PAGE. CH. 1. The Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1 2. The Way of Yama 10 3. The Torments of Yama 21 4. The Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell 30 5. The Signs of Sins 38 6. The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful 46 7. Babhruvāhana's Sacrament for the Departed One 52 8. The Gifts for the Dying 61 9. The Rites for the Dying 76 10. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire 83 11. The Ten-Days' Ceremonies 97 12. The Eleventh-Day Rite 103 13. The Ceremony for all the Ancestors 114 14. The City of the King of Justice 130 15 The Coming to Birth of People who have done Good 141 16. The Law for Liberation 154

INTRODUCTION. This Garuḍa Purāṇa Sārodhhāra (Extracted essence of the Garuḍa Purāṇa) was compiled or written by one Navanidhirāma, son of Śrī Hari Nārāyaṇa, who lived in the city of Jhunjhuṇū, which was ruled by a King Śrī Sūkhalālajī. It was done for the helping of those who cannot understand the difficult earlier works; but itself is not easy to understand, and required much labour, the author informs us. It is entirely originally written, he says, and comprises the results of very deep study of the sacred books, and is the extracted essence of them on the subjects with which it deals. It is used all over India at funeral ceremonies, but some are afraid to read it on other occasions, thinking it inauspicious. CHAPTERS I to VII deal with Hells. CHAPTERS VII to XIII deal with Ceremonies for the dead. CHAPTER XIV deals with Heaven. CHAPTERS XV & XVI deal with Yoga and liberation.

The neo-theosophists, among the great good they have done to the world, have revived the idea that Hell is a living reality, and not a superstitious fiction, created by a designing priestcraft, to keep Humanity on its good behavior. Among the educated, with the vanishing of the belief in an after-life, has vanished also the belief in Hell. But owing to the labors of the Psychical Research Society and similar other bodies, there are few educated persons now, who deny the existence of the afterlife, as they used to do some thirty years back. But though the belief in after-life has revived, yet the cognate belief in Heaven and Hell is still very vague. Our Hindu Puranas, however, among the great mass of rubbish that they contain, have always been very clear on this question of Heaven and Hell. Serious writers of law books also like Yājñavalkya and Viṣṇu have described as-seriously the existences of various Hells, as they have done the various joys of Heaven. No doubt, the subject of Hell is not a very savoury one, and nervous persons have always fought shy of studying this unpleasant department of existence. But, pleasant or unpleasant, the science does not take into account the human feelings. No one is forced to study the subject, unless he feels strong enough to do so, as no one is bound to study Medicine, unless he is prepared to face the scenes of the dissecting room.
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The question then is, do these hells really exist? If so, where? This is a question of fact, and must be decided like all questions of fact, on the evidence of reliable witnesses who have, from personal experience, described this region. To a Hindu there is needed no greater testimony than that of Yogi Yājñavalkya who, in the Prāyaśchitta Adhyāya of his law book, mentions 21 hells. The author of Viṣṇu Smṛiti also has followed in his footsteps. Hell, then, according to Hindu seers, is a particular locality walled off from the surrounding regions of space by the messengers of Yama, the ruler of Hell. Within this particular space so specially guarded, no joy can enter. It is a region of pain--sharp. intense and severe. Sinners clothed in their painful bodies (jātana deha)--replica of their physical bodies, though made of subtler matter, suffer the punishments deserved by their sins. But there is one distinguishing mark between the Hindu idea of Hell and that of votaries of Semitic creeds. The punishment in Hell is not eternal. It is Reformatory and Educative. The hell punishment is not remembered by the soul when it is re-born, no more than it remembers the joys of heaven. But the permanent educative effect remains in that part of the sold--called the conscience. The natural fear, which certain souls feel at the sight of temptation to sin, is the result of the finer development of conscience, in the furnace of hell-fire. This is the permanent gain which the soul has acquired, and which it will never lose through ages to come, by passing through the bitterness of the valley of Yama--the merciful ruler of Hell.

Where is then this Hell situated? According to Hindu belief, its locality is in the astral region of the physical South Pole, as the Heaven is situate in the astral region of the physical North Pole. As a prison house is a prison only to the criminal, but not to the visitor, who goes there on his mission of mercy and charity, so Hell is a place of punishment and pain only to the sinners and not to those who go there on similar missions. The readers of the Hindu Sacred literature will no doubt remember the beautiful episode of Nachiketas going to Hell, and learning from its Ruler the secret of cosmic evolution, miscalled the secret of death. The twenty-two hells are described in the Viṣṇu Smṛiti. (See Sacred Books of the East, Viṣṇu Smṛiti, pp. 140-141, verse 22, Lohachāraka). After being thus purified by Hell-fire, the soul is re-born with keener conscience and under circumstances where it can, if it so chooses, make better use of its faculties. Says Yājñavalkya in verse 218 of the Third
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Adhyāya that the lords of mercy place such souls in very favourable circumstances afterwards. *
[paragraph continues]

But if the soul so favourably placed, omits to do good action or commits evil deeds again, and leaves its senses unrestrained, there is again a fall for that soul, as is mentioned in the next verse. † Is there any physical Hell also, or is it in the astral plane only? As Heaven is both physical and astral, and as the Svarga is on the physical plane also, where the great ṛiṣis like Vyāsa, Aśvathāman, Mārkaṇdeya and others are said to be still living in their physical bodies, so there are physical hells also, though not known as Hells. What are these prison houses in every well-governed community but physical hells? What is this outcasting by the society, but making one feel the torture of hell, in fact Gautama in his law book definitely calls this stage hell, and some say that Gautama did not believe, in another form of hell. Thus the fact of concrete existence of hell cannot be doubted. Leaving the testimony of Hindu seers aside, in modern times we have the evidence of a hard-headed man of science like Swedenborg, of a refined artist and poet like Dante, and the great sage Rāmkṛiṣna Paramahaṃsa. Is there any means by which a man may save himself from the pains of hell? On this point, our ancient authors held different opinions. One class of thinkers held the view that sin could not be expiated by any act of man, however meritorious it be in its

For minor sins. One who has performed such penance has exhausted the evil effects of his sins and for him there is no penance. has exploited to its extreme extent. and in this age. Footnotes iii:* "Afterwards freed from all sins. [paragraph continues] Penances have become a farce in Modern India. which can save the man from future troubles. and become accomplished in arts and sciences. The practice of Prāyaśchittas or penances is based upon a more rational basis. It is not that the gifts to a deserving man washes away sins. The after-life consequences can be warded off by appropriate penances. by the rule of the present Iron age. they are born in high families. the infliction of bodily pains is of secondary importance. except the death penance. a very salutary rule is laid down by the paṇḍits that no death penance should ever be described.--there is no penance. Like the dispensations of the Popes of Rome. there is a penance. where they enjoy pleasures. This presupposes that a kicking Brāhmiṇ has milk to give. the only operative penance is to embrace a red-hot iron image and die in that way. as the saying goes that no one feeds a docile donkey. which is far from the truth. is that for the intentional mortal sins--kāma kṛitamahāpātaka. Several kinds of death penances are described in our law books. to describe these death penances to any sinner. But no Paṇḍit is allowed. for the sake of her milk. Thus in certain cases of incest. Similarly. and possessed of wealth. but one must suffer the full consequences of his sins. For every sin. Repentance for sin is the highest prāyaśchitta. the rule is different. preying on the gullibility of its votaries." . iv Brāhmiṇ priestcraft of India. The later view.nature. for modern Hinduism has done everything in its power to throw in 'the background that rational idea. is that according to the law. but a kicking cow. but a gift to a Brāhmiṇ. which has gained ascendency now. every mortal sinner must pass through the period of purificatory process of hell. the penance for drinking spirituous liquors is death by drinking boiling liquors or butter. if a sinner asks the paṇḍit for the appropriate penance of his sin. however bad he may be. And here is a rich field which the p. The result therefore. with its concomitant result in the shape of so much fee (dakṣiṇā) to be paid to the Brāhmiṇ. penances can be compounded by the payment of amounts ranging from a cowrie shell to thousands of rupees to Brāhmiṇs. and also a pilgrimage.

whose abundant branches are the Purāṇas. 1. . whose flowers are sacrifices. 2 and the means of destroying its pains. when asked. As it was declared to Vainateya 3 by the Blessed Viṣṇu. whose trunk is the Vedas. just so will I relate it. In Naimiṣa. the field of the sleepless Ones. Those sages once. 1 the sages. Suta said: Listen then. GARUDA PURANA. 6.--excels. Please tell us correctly about the afflictions of this world and the other. The tree Madhusūdana. 1 Also of the miseries of the World of Change. 265. We now wish to hear about the fear-inspiring Way of Yama. having offered oblations to the sacrificial fire respectfully asked this of the revered Sūta sitting there:-The sages said: The happiness-giving path of the Shining Ones p. very difficult to tread. in the morning. Saunaka and others.iii:† Mandalik's Hindu Law. 7. happiness-giving. An Account of the Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other. verse 219. to remove your difficulties. misery-giving to the sinful. 2 has been described by you. 3-5. HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED GANEṢA. to the virtuously inclined. and whose fruit is liberation. p. CHAPTER I. 2.. performed sacrifices for thousands of years to attain the Heaven-world.--whose firm root is Law. I am willing to describe the way of Yama.

and also. fie upon the wretched men who nevertheless go to hell! p. 11. the sinfullyinclined go miserably to the torments of Yama. terrible even to hear about. 3 having bowed reverently. Listen how the misery of this world accrues to the sinful. destitute of compassion and righteousness. meet with torments. intoxicated with the pride of wealth. to what condition the sinful come. O Shining One. O Tārkṣya. 18. p. 19. Now I wish to hear about the fearsome Way of Yama. was sitting at ease in Vaikuṇṭḥa. O Lord of Birds. approaches him stricken with bodily and mental pain. the Teacher. Powerful death. Self-satisfied. O Lord. Once. the son of Vinatā. those who delight in sin. Fie. inquired:-Garuḍa said: The Path of Devotion. 14-16. enveloped in the net of delusion. and in what way they obtain the miseries of the Way of Yama. attached to the wicked. as the result of his 1 actions. has been described to me by you. unexpectedly. along which is the travelling. and the tongue is under control. The name of the Lord is easily pronounced. having passed through death. yet anxiously hoping to live. 17. lacking the divine attributes. Tell me. when the Blessed Hari.--then.8-9. having the ungodly qualities. and I will describe the Way of Yama. . 4 20. then how they.--fall into a foul hell. unbending. 3 12. by which those who are sinful go in hell. 10. Those men who are intent upon wisdom go to the highest goal. Bewildered by many thoughts. averse from the true scriptures and the company of the good. of those who turn away from devotion to Thee. in accordance with his former earning. then. some disease arises. like a serpent. has been told the highest goal of the devotees. revelling in the enjoyments of the desire-nature. of many forms. 13. it is revealed. Having experienced the good or the bad actions. The Blessed Lord said: Listen.

25. Then. seeing whom his heart palpitates and he releases excrements. of fierce aspect. with failing digestion. diseased. exhausted by coughing and difficult breathing. 33. He remains. with senses unconquered. 32. In this last moment. Not yet tired of life. Now he emits foam.21-24. with his body deformed through old age. the messengers of Yama come near and life departs. the moment of dying p. 5 seems an age. with hair erect. being cared for by his dependents. eating little. nearing death. With eyes turned up through loss of vitality.--all the worlds appear as one. his mouth becomes filled with saliva. like the king's officers a convict. naked. and pain like the stinging of hundred scorpions is experienced. The man of the size of a thumb. The vital breaths of the sinful depart by the lower gateway. with nails like weapons. .' is dragged from the body by the servants of Yama. When the breath is leaving its place. looking the while at his own body. O Tārkṣya. moving little. at the destruction of the decayed senses and the numbing of the intelligence. Having put round him a body of torment. 27. Lying encircled by his sorrowing relatives. two terrifying messengers of Yama are come.--and he does not attempt to say anything. swooning with intense pain he dies amidst his weeping relatives. and bound the noose about his neck. with tubes obstructed by phlegm. 28. though being spoken to he does not answer. In this condition. a divine vision arises. in the house. 29. 26. they forcibly lead him a long way. with grinding teeth. bearing nooses and rods. being caught in the noose of death. oh. with the death rattle in his throat. crying out 'oh. eating what is ungraciously placed before him. 30-31. Then. As black as crows. with mind busy with the support of his family. like a house-dog. with ugly faces.

7 45. until the end of the age. afflicted. Then hearing these words. almost powerless. for the sinful. Nevertheless. 44.--in this way. bound by his past tendencies. along a road of burning sand. shelterless and waterless. With failing heart and shuddering at their threats. 46. He obtains the rice-balls given by his offspring. roasting in the sun. after a time. swiftly comes back through the air. forest-fires and hot winds. do not uplift. and the weeping of his relatives. bitten by clogs upon the way. Although they eat the rice-ball offering. desiring the body but held back with a noose by the followers of Yama. with the messengers. and the gifts made during the time of his illness. Those who are in the departed condition. p. 30-40. . p.34-35. without delay.' he is beaten by the servants of Yama. still they are tortured with hunger. Here and there falling exhausted and insensible.-'Hurry up. 1 the gifts. 41. and rising again. The Śrāddha. 6 37-38. by command of Yama. and recount over and over again the awful terrors of the hells. You shall go to the abode of Yama. The man is brought there in a short time and the messengers show him the terrible torments of hell. very miserably led through the darkness to the abode of Yama. 42. the being who has not experienced the torment certainly does not obtain the human form. Having returned. wander about in great misery. to Kumbhīpāka and the other hells. tortured by hunger and thirst. painfully he walks. struck upon the back with whips. O Tārkṣya. We will lead you now. and the handsful of water. Hungry and thirsty. crying loudly 'Oh. you wicked man. oh. Karma not experienced does not die away even in thousands of millions of ages. remembering his misdeeds. he weeps. the man. While thus leading him the messengers menace him.' 36. in an uninhabited forest. the sinful Denier does not obtain gratification. 43. deprived of the rice-ball offering. Having seen the fearful Yama.

and on the tenth day the being. O Twice-born. O Best of Birds. 9 Vichitrabhavana. Every day these are divided into four portions. the third goes to the messengers of Yama. 11Duḥkhada. The extent of the way of Yama measures eighty-six thousand Yojanas. the man. the neck and shoulders by the second. 51-53. going by day and night. p. By the rice-ball of the first day the head is-formed. 48. 55. walks alone along the road like a captured monkey. the abode of righteousness p. For nine days and nights the departed obtains rice-balls. 8 Likewise next the knees and feet by two. Dwelling in the body formed by the rice-balls. The old body being cremated. 40. by this experiences good and evil on the way. on the tenth day hunger and thirst. 57. 54. 17 Bahubhīti 18:--before the city of Yama. 3 Sauripura. 16 Shītādhya. On the thirteenth day the departed. 50. acquires strength. 9 . 7 Krauncha. bound by the servants of Yama. 6 Shailāgama. 14 Raudra. very hungry and pained with thirst. 58-59. by the sixth the hips and secret parts. on both the eleventh and twelfth days the departed eats. Two hundred and forty-seven Yojanas each day the departed travels. he lives upon the fourth. the sinful man goes to the place of the King of Righteousness 2:-Saumya. O Bird. by the third the heart forms: By the fourth the back forms. O Bird. through these sixteen cities on the way.47. 10 Bahwāpada. 1 without Vaitaraṇī. 56. Hence. Having passed successively. 4 Nāgendrabhavana. 13 Sutaptab hawana. 1 for ten days the son should offer rice-balls. by the seventh the thigh forms. with fully formed body. 12 Nānākrandapura. the size of a hand (cubit). 15 Payovarshana. a new one is formed by these offerings. and by the fifth the navel. 8 Kr ūrapura. Two portions give nourishment to the five elements of the body. 5 Gāndharva.

in and from the egg. 8:5 Residence of the Lord of Serpents." having left his own house. who do not sleep. 6:1 Ceremony for the dead. 7:1 Members of the three higher castes take a "second birth" when invested with the sacred thread. 2:2 Saṁsāra: The three worlds in which men circle through births and deaths. 8:4 Town of Saturn. . The superphysical beings. Vinatā was the mother of Garuḍa. 8:3 Calm place.. Held by the nooses of Yama. They may be interpreted only with the aid of common-sense. 8:8 Name of a mountain. goes on the way to the city of Yama. oh. 3:1 The ambiguity of the pronouns in this work is unavoidable.e. 8:9 Town of cruelty. 8:2 Another form of Yama. Footnotes 1:1 I.60. 8:6 Place of Singers. 8:7 Inaccessible mountain. crying out "Oh. all birds are twice-born. 8:10 A wonderful place. 2:3 A name of Garuḍa. 2:1 Yama is the Lord of death. the sinful. 8:1 A Yojana is between 8 and 9 miles.

