4 single shaft gas turbine and steam turbine generators. 2 gas turbines and generators, 1 steam turbine and generator, 2 feed pumps, 1 gas turbine and generator, 1 steam turbine, 6 pumps, 8 cooling tower fans 2 gas turbines and generators 1 steam turbine and generator 2 Main Boiler Feed Pumps 4 steam turbines and generators, 8 gas circulators.

Rugeley

International Power RWE Seabank Power

1994

Coal

Staythorpe Seabank

2010 1998

Gas Gas

Spalding

Intergen

2006

Gas

Wylfa

BNFL Magnox

1998

Nuclear

Australia
Station Hazelwood Pelican Point Company International Power International Power Date Installed 1997 2000 Fuel Coal Gas Items monitored 8 steam turbines and generators. Upgraded 2010-2011 to PROTOR4

2 gas turbines and generators and 1 steam turbine and generator.

Europe
Station Austria Company Date Installed Fuel Items monitored

Korneuburg
Sweden Ringhals1 Ringhals2

Verbund

1996

Coal

1 main steam turbines and generators 1 feed pump.


2 2 3 6 5 Steam turbines and generators. Steam Turbines and generators, reactor cooling pumps, feed water pumps, re-circulating pumps

Vattenfall Vattenfall

1993 1997

Nuclear Nuclear

Portugal Pego Spain

International Power Iberdrola Iberdrola Iberdrola Iberdrola

1996

Coal

2 Steam Turbines and generators.

Lada Pasajes Velilla Vitoria

2010 2010 2010 2011

Coal Coal Coal Gas

1 Steam Turbine 2 Feed pumps 1 Steam Turbine 1 Feed pumps 1 Steam Turbine 1 Feed pumps 1 Gas Turbine and Generator

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Turkey

Marmara

International Power

2003

Gas

2 Gas Turbines and generators and 1 Steam Turbine and generator

Asia
Station Daya Bay Paiton Company GNPJVC International Power Date Installed 1999 2007 Fuel Nuclear Coal Items monitored

2 main steam turbines and generators 2 main steam turbines and generators

USA
Station Company Date Installed 1998 1998 2000 Fuel Steel Mill Gas Gas Items monitored

AK Steel Milford Midlothian

AK Steel International Power (ANP) International Power (ANP)

16 plant items 1 Steam Turbine and Generator 1 Gas Turbine 6 unit system each consisting of a gas turbine and generator together with a 2 shaft steam turbine.

Hays

International Power (ANP)

2001

Gas

4 unit system each consisting of a gas turbine and generator together with a 2 shaft steam turbine.

Blackstone

International Power (ANP)

2001

Gas

2 unit system each consisting of a gas turbine and generator together with a 2 shaft steam turbine.

Bellingham

International Power (ANP)

2002

Gas

2 unit system each consisting of a gas turbine and generator together with a 2 shaft steam turbine.

In addition, all large generator balancing system at Alstom UK use Prosig Balance software and data capture hardware. This is a PROTOR derivative called PROBAL.

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2. PROTOR System Overview


The PROTOR Vibration Monitoring System provides reliable on-line monitoring of Turbine Generators, Main Boiler Feed Pumps and other auxiliary plant equipment. Without health information on primary equipment such as turbines, pumps and associated equipment, impending faults go unnoticed and develop into conditions that result in failures. Failures may lead to unscheduled outages or more serious equipment damage with consequent loss of revenues.

The benefits of monitoring rotating equipment with vibration sensors and process parameters are well known. The information will support the following:

Analyse bearing performance Data comparison at know speeds Ability to set up more accurate limits FFT processing of run-up/rundowns Better control of machine start-up

Examination of critical modes More reliable trends Examination of blade frequencies Historical data storage Statistical reports on History data

With this information the operator and plant rotating equipment expert are better able to detect problems such as:

Shaft unbalance Shaft rubs Shaft bowing Bearing faults Misalignment Shaft cracking Looseness of rotating elements Casing Distortion

Whirl problems Balance piston rubs Damaged sealing strips Generator shorts End winding vibrations Blade response Hub cracking Foundation Distortion

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Some of the main features of PROTOR may be summarized as follows.

