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FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY OWERRI P.M.

B 1526
A TERM PAPER ON HOW TO MEASURE/EVALUATE THE PRESENCE OF BTEX IN AN ENCLOSURE. COURSE CODE: CHM 602 COURSE TITLE: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY BY

ODOEMENAM CHINONSO O.
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
SUBMITTED TO PROF. P.C. NJOKU

FEB. 2013

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF M.SC IN ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY.

HOW TO MEASURE/EVALUATE THE PRESENCE OF BTEX IN AN ENCLOSURE.


BTEX is an acronym that stands for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. These compounds are some of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in petroleum derivatives such as petrol (gasoline). Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes have harmful effects on the central nervous system. BTEX compounds are notorious due to the contamination of soil and groundwater with these compounds. Contamination typically occurs near petroleum and natural gas production sites, petrol stations, and other areas with underground storage tanks (USTs) or above-ground storage tanks (ASTs), containing gasoline or other petroleum-related products. The amount of 'Total BTEX, the sum of the concentrations of each of the constituents of BTEX, is sometimes used to aid in assessing the relative risk or seriousness at contaminated locations. The development and urbanization process are believed to contribute to the deterioration of air quality. Transportation is one of the main sources of air pollution in the developing cities. Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX) form an important group of aromatic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), emitted mainly from cars, where BTEX is a known carcinogenic. The initial results of a pilot study that was carried out at the engineering campus, USM, to monitor BTEX come out of the motor vehicles, motor bikes and engines, show high concentrations of BTEX (7.5, 6.1, 12.3 and 3.9 ppm respectively).This study aims to propose an a framework to measurer and model BTEX concentrations in three developing cities (Penang, Cairo and Gaza). The results of this research clarify the current status of BTEX concentrations in the three cities and pave the way for a suitable action to be taken to reduce BTEX concentrations. BTEX play a vital role in the troposphere chemistry and poses health risk to human [3]. Benzene is known as a carcinogenic compound, which is emitted mainly from petrol-fuelled cars and thus it is found in all urban areas. The estimated world-wide average emissions of VOCs are about 1347 million tons (Mt)/year from biogenic sources and 462 Mt/year from anthropogenic

sources. Ambient total concentration of airborne VOCs (155 species) in urban and suburban areas have been reported to be in the range 16.21033 g/m3. Some VOCs have toxic health effects depending on duration and levels of exposure, even at g/m3 concentrations (e.g., exposure to BTEX at high levels can cause respiratory, neurological, and genetic system damage).

METHODS Measurements were carried out using Direct Sense Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Meter, the instrument capable of measuring TVOC, CO, CO2, Temperature and Relative Humidity simultaneously. It can identify potential IAQ issues before they become problems and respond immediately to complaints with the high accuracy, extremely advanced and the most intuitive portable IAQ meters and test instrumentation available today. A pilot study to measure BTEX concentration was carried out. BTEX concentrations were measured by using Multi Gas PID Meter. The measurements were carried out in indoor environment and emissions from motorbike were monitored. The results show high concentrations of BTEX as shown below.

CONCLUSION. The high BTEX concentrations (7.5, 6.1, 12.3 and 3.9 ppm respectively), that were revealed by the pilot study proved the importance of carrying out a large scale study to measure and model the BTEX trends in the busy places, where the prediction model will act as alert tool to the public and the decision making. REFERENCES 1) Analytical and Field Test Method for Measuring BTEX by Michael H. Pawlowski. 2) A proposed framework for Measuring and Modelling of BTEX by Wesam Ahmed Al Madhoun. 3) BTEX from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.