Although you are my devotee. 3. and on this road there is none of the foods by which he may support life. which is recorded as two thousand yojanas in length and breadth. O Keśava. 8:15 Savage. 2. No water is to be seen anywhere that he. Twelve suns blaze. 4. 7-8. 1. and dogs. way the sinful go there. in another burnt by fire. In one place there is a very terrible forest of sword-like leaves. Garuḍa said: What is the path of misery in the world of Yama like? Tell me. tigers. 8:18 Many horrors. p. 8:14 Very hot place. 5. in one place torn by thorns. 8:16 Rains 8:17 Very cold. in what. An Account of The Way of Yama. 8:12 Misery-giving. There is no shade of trees there. 6.8:11 Many calamities. The sinful in one place is bitten by ferocious lions. as though at the end of a pralaya. may drink. in which a man may take rest. 8:13 Town of varied cries. extremely thirsty. There the sinful soul goes along pierced by cold winds. in another stung by very venomous serpents. O Bird. in another stung by scorpions. CHAPTER II. The Blessed Lord said: I will tell you about the Way of Yama. bestowing great misery. when you have heard it you will become agitated. 11 .

impassible for the sinful. with heaps of bones on the banks. and crowded with hundreds of dreadful birds. with mud of flesh and blood. . made of smelted. and with other flesh-eating water-animals. fishes and turtles. In one place there is pitch darkness. In one place are deep chasms. showers of blood. this river. in others lakes filled with pus and blood. O Tārkshya. infested with huge vultures and crows with adamantine beaks. in another rocks difficult to climb over. which when seen inspires misery. When it sees the sinful approaching. vultures. In the midst of the way flows the terribly horrible Vaitaraṇī River. cry. copper.Infested with crows. 12 Extending a hundred yojanas. 10. In one place is a plain of hot sand. impassible. of which even an account arouses fear. In one place he stumbles in the awful black darkness and falls into water. 11. 21. in another a great cloud of smoke. 14. hawks. in another he treads on razor-edges and on spear-points. in others bills to climb and valleys to descend.-by whose leaves he is pierced and torn. with leeches. In one place he falls into a hidden well. Unfordable. O Father!'--again and again wailing. fallen into the flood. And showers of caustic mud. in another in mud abounding in leeches. seethes. in another a mound of embers. obstructed with hairy moss. owls. in another in hot slime. O Son. showers of stones and thunderbolts. overspread with flames and smoke. 12-13. Very sinful people. filled with huge crocodiles. and with excrement. 9. O Brother. and having forest-fires. a flow of pus and blood. like butter in the frying-pan: Covered all over with dreadful throngs of insects with piercing stings. showers of weapons. with crocodiles. bees. 15-17. In some places are showers of charcoal. Filled with porpoises. 18-20. in another from a lofty mountain. mosquitoes. showers of boiling water. p.

there is no rescuer whatever. oh. after the moment rising again. and pierced from behind with points of weapons.--at the very sight of it the sinful swoon away. And the stupid. Thus along the Way of Yama. incessantly crying out. bearing many loads of iron. 27. Covered with many scorpions. giving extreme misery. 24. Hungry and thirsty the sinful drink the blood.--also. of many kinds of pain. whatever have I done! p. becoming exhausted. vomiting blood from the mouth. feet and back bound with chains. They stay for a moment in the lower region. 14 . with powerful roaring. fear-inspiring. 33-34. are pecked by crows. 28. some of them being dragged by hooks. the sinful are led on. It is difficult to cross and gives great misery. 30-32. Bound by the noose. I did not do my duty. carrying much foam. thus going on the way. go the sinful. it is said. calling on son and grandson. by the nooses of death being dragged along. Bewailing their own karmas these beings. and with black snakes. And being beaten with hammers by the awful messengers of Yama. 29. p. 13 26. difficult to see into. Very dreadful. Some go on the way neck.' repents:-'By great meritorious effort birth as a human being is gained. arms.--of those who have fallen into the midst of this. which then they eat again. this river was created only that the sinful should fall into it. O Bird. That river. flowing with blood. crying and weeping and laden with misery. and its opposite cannot be seen. and also by nooses through the ears.22-23. go on towards the mansion of Yama. By hundreds of thousands of whirlpools the sinful descend to the lower region. 'Oh. Haying obtained that. 25. others. Others are drawn along by a noose through the end of the nose. full of very great misery.

either for the benefit of men or for the sake of animals and binds. ' Alas. .--O Dweller in the Body. did not even a little for the support of cows and brahmins. make reparation for whatever you have done! 36. 'I made no gifts. The River Puṣhpabhadrā is there. Large numbers of the departed are in that excellent and beautiful city.--O Dweller in the Body. did not listen to the Purāṇas. and a fig-tree delightful to see. did not pay due respect to my worthy elders. nor after his death enter the fire. along with the servants of Yama. the departed reaches the City of Saumya. nor worship the wise. make reparation for whatever you have done!' 39.--O Dweller in the Body. 41. In that city he takes rest. make reparation for whatever you have done! p.35. never preserved fidelity to my husband.--O Dweller in the Body. son and others. Having become widowed I performed no austerities. did not visit the holy river 1. Thus having lamented many times. 15 41. O Tārkṣya. crying 'Whence did I attain this human state?' he goes on. did not perform service at a place of pilgrimage as prescribed. 43.--O Dweller in the Body. did not worship the deities. never performed any benevolent acts. I did not excavate tanks in waterless places. Owing to my bad deeds in former lives I got a woman's body. 'I did not emaciate myself by monthly fasts by the course of the moon. There he remembers the enjoyment of wife. did not value the precepts of the Vedas and the Śāstras.--O Dweller in the Body. make reparation for whatever you have done! 37. 'I did not follow the good advice of my husband.' 42. which is a source of great misery. remembering the past incarnation. For seventeen days he goes on alone with the speed of the wind. make reparation for whatever you leave done! 38. and is miserable. make reparation for whatever you have done! 40. 44. nor by detailed observances. no offerings to the fire. performed no penances. 'Not knowing my duty I did not serve my husband. 'I did not duly honour the assemblies of Brāhmiṇs. did not wait upon good men. On the eighteenth day. 'I made no daily gifts and did not give food daily to the cow.

16 49. O Traveller in the Higher World! Yet you must inevitably go on that way. Thence the departed speedily goes to Nagendrabhavana. he is forcibly dragged by the nooses.46-47. and then passes on from that city. and thence goes on into Sauripura. 'Have you not heard. Upon the coming of the third month. and there having eaten the rice-balls offered in the third month he moves on. and having seen the fearful forests there he cries in misery. his family and dependents all. O Mortal. given at the end of three fortnights. There is there a king named Jangama. 55-56. Go on for a long time! 48. 54. p. of this way. Having seen him he is overcome with fear and decides to give up efforts. having arrived at the city of the Gandharvas. being again dragged with the nooses he is led onwards by the servants. where there is neither buying nor selling. . 52. water and cloths given by his relatives. You do not strive for provisions. Having enjoyed there the rice-balls. which is familiar even to children? Have you not heard of it from the twice-born. At the end of two months the afflicted leaves that city. as spoken of in the Purāṇas?' 50. Thus spoken to by the messengers and being beaten with the hammers. 51. 53. Being dragged unmercifully he weeps again and again. 17 57-58. 'You know that provisions are the strength of a traveller. you fool. When he bewails his wealth. p. then the departed belonging there and the servants say this: Where is your wealth now? Where are your children and wife now? Where are your friends and relatives now? You only suffer the result of your own karma. In that city he eats a mixture of water and food. who has the appearance of Death. Here he eats the monthly rice-balls given by his sons and grandsons through either love or compassion. falling down and getting up again and running.

59. having eaten it. There stones rain down copiously upon the departed. He goes to Chitrabhavana. He goes on the way lamenting. 18 66-67. Having then eaten the rice-balls of the sixth month. floating in the air. Having eaten the rice-balls of the fourth month he becomes somewhat happy. 60. and then. 'It is said by the sages. Having stayed. Remaining in the city of Krauncha.' p. otherwise not.' he exclaims. 69. The sinful soul who has made no gifts verily sinks in that. 'If you have made the gift of a cow. who is the younger brother of Yama. 71.And in the fourth month reaches Śailāgama city. When he sees his huge form he runs away in fear. over which kingdom rules a king named Vichitra. seeing which he cries loudly. In the fifth month the departed goes thence to the city of Krauncha. 62-63. the messengers. threatened by the servants of Yama.' Having heard their words. he passes on. 'Oh heavens. Seeing him it seethes. satisfied with the rice-balls and jars then given. goes to Krūrapura. He remains. At the end of five and a half months the ceremony before the six-monthly is performed. 64-65. trembling and very miserable. There he enjoys what is given by his sons in the seventh month. At the approach of the seventh month he goes to the city of Bahwāpada. that Vitarana is a gift. 61. the departed eats the rice balls given by hand in the fifth month. 70. 68. carry him across like a fish upon a hook. . for a time and having left that city. Having fixed a skewer through his lips. then the boat will come to you. very greatly afflicted with the desire to eat. and this is called Vaitaraṇī because it is crossed over by that. Then having come before him some fishermen say: 'We have arrived. bringing a boat for you--who desire to cross the great Vaitaraṇī River--if your merits are sufficient. who see the truth.

he cries in great misery. At the end of the ninth month he goes to the city of Nānākranda. Though he there obtains the rice-ball gifts and water. O Ruler of Birds. Having eaten the rice-balls which are given in the eighth month he moves on. At the end of the year. Those who do not offer gifts for the dweller in the upper body. There clouds team. 74. Having left that city. the departed. Having passed beyond that city. and them. he casts off the body the measure of a hand. with difficulty. getting a body of torment. There the servants ask: 'What sort of merit have you?' Having eaten the annual rice-balls he plucks up courage again. O Kāśyapa. obtains the Śrāddha before the annual one. he looks about in the ten directions. 83. 76. 73. and half after the eleventh month he reaches Payovarṣaṇa. Hungry and pierced with cold. coming nearer to the abode of Yama. 70. where cold a hundred times greater than that of the Himālaya afflicts him. 19 75. painfully bound in tight bonds. p. to Sutaptabhavana. giving misery to the departed.72. in misery. having reached the city of Bahubhīti. he arrives at the city of Duhkhada. Having seen many people crying in agony in various ways. he. . p. There he enjoys what is offered in the eleventh month by his sons and others. At the end of the year he goes to the city of Śītāḍhya. Travelling in the air he suffers great misery. thus go. 80. threatened by the servants of Yama. he is not happy At the completion of the eleventh month he goes to the city of Raudra. sets out through the air with the servants of Yama. 20 84. 82. 77. and being himself faint of heart. to work out its karma. goes. The spirit the size of a thumb. in the tenth month. 'Does there remain any relative who will remove my misery?' 81. 78.

The Blessed Lord said: Listen. The men who are Deniers. Four and forty yojanas. as is proper. O Descendant of Vinatā. Into the city of the King of Justice there are four gateways. afflicted with hunger. 7. 22 8. Oh.85. 2.' and having heard his cry. How they go on this most dreadful path. O Tārkshya. Even at the description of hell you will tremble. thirst and exhaustion. those who walk about in the city of Yama. 1 reports the good and evil deeds. Garuḍa said: What are the torments like that the sinful suffers. O Bird. 6. has been told. lies the great city of the King of Justice. 86. 3. An Account of the Torments of Yama. enquires of the Śravaṇas 1. All go to the door-keeper and report it to him. having gone to Chitragupta. he asks Chitragupta about their sins. He. having passed along the way of Yama into the abode of Yama? Tell me this. CHAPTER III. and always delight in great sin. Nevertheless. always stands there. The doorkeeper Dharmadhwaja. beyond the city of Bahubhīti. What else do you wish to hear? Footnotes 14:1 The Ganges. 4-5. these are all. The sinful man cries when he hears the mingled wails of 'Oh. O Kāśyapa. 1. well-known to the King of Justice. p. Then Chitragupta tells it to the King of Justice. . O Keśava. Chitragupta. although he is allknowing. of which the way of the southern gate has been declared to you. I will tell it to you from the beginning to the end.

Near to him are all the messengers. on earth. and the karma born of mind. speech and body. Fever and others. with red eyes and a long nose. and in the nether regions. earth and water. They know accurately all that is done by women. the heart. having assured himself concerning the sins of the sinful. The sun and moon. Chitragupta. Extending three yojanas. the sun and others see fully the sins and merits of the embodied being. granting heaven and liberation. These report to Chitragupta everything that is said and done. 22. Śravaṇas. . Yama. These followers of the King of Justice know accurately all the virtues and vices of mankind. become dispensers of misery.9. roaring. and are called. 10. resembling Yama. those truth-speakers. with eyes like wells. 12. 13. Sravanīs. terrible with weapons gleaming like lightning. 11. summons them and shows them his own very terrible form. fire. wind. Roaring like a cloud at the time of pralaya. distinctively. 18. Then Yama. and see a long way off. Even Chitragupta is fearful. by men. who have authority over mortals and immortals. Knowing the wicked actions of the sinful. openly and secretly. they become benevolent. p. seated on a buffalo. relating them before the King of Justice. 19-21. 15. hear and understand at a distance. 23 16. and Justice--know the actions of man. the two twilights. with mouth gaping with formidable fangs. attended by Death. charity and truthful speech. 14. Their wives have a similar nature. To the man who pleases them by austerity. possessing thirty-two arms. sky. Thus do these truth-speaking Śravaṇas relate the actions of man. like a mountain of lampblack. Very sinful people behold the terrifying form of Yama--huge of body. The Śravaṇas are the sons of Brāhmaṇ who wander in heaven. 17 The King of Justice. Such is the power of these. day and night. rod in hand.