Distributed Monitoring

PROTOR is a distributed network system that is easy to install without incurring expensive cabling costs. Data

collection may be near the machine being monitored or in a central location or both. Standard Ethernet is used to communication between the various data collection units and a central server system which provides the long-term storage and main user interface.

Multiple Plant Item Monitoring - PROTOR Schematic

Remote Data Acquisition

The data collection units are self contained and designed to be able to withstand the rigors of a power plant operating environment. The data collection units are Prosig System P4700 units. This P4700 system supports as standard,

software selectable signal conditioning designed to interface to a wide range of transducers. These include

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accelerometers, velocity sensors and displacement probes along with process parameter inputs. The signal conditioning will provide constant current or excitation voltages as necessary for driving ICP accelerometers and eddy probes. Galvanic and high common mode isolation is available as a separate option where required.

Flexible Configuration

In its most common configuration a single P4700 data collection unit may collect a total of 32-channels of analogue input together with 4 tachometer signals. Each of these 32channels may be configured as either a dynamic (vibration) or static (plant process) channels. A complete system may

therefore be configured to represent 32 vibration signals for a single turbine or possibly 16 vibration signals for two independent shaft lines or maybe even 8-channels for four separate rotating elements

Combined Critical Plant And Auxiliary Machine Monitoring

For situations where more channels are required, maybe for monitoring a large number of static channels or for monitoring a number of lower priority or 50% duty-cycle machines then an alternative configuration for the P4700 unit includes a switch or multiplex facility. In this configuration a single P4700 unit may collect up to 48-channels, this maybe 48 separate static inputs or maybe 8-channels of vibration input for 6 separate pumps or fans. The P4700 design allows for simple and cost-effective expansion, in this configuration the addition of a further P4700 rack allows a total 144 channels to be monitored. This scheme, together with PROTORs flexible database structure makes the system easily expandable and extendable. Data from all monitored machines either highpriority 100% duty-cycle units or lower priority pumps or fans are fully integrated within PROTOR and data from all is available to be viewed using the same user interface.

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State Detection

The data collection frequency and data logging rate for each machine is dependent on the current machine state. This machine state is determined principally from the rotational speed as determined from the tachometer signal however the state may also be influenced by digital contacts such as "grid synchronization" relay or "barring-gear engaged" relay. The state may also be influenced by a specified primary plantprocess parameter (typically Load) or by a state indicated by the DCS system. The state and logging regime may also be affected by the current alarm conditions. See the later section on Prosigs developments on multi-parameter state detection and alarm processing.

Alarm Facilities

PROTOR provides numerous alarm and warning monitoring facilities for each dynamic signal. Different alarm levels may be set for a number of machine conditions. Level check on overall and first 4 orders. Ellipse boundary on first 4 orders Non-synchronous vibration level. Sub-synchronous amplitude. Additional order level checks Step changes Long-term gradient checks

PROTOR alarm and warning levels may be derived from statistical analysis of historic data with user settable probability levels or they may be entered manually into the configuration set-up.

Intuitive User Interface

The PROTOR Graphical User Interface has been developed and improved over a number of years and was originally designed with the input from a range of power station operational personnel and vibration experts. All operation, where possible, is by point and click and is easily picked-up by casual users. Displays include :

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Mimics Trends Linear plots Spectrum and FFT plots Vector display Waterfall

Orbits Time histories Tabular Alert summaries Autoplots Bearing Clearance

Configurable Graphics

Each PROTOR user has up-to 20 user configurable graphical layouts for each display type, which may be assigned to onscreen buttons for rapid data access. User accounts may be set to have their own local layouts or to use a system-wide shared set.

