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Saturday, November 20, 2010

20101121 – Apple, iPhone Human Interface Guidelines
CHAPTER 2

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Mobile Learning portal [prototype] WAP Blog: Mobile Learning & Usability

Human Interface Principles: Creating a Great User Interface
A great user interface follows human interface design principles that are based on the way people—users—think and work, not on the capabilities of the device. A user interface that is unattractive, convoluted, or illogical can make even a great application seem like a chore to use. But a beautiful, intuitive, compelling user interface enhances an application's functionality and inspires a positive emotional attachment in users.

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Metaphors
When possible, model your application's objects and actions on objects and actions in the real world. This techni ue especially helps novice users uickly grasp how your application works. !olders are a classic software metaphor. "eople file things in folders in the real world, so they immediately understand the idea of putting data into folders on a computer. Metaphors in i#$ include i"od playback controls, tapping controls to make things happen, sliding on%off switches, and flicking through the data shown on picker wheels. Comments: his is inline with !ielsen's "euristics: #atch between system and the real world.

&irect Manipulation

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Direct manipulation means that people feel they are controlling something tangible, not abstract. The benefit of following the principle of direct manipulation is that users more readily understand the results of their actions when they can directly manipulate the objects involved. iOS users enjoy a heightened sense of direct manipulation because of the Multi-Touch interface. Using gestures, people feel a greater affinity for, and sense of control o er, the objects they see on screen, because they do not use any intermediate de ice !such as a mouse" to manipulate them. To enhance the sense of direct manipulation in your i#hone application, ma$e sure that% & Objects on the screen remain isible while the user performs actions on them & The result of the user's action is immediately apparent

See and #oint
(n i#hone application is better than a person at remembering lists of options, commands, data, and so on. Ta$e ad antage of this by presenting choices or options in list form, so users can easily scan them and make a choice. )eeping te*t input to a minimum frees users from ha ing to spend a lot of time typing and frees your application from ha ing to perform a lot of error chec$ing. Comments: Selecting choices/options is better than keying in text. #resenting choices to the user, instead of as$ing for more open-ended input, also allows them to concentrate on accomplishing tas$s with your application, instead of remembering how to operate it.

+eedbac$
,n addition to seeing the results of their actions, users need immediate feedback when they operate controls and status reports during lengthy operations. -our application should respond to e ery user action with some isible change. +or e*ample, ma$e sure list items highlight briefly when users tap them. udible feedback also helps, but it can!t be the primary or sole feedback mechanism because people may use i"S#based devices in places where they can!t hear or where they must turn off the sound. $n addition, you don!t want to compete with the i"S system sounds users already associate with system alerts. i"S automatically provides feedback when it!s temporarily busy by displaying the activity indicator. During operations that last more than a few seconds, your application should show elapsing progress and, if appropriate, display an e*planatory message. nimation is a great way to provide feedback to users, as long as it's both subtle and meaningful. (nimation per ades iOS, e en in nonimmersi e applications. (s a means of pro iding feedbac$, howe er, it is used to enhance the user's e*perience, not as the focus of the user's e*perience. Comments: nimation %such as progress bar& and audible sound are useful feedbacks when the user does an action %such as downloading, installing&.

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User Control
Allow users, not your application, to initiate and control actions. Keep actions simple and straightforward so users can easily understand and remember them. Whenever possible, use standard controls and behaviours that users are already familiar with. Provide ample opportunity to cancel operations before they begin, and be sure to get confirmation when the user initiates a potentially destructive action. Whenever possible, allow users to gracefully stop an operation that's underway. Comments: Use familiar or standardised controls. Get user's confirmation for destructive action (e.g. delete file). Ma e !"top! button to enable user to terminate a certain process after process has commenced.

Aesthetic Integrity
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Although the ultimate purpose of an application is to enable a tas , even if that tas is playing a game, the importance of an application!s appearance should not be underestimated. "his is because appearance has a strong impact on functionality# #n application that appears cluttered or illogical is hard to understand and use. Aesthetic integrity is not a measure of how beautiful your application is. It!s a measure of how well the appearance of your application integrates with its function. $or e%ample, a productivity application should eep decorative elements subtle and in the bac ground, while giving prominence to the tas by providing standard controls and behaviors. &e sure you design the user interface elements of such an application carefully, so that they provide an internally consistent e%perience. Comments: #esthetics is also important to enhance usability.

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'ource# Apple Inc ()**+,. iPhone Human Interface Guidelines: User Experience. Apple Inc, Cupertino, California. Pp 31 33
Poste/ by Mi!+ael F(69F at 11:G1 PM Labels: Apple8 0sability !riteria

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