'The sinful actions done by you are very many. having beaten them. 24. 24 25. anger and association with the sinful. executors of the sentences of Yama. you sinners. 'Go along. the wretch. head downwards. to the very dreadful terrifying hells. Hearing these words of Chitragupta. 'It is known that Yama deals equally with the fool and the learned. 27 'Hitherto you have committed sins with great delight. It covers five yojanas and is one yojana in height.' The sinful soul who made no gifts trembles and cries again. . 28. Prachaṇḍa. Chaṇḍaka 1 and others. cries 'Oh. Then. and bewailing their karmas. Oh. They. polluted with egoism. Chitragupta speaks to all those sinners. and those sins are the cause of unavoidable misery. say. the strong and the weak. Having seen him. why ever did you commit sin? 26. evil-doers. you foolish people. injudicious. p. 29. and remain silent and motionless. seeing them standing motionless like thieves. 31. burning there. The messengers. p. lead them towards the hells.' 33.23. the beggar and the wealthy. 32. for whom there is no rescuer. having bound them with one noose. cry. Having bound them on the tree by chains. the sinful then grieve over their karmas.' 30. It is no use turning your faces away. 35. 25 34. and thereby are now destined for torment. they beat them. who are crying. why ever did you commit that misery-giving sin which is born of lust. There is one big tree there. overcome with fear. The King of Justice. has fitting punishment ordered for the sinful. you sinner. 'O. by command of Yama. Then the cruel messengers. glowing like a blazing fire. 'O.

with hammers. exhausted by hunger and thirst. and they cry. In falling their limbs are cut by the sharp leaves. by the messengers. Then the mouths of those who are crying are filled with dust by the messengers. 43. being bound with various nooses some are beaten with hammers. helpless. and beaten by the messengers of Yama. implore the messengers.36. Though living as a householder you did not even express compassion. are chopped into pieces with axes. Suffer the fruits of your own sin! Because you are devoid of righteousness you deserve to be beaten. p. along with which torment cannot exist. 41. Again and again they are forcibly struck. the servants address them thus: 'O. fallen down and bitten by dogs. swooning away. 49. nor honour your guests. you sinners. 26 42. Thus having spoken the messengers heat them mercilessly. forgive my faults'--with suppliant hands. 48. like firewood.' 46. You did not meditate well upon Yama and Chitragupta. 'You did not do any acts of service. 'Oh. Some of the sinful are cut with saws. why ever did you commit such wicked deeds? You did not even make the easy water and food offerings at all. Then. You never visited any places of pilgrimage. 39-40. nor repeat their mantra. . 31. 37. nor make the water-offering to the forefathers. 47. with maces and with big pestles. 'Forgiveness of faults is done by the Lord Hari 1 Īśwara. 45. nor worshipped the deities. 'You did not give even halt a mouthful of food to the dog or the crows. with iron clubs. sinful people. you evildoers. seeing them quiet. and. as we are ordered. Many sinful ones are hung on that silk-cotton tree. those most. We only punish miscreants. and others thrown flat on the ground. with metal rods. 44. Thus beaten they become still. with spears. and on account of the beating they fall down like glowing charcoal.

6 P ūtimṛittika. some are hurled from heights. in front of huge maddened elephants.' 57. 12 Kāka. Others. Tāmisra. are squeezed like sugar-cane. 28 60. 7 Saṅghāta. 1 Lohaśaṇku. Some are thrown into wells. Some are thrown in the way. Some are surrounded closely with blazing charcoal. p. and like a cake thrown into the frying-pan they are turned about. Hells full of great misery are there. 56. and others into heated oil. are pierced in the head with arrows. 10 Sampratāpana. enwrapped with torches. 54. fixed in the middle of a machine. 61-64. 2 Maharauravaśālmalī. 27 51. In the world of Yama I see my wealth being enjoyed by you. which you owe me. 59. in the hell-region. By the hard beaks of huge flesh-eating crows and vultures they are pecked in the head. Others clamour: 'Give up. O Bird.50. eyes and faces. Some. by order of Yama. 11 Mahāniraya. 52. 16 . 5 Kālasūtraka. their bodies half-buried in a pit. Thus disputing. 55. the sinful. 15 Mahāpathin. 3 Raurava. 14 Sanjī vana. 9 Saviṣa. 13 Ūlu.--near to the tree. are given pieces of flesh torn off with pincers by the messengers. 53.--in which there is great misery indescribable in words. they are taken hold of by the messengers. Thus quarrelling. the midst of which are twenty-one most dreadful of the dreadful. Tāmisra and others. 4 Kuḍmala. p. are eaten away by them. There are eighty-four lakhs of hells. others plunged into pits full of worms. and thrown into the dreadful hells. Some are plunged into heated butter. 8 Lohitoda. give up my wealth. and smelted like a lump of ore. and some with hands and feet bound are placed head downwards. 58.

18 Kumbhīpāka. Men and women suffer the torments of Tāmisra. 70: The individual. Thus he who was holding a family or gratifying his belly. who was fond of supporting his family by unrighteous means alone. 26:1 Lit. he goes alone to hell. which are produced by secret association. and being departed. 21--in all twenty-one. 71. the various fruits of sin. He who takes away (sins). purified. p. until the end of the age. Having cast off his body. which was nourished at the expense of other creatures. The man experiences in a foul hell what is ordained by his fate.Avīchi. . 29 68. goes to Andhatāmisra. obtains appropriate fruit. 66. like an invalid who has been robbed of his wealth. 69. the various torments of hell. Who have fallen into these. 24:1 Both names mean fierce or violent. devoid of righteousness. Listeners. Footnotes 21:1 Name of the being who records the doings of men. 20 and Tapana. 67. and inhabited by multitudes of servants. 65. 22:1 Lit. provisioned with the opposite of happiness. 17 Andhatāmisra. the support of his family. The sinful fools. having given up both. Having experienced in due order the torments below. experience there. Andhatāmisra. 19 Sampratāpana. Raurava and other hells. he comes here again. All formed of various afflictions and diseases of different classes. which is the place of uttermost darkness. 28:1 Darkness.

28:9 Iron weights. 28:15 Living together. 28:20 Burning. 28:12 The great exit. 28:14 Owls. 28:21 Hot. 28:13 Crows. 28:3 Very terrible silk-cotton tree. 28:11 Burning. 28:19 Based like a pot. 28:17 Waveless. CHAPTER IV.28:2 Iron spears. 28:16 The great path. 28:18 Besetting darkness. 28:5 Blossoming. . 28:4 Terrible. 28:7 Stinking clay. 28:6 The thread of death. 28:8 Accumulation. 28:10 Poisonous.

the Nyāya and the Vedānta. The Vaitaraṇī River is only on this very miserable way. The righteous go into the city of the King of Justice by three gateways. who turn away from the company of the good. Those who do not listen to good counsel nor even to the word of the Śāstras. 1. I will tell you who the sinners are who go by it. who are foolish. who are self-satisfied. 31 5-12. from fear to fear. who turn away from good deeds. murderers of women. infanticides. Those who despise places of pilgrimage. from misery to misery.-These. good actions. p. weeping day and night. Those who steal the wealth of the teacher. 4. who try to make the happy wretched. and those who commit secret sins. those who disparage the Purāṇas. and are always evil-minded. the Vedas. 2. destroyers of the embryo. Those who seize upon the fault and depreciate the merit. slayers of owe. who speak evil words. Garuḍa said: For what sins do they go on that great Way? Why do they fall into the Vaitaraṇī? Why do they go to hell? Tell me this. the Mīmāṁsā. the property of the temple or of the twiceborn. who are jealous of those who have merit. who are foolish. Those who do not repay their debts. very sinful. certainly go on the Way of Yama. and many others. . The Blessed Lord said: 'Those who always delight in wrong deeds. those who betray confidence. who are unbending. 3. drinkers of intoxicants. but the sinful go into it only by the road of the southern gate. Slayers of Brāhmiṇs.An Account of the Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell. and those who steal the possessions of children. teachers and Shining Ones. those who take away the possessions of women. those who misappropriate deposits. and those who kill with poisonous foods. who are attached to the wicked. devoid of righteousness. O Keśava. Those who are elated at seeing the miserable. go from hell to hell. who thinks themselves learned. good men.

of good qualities. by command of Yama. who removes fieldboundaries.13. says. fall into the Vaitaraṇī. not for the prescribed sacrifices of the Vedas. who wears the sacred thread or consorts with Brāhmiṇ women. of noble birth. 18-24. 17. The Śūdra who studies the letter of the Vedas. who prevents the telling of stories. who drinks the milk of the tawny cow. Those who dishonour their mothers. who repents of his gifts: who takes away another's livelihood. who hinders others making gifts. 14. who ploughs up pastures. having called them. Who takes away what he gave. teachers and preceptors and the reverend. 33 23. Who covets the King's wife. and having come. Who obstructs sacrifices. Who does not fulfil promises made to Brāhmiṇs. and modest. 15. p. and who slanders virtuous women. who abducts others' wives. they go towards the Vaitaraṇī. Those who wickedly abandon their wives. possessed of thousands of merits. and many other fools. and consorts with a lowcaste woman. Those who ascribe evil to the good. who kills animals for his own gratification. fall into the Vaitaraṇī. who does not study the Śāstras. 32 16.--these men sink in it. . the messengers hurl them into that river again. Who has put aside his Brāhmaṇic duties. fall into the Vaitaraṇī. fond of treading forbidden paths. anal abandoning prescribed ditties.'--of these two the stay is continued. who is of unbridled nature. faithful. p. and who. The Brāhmiṇ who sells liquors. who eats flesh and drinks liquor.-These. Having come all along the path the sinful reach the abode of Yama. who is lustful towards virgins. fathers. Beaten by the messengers of Yama. and treat them disrespectfully. I will tell you what sinners fall into it. 'There is nothing for you.

having suffered great misery in it. or people's houses. having neglected their wives. Those who fall down. goes to a low condition. with timber. 32. those fools who worship him certainly go to hell. 28-30. ponds. who earn by cheating. Who cut down and destroy big trees. p. do not worship Śiva. 36. children. Hari. 35. who destroy the chastity of widows. those who break the laws of morality. O King of Birds. those attached to sense-objects. servants and teachers. who neglect vows and pilgrimages. and who gain a livelihood by thieving. hypocrites. and having neglected the offerings to the forefathers and the Shining Ones. the ungrateful. Sūrya. The woman who despises her husband and thinks about another.--these certainly go to hell. 34. the messengers cast into hells. 31. gardens and forests.26. the avaricious. nor perform the ceremonies for those who are in the upper body.--such and others at the silk-cotton tree experience much beating. Who did not make gifts of black cows. Who give false witness. Those who.--these certainly go to hell. begetting offspring of a Śudra woman. with stones or with thorns. the wise. shrines. he is certainly degraded from the Brāhmiṇ rank: That wretched twice-born is not worthy of salutation at any time. with mounds. they then hurl those sinners into the Vaitaraṇī. Deniers.--these certainly go to hell. The Brāhmaṇi who places a harlot on his bed. Those who eat. . 37-38. Gaṇeśa. tanks.--these certainly go to hell. Those who obstruct roads with posts. I will tell you about the sinful who fall into them. through being beaten. self-indulgent. Those who destroy wells. 34 33. Śivā. 27. who perform false duties. go to the tree standing on its bank. which is the foremost among hells. and the good teachers.--these certainly go to hell.

on Śrāddha occasions. these who sell poisons. 48. dwells in a dreadful hell from which there is no return. and those who destroy hopes. those who deceive all creatures.--all these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. p. Those who do not feed the Brāhmaṇ guests. Those who betray their friends. 50.--these certainly go to hell. Those who do not compassionate the helpless. . with women who have no other refuge. and those who are sellers of them.--these certainly go to hell. 41. in a road.--these certainly go to hell. 35 42. who hate the good. and the tellers of the Purāṇas. Those who throw their bodily refuse into fire.--these certainly go to hell. even though food is cooked. cast them away again. 36 51. and who are cruel to them. consort with women in the monthly courses. 49. in water.--they certainly go to hell. into water.--these certainly go to hell. 46. processions of the Shining Ones. who punish the guiltless. 47. do not give up causing dissension among Brāhmaṇs and cow-fights but delight in them. those who cut short friendship. who have come full of hope to the house. 44. blinded by passion.--these certainly go to hell.---these certainly go to hell. 43. and of bows and arrows. or in a cowpen. on the four days of lunar change. He who interferes with marriage. Vaiśyas who are dealers in skins. in the day time. 45. Those who are fond of quarrels. 1 or bands of pilgrims. and afterwards. 40. with senses uncontrolled.39. p. Those who assume observances. these certainly go to hell. women who sell their hair. Those who are makers of swords. Those men who. in a garden. Those who are suspicious of all creatures. Those who do not respect the teacher who imparts the knowledge of the Supreme Self. through malignity. Those who.--these certainly go to hell. commit transgression at the time of conception.

and even there. 63. . When his limbs are burnt with fire. When his limbs are cut by its leaves. 56. By order of Yama they return to the earth and become unmoving and other creatures: Trees. The very sinful man who sets fire to a house.--it is said that there are eighty-four hundred thousands of fates of birth-fates. it is declared. creepers. then the messengers give him boiling oil to drink. that there are many torments for the sinful. a village or a wood. bushes. infested with grievous maladies. sharp as swords. 54. having come back from hell they are born in the human kingdom amongst low outcastes. afflicted with thirst. plants. 60-62. he begs for a shady place. rocks and grasses. birds. Thus. When. by the stains of sin. 37 59. born blind. become very miserable. Getting up again somehow. O Tārkṣya. 'Ah. these are spoken of as unmoving. Being tortured thus. Powerless and breathless he is unable even to speak. he begs for water to drink. 57. men and women by thousands are baked in dreadful hells until the coming of the deluge. Then they say: 'Drink this liquid and eat this food. and then is led by the messengers into the forest of sword-like leaves. and bearing the marks of sin. ha! Sleep comfortably in this cool shade!' 55. 53. 58.' As soon as he drinks it he falls down. he wails piteously.-Insects. 64. when they are spoken of in all the Śāstras? p. Having eaten there their undecaying fruits they are born again.52. animals and fish. Why should I explain them fully. burning inside. is captured by the messengers of Yama and baked in pits of fire. Thus they become men and women oozing with leprosy. then they say. enveloped in great delusion. All these evolve thence into the human condition.

who speaks lies becomes a stammerer. who despises the Vedas and the Śāstras certainly becomes jaundiced. the murderer of a virgin becomes leprous. The murderer of a Brāhmaṇ becomes consumptive. insults his teacher. the killer of a cow becomes hump-backed and imbecile. and the signs produced by particular sins. who commits illicit intercourse. O Keśava. becomes an p. and to what sorts of birth such sins lead? 2. CHAPTER V An Account of the Signs of Sins.--these hear from me. 4. Who strikes a cow or a Brāhmaṇ with his foot is born lame and deformed. without giving to others. 8. The eater of flesh becomes very red. through pride. Garuḍa said: Tell me. the Brāhmaṇ who. 39 epileptic. . 1. who gives impure food at a Śrāddha ceremony is born a spotted leper. and who listens to them becomes deaf. He who eats sweet foods. Who bears false witness becomes dumb. The slayer of a woman and the destroyer of embryos becomes a savage full of diseases. 7. becomes big-bellied. 3. The man who. diseased-skinned. becomes swollen-necked. by what sins particular signs are produced.--all three born as outcastes. the drinker of intoxicants. one with discoloured teeth. who breaks the meal-row 1 becomes oneeyed.Footnotes 36:1 The images are carried round the streets on occasions. 9. who goes with his teacher's wife. on account of greed. 6. 5. who steals a book-is born blind. eats what should not be eaten. who interferes with marriage becomes lipless. The Blessed Lord said: The sins on account of which the sinful returning from hell come to particular births. a eunuch.

who robs caravans on the road. who steals any metal becomes poverty-stricken. and who eat all foods without consideration. an ant. who steals grain becomes a locust. A poisoner becomes insane. is born as a Brāhmiṇ-fiend in a waterless wilderness. Who steals vegetables and leaves becomes a peacock. 41 . and who is fond of hunting. 20. The Brāhmiṇ who does not recite the Gāyatrī 1. Who steals jewels is born in a low caste. 14. Who threatens and spits at his teacher. perfumes. and salt. 22. by eating without grace. Who lives by violence. flesh. whose feature is unrestrained becomes an elephant in a desolate forest. 21. a vulture. become tigers in a desolate forest. who steals water becomes a Chātaka-bird 2. who is inwardly wicked while outwardly pious. and by too many sacrifices he becomes an ass. 19. and who steals poison. becomes a crane. an incendiary becomes bald. a crow. 17. honey. 13. the pupil who does not serve his teacher becomes an animal. who steals gold gets diseased nails. The Brāhmiṇ who officiates for one unfit to perform sacrifice becomes a village hog. who does not meditate at twilight. 11. 40 15. grass and cotton are born from sheeps' wombs. Who steals betel. fruits and flowers becomes a forest-monkey. p.10. or browbeats a Brāhmaṇ. 16. a gad-fly. who eats fled of other beings becomes diseased. who is not hospitable to the goody becomes a howling Fire-face. a musk-rat. Those twice-born who do not make offering to the World-deities. who steal shoes. The twice-born who does not impart learning to the deserving becomes a bull. 2 p. certainly becomes a goat in a butcher's house. 18. Who does not give to a twice-born according to his promise becomes a jackal. Who dies by drinking poison becomes a black serpent on a mountain. who sells flesh becomes unlucky. Who steals food becomes a rat. 12.--an ass or a cow. a scorpion.