Data Analysis

The data acquisition and processing for units with tachometer (phase reference) signals is based upon synchronous sampling derived from the once per revolution pulse stream. This gives high accuracy for measuring the shaft order responses. For units without tachos then banded-spectra

monitoring is used.

Data Access

Full Windows access to the database PC is available locally and remotely using either Wide Area Networks, Virtual Private Networks (VPN) or over modems. PROTOR data may be exported into a number of standard formats and also into Prosigs own DATS file format. Protor supports a number of facilities for the automatic downloading or transfer of data.

User Access

The PROTOR system is flexible and easy to configure for access control. Each user on the system is assigned to an access groups which defines the options available. Access groups are typically, Operator, Maintenance, Engineer or Expert.

Run-out Correction

PROTOR includes facilities to collect displacement data at low speeds which includes both electrical and mechanical run-out. Subsequent measurements may be corrected by having these run-out vectors subtracted.

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Transducer Orientation

Often it is not possible or practical to have transducers mounted in the desired horizontal and vertical planes. PROTOR allows the transducer orientation to be configured and may resolved the measured components into the vertical and horizontal components.

Shaft Centreline Displays

PROTOR also has the ability to measure both the dynamic and static (Gap) components for shaft displacement

transducers using a single measurement channel. Gap data may be measured when the shaft is stationary and relative values displayed when running in order to display shaft centre-line movement. Bearing clearances may be configured and included on the display.

Reference Data

PROTOR supports reference datasets for run-ups, run-downs and load-up sequences. Each reference may be assigned a condition such as Hot, Cold or Warm. Reference plots may be called up for display on real time and historic run-ups and run-downs. Run-ups and Run-downs may also be

automatically compared to an appropriate reference dataset together with an associated boundary.

Long-Term Trend Data

PROTOR also provides a number of facilities for the display and comparison of run-up and rundown data. One facility, the PROTOR Run-down Trend Analysis, performs statistical analysis of run-up or run-down datasets for comparison purposes and creates long-term trend displays of the results such that any abnormalities may be quickly identified.

Summary Data

PROTOR maintains a database of significant events such as machine start-ups, shutdowns, alarms and also user entered observations. Summary data may be collated on a regular basis , for example daily, from this database and either printed or distributed in the form of an email.

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Connectivity

The PROTOR vibration monitoring system is a distributed system, linked by Ethernet. The acquisition subsystems may be located in equipment rooms or similar in either standard 19 racking or in wall cabinets. Similarly, the database for the storage and analysis of the vibration and plant process data may be distributed in several database PCs, or in just one PC. For example, there could be a host per unit or just one host or some other combination. Other PCs on the network with the relevant PROTOR User software also have access to the data and to the PROTOR displays. Similarly, the system may be used over wide-area networks, VPN links or modems.

The PROTOR Host may interface with one or more Plant Computers for the collection of additional plant process parameters (PROTOR static channels). It depends on the Plant computer as to how this communication interface is achieved. Prosig have previously developed interfaces for OSI/PI systems, Intellution/Fix systems, Thales/APMS

systems and Westinghouse/Ovation systems. In each case data transfer is possible in both directions.

Typically PROTOR supports up to 512 signals collected by this method. These signals may be a mixture of plant

process or logic signals.

Data Storage And Archive

Data is stored within PROTOR in a format suitable for servicing the potential high-speed demands for graphical display and analysis. Data is stored into cyclic container files organised on a First In First Out basis. The total set of container files is configured to allow typically 18 months to 2 years worth of data stored online. Alongside this storage an archive process maintains a copy of all data logged to exchangeable media such as magneto optical disk or DVD/CD RW media. A database system sits above the logged data and provides search mechanism to rapidly find

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information with the logged data.