29. who consorts with a Śūdra woman becomes bull. an owl. Who commits unnatural vice becomes a village pig. who is passionate becomes a lustful horse. abandoning her own husband. becomes a ruddy goose for a long time. runs after another man. who goes with the king's wife becomes corrupt. who through dislike abandons his wife. The woman who abuses her mother-in-law and father-in-law. 32-33. who quarrels with sister and brother. Who feeds upon the eleventh-day offerings to the dead is born a dog. a camel and a shebuffalo. 26. or a kind of female serpent. bushes and plants. 42 31. becomes a chameleon. becomes a flying-fox. and causes constant quarrels. The wretch among twice-born who worships the deities for the sake of wealth is called a devalaka and is unfit to offer oblations to ale deities and forefathers. The stealer of gold attains the condition of a worm. 27. Who destroys hopes and who destroys affection. Who. 36. even for a thousand births. 35. father and teacher. a donkey. an insect and a bird. 25. and with his friend's wife. having passed through dreadful hells produced by their great sins. becomes a leech. is born from the womb of a bear. having become a hyena and a porcupine. who speaks ill of caste and order is born a pigeon in a wood. p. a drinker of intoxicants enters the wombs of a wolf. goes to the condition of grass. Who hates mother.23. 34. and she who scolds her husband becomes a louse. Those who are very sinful. a house-lizard. is destroyed when an embryo in the womb. 28. who consorts with an immature girl becomes a huge snake in a wood. a dog and a jackal. He who cuts off his lineage. . who cheats in selling. Who covets his teacher's wife. are born here upon the exhaustion of their karma. 30. The lustful man who goes with a female ascetic becomes a desert fiend. 24. The murderer of a Brāhmaṇ goes into the womb of an ass. Who goes with his teacher's wife. Who deceives a friend becomes a mountain-vulture. The devalaka is born from the womb of a hen. by embracing a woman of his own family.

O Tārkṣya. The sinner who takes back by force what has been given by himself. Having given the means of subsistence and a piece of land. goes into hell until the coming of the deluge. 43 38-40. families become broken up. 45. afflict the family even for seven generations. who misappropriates deposits. Having neglected. who robs Brāhmiṇs of their means of sup port becomes an ape. is born as a lame dog. 48. but robs. But it is no neglect if the Brāhmiṇ is without Veda-knowledge. By appropriating temple property. a dog and a monkey. These and other signs and births. p. becoming not a giver but a beggar. and having experienced the results in the successive hells.--and by forcible robbery even as long as the moon and stars exist: A man may digest even iron filings. Who gives the means of support to Brāhmiṇs obtains fruit equal to that of a lakh of cows. and by neglecting Brāhmiṇs. he should then protect it firmly. he is born blind and in poverty. and poison. is born for sixty thousand years as a worm in excrement. The Brāhmiṇ's possessions acquired by deception. are seen to be the karma of the embodied. O Lord of Birds.37. powdered stone. He is called a neglector who. made by themselves in this world. 41-43. Who takes away a plot of land. Who steals another's wife. . 44. 46. which was given by himself for another. instead of making a gift to one who is well-read in the Vedas and Śāstras and has resorted to him. but where is the person in the three worlds who can digest a Brāhmiṇ's wealth! Chariots and troops supported by the wealth of a Brāhmiṇ crumble away in battle like artificial river-banks of sand. 49. by taking a Brāhmiṇ's possessions. gives it to some other. Who does not protect. is born as a Brāhmiṇ-fiend. enjoyed even in friendship. it would be like offering to ashes instead of to the blazing fire near by. 44 47. p. who robs a Brāhmiṇ.

40:2 A class of evil spirits. Man and woman having come together. Thus the makers of bad karma. rain and heat. he afterwards reaches the human state. he becomes an embryo in due course. Then. and is again born in poverty and again becomes sinful. whether good or evil. Birth and death are the lot of all embodied beings. 40:1 A sacred mantra repeated every day by the twice-born caste. thus turns the wheel in the four kingdoms of beings. 39:2 A bird fabled to live only on rain-drops. so mortals revolve by my magic. by the force of sin he goes to hell. CHAPTER VI. 55. they suffer from carrying burdens and other miseries.50. held fast by the noose of karma. when the good and evil are balanced. Footnotes 39:1 This refers to the custom among Brāhmiṇs of sitting in a row at meals. Whoever gives different food to one than to another is said to break the row also. obtaining for thousands of lives the bodies of animals. p. . 54. 51. Having suffered the miseries from conception onwards to death. 52. having experienced the tortures mf hell. Having experienced as a bird the misery of cold. 57. They revolve at one time of earth. in these stated forms. 45 56. 53. Karma which has been made. Karma not suffered does not fade away even in tens of millions of ages. and rising together. He who does not mike gifts becomes poverty--stricken and through poverty he commits sin. As the wheel of time turns. are born with the residues of their sins. he again dies. must inevitably be suffered. at another in hell.

5. bones. it swoons away repeatedly through excessive pain. 12. 2. 6. With its head placed in its belly and its back and neck curved. 1. it is unable to move its limbs. which is the receptacle of a man's seed. salt. the body of the sinful begins to form. 9. by the fifth hunger and thirst arise. in the three days on which Indra incurs the sin of Brāmicide. Garuḍa said:--Tell me. hair. by the sixth. skin. By the first month the head. The bodily substances are formed of the foods and liquids of the mother. 1 and after that an egg of flesh. by the fifth night round.--like a parrot in a cage. 4. 11. hot. O Keśava. how he who returns from hells is formed in the womb of the mother. 10. by the third occurs the formation of nails. 3. By the fourth the seven bodily fluids. by the second the arms and other parts of the body are formed. according to karma. The mother of one returning from hell is regarded on the first day as an outcaste woman. on the second as the murderer of a Brāhmiṇ. it feels pain all over its body. amid fœces and urine. and what miseries he suffers in the embryonic condition. 47 7-8. Thus enveloped by the womb and bound outside by the sinews.The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful. linga and other cavities. sour and acid. it moves to the left of the womb. enters the womb of a woman. All its limbs bitten constantly by hungry worms. in obtaining a body. In the middle of the menstruation period. p. bitter. by the tenth day like the fruit of the jujube tree. Viṣṇu said: I will tell you how the mortal is born when the male and female elements are bound together by the union of man and woman. the divine eye. The creature. . caused by the mother's eating many things--pungent. as they are very tender. In one night it becomes a lump. enveloped by the chorion. and on the third as a washerwoman. and the creature at the time of birth lies in the disgusting hollow of the loins.

"Fallen into a well of fœces and urine. who has given me this experience. Let not this transmigration occur to me again. endowed with insight. There he remembers. though he gains consciousness. resorting to Thy feet I will keep myself aloof from the worlds of change. misled by my egoism I am transmigrating. he who is in the womb trembles and moves about because of the parturition winds. suddenly is cast out head downwards into birth. as regards body and son and wife. while they who enjoy the fruits escape. I wish never to come out of the womb. the destroyer of evil. 16-23. 14. "But no. "I seek refuge in Viṣṇu. like a uterine worm. imploring and trembling. and as s result I am tormented." 24. and anxious to escape from it. 49 "Because remaining even here in great misery. will I seek refuge. "I did good and evil actions for the sake of my dependents. and has been ten months in the womb. the husband of Śrī. while praying. with hands put together. bound in seven bonds. When shall I get out? "In Him alone. p. bearing the fatigue. The creature says. sobs for a long time. where misery results from my sinful actions. obtaining not the least happiness. "I am bewildered by Thy magic. the supporter of the universe. Having this insight he. the Karma generated in hundreds of previous births. O Lord. "If I am released from this womb I will lay myself at Thy feet. The Blessed Lord said: He who has thus considered. who is compassionate to those who come for shelter. and is compassionate to the afflicted.13. p. by the winds of delivery. 48 15.--and remembering. I am burnt by the fire of the belly. adores in plaintive tones Him who placed him in the womb. and I will take the means by which I may obtain liberation. by divine power. From the beginning of the seventh month. .

Then he begins evil brooding. rise or move. When he comes out of the womb. Cast out forcibly. just as insects bite little worms. then verily the man is bewildered by the magic of Viṣṇu. he reaches youth and acquires evil tendencies. when he enjoys the five kinds of objects by five senses. bugs and other flies bite him. the bird. Then. He is become changed in condition. In this wise having experienced the miseries of infancy and of childhood. the elephant. how then shall the infatuated one not be destroyed. skinless and weeping and deprived of understanding. to sit. and on account of ignorance becomes angry and sorry. 29. he comes out with anxiety and painfully breathless and with memory destroyed. and his pride and anger increase with the growth of his body. 26. he is unable to speak. and cries loudly. 31. 50 32. powerless. during illness. bending down his head. He longs for the unobtainable. The deer. and becomes lustful. He is nourished by people who do not understand his wishes. 27. deprived of knowledge. his senses captivated by her blandishments. after experiencing his karma. 34. 37. infatuated he falls into great darkness. Mosquitoes. unable to ward off what is thrust upon him against his desire.25. He experiences the miseries of infancy and childhood arising from dependence. when he is touched by that magic. p. the bee and the fish: these five are led to destruction by one of the senses. he hates the scriptures and good men. or upon hearing the Purāṇas were permanent--who would not be liberated from bondage! 28. Having fallen on the ground he moves like a worm in excrement. gnats. 30. Seeing a seductive woman. like a moth into a flame. 36. 35. Lain upon a bed unclean and befouled by perspiration. If the state of mind which arises in the womb. he is unable to scratch his limbs. . on the cremation ground. mingling in the company of the wicked. 33.

O Tārkṣya. as one elephant by another. p. he goes to a miserable hell. 43. Thus held fast in the ever-circling noose of karma. their reason clouded by sin. 41. Then. 3-4. spends in vain the human birth which was difficult to obtain. the sinful. bewildered by my magic.38. through foolishness lets slip the nectar from his hand. Babhruvāhana's Sacrament for the Departed One. O Mādhava. Thus I have related to you. Garuḍa said: Tell me by what means men who have committed sins unknowingly or knowingly escape from the torments of the servants of Yama. death having come. go in hell. as before. their self dimmed by attachment to senseobjects-For their uplifting tell me. 51 40: After hundreds of lives one obtains human birth on earth. again questioned Keśava for the benefit of men. Who is more sinful than the fool who. the exact meaning of the Purāṇas. 1. Sūta said: Having heard this. and. CHAPTER VII. The lover makes quarrels with rivals. are never released. Garuḍa. how the sinful. he is troubled with great diseases. 2. For those men who are immersed in the ocean of transmigration. . having arrived at old age. What else do you wish to hear? Footnotes 46:1 That is. and the means by which people attain a happy condition. attached to sense-objects. O Lord. and even more difficult to obtain is that as a twice-born: and who then only provides for and pampers the senses. of weak intelligence. 42. to his own ruin and is destroyed by those stronger than himself. deprived of the sacrifices for the dead. trembling like a leaf of the holy fig -tree. 39. hard.

12. 10. 54 15. 'By the son he conquers the worlds. by making Śrāddha-gifts are the means of their fathers' attaining heaven. that of those who have sons and who are righteous. Now listen. and great-grandsons he goes from the worlds and obtains heaven. 14. 6. p. one is released from the debt to the forefathers. if righteous. 8. O Lord of Birds. and firm in righteousness. an example of the efficacy of gifts for the higher body. Formerly. 17-19.5. or performed the Śatachaṇḍī. 16. grandsons. O Best of Birds. Even a single son. 9. By the touch of his grandson a mortal is released from the three-fold debt. in the Treta age. 53 7. The son of a Brāhma marriage uplifts. O Bird. and I will tell you all. 13. If by any past action of his the birth of a son has been prevented. but the illegitimate drags down. Accordingly. Sons having father and mother of the same caste are legitimate. as already said. carries the whole family over. Knowing this. Tārkṣya. from ancient history. With the help of sons. who was very powerful. there reigned over the delightful city of Mahodaya a king named Babhruvāhana. or worshipped the Blessed Śiva with devotion. They alone. having seen the face of a son.' is the ancient saying. Need I say one attains heaven by means of the Śrāddha performed by a son. The Vedas also proclaim the great importance of the son. Concerning this I will give you. Hard indeed. one should avoid a woman of lower caste. the intelligent should beget a son. p. therefore he was named "putra" by the Self-existent himself. when a Departed One went to heaven even when it was offered by another. Listen attentively. then some means should be taken for obtaining a son. is the fate of the sinful and those without sons. but never so. The son saves his father from the hell called Put. . you have done well in asking for the benefit of men. 11. The Blessed Lord said: O Tārkṣya. Having listened to the Harivanśa.

also seeing the king who had come to that dreadful forest. that powerful king. 29-31. sounding with many birds. carrying the arrow with him. Then. giving cool shade with its large spreading boughs. skilled. having drunk of that cool water. Crowded with various species of animals. ran out of sight into the interior of the forest. of terrible appearance. Babhruvāhana came out of the water refreshed. with his army. That leader of men. prosperous.--I am highly blessed. coming to a lake bathed in it with his horse. endowed with good character and of good conduct. and with senses discomposed by hunger and thirst. p. pursued the deer and came into another forest. And standing like a big standard over the whole forest. 28." . rendered fragrant by the-pollen of the lotus. severely wounded by his very hard arrow. and punishing the guilty. 23. The king. 20-21. O Tārkṣya. hungry and with parched throat. fainting with the heat and with fatigue. Lord of Gifts. full of various kinds of trees. with hair erect. In the midst of the forest the king saw a deer in the distance. O Great-Armed one. The Departed One. humpbacked and fleshless.A sacrificer. Now he beheld a Departed One. The deer. by being in touch with you. a lover of Brāhmaṇs. this king of the Departed spoke thus to the king: "I have escaped the condition of the Departed and reached the highest condition. The king approached and sat at its root. 55 24. 25-27. Seeing him deformed and dreadful Babhruvāhana wondered. compassionate. and resounding with the cries of various birds. And becoming filled with curiosity. went hunting. dirty. Once. And saw a delightful fig-tree. following the blood-stains on the grass. 22. Then. He entered a thick forest. Righteously protecting his subjects as though they were his own sons. valuing the good. always delighting in Kṣattriya duties. came near to him.