Data Import and Export

PROTOR data may be exported into a number of different formats for import into other standard packages. In particular PROTOR supports export to Prosigs own DATS file format allowing PROTOR data to be analysed and viewed by DATS. A number of major companies have adopted the DATS file structure for their own data storage requirements such as RWE nPower and E-ON Power Technology. PROTOR supports facilities for the automatic download of data and scheduled data transfers. PROTOR graphics may be cut and pasted into standard word processing packages.

3. PROTOR Hardware Details


PROTOR is a distributed system, capable of monitoring a large number of independent items of plant. Data collection is by remote units which may be set-up and accessed over Ethernet. The data collection units used within PROTOR are Prosig's P4700 range of hardware. A single P4700 system will accept up to 32 analogue input signals with up to 4 separate tachometer or phase reference signals.

For high importance items of plant each will have its own data acquisition subsystem. Using this approach each item of plant will be handled independently such that a high priority events, such as a machine trip, on one turbine will not affect in any way the data collection on any other. For machines with a low number of channels then a single P4700 system will handle up to four separate machines each with its own tachometer signal and each handling up to 8 channels.

For less important items a single data acquisition unit may monitor a number of different machines in a multiplex mode. This provides a cost effective solution when monitoring a large number of auxiliary items of plant.

The inputs to the system may be a mixture of high-speed vibration (dynamic) signals or slow-speed, plant process (static) signals. The system also supports digital input

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signals, usually used for state detection and digital outputs for alarm and system watchdog indicators.

Prosig's P4700 range of hardware has been designed for the monitoring and analysis of vibration within The integrates and an P4700 within associated industrial hardware Prosig's

parameters environment. seemlessly

PROTOR system for rotating machine vibration monitoring.

The following are some of the key features of the P4700 System.

The P4700 consists of a series of individual components which fit together as required into a 19inch rack-mount chassis. The P4700 is designed to be mounted close to the signal source thus reducing expensive cabling costs. Communication to the P4700 is via standard TCP/IP Ethernet.

The P4700 uses the latest microprocessor technology to provided a powerful but flexible monitoring and signal processing system for condition monitoring for a wide variety of items of plant. The P4700 is extensively used for the analysis of rotating machines where vibration is analysed relative to a once-per-revolution keyphasor signal to yield harmonic amplitude and phase components. However the P4700 may also be used for non-rotating plant to provide either simple, continuous overall level monitoring or by providing "spectral banding" analysis.

The P4700 family of components allows systems to be configured easily for a wide variety of applications. A single P4700 chassis consists of a processor segment and a signal segment. The signal segment may be either a 32-channel dynamic segment with individual, parallel ADCs per channel, ideal for monitoring high-speed vibration data for one or more item of plant. Alternatively a static segment may be selected which provides a 48-channel multiplexed arrangement

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for low-cost, slower speed monitoring for less critical plant items or for plant analogue (static) signals. P4700 Dynamic Segment Schematic P4700 Static Segment Schematic

The processor segment provides the communication and control interface and also the digital signal processing engine. For full flexibility inter-communication between the processor and the signal components is via USB. The in-built

processor runs a fully functional operating system allowing easy remote maintenance and upgrade. The system runs from embedded solid-state disk (DiskOnChip) or Compact Flash for high reliability in an industrial environment. A hard disk may be fitted for long-term data storage and security in the event of long-term Ethernet loss.

A complete monitoring system may consist of several P4700 systems interconnected. Each system may be monitoring separate items of plant or for a highly instrumented machine several P4700 systems may be integrated together to monitor the complete machine.

The

P4700

provides signal

fully

programmable

conditioning

which supports all common vibration transducers such as shaft

displacement probes , ICP and 4-20 mA devices. The conditioning provides high common mode protection.

Full galvanic isolation can be provided as an additional external device.

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Separate

conditioning

circuitry

is

provided for the tachometer or phase reference signal. Upto four separate tachometer signals may be input to a single P4700 rack. A P4700 rack may be configured for single of multiple machine monitoring.

The P4700 provides the following main features.