O Best of Kings. dear. by what bad deeds did you reach this state of the Departed. 56 32-33. 57 "I have no offspring. and I will give you a most precious jewel. and abounding in precious stones of various kinds. dreadful to see. always engaged in worship of the Shining Ones. the blind and the wretched. and by what gifts will your condition as Departed pass away?" 34-38. "By caste I am a Vaishya. 42-45. 39-41. "Therefore. so that my departed condition may be destroyed. even if hundreds of annual Śrāddhas are performed for him. and my higher state arise. The Departed one said: "I will tell you everything from the beginning. By fire-offering I pleased the Shining Ones. O Lord of Kings. I dwelt. are not performed. O Lord of Earth. and highly unhappy?" "Tell me in detail the cause of your condition. by doing the ceremonies for my higher body. who will perform for me the ceremonies for the-higher body. O King. no companion. O great king. no relative and no friend like you. by name Sudeva. and in which many religious acts are performed. "There is a town named Vaidaśa. Who are you. having many districts. How my good deeds proved fruitless I will relate to you. help me over. please know. It is said that in this world the king is the kinsman of all castes. possessed of all prosperity. The king said: "O Black-complexioned and Gaping-mouthed. and likewise the forefathers by food. "I gladdened the twice-born by offering various gifts.p. p. "Uplift me then. through my evil fate has proved fruitless. "If the sixteen monthly Śrāddhas. "Beautiful with palaces and mansions. the condition as Departed becomes firmly fixed. There. You will surely have compassion upon me when you have heard the cause of my condition as Departed. O Reverend Sir. "All this. I gave food of various kinds to the poor. .

by giving up anger and greed. "Place Śrīdhara 1 to the east of it. p. Make offerings to the universal deities with clarified butter. "Then. and compassion to all beings.--these. make offerings in the fire to these deities. although afflicted with hunger and thirst. association with the good. having gone round them. to the west Vāmanadeva 3. 5 Worship these in turn with sandalpaste and flowers. in front of Nārāyaṇa. if you desire my welfare. you should worship thus. as prescribed in the scriptures. 51-56. "He must commence. the destroyer of the departed condition. with Vaidic mantras. 4 "In the middle Pitāmaha 5 and also Maheśwara. "Then surely my condition as departed will unfailingly pass away. 59 "Then he must give thirteen sets of pots to Brāhmiṇs." . "If the great Nārāyaṇa rite is performed for me. austerities. I cannot endure this departed condition. 46-48. and perform all the ceremonies and the release of a bull. and having made the gift of a bed. honestly gained. according to the rite. O King.--and placing it. "Dress it with a pair of yellow cloths. bathe it in many waters. O warrior. Vaidic mantras. 58 49-50. I have heard. "So I will tell you about the worship of Viṣṇu. O King. along with all the ceremonies for the higher body."In that manner please act. calm and controlled in mind. p. the sacrificer should perform. consecrate a pot of water for the sake of the departed. to the north Gadādhara. and pleasant fruits. Madhusūdana 2 to the south. according to the rite. "Next. worship of Viṣṇu. but I am not able to grasp them at all. gifts. Suffering from the misery of hunger and thirst. are the destroyers of the departed condition. put on it various ornaments. curds and milk. and make one image of Nārāyaṇa from them. "In this forest there is sweet and cool water. "Listening to holy scriptures. the ceremony for the upper body. Bring two pieces of gold. having bathed.

O King. O Bird. full of milk and clarified butter. having given the great jewel to the king. On the arrival of the army the departed one." 64-65. the departed attain a happy state. and the departed. Please take notice and l will describe that good gift by which the departed condition cannot exist. and in accordance with what: rites must it be given? Tell me. By the Śrāddha. and arrived there remembering all that was said by the departed one. He duly performed. What good are a hundred other gifts from you? p. "Having prepared a pot of refined gold. in the neck of it. horses and chariots. filled it with clarified butter and worshipped before it with devotion. attained heaven. "How is the pot for the departed to be prepared. The departed said: "Oh Great King. performed even by a stranger. and became invisible. consecrated it to Brahmā. should be made with faith. and Śaṅkara. again implored him. released by these sacred gifts. followed him up. likewise Viṣṇu. one should give away the golden pot. The king said. O King. In all the worlds it is difficult to obtain this dissipator of evil conditions. in the east and other directions. bowed to him. the rites and ceremonies for the dweller in the upper body. the guardians of the universe. you have done well in asking this. and all the guardians of the quarters. about the pot which gives release to the departed. 60 "Brahmā in the middle.--what wonder then that when the son performs it the father should reach it! . Having come out of the forest. The Blessed Lord spoke on: His army. eternal giver of happiness. give it to a twice-born. in order-"These having duly worshipped. for the release of the departed. while he was thus conversing with the departed. with elephants. "This gift. Īśa 1 and Keśava 2. the king returned to his city. 66-68. which is superior to all other gifts in removing great sins.57. flowers and sandal-paste.' is a destroyer of all evil. with incenses. on account of my sympathy for all." 58-63. "The gift which is named 'the pot for the departed. O Kāśyapa.

have acted sinfully. I will tell you all about the rites proper for the righteous.60. 1. 3-4. When it is near the time to die he must perform his ablutions. And knowing his death to be near. He who hears. 62 . and also how these rites should be performed by the sons. 2. though they may. An Account of the Gifts for the Dying. 5-8. and the planetary conditions unfavourable. finding his body. and he who causes others to hear this holy history. should he fearless and alert. you have done well in questioning me for the benefit of mankind. all the rites for those in the other worlds who have done good. 58:3 The divine dwarf Viṣṇu. and not hearing the sounds of life. CHAPTER VIII. in its old age. Footnotes 58:1 Viṣṇu. The good person. O Lord. Garuḍa said: Tell me. 58:4 The club-bearing Viṣṇu. afflicted with diseases. a form of. p. and should make reparation for any sins committed knowingly or in ignorance. 59:2 Viṣṇu. never go to the departed condition. 59:1 Śiva. and worship Viṣṇu in the form of Śālagrāma. The Blessed Lord said: O Tārkṣya. 58:5 A name for Śiva. 58:2 Another form of Viṣṇu. slayer of the demon Madhu.

Buddha. even though accidentally touched. Kṛiṣṇa. and also Kalkī 1: These ten names should always be meditated upon by the wise. The Fish.He must worship with fragrant substances. Those who recite them near the diseased are called relatives. He should give presents to Brāhmiṇs. Kṛiṣṇa. Gopīkāvallabham. 1 . 12-16. which had been given to his son. the Dwarf. 10-11. Paraśurāma. and should recite the eight and the twelve syllabled mantras. and listen to. Rāma. Keśava. Even the dying Ajāmila reached heaven by pronouncing the name Hari. Dāmodara. with lamps. but O messengers. the Man-lion. Mādhavam. 63 Hari. takes away sins: fire burns. the Lord of Jānakī. 9. the Boar. Śrīdhara." 17-20. and other things. with leaves of the holy basil. One should worship the Achyuta. takes away the sins of men. Nārāyaṇa. Vāsudeva. 2 How much more then is its effect when it is pronounced with faith! p. Hari. do not bring the man who meditates on the name Hari. with flowers. coming with the range of hearing. coming near the diseased. the names of Viṣṇu and Śiva. O Twice-born. He should call to mind. with offerings of food and many sweetmeats. The sinful man is not able to sin while the power of the name Hari is uprooting the sins. should feed them with the offerings. My holy name should be remembered and meditated upon repeatedly. Rāmachandra. meditated upon even by one who has evil thoughts. Yama said to his servants: "Bring the man who denies. with red saffron. should not mourn. The name of Hari. the Tortoise. Relatives. with incense. Of him who gives voice to the auspicious name "Kṛiṣṇa" tens of millions of great sins are quickly reduced to ashes.

also give cows with calves. who know the true essence of things." never falls into the Vaitaraṇī. 26-27. who is the supporter of the earth. just as even rivers cannot purify a liquor-pot. The man. 64 The performance of penances does not purify the wicked man. is exempt from decay."O servants. who do not offer worship to Viṣṇu. uttering "Nandanandanam. 28-31. O Lord of Birds.--and those whose desires are bound up in the household. with clarified butter and gold. the foot-water and names of Viṣṇu--all these are givers of freedom at the time of death. if it is approved by his Son. The fast of the eleventh day. little or much. then.--who.--which are served by the race of Paramahaṅsas. do not go near those sinless people who take refuge in the lotus-eyed Vāsudeva and Viṣṇu. the water of the Ganges. the hymning of Viṣṇu." 21-23. It is for the sake of this that the wise pray for a righteous son in this world. O Tārkṣya. and should read or listen to the Gītā and the Hymn of the Thousand Names. Yama nor his servants." "Bring them whose tongues do not pronounce the qualities and name of the Lord. In these last days a good son should make all the gifts. Know. which bestows welfare on the universe. to be the best expiation for even great sins. bones and blood. Hence one should remember the name of Mahā Viṣṇu. even in dream. the Gītā. "Bring those sinners who always turn away from time nectar of the lotus-feet of Viṣṇu. and never sees. and carries in his hand the conch and discus. . whose heads never bow to Kṛiṣṇa. the leaves of the holy basil. which effaces multitudes of sins. Whatever a man gives in his last days. to a learned twice-born and. having a body of flesh. who has turned his face away from Nārāyaṇa. and are without possessions. By the name of Kṛiṣṇa one is riddened of sins. whose minds do not meditate upon His lotus feet. p. Then he must dedicate food. 24-25. towards the end gives cows to the twice-born. which is the path to hell.

Udumbara.--then he does not go within the domain of Yama. nor tread his path. p. by which are pleased the dwellers in Bhū. a plot of ground.-every one of these is said to purify. for the punishing of the sinful. They are indispensable-the eight-fold gift of sesamum and other things. 66 Yama holds in his hands. iron. the seven grains. Śuṇdāmarka. Śeṣa and Bala. Therefore should be made the gift of iron. O Tārkshya. salt. seeing their father lying upon the ground with eyes half-closed. a cow. 65 The sons. Hear now their good effects: 35-36. 1 Brahmā and others. Dānavas and Daityas 2 are gratified by the gift of these sesamums. a rod. . happiness is bestowed by these great messengers of Yama:--Uraṇa. Hear this great secret. cotton stuff.p. and free him from misery when he goes into the next world. and should be given in the last days. sages. The gift of these removes the sins gathered in speech. gold. A gift of iron-ore should be made with the hands touching the ground. 41-44. a sword and a dagger. Sesamum. and those who are in the assembly o f the King of Justice are gratified by the gift of gold. There are three kinds of holy sesamums generated from my sweat. and become granters of boons. Śyāmasūtra. black and brown are the three kinds of sesamums. The eight great gifts are the effacers of great sins. This gift is considered propitiatory to these weapons of Yama. In disease and calamity two gifts rank above all others. 1 A good son will make such gifts as will prolong his father's life. 32-34. thought and action. an axe. 37-40. about this most supreme gift. Because of this gift of iron. Bhūvar and Swar worlds. shining ones. which is the bringer of happiness in the world of Yama. White. should not covet his earned wealth. Asuras. a threshing-pestle.

p. kidney beans. barley.Therefore a gift of gold should be made for the uplifting of the departed. handsome. Therefore shall a king especially make gifts of land. Chitragupta and the others who dwell in the city of Yama are propitiated. through pride. eloquent. sesamum and gold. All other gifts. the gift. wheat. salt. It has been observed by the sages that the gift of a plot of land of the size of a cow's hide. He does not go to the world of Yama. He dwells for a long time in the world of truth and is then reborn here as a king. not by holy pilgrimages. He who gives to the twice-born land filled with grains goes to the abode of Indra and is worshipped by divinities and demons. does not give land to the twice-born. By the gift of salt one is freed from the fear of Yama. By gifts of inn. Rices. 1 panic seeds. By the gift of cotton-stuff one is freed from fear of the messengers. And by gifts of the seven grains the standard-bearer of the King of Justice and others who stand at the gates are propitiated. Not by vows. does not make gifts of land. without even a village hut. māṣa. O Kāśyapa. 49-52. to a proper person. dwarf-peas: these are called the seven grains. 68 . 45. though for others. 67 46-48. p. absolves one from Brahmicide. and of unexcelled strength. The king who. are producers of little fruit. 53-55. I say. but reaches heaven. having become a king. righteous. not by any gifts but by the gift of land is a great sin committed in kingship expiated. in accordance with the rites. O child. He who. shall dwell in hell as long as Śeṣa 2 supports the earth. prosperous. is reborn for many times as a beggar. The fruit produced by the gift of land increases daily. cotton-stuff. of a cow is equal to a gift of land.

The cows verily carry the man beyond three kinds of hells. 69 64. learned in the Vedas. in the forenoon and the afternoon. One who has studied the scriptures and made fire-offerings to the shining ones and who does not eat food cooked by others is not polluted by receiving even the earth filled with precious stones.56-57. in the morning. One cow should be given to one only. O Bird. Mantras and fire. A gift should not be made to an undeserving person by the wise who desire their own welfare. 62-63. And the gift of one hundred thousand cows after death 1. And it troubles the recipient's people for a hundred generations. in the twilight. The cow given to an undeserving person leads the giver to hell. the gift of a thousand when dying and bereft of mental faculties. If he either sells it or shares it his family will he troubled to the seventh generation.--one is absolved of all these sins. in manhood. another for the gaining of liberation. Towards the end. 65-68. and never to many. a cow should be given.--of action. with the calf and other necessary things. speech and thought. It brings unending fruit to the giver and does not harm the recipient. The gift of one cow while one is in full vigour of mind. should the gift of a cow for Vaitaraṇī be made. 58-61. A gift made to a deserving person. . With special rites. The sins committed in boyhood. Having given even once a tawny cow. another to absolve himself of debts. to a well-conducted and austere Brāhmiṇ. milkgiving. A gift made to a deserving person multiplies a hundred-thousand-fold. do not themselves partake of these evil qualities. He should give a cow to overcome death. in youth. the removers of cold and poison. The giver is released by her at the end from the accumulated sins. in old age and in previous births. are equal. p. The sins committed in the night. the gift of a hundred cows while suffering from diseases. who has bathed at the sacred waters. increases a hundred thousand fold.