Dimensions Power Requirements

Height 178mm (4U) x Width 448mm ( 19inch rack mounting) x Depth 361mm 24V DC. 150W or 6A @24V External rail-mount 110/220V AC to 24V DC power supply available as an option.

Input channels

Up to 32 channels per chassis. Multiple chassis may be configured.

Resolution Maximum Sample Rate Input Frequency Range Input Coupling Transducer Excitation ICP Transducer support Input Voltage Input Impedance Maximum Common Mode Voltage Anti-aliasing Filter Phase matching Tacho Input Range Tacho Frequency Range Tacho Conditioning Speed Reading Accuracy Synchronous Sampling

16-bit 20K samples/second per channel DC to 10KHz Programmable DC Direct , AC with 1Hz high pass filter. Programmable 24V DC power per channel. 4mA supply from 24v source Programmable +/- 24V, +/-10V +/- 1V +/- 100mV 800 KOhm. Galvanic isolation available as an option. 200v common mode compliance. Programmable 8-pole Butterwoth low-pass filter in range 200Hz to 20KHz. Better than 1deg between channels. Phase compensation for filter delays performed. 24V 0 to 120,000 RPM Dedicated conditioning for up to 4 tachometer signals per unit. Programmable threshold, slope and re-trigger period. Better than +/- 1RPM Programmable synchronous sampling circuitry to provide 16,32,64,128 or 256 pulses per cycle.

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Constant Sampling Frequency Analysis

Programmable constant rate sampling clock. Overall level and DC component Harmonic amplitude and phase analysis for orders 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x and selected order. Subsynchronous amplitude and Frequency Non-synchronous energy Window selection (Hanning or Flat-top) Spectral Banding mode

Frequency Resolution Amplitude accuracy

Selectable FFT sizes from 128,256,512,1024, 2048 or 4096 Accuracy of both AC and DC measurements referenced to full scale amplitude. Measurements are better than 2% fsd for amplitude and 2% in phase in all conditions apart from very low-speed or high rates of change of speed ( > 50RPM/sec) Data is captured at 10RPM increments or better for rates of change of speed up to 50 RPM/sec. Circuitry allows DC (Gap) component and AC (Vibration) component to be measured simultaneously for displacement or proximity type transducers. Upto 8 voltage or relay inputs per rack. May be used for state detection such as running/stopped, Onload/Offload or Barring/Not Barring. Upto 8 voltage or relay outputs per rack. May be used for alarm indicators. One output dedicated to watchdog or system healthy indicator. Accepts synchronisation commands from PROTOR Host. Internal, battery-backed date/time storage. Front-panel LEDS for Power and Tacho trigger. D-type sockets on back panel. Rail-mount screw terminals The system is capable of re-booting and restarting normal operation following power failures and without user intervention.

Speed Resolution AC/DC separation

Digital Inputs

Digital Outputs

Time Syncrhonisation Indicators Signal Inputs Power Fail Recovery

Diagnostic Functions

Each data acquisition card within the system contains an onboard signal generator for fault diagnosis. Under software control, each channel on that card may be temporarily switched from reading its normal external input to reading the signal from the internal generator. The signal follows the same signal path as the normal vibration signal. The resultant waveform is analyzed by the system and compared to a table of expected results. Any deviations from expected within a certain tolerance are highlighted and reported to the System log.

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Standards

General BS EN61326

CE Marked Emissions Standard for Electrical equipment for measurement and control equipment. Immunity Standard for Electrical equipment for measurement and control equipment. ESD requirements. Electrical fast burst transient. Surges requirements. Conducted susceptibility.

BS EN61326

BS EN61000-4-2 BS EN61000-4-4 BS EN61000-4-5 BS EN61000-4-6

The standard P4700 rack has a protection rating of IP20. It is intended for installation in a cubicle or enclosure to provide further protection. For installations which require a higher degree of protection then the unit may be mounted into a protective carrycase for portable systems or a protective wall-box or enclosure for permanently installed systems.

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4. PROTOR Software Overview


This section briefly outlines the Graphical User Interface provided by the PROTOR system for the vibration data. All operations are controlled, where possible, using the mouse and extensive use is made of pop-up windows and selection lists in order to facilitate operation. Online help is available. The main user interface to the

vibration data is provided through the following tasks. Operator Graphics This facility is essentially concerned with current data and provides access to real-time data and short-term storage data. The facility is intended for use by operators and provides a series of graphical displays such as Mimic diagrams and Trends. The initial screen or Home page shows an overall view of the complete system. Icons exist for each monitored item of plant, which are colour coded to indicate the current status such as machine state and alarm condition. Fields also exist on this screen to indicate the overall status of the monitoring system such as communicate status, archive data status etc. A number of graphical layouts may be

preformatted for rapid data display. Any alarm conditions are shown and the ability to accept alarm conditions is provided. Historical Graphics Allows access for an Expert User to all data that has been logged by the system. Allows searches back through history either by date or by event (Run-ups and Run-downs). Allows reference files to be selected for use by the Operator graphics and allows data to be extracted for use by DATS. Demand Data Alarm Calculator Allows full frequency FFTs and time histories to be demanded and displayed by Expert Users for investigation or diagnostic purposes. This allows the expert user to select a section of historic data for alarm level assessment. The software will statistically

analyse the data and suggest a set of alarm values that would be appropriate with a given confidence. The user may then auto-set the alarms.

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Access to all PROTOR facilities is through the PROTOR Desktop. This is the same whether viewing the system using a locally attached keyboard,mouse and monitor or remotely using a viewer program from a PC on the same network.

4.4.2 Operator Interface


A single graphics task, operator, provides the main graphical access to real-time and short-term history vibration data. This facility mainly accesses data from the shared memory data queues but will provide access to recent data within container files. The facility is driven by a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and is designed to be used by expert and operator users alike. All actions and commands are controlled using the mouse device. The screen area is split into two main sections firstly the main body of the screen and secondly a menu bar area at the top of the screen. Options within the menu bar area control the graphics displayed in the main body of the screen. The following summarise the main facilities available.

HOME Page This is the initial display shown on initialisation of the operator facility and provided a total overview of all the monitoring system. An 'icon' or box is drawn in the display area for each plant monitored by the system.

Operator Graphics - Home Page

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The icon shows the plant name, its current rotational speed and is drawn in a colour appropriate to its current alarm state. By default these colours are blue (for normal), orange (for warning), red (for alarm), magenta (for stopped) and black (for communications timeout) although this is configurable.

Using this page the operator will see immediately the state of all plants and be able to easily see which plant requires further attention.

MIMIC Diagram

The actual Mimic diagram may be designed to the customers specification. The level of the mimic bars and any numerical numbers update automatically as new data arrives.

Operator Graphics - Mimic Diagrams

The colour of the bars and numbers indicate the alarm state of that dynamic channel. The default colour scheme is blue for normal, yellow for warning and red for alarm. A control window allows the scales for the Mimic bars and the data parameter (i.e. Order number, Overall, Subharmonic etc.) to be selected. The values shown on the Mimic may be vibration data channels or plant process parameters and may be shown as bars, numbers or both. Multiple mimic diagrams may be configured for each plant item, for example, one for vibration and another for plant process parameters. TREND Display

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A trend display consists of three data windows, one for dynamic channel amplitude traces, one for phase traces and a third for static channel traces.

Vibration Harmonic Amplitude

Vibration Harmonic Phase Plant Process Parameters Operator Graphics - Trend displays versus Time

Up to four different traces may be displayed in each of these windows. Data may be displayed against time or speed as the X-axis. Data is automatically updated as new data arrives.