1 Present the cloths. and place the covered bronze vessel upon some cotton-stuff. which is a hundred yojanas in extent. Salutations to thee. "O Lord of the Universe. fill it with water. and lies on the very dreadful way of Yama. 71 "O Best of the Twice-born. place a foot in the boat. the very form of Viṣṇu. hang a bell round its neck. fastening it with silk threads.69. and milk it into a bronze vessel. with ornaments to a Brāhmiṇ. of which I have spoken to you already. may cows be behind me. . which is a means for crossing the Vaitaraṇī River. Put there a golden image of Yama. "O Cow. One should decorate a black or reddish cow. p. properly worship with fragrances. uplift me. and in it place the raft: Having placed the things which are born from the body of the sun in it. recite this mantra:-77-82. flowers. place clarified butter in the bronze vessel and put all upon the cow. 70 70-76. and. make a hole. made miserable by the waves of sorrow and remorse. Queen of the shining ones! "May cows be in front of me. may cows be in my heart 1. Salutations to Vaitaraṇī. and coloured rice 2. Thou art verily the saviour of those who are immersed in the ocean of existence. Cover it with a pair of black cloths. having honoured a Brāhmiṇ. for the sake of my passing through the gateway of Yama on the great path. being desirous of crossing that river. Vaitaraṇī. look upon me. Make a raft of sugarcanes. tip its horns with gold. p. compassionate to those who seek refuge in Thee. dedicate the cow there in accordance with the scriptures. I have presented this gift to you. Take hold of the tail of the cow. I will tell you about the gilt of a cow. and an iron rod. silver its feet. and may I dwell in the midst of cows. God upon earth. Salutations to Vaitaraṇī! "I have presented this to you.

At the equinoctial and solstitial points. 93-94. He who has gifts as provision." 83-84. p. That river. With hands together having invoiced. 90. does not appear in the Great Way after the gift of a cow. with these mantras. at the crossing over 1. presented with one's own hand:--this is unending.--the supreme gift of a cow should be made. he should give them to the Brāhmiṇ. 72 87-88. goes by a righteous path into the assembly of the King of Justice. That verily is called the sacred time. Bodies are transitory. At all the sacred bathing-places. possessions are not eternal. and when a proper person is present. at the eclipses of the sun and moon. p. on the day of the new moon. So one who desires his own welfare should make unending gifts. gives the Vaitaraṇī cow. 2 Therefore it is necessary to give a cow at all sacred times. The wise man. and the time is effectual. Whether the body is well or ill one should carry out the Vaitaraṇī observance. its the form of a cow remove my sins. with these rites. 73 . Otherwise-without provision--the man suffers pain on the path. 89. He who. according to his wealth. at Vyatīpāta. and having walked round all these things. All the gifts made by human beings in this world clear the way for them on the path of the world of Yama. and in the dwelling-places of Brāhmiṇs. like the Ganges.--thence flows unending benefit. should make a gift of a cow. 91-92. to a learned Brāhmiṇ. Yama in the form of a cow. 85-86. 2 on Yuga days 3 and at other sacred times. The gift of even a little wealth. goes happily on the Great Way.--one should accumulate righteousness. desiring to cross that river. death is always near. who is the mainstay of the shining ones."May she who is the Goddess of Prosperity for all creatures. in which faith is produced. O Bird.

Like creatures in a water-tank. If not to the living. by one knowing this. brother. Therefore one should make gifts himself. 105-106. so long should one make gifts to a Brāhmiṇ. be it good or bad. their affection soon fades away. and goes again upon its exhaustion. The man who neglects righteousness. but when they have known him to be dead. Wealth. wife and fancily. for the sake of righteousness. Life is transient. body. 100. The fruitfulness of birth as a human being depends upon the pursuit of righteousness alone. Therefore righteousness should be sought. The wealth disappears from the house. and like the motion or sticks in a river is one's contact with mother. sons. 74 Nobody has a relation in this changing ocean of sorrow. The relatives turn away with averted faces leaving the dead body on the ground. but when the wealth becomes another's one can have nothing to say. Hence should wealth be given. So long as a man is alive he has a father and other relatives. p. He should constantly remember that the true kinsman of the self is the Self. The good and evil karma he has made goes with him. 103-104. On account of gifts made in a former birth much wealth is obtained in this. but righteousness goes with him. Knowing all this. birth as a human being is obtained. and the grandsons? Whose is the wife. and the relatives from the cremation-ground. much less will anyone give to the dead. He who. father. follows righteousness. or the wealth? In the world of change nobody belongs to anybody. while still alive. Whose are the sons. goes and comes in misery. kinsman. 97-99. 107-100. having gained it. and who can give afterwards? 101-102. kinsmen. When his body has been destroyed by fire his karma remains and wherever he is the man experiences it. By the power of great merit.95-96. like a lump of wood or earth. .--all these are transitory. wife and the others. As long as one is in possession of wealth. He is born by the attraction of karma. reaches the supreme goal. one should give with one's own hand. son.

I accept that. grandsons. incalculable. the self-subdued. 110-111. ten-thousand fold. If the wealth made by the father is given to the deserving by the sons--then. descents or incarnations of Viṣṇu. 62:2 Ajāmila was a man of very evil life. Footnotes 62:1 The ten avatāras. grandsons and great-grandsons are ennobled. a flower. who is still to come. a gift should be made. and happened to call him as he was dying. which appeared in archaic and ancient times. by that. For him who makes gifts there are no troubles and no torments of hell. through the brother. Therefore. by all means. who. though in poverty. do not make gifts at the time of illness come to grief when dead. . not by large piles of wealth. p. The wise. by righteousness desire is conquered. 113-114. and no fear caused by the messengers of Yama at the time of death. A righteous son is honoured even by the shining ones. a thousand-fold. O Bird. because of greed. Sons. except Kalkī. Righteousness verily is the cause of freedom. and as prescribed. He should cause his ailing father to make gifts on earth. From him who offers to Me. What is given through the father has a hundred-fold merit. 75 112. All those sinful-misers. 115. himself. through the sister. kinsmen and friends who do not make gifts on behalf of a dying man are without doubt slayers of Brāhmaṇ. 63:1 Names of Vishnu. leave faith. Therefore should righteousness be pursued. a fruit or water--from him. through the mother. a leaf. Whether it be small or great does not count with me. Righteousness is supported by faith.Wealth is born of righteousness. 116-118. who named his son Nārāyaṇa. presented with devotion. with devotion. and go to heaven. his sets. brothers.

having scattered sesamum seeds. that the cow is merely a symbol. gold. 3-5. 70:2 Akṣata. he should strew darbha-grass. silk. 67:2 The eternal serpent. 2. but not that earned by the father. 70:1 Probably the afore-mentioned cow. whole rice coloured with turmeric and saffron. Garuḍa said: You have spoken fully about the gifts for the diseased. of the rites for the dying. 72:3 Every month there is a day called Yuga--the last or last but one. and used to honour persons by sprinkling over them. and I will explain the rites for one leaving the body.65:1 They may expect ancestral property. etc. given by another for one. O Lord. 68:1 That is. 67:1 A kind of spotted grain. 71:1 Note here. are closely connected with sacrifice and therefore with the sun. 1. . ghee. O Tārkṣya. When." 72:1 The passing of the sun from one constellation to another. near to a holy basil tree one should make a ring with cowdung. Tell now. the embodied leaves his ordinary body. 66:1 Physical. by the effects of karma. astral and lower mental worlds. and then have the Śālagrāma stone placed on the cleaned platform. 1 Next. 71:2 Note the subjective character of the "river. 72:2 When the sun and moon are on opposite sides of either solstice. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. An Account of the Rites for the Dying. 65:2 Classes of non-human beings. and the minutes declination are the same. and by what rites men after death reach a good condition. then.

darbha-grasses and holy basil are three holy things. 1 Brahmā. by eating the offerings for the departed. . The house in which the holy basil tree is enshrined is like a holy bathing place. One should lay the dying man on the ground cleaned with cow-dung and spread over with darbha-grasses. and Sacrificial Fire stand upon the ring. mantras. are produced from my hairs. which removes the pain of being. The man who dies with a leaf of it in his mouth. upon a seat of sesamum and darbhagrass. 1 at the tip of the kuśa is Śaṅkaradeva 2--three shining ones are seated in the kuśa grass. fire. 77 6-9 Where is the shade of the holy basil tree. Because the sesamum is produced from My sweat it is holy. Brahma is seated at the root of the kuśa-grass.--therefore should one make a ring. hence by the mere touch of them men attain heaven. and fire.Liberation is certain for the being who dies near the Śālagrāma stone. goes to the city of Viṣṇu. difficult to obtain by gifts. Hence kuśa. which removes all ills and sins. 78 16-20. unfailingly. and they prevent an ailing man from going to a miserable condition. hence Asuras. Dānavas and Daityas run away from sesamum. 10-13. Viṣṇu. cows and holy basil. p. when basely used. though he have no son. The darbha grasses. though he have hundreds of sins. 14-15. mantras. Yama is not able to see him who gives up his life while having a holy basil shoot. Rudra 2 all the shining ones. on a cremation-ground.--the servants of Yama do not come to it. in the middle of the kuśa is Janārdana. holy basil. O Tārkṣhya. Darbha-grass becomes unclean with rice-balls. not support him in the air. Sesamums. Brāhmiṇs. there is always liberation for the dying. my riches. p. Brāhmiṇs and cows do not lose their purity by being used again and again.

placing him on the cleaned ground. Next. and gives fruit of merit equal to bathings and gifts at all the sacred waters. when his life is leaving. 80 . If there is a stain it should be cleaned away by further plastering. He who drinks even a drop of the water of the water of the Śālagrāma stone 3 is absolved from all sins. whose water helps one over the ocean of transmigration. Then one should give him the water of the Ganges. 79 23-30. goes when dead to the city of Viṣṇu. "O Ganges. He who drinks the water of the Ganges. 21-22. with no stain to be seen. p. O Tārkṣya.The ground must he pure everywhere. drinking or calling upon the Ganges. one should put gold and jewels upon his lips. goblins. which is the effacer of great sins. contemplates with faith the Ganges. are both equal. Hence without this ring one should not perform oblations to the fire. and goes to the residence Vaikuṇṭḥa. the feeding of Brāhmiṇs. elementals. It sanctifies meritless men by hundreds and thousands. and he who drinks the water of the Ganges. Therefore should one drink of the Ganges. Just as. the worship of the Holy Ones. and the followers of Yama enter an impure place. By bathing in other rivers men are purified. He who calls. so. nor place the dying man upon the ground. 4 p. and give him the Water of the Feet of Vishnu in the form of the Śālagrāma. Demons. a bundle of cotton is destroyed by falling into the fire. and is not born again on earth. Ganges" while life is flickering in the throat. Śrāddha. And the man who. spooks. He who performs a thousand times the Chāndrāyaṇa fast which purifies his body. by his drinking the water of the Ganges. heated by the rays of the sun 1 is freed from all births and goes to the abode of Hari. goes to the highest goal. and a cot above the ground. is his sin reduced to ashes.--so also by merely touching.

31-33. Therefore he should contemplate, salute, keep in mind the Ganges, and drink its water. Then he should listen, however little, to the Bhāgavata, 1 which is a giver of liberation. He who in his last moments repeats a verse, or half or quarter of a verse of the Bhāgavata never returns hither from the world of Brahmā. The repeating of the Vedas and the Upaniṣads; the hymning of Viṣṇu and Śiva --these bring liberation at death to Brāhmiṇs, Kṣattriyas and Vaiṣyas. 34-35. At the time when the breath is leaving the body, he should make a fast, O Bird. Dissatisfied with worldly things the twice-born should take up relinquishment. 2 He who says, 3 while life is still flickering in his throat, "I have relinquished," goes at death to the city of Viṣṇu, and is not born again on earth. 36-39. Then, of him who is righteous and has thus performed the rites, O Bird, the life breaths easily pass out through the higher opening. The mouth, eyes, nostrils and ears are the seven gateways through which go those of good deeds. Yogins go through an opening in the head. When the rising and descending life-breaths, which are joined, become separate, then, becoming subtle, the life-breath departs from the inert body.
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When the Lord of Breath departs, the body falls like a tree unsupported and stricken by time. 40-41. The motionless body, left by the vital breath, becomes detestable and unfit to touch; foul smells soon arise in it, and it is disliked by everybody. How can men, who perish in a moment, be proud of the body, with its three conditions,--worm, dung and ashes? 42-43. Earth is dissipated to earth; likewise water to water; fire is dissipated in fire; also air in air. And, similarly, ether to ether: and the Self that is in the bodies is happy, all-pervading, eternally free, witness of the world, birthless and deathless. 44-45. The individual, possessing all the senses, surrounded with sense-objects of sound and the rest, clinging to desire and love, environed by the sheath of karma,

Endowed with good tendencies, enters a new body created by his own karma, as does a householder whose house has been burnt. 46-47: Then the messengers of the Shining Ones, resplendent with flashing plumes, arrive, bringing a chariot wreathed with countless bells, And they, knowing the true righteousness, wise, always beloved by the righteous, carry him, who has performed the rites, away in their own chariot.
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48. That great man, in a resplendent body, with shining garments and garlands, possessed of gold and diamond ornaments, by virtue of gifts attains heaven, and is honoured by the Holy Ones.

Footnotes 76:1 Cowdung is extensively used in India as a purifier and antiseptic. 77:1 Viṣṇu. 77:2 Śiva. 78:1 When the people of the house are aware that one is about, to die they remove him from the couch to the ground. 78:2 Siva. 78:3 Water is poured over the stone, and thus consecrated to Viṣṇu. 78:4 The heaven of Viṣṇu. 79:1 Here is a mystical suggestion. 80:1 The Bhāgvata Purāṇa. 80:2 Sannyāsa, giving up attachment to worldly life and its objects. 80:3 That is, truly says. CHAPTER X.