For a time axis then a series of buttons defines the time range, typically 30 mins, 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours or 6 days. Data will be continuously updated on

the display until the trace reaches the extreme right-hand edge at which point the whole display will scroll back one sixth of the range, thus providing a stable view which is not continuously updating. Data displayed is a seamless mix of both highresolution data from the shared memory buffer and logged data from the historical datasets appropriate to the range of data being displayed.

If the plant is currently in run-up or rundown state then speed will automatically be chosen as the X axis, in all other cases time will be chosen. The X-axis range is set dependent on the maximum speed for the machine.

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Operator Graphics - Trend Display versus Speed

Buttons exists on screen to allow Reference datasets to be overlaid with the current data. Vibration data may also have Runout data subtracted and also be transposed into true vertical and horizontal components.

For time data any alarm and warning levels will be shown as tick marks alongside the amplitude window. These levels will be taken from Alert A for orders 1 to 4 or Overall and from Alert D for sub-harmonic.

A control region is provided on the screen, which will show names for displayed channels in the colour in which they are displayed. Alongside these name 'increment up' and 'decrement down' buttons are provided to step through available channels. Channels may also be selected graphically from a selection mimic. Any selection of channels may be saved as a layout and associated with one of 20 layout buttons drawn at the bottom of the screen. This allows channel configurations to be restored on a single button click.

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The order button allows selection of orders 1 to 4, the Overall level, DC component or the sub-harmonic component. If the sub-harmonic component is chosen then the phase window changes to display sub-harmonic frequency.

LINEAR Display

The linear display is a flexible display allowing up to 8 parameters to be displayed against a single X-axis. The data displayed in the Y-axes may be any mix of measured parameters such as Modulus or Phase of Order data, Overall Levels or Static Parameters. The data associated with the X-axis may be any static channel or Speed or Time.

The data associated with each axis is controlled by the Axis Manager Menu Bar Option, which allows Dynamic or Static channels to be associated with each axis window. A control window is displayed for each Y-axis with controls for the channel displayed, its type and scaling information. The Linear display may be either displayed in Cascade format or Overlay format. For Cascade format the individual axes are stacked one on top of each other. For Overlay format the data is shown on a single axis marked as +/- Full Scale. The fullscale value for each axis is shown in the control window.

Operator Graphics - Linear Cascade

Operator Graphics - Linear Overlay

WATERFALL (Cascade) Display

The real-time waterfall display shows a series of spectra for a single channel. The display is initially clear and draws new spectra from bottom to top as new data arrives. A maximum of 128 spectra may be displayed. When this number has been

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reached the display retains a user selected number of spectra, re-draws the screen and appends new data.

The display can be configured to show spectra as either a function of time or speed on the y-axis. The spectra may be tilted from the vertical to allow clearer views.

Operator Graphics - Waterfall Display

VECTOR (Polar) Display

This display shows a Nyquist or vector plot for up to 4 selected dynamic channels. As with the trend plot the display may be chosen to display speed varying data (runup or rundown) or a period of On-load data. For time period data the operator may choose to display data for the last 30 mins, 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, 1 day or 6 days.

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For time data then any ellipse alert boundaries may be displayed for the selected channels. Since the ellipse may become inactive during certain conditions a

message showing if the ellipse boundary is active or not for each channel.

On screen buttons allow the data scale to be modified and the channels to be displayed. A 'zero' button allows the user to reposition the centre of the vector axis using the cursor.

Operator Graphics - Vector Display

To facilitate the identification of data on the Vector display an annotation facility is provided. The Expert user may select either Speed or Distance annotation. For Distance annotation the expert user may define a Symbol Distance each time a measured point exceeds this distance from the last annotation point a new symbol will be drawn. Each time a new symbol is drawn then an entry will be made in the annotation table shown in the Vector Table window available from the Options menu. This table will show the symbol together with values from up to three static channels for the annotated point. Letters of the alphabet are used for successive symbols.

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If Speed annotation is selected then a new symbol is drawn on the graph and entered into the table each time the speed crosses a multiple of the annotation speed.

ORBIT Display

Shows X-Y display of shaft orbit for perpendicular shaft displacement probes. The display may be transformed into the horizontal and vertical planes in cases where it is not possible to mount transducers at these positions.

Filtered Orbit

Direct Orbit

Orbit with Overlays

Orbit with time histories

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The display is triggered relative to the keyphasor or phase reference. The start point is indicated on the display and hence the direction of the orbit. Orbits may be continuously refreshed or overlaid.

ALERT Display

This display provides an automatic scrolling list of the most recent entries into the alert database. Each message has an 'Accept' button which the operator may use to accept a condition.

Scroll Up, Scroll Down, Page Up and Page Down buttons are provided to move through the alarm list. In addition the current alert state of all channels are all alerts may be viewed in an alert status matrix.

Operator Graphics - Alert Log

Operator Graphics - Alert Status

4.4.3 DEMAND DATA


For investigative purposes it is sometimes desirable to be able to view full frequency FFT spectra or time history data for individual channels at different sampling rates. PROTOR provides a separate interface which allows channels to be selected and the type of demand data required to be specified. This data includes:

Full Frequency Spectra with a selection of Windows ( None, Hanning, Flat-top) Time history (Synchronous or constant rate sampling)

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Orbit plots Test signal

Data is selected and when required the demand is activated. Once collected the appropriate data is displayed to the screen and a number of on-screen buttons allows the display to be manipulated. Data can also be collected of the on-board test signal generator rather than live data in order to check the system operation, data acquisition, signal conditioning and internal signal paths for individual channels.

Demand - FFT (Hanning)

Demand - Time History

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4.4.4 Historic Interface


The PROTOR Historical graphics facility is similar in 'look and feel' to the Operator graphics module in that all interaction is by the mouse and extensive use is made of pop-up windows and menus.

The Historic facility differs from the Operator facility in that the data is taken from historical data recorded in container files on disc rather than from real-time data. Thus it does not update or scroll. Users have access to all the logged data on the system. All data is stored chronologically and can be viewed as a continuous trend, including data collected during Barring, Runup/Rundown or Onload conditions. Data may be viewed over long time periods and the user may scroll backwards and forwards through the data or select the Zoom option to identify particular areas of interest.

Zoom Button Scroll Buttons Historic Trend 30 days

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PROTOR data is logged to disc at a rate determined by the plant state. Typically when a plant is in On-load conditions then new data is stored every 2 minutes, this rate may be increased should a plant go into an alert condition. During run-up and rundown operation then each data point captured is logged to disc typically every 10 rpm speed step. To facilitate display and extraction of data from these logged data sets then a database is maintained which contains entries detailing significant logging events such as initiation of run-up, rundown or on-load states, open and close of container files and alert conditions. Using this information the Expert user may select time periods, alert data sets or variable speed data sets for display with the historical facility.

The historical facility provides the main display styles. The following points highlight the differences provided in the Historical interface to that described above for the Operator interface.

An important feature of the historical displays are the ability to compare data. Typically this may be to compare different rundown events for a machine. On all displays a number of events may be selected and the comparison data shown.

Historic Graphics Trend Rundown Comparison

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Historic Graphics - Vector Rundown Comparision

On the Linear graphics display a number of events may be stacked above each other. Options are provided to control the clipping of data drawn in each axis to allow data to be maximized and displayed in a cascaded form.

Historic Graphics - Linear Display Single Channel / Multi-Event Cascade

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Historic Graphics - Linear Display Single Channel / Multi-Event Overlay

The Historic graphics also allows display of Shaft Gap data from perpendicular shaft proximity probes. This display provides a indication of how the shaft centreline moves in the bearing over a period of time. When available, clearance data may be input for both the vertical and horizontal directions. .

Operator Graphics - Shaft Gap Display

Multiple events may also be selected to allow comparison of shaft centreline movement.

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