The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire. 1. Garuḍa said: Tell me, O Lord, the rites for burning the bodies of the good, and describe also the greatness of the wife who is faithful. 2. The Blessed Lord said: Listen, O Tārkṣya. I will tell you all about the ceremonies for the upper body, by doing which sons and grandsons are released from the hereditary debt. 3. There is no need for numerous gifts, but one should perform the funeral ceremonies for his parents; the son who does so obtains fruit like that of the Agniṣṭoma. 1 4-6. Then the son, abandoning sorrow, should have the shave, along with all his relatives, in order to remove all sins. The son who does not have the shave when the mother or father has died,--how can he be called a son, the helper through the ocean of changefulness. Therefore he must have the shave by all means, except the nails and the hair of the armpits. Then, having bathed with his relatives he must put on clean cloths.
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7-9. Then, bringing river water, he should bathe the corpse and next adorn it with sandal-paste, garlands, or the clay of the Ganges; Having covered it with new cloths he, with his sacred thread on the right shoulder, should pronounce the family name, and dedicate rice-balls and presents, At the place of death, in the name of the so-called dead, he should offer them. By this the earth and its presiding deity become pleased. 10. Ḥe should wake offering at the threshold in the name of him who is become a traveller; by this the evil ones amongst the tens of millions of elementals can do no harm. 11-13. Then the daughter-in-law 1 and others should go round it and worship it; then along with the other relatives the son should bear it on his shoulder. The son who bears his father on his shoulder to the burning-ground obtains the fruit of the horse-sacrifice at every step.

the holy bath wood. demons and fiends. and with the wood of palāsha and aśwattha. and laid down with its head to the north. he should make there a funeral pyre with sandal wood. This one belonging to the changing world is dead. Those who know the ways of the departed call him a seeker. p. and others in the various directions. 16-19. either in this name. 85 15. p. 23. Then. Nourisher of Creatures. otherwise the above-mentioned come to disturb. he should make a halt. shall not cause disturbance of that body which is to be sacrificed. beginning with 'loman. 24. 14. The son. if there is not Pañchaka. Having placed the departed on the funeral pyre. as follows: Having swept the ground and washed it with cow-dung. he should offer in the name of the departed two rice ball. in the hand of the dead. Oblations should be made in order that goblins. having taken out some earth and erected an altar and sprinkled it with water. Thou. Some place should be cleaned there. And having worshipped with flowers and coloured rice the Shining One known as the eater of flesh. Supporter of Beings. An offering should be made on the funeral pyre. Thus the dead gets the benefit of the offering of five rice-balls. and having brought the oblation with the grasses.He who carries his dead father on shoulder or back or hip pays off the debt of constant parental kindnesses. should give them to the fire. lead Thou him to heaven!" 20-22. Having thus prayed to the fire. he should make an offering for him. and having placed the fire as prescribed. for the burning of the body. 1 he should make an oblation as prescribed. Womb of the World. half-way. 86 on the funeral pyre. or in that of Departed. From the time he is released on the funeral pyre the condition as departed begins. Having bathed the corpse. having dedicated five rice-balls to the departed. after cleaning and sprinkling. Then it should be taken to the burning-ground.'-"Oh. 1 .

" and with leaf-vessels. O Tārkṣya. diamonds. on the day of the offering of the rice-balls. in the five Pañchaka mansions ending with Revatī 2 is not a suitable time for burning. and the son. 28. after having thus performed the pacificatory ceremonies. For warding off ills he should give a vessel full of sesamum. p. Who dies in the Pañchaka does not attain a good condition. and sacrifice performed with Rikṣa mantras. Burning should not be done then. I will explain to you the rites for the warding off of all ills. 87 20-33. If burning takes place. Who. and some trouble arises for the sons and family. gold. evil occurs. Then one should place near the corpse images. another death occurs. 89 89-48 . should perform the pacificatory rites for him. with the mantra "Pretājayata. in case burning takes place in the middle of Rikṣa.--no harm befalls him. and a bronze vessel filled with clarified butter. in order.25-27. 88 88-41 88-42 88-46 p. make of darbha grass. if it is done. and the departed goes to the supreme condition. Beginning from the middle of Dhaniṣṭhā. silver. and consecrated with the four Rikṣa mantras. does the burning. Then the burning along with the images should be done. Purified gold should be used. Harm befalls the house in which death takes place in the Rikṣa mansion. 87-34 87-35 p.

milk and water in an earthen pot. in the case of householders with a piece of wood. Holding the unbaked earthen pot. and offer water mixed with sesamum. in the name of the family. On the fourth day the collection 1 should be made. p. turned to the south. He is an offering to the heaven-world. the women in front and the men behind. 91 34-66. bathe and drink!" 67. blaze forth!" Thus having made an oblation of clarified butter. For three days. O Tārkṣya. by those who maintain household fires. Here is milk and here water. His son. at sunset. up to the twelfth day. 92 . in that of ascetics with a cocoanut. he should offer. When the burning is finished the women should bathe. 90 56-50. he should weep loudly. that he may become happy 60-61.89-53 p. filled with milk and water. Having bathed again at home. then the sons. bound with-three sticks. Whether half or wholly burnt. Having cleaned the place of death with cow-dung. 2 may he be born again from you. 62. He should eat the leaves of the nimba-tree and recount the virtues of the dead. having split open the brahmarandra 1 should make an oblation of clarified butter with this mantra: "Thou art born from him. he should give food to a cow and eat-from a leafplate--but not any food already in the house. he should keep a lamp burning there. at the cross-roads or on the burning-ground. his skull should be split open. so that he may attain the world of the forefathers. Thou hast been forsaken by relatives. with mantras and sesamum offerings. on the second or the third day he should do as follows: p. O Fire. If there is nothing to prevent. he should repeat this mantra: "Thou hast been burned with the fires of the burning-ground. They should walk home. and by those who do not. 63.

68-78. Having gone to the burning-ground, having bathed and become pure, having put on a woollen garment, and wearing the sacred ring, 1 The son should make the grain oblation to the denizens of the burning-ground, and walk round three times, repeating the mantra beginning with "Yamāyatva." Then having sprinkled milk over the place of the funeral pyre, O Lord of Birds, he should sprinkle water, and begin to pick up the heap of bones. Having placed them on palasha leaves, he should sprinkle them with milk and water, and, having put them into an earthen pot, perform Śrāddha as prescribed. Having prepared a triangular plot of ground, and cleansed it with cow-dung, he, facing south, should offer three rice-balls, in the three directions. Having collected the ashes from the pyre, taking a three-legged stool he should place on it a jar with mouth uncovered, containing water. Then he should make, for the departed, an oblation of cooked rice with curds and clarified butter, water and sweetmeats, as prescribed. He should take fifteen steps in the northerly direction and, digging a hole there, place in it, O Bird, the jar of bones. Then he should offer over it a rice-ball, which destroys the pain of burning, and, taking the vessel from the hole, carry it to a tank of water. Then he should several times sprinkle the bones with water and milk, and worship them well, with sandal-paste and saffron. Having put them into a leaf-box, touched with it his heart and head and walked round it saluting it; he should drop it into the middle of the Ganges.
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79-84. He whose bones sink in the water of the Ganges within ten days, never returns from the world of Brahma. As long as a man's bones float on the water of the Ganges,--for so many thousands of years he remains in the heaven-world. When the wind which has touched the waves of the Ganges touches the dead, his sin is at once destroyed.

Having worshipped, with great austerities, the divine Ganges, for the uplifting of his forefathers, Bhagīratha 1 brought her down from the world of Brahmā. In the three worlds is celebrated the purifying fame of the Ganges, who led to heaven the sons of Sagara 2 who had been reduced to ashes. Those men who die after committing sins attain the heaven-world by their bones falling into the Ganges. 85-86. There was a certain hunter, a destroyer of all sorts of creatures who, killed by a lion in a great forest, went to the place called hell. When his bones were dropped into the Ganges by a crow he ascended the divine chariot and went to the abode of the Shining Ones. 87. Hence the good son should himself drop the bones in the Ganges. After the bones are collected he should perform the ten-days' ceremonies.
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88-90. Now, if anybody meets his death in an uninhabited place, or in a wood, or from dangerous thieves, and if his body is not found, then, on the day this is heard of-Having made an effigy of darbha grass, one should burn it alone, as explained above, and then collect its ashes and drop them into the water of the Ganges, And from the same day the ten-days' ceremonies should be performed and that date should be noted, for the performance of the annual Śrāddha. 91. If a woman dies in the fulness of pregnancy, her womb should be cut open, and the child drawn out and placed on the ground, and she alone be burned. 92-93. If a child dies on the bank of the Ganges, it should simply be thrown into the Ganges; if in another place, it should be buried in the ground, up to twenty-seven months old. Older than that it should be burned and its bones strewn on the Ganges. A gift of a water-pot should be made, and food should be given to children.
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94-98. If the embryo perishes, there are no rites. If an infant dies, one should give milk. if a child dies, then one should offer a jar, milk-porridge and eatables.

If a youth dies, one should have young children fed. If a youth who has taken the vow dies, one should have Brāhmiṇs, along with children, fed. When one who has passed five years dies, whether vowed or not, one should offer ten rice-balls, along with milk-food and lumps of sugar. On the eleventh and twelfth days one should perform the ceremonies for a youth, but without the rites of releasing a bull and of the great gift. If the father is living, there is not joint rite for the youth, but on the twelfth day one should perform the ceremony for him alone. 99. Marriage, with women and Śūdras, is declared to take the place of vows. Previous to the taking of vows, with all the castes, rites are done according to age. 100. He who is little attached to action, who is little bound by sense-objects, and he who is young in age of body, requires but scanty rites. 101. In boyhood and in youth the cot, the bull and other sacrifices should be performed; and the gifts of land, the great gift and the gift of a cow should be made.
p. 96

102-107. With all ascetics there is no burning, no water rites; and the ten-days' ceremonies should not be performed for them by their sons. A man, by the mere holding of the staff, becomes Nārāyaṇa 1; because of carrying the three-fold staff they never go into the condition of the departed. Those who know are always free, by realisation of their own true nature, hence they do not expect rice-balls to be given. Therefore rice-balls and water should not be offered to them, but one should perform the annual Śrāddha at the sacred waters, and Śrāddha at Gayā, with devotion to the forefathers. The Haṅsa, Paramahaṅsa, Kutīchaka, Bahūdaka; these are Sannyāsins, 2 O Tārkṣya, and when dead, they must be buried in the ground. If the Ganges, or other, is not available, it is declared that they should be buried in the ground. Where great rivers exist, they should be thrown into them.

Footnotes 83:1 A certain sacrifice. 5 days in each month. 84:1 His son's wife--the wife of the son performing the rite. 85:1 The fire-deva. 87:87-34 87:87-35 88:88-41 88:88-42 . 86:1 A certain astrological position. 86:2 The fifth Nakṣatra.

93:2 There is a legend to the effect that the 80. the ancestors of Bhrigu. put on the third finger of right hand.000 sons of Sagara were reduced to ashes by Viṣṇu.88:88-46 89:89-48 89:89-53 90:1 An opening at the top of the head. 91:1 Of the bones. and that they. 92:1 A finger-ring of kusha grass. were released and purified by him in the Ganges. 90:2 The funeral pyre is lighted from the sacred household fire. . 93:1 A great king who is said to have brought down the Ganges from heaven to earth.

If there were a way of averting the inevitable. the being who has come under the sway of death must be born again here. O Tārkṣya. 3-8. 1. how can there be permanence in a body which is sustained by these foods? . 98 There is no way out. should offer rice-balls to the father. and they should not weep when sorrow is useless. rests awhile and then departs again. resorting to some shady place. CHAPTER XI. An Account of the Ten-Days' Ceremonies. a good son is released from the hereditary debt. 96:2 These names are given to advanced stages of human development. the man who is dead may never be seen. either human or divine. p. taking calm courage. so is the coming together of beings. the body is only a dream.96:1 Viṣṇu. Death is certain for those who are born. and I will tell you about the ten-days' ceremony. This is inevitable and therefore a wise man should not grieve over it. having done which. Although there be sorrowing day and night for thousands of years. then Nala. and who should perform it if there is no son. what good results follow from the performance of the ten-days' rite. 9-11. refraining from tears. and birth is certain for the dead. Garuḍa said: Tell me. 2 The Blessed Lord said: Listen. The good things eaten in the morning are destroyed by evening. O Keśava. Nobody should form an excessive attachment to anybody. Because the departed has inevitably to drink the bitter tears let fall by his relatives. what then of other persons’? As a traveller. The son. Rāma and Yudiṣhṭhira would not have experienced miseries.

. on account of that son. 19-21. The ten-days' ceremony for the father should be performed by the son. 100 The son who performs the rites for one year. obtains such fruit as is acquired by performing the Śrāddha at Gayā. p. Having considered this. If there is no son the wife. The son obtains such fruit from the performance of the rite for the father and mother. But the annual Śrāddha should be performed severally if the wealth has been divided. devoted to Brāhmaṇ. on account of that son. If there is nobody else. Even if the eldest son dies. O Bird. sleeping on the ground. Therefore should the eldest son perform with devotion the ten-days’ ceremony. A man or a woman who performs the rites for a friend. as is obtained by going round the shrines seven times. 99 If a man has several wives. only one shall perform the ten-days' ceremony. through excessive affection. Manu declared that if.12-17. by this sacrament for the helpless departed. should be performed by the sons or grandsons of his younger or his elder brother. and if no wife the brother. and given up sorrow arising from ignorance. beginning with the ten-days' ceremony. of brothers of the same father. should perform them. The ten-days' ceremonies. 22-24. O Bird. perform it. only one has a son. and the other sixteen Śrāddhas. which removes misery. even if the wealth has been divided. all of them have a son. The rites must not be neglected. or a Brāhmiṇ's pupil or a proper kinsman should perform them.-Only by one these ceremonies. to have a son. obtains the fruit of tens of millions of sacrifices. p. the father should not. For all who have no sons a friend may offer the rice-balls. the family priest may do them. 18. the riceball offerings. the son should perform the rites. but only one of them has a son. Although there be many sons. for the man who has no son. 2 and pure. 1 eating one meal. they are all considered.

wishing the dead to reach heaven. 101 31-33. and radiate like the parched grain. Crow-food. saying the "Atasī. Therefore. he should make an altar 1 there." Then having spread kuśa grass in front of it. or in a temple. On the ninth day all the authorised kinsmen at the proper time should besmear themselves with oil. Being purified. if given in the name of the departed. He should place on it. as a seat for the rice-ball. Made of cooked rice or of barley meal. since flesh is forbidden in the Kali Yuga at the ceremony for the forefathers. 33. a twice-born 2 made of darbha and kuśa grasses. eatables. He should dedicate Usīra-root." p. On the tenth day a ball of flesh should be given. cleansed with cow-dung. in accordance with the sapiṇḍa rite. over leaves. between nine and twelve noon.--the son should make the offering. in a garden. cloths. 34-36. one should pronounce the name of the departed woman or man. or a ball of māṣa. that has been given by me to the departed in his earthly name. and handfuls of castor-oil in a pot: "May all this. wealth or other things. so should the nine rice-balls be given. sandal paste. and having the women go in front. mouth-perfumes and presents. a lamp. Having gone to a well or a tank. and having worshipped it with water for the feet and other things. and having placed upon it a ball prepared in the family-name of the departed. should bow to it. Food. milk and water. the flowers of the Bhṛiṅgarāja. water. confer eternity upon the dead. In the same way that on the first day a rice-ball is given as prescribed. incense. at a sacred bathing-place. he should bathe without reciting mantras. And say: "May his family increase like the panic grass." and then leave in the house the mixed-panic grass and grain. O Lord of Birds. persist. . Having bathed in the open. seated facing southward at the root of a tree. taking with them panic grass and parched grain. from the first day onwards. 37-38. they should proceed to the place of the dead.25-30.

CHAPTER XII. explain the ceremony of the dedication of the bull. An Account of the Eleventh-day Rite. pray for the release of the departed. and perform diligently all the funeral ceremonies." Every day at the conclusion of the Śrāddha he should pray erfully repeat this incantation. as also should the other relatives. symbolical of the deceased twice-born person. clad in yellow robes. with hands folded together. Garuḍa said: O Lord of the Holy Ones. 40. 102 39. gone home. 2. be Thou the giver of release to the departed. Having bathed. O Bearer of the conch. he should. Indestructible. . tell me about the eleventh-day rite also. 1. as beautiful as the atasī flower. 100:2 A rough image. he may eat. and given food to the cow. p. 100:1 A square flat mound a few inches high. 41-42. "O Beginningless and Endless Deva. pray for the release of the departed. well-read in Vedas and Śāstras. and. 99:2 Celibate. Lotus-eyed. The Blessed Lord said: In the early morning on the eleventh day one should go to a water-reservoir. O Ruler of the universe. with hands together. discus and mace. He should invite Brāhmiṇs. and bowing their heads. 3. Footnotes 99:1 One each day. The son who performs the ceremony must again have a complete shave. There is no reason for fear for those who bow to Govinda. During the ten days he should feed a twice-born with seasoned foods. the Eternal.On the tenth day he should shave. Having meditated upon Hari.

5. clad in white robes.4. offer a rice-ball to the departed. May it please Thee.--a brass vessel filled with clarified butter. O Mādhava. as prescribed. sweetmeats. and placed therein kuśa-grass. one should do the eleventh-day ceremony. To the east there should be a pot of milk and water for Brahma. without mantras. and give him cooked food. His clothes. with mantras. they should be brought to his bedside and he should have them given. Sesamum and the rest. 16. And he should next make a gift of a cow for the helping along of his forefathers: "this cow is given by me. and upon it one should place Yama. clad in red robes. with the sacred thread over the right shoulder 1. The son. to Viṣṇu. flour-cakes and milk. One should perform the tenth-day Śrāddha in the family name. p." p. One should make a golden image of Viṣṇu. To the west there should be a pot filled with Ganges water for Viṣṇu. a copper one of Rudra. to the creator 2. which he has used. and on the eleventh day. a silver one of Brahmā.--these. and there one should place Rudra. 104 6-10. the eight great gifts: if one does not offer these in his last days. should make the water-offering. To the south there should be a pot of rain-water for Yama. the seven grains which he liked. and an iron one of Yama. To the north there should be a pot of honey and clarified butter for Rudra. facing southward. and performing the Sandhyā and other ceremonies 1. and there one should place Brahmā. Having washed the feet of a Brāhmiṇ he should honour him with cloths and other things. his ornaments. his conveyances. having made a circle in the middle. O Bird. clad in yellow robes. with Vaidic mantras. He should make water-offering. 3 perform the offering to the fire and then the eleventh-day Śrāddha. and upon it one should place Viṣṇu. to Śiva and to Justice. clad in black robes. 105 12-15. . Even a preceptor should become purified by bathing. 11-13.

give the bed as prescribed. black is suitable for a Śūdra. yellow colour for a Vaiśya. O Brāhmiṇ. and red in its eyes. and Śrāddhas of the ninth and other days.19. neck and hoofs." With these words it should be given to a Brāhmiṇ preceptor who has a family. for the sake of the departed. with white face and tail. and which is the colour of lac dye is called dark. and is the uplifter of the ancestors. The bull whose face. One with all limbs red-brown. By this gift of the bed. That which is dark over all its body. is called a reddish bull. and is entirely beautiful in all its limbs. Then the son should place upon the bed a golden image. That which has red eyes. with the image of the departed. and brown hoofs and horns is called dark-coloured. with tail and feet white. That which has one colour over all its limbs and tail and hoofs is called dark-brown. red horns. legs and tail are white. and having worshiped it. and the other things.17-. "This bed is given by me to you. That which is dove-coloured and has a tilaka-mark 1 on its forehead is called deepbrown. On the eleventh day the rite of the dedication of a bull should be performed as prescribed. white belly and black back is suitable for a Brāhmiṇ. . and increases the satisfaction of the forefathers. is called very dark--of which five varieties are known. He should not use a cow which is crippled. 106 21-30. a reddish colour. for the sake of the dead. 20. so going round him he should salute him and present it. ill or too young. the departed goes to the highest condition. but one having well-marked characteristics. p. A glossy and red complexion is suitable for a Kṣattriya. That which has a red colour. and by the rite of the dedication of a bull.

It exists in the world on this account. Thou wert formerly created by Brahma. according to the Śāstras. p. and should not be used for domestic purposes. He should do everything with diligence according to the prescribed rite. help over this ocean of existence!" . Having brought together a young bull and cow. and then tether them to a post. having worshipped them with fragrances and garlands. 108 38-42. On account of your being released. "By whose dedication. He should [mark] the right side with the trident of Śiva and the. one should perform the bull-sacrifice. 107 31-35. should recite this mantra:-"Thou art Justice in the form of a bull. he should bind them together with a marriage string in accordance with marriage rites. with hands folded together." 36. for the release of the forefathers. And should bathe the bull and young cow with the water from the pot of Rudra. He alone should be considered a son who performs the dedication of a bull and the Gayā Śrāddha---who does not do so verily is like unto excrement. left side with a discus. Any one whose ancestors are tormented in Raurava and other hells helps them all out for twenty-one generations by the dedication of a bull. and. Even the forefathers who have gone to heaven desire the dedication of a bull: "which son in our lineage will perform the dedication of a bull. One should desire for many sons. the son. of whom one perchance may go to Gayā. the bull-sacrifice is the certain giver of release to us. the ailing man should make the fire-offering. Therefore. Having released the bull.--so runs an ancient saying. all of us will go to the highest condition? Among all sacrifices. or marry a virgin Gaurī or dedicate a dark bull. 37.This should by all means be dedicated. and worship a bull. Having cast the positions of the planets and worshipped them with their respective mantras. walk round them. p.

the slayer of a Brāhmiṇ. The sins which are committed in infancy.--one should present a milk-giving cow. all the rites should be done. In the two eclipses. At the hour when the sun enters an auspicious constellation. and will give release to the departed. The betrayer of friends. The man who has no son.Having thus bowed to it. in the bright fortnight. He who does this. the purification of the body should be done. 51-53. 44-45. and in a pure place. one should perform the dedication of a bull. in manhood and in old age are destroyed. doing it himself. by fire-offerings. As in the former case. the drinker of intoxicants. with this mantra. the dedication of a bull should not be performed. the ungrateful. goes easily to the highest condition. he should release the bull and the young cow. That condition which is obtained by the performance of the release of a bull. Its fruit comes even during life. or the dark on the twelfth and following days." 43. O Tārkṣya. And having placed a Śālagrāma one should do the Vaiṣṇava Śrāddha. such as the fire-offering and the rest. when the sun is going north. having a husband and a son. 54. whether having a son or not. and then perform the Śrāddha for himself and give gifts to the twice-born. is not reached by oblations to the fire and other sacrifices. without doubt. p. there is no merit in all the three worlds equal to that from the dedication of a bull. nor by manifold gifts. at a sacred bathing place. If a woman. 50. in childhood. he who goes with his teacher's wife. Therefore should one perform the bull sacrifice with all diligence. by the dedication of a bull. at the equinoctial and solstitial points. "I shall always be the grantor of boons to you. O Bird. predeceases both. 109 46-49. the stealer of gold are all absolved by the dedication of a bull. in youth. In the month of Kārtika 1 and in other auspicious months. a Brāhmiṇ who knows the rites and has the auspicious signs should be invited. Therefore this should be done. by the performance of the dedication of a bull obtains the fruit of all his desires. likewise by gifts. . By recitation.

O bird. the thirteenth to Viṣṇu. and the eleventh reverently to Viṣṇu. One should give rice-balls in each one of the twelve months. the fifteenth to Yama. at the funeral pyre. 1 the ninth to Puruṣa. That at the place of death. half-way on the road. one should perform the sixteen Śrāddhas. the second to the blessed Śiva. O Tārkṣya. . One should offer the first rice-ball to Viṣṇu. the fourteenth to Śiva. sixteen:-30-64. He for whom this series is performed becomes a member of the assembly of the forefathers. before the six months. the seventh one should present to Death.p. 65-67. the third fortnight. at the threshold. one should give to Puruṣa: These are called the middle sixteen by men who know the truth. The man who cruelly strikes a bull with his fists or with sticks. 1 and the sixth to the bearer of oblations to the forefather. The fourth to king Soma. The forty-eight Śrāddhas destroy the condition of the ghost-life. and also before the year. Having thus carried out the dedication of a bull. Having had food cooked. The twelfth one should give to Brahmā. He who burdens a bull on the shoulder or on the back. and at the collection of the bones. suffers the torments of Yama until the end of the age.-This is the last sixteen. 110 55-56. the fifth to the bearer of oblations to the Shining Ones. 57-59. O bird! until the coming of the deluge. The sixteenth rice-ball. one should present the third to the retinue of Yama. p. the middle. 2 the tenth to the departed. falls into a dreadful hell. I have declared to you. 111 The eighth one should give to Rudra.--these six. and the ten piṇḍas given in the ten days:-These first sixteen are called impure. in the hand of the corpse. on the fortnight. I will tell you what should be done prior to sapiṇḍīkaraṇa ceremony. And next I will tell you about the second.

Thus. or if the wife does them for the husband there is uninterrupted prosperity. p. 112 70-72. much strew rice and sesamum. then me should worship a serpent on the fifth day of each fortnight. owing to carelessness. 113 79. If the performance of the three sixteens of Śrāddhas is not carried out. or rice-balls with water regularly. One should form a picture of a hooded serpent upon the ground with ricepowder. with hands together "may the King of Serpents be pleased. then he certainly does not join them. She who does the funeral ceremonies on the death of her husband. is killed by fire. and worship with white sweet-smelling flowers and sandalpaste. Also. or by a serpent. p." This faithful wife lives for the good of her husband: the life is fruitful of her who worships her dead lord. or by water. One should offer a serpent incenses and lights. and a cow. to a twice-born. one should perform the sacrament and other rites as prescribed. 1 and when free from pollution he should have made a gift of a bed and other gifts. either by himself or another. One should offer a serpent made of gold. If he is killed through recklesness or wilfully. 2 eatables and milk. as prescribed.68-69. having done all the rites. Therefore the three sixteens should be performed by the son. according to his means." And should further perform for them the rite Nārāyaṇa-bali. and the annual and the fortnightly is called by me. one should give every day a jar with food and water until the end of the year. if deprived of Śrāddhas the ghost remains as preta always. Having done this on the eleventh day he should then offer the rice-balls for all the ancestors. and should dedicate 1 uncooked rice-flour. 80. "the Faithful. by which they are absolved of all sins and obtain residence in heaven. The three sixteens should be performed so that the departed may join the assembly of the forefathers. 73-78. Then one should. . for any one who.

Viṣṇu. It is the ceremony for all the ancestors together. 112:2 Made into a ball. An Account of the Ceremony for all the Ancestors. and passes of the hands are made as though a influence it towards the image. usually with sugar and cocoanut. Panini Office. Allahabad. 108:1 Including the latter part of October and the first part of November. about the method of [performing] the Sapiṇḍa rite. and the gift of accessories. . 111:1 Śiva. O Tārkṣya. by which the condition of preta is left behind and the soul enters the class of the pitṛis. 110:1 That is Fire. as it were in anticipation of the annual event. he mast change it. O Lord. see the Daily Practice of the Hindus by Mr. 113:1 This ceremony is performed on the twelfth day. 112:1 The food is placed near the image. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. 1. 106:1 Orthodox Hindus place a mark on the forehead to show caste and other things. 2. Garuḍa said: Tell pre. and I will explain to you the entire Sapiṇḍa rite.Footnotes 103:1 For an account of these ceremonies. for this ceremony. 104:2 Brahmā. 104:1 It is usually worn ever the left shoulder under the right arm. 111:2 The primeval man. Sris Chandra Vasu. the removal of pollution. 104:3 Dharma or Yama. CHAPTER XIII.

he is polluted for three nights.3-5. A Brāhmiṇ becomes pure in ten days. If a boy who has not yet cut his teeth dies. and the gotrajās 3 are purified merely by bathing. 115 6-9. at the end of the pollution period. before tonsure. merely till bathing. Therefore the Sapiṇḍa. a Kṣattriya in twelve days. before the investiture with the thread. he becomes pure even by bathing. it is said. the Sākulya relatives 2 in three nights. p. If a person dies in a foreign land and one hears of his death. three nights. a Vaiśya in fifteen days. . the ninth. a quarter of a day. in all the castes alike. a single day. If the son is always impure. then the impurity lasts for the remaining portion of ten days on which he hears the news. If a second pollution comes daring that from the first death. If after a year. 13. The Sapiṇḍa relatives 1 are purified from the death pollution in ten days. p. without the Sapiṇḍa rite the impurity does not depart. and afterwards. they are never purified. If after the lapse of ten days. the tenth. Those whose piṇḍas have not been mixed together with the ancestors called Śiva and the rest. purification is immediate. and from that to old age three nights are authoritative. The eighth. should be performed by the son. four days. the seventh. three days. 10-11. ten nights. purification is immediate.-so long lasts the pollution of death and birth [according to the distance of degrees from the deceased]. 1 are not uplifted by the various gifts made by the sons. Those who are related within the fourth degree to the deceased are purified in ten nights. the sixth. I will tell you about the ending of pollution to be observed by all. those in the fifth degree. 14-16. one night. 12. If a girl dies between birth and tonsure. a Śūdra in a month. then the purification from the first pollution includes that from the second. in six nights. 116 Up to betrothal a single day.

and touching others should not he done during the death pollution. reciting. after births and deaths. and the Brāhmiṇ who knowing it. For one observing vows. 19. feeding of Brāhmiṇs and the observance of vows should not be done during the death pollution. suffers evil. During the Kali Age--it is authoritatively declared in the Śāstras--ten days' purification for all the castes.If after the betrothal ceremony three days for both families. Whoever. lying on a bed. for the purifying from pollution. Therefore. engaged in mantras or in fire-offerings. Sandhyā prayers. if after marriage.--are both subjected to suffering. . salutation. accepts through ignorance. 17-18. 23. suffers no evil. If the embryo dies before sixth month. the third fortnight. only the husband's family. fire-offering. during pollution. reception of guests. so Manu declared. Blessing the worship of the Shining Ones. purity is regained. The truth-knowing sages hare declared that the Sapiṇḍa ceremony should be on the twelfth day. offering to the forefathers. hiding his pollution. and before the pollution by birth or death. but the giver even though it be to a mendicant that he gives. religious study. who then goes to the world of the forefathers to join the multitudes of forefathers. Food prepared before marriage festivals and sacrifices. or a twice-born intent upon Brāhmaṇ. 117 24-26. it should be understood. in as many days the embryo lived months. 28-30. accepts it. After this the women are polluted. giving. the occasional and the specially desired ceremonies--of him the regular and other ceremonies already done are lost. He who during pollution performs the daily. Whoever. one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for the father. 20-22. p. gives food to a twice-born. can be eaten. the sixth month or at the end of the year. purification of the Sapiṇḍa relatives is immediate. according to the caste. 27. an ascetic or a king there is verily no pollution. If the embryo dies.

then investiture with the sacred thread. and having cleaned with cow-dung the place of death. whether he be without fire or with fire.But I say. that the Sapiṇḍa ought to be done. and the fourth rice-ball to the dead. good cloths and presents. and because of the shortened life of men. he should mix them severally with the three rice-balls given to the grand father and the others. p. . If a Brāhmiṇ house-holder dies. the son should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. 35. following the scriptural ordinances. incenses. and guest-offerings should not be accepted. oblations. lamps. The twelfth day is preferable because of the endless variety of conditions in the Kali Age. O Tārkṣya. 119 40. O Tārkṣya. leaves of the holy basil. as laid down in the scriptures. Having divided the rice-ball for the departed into three parts with a thin bar of gold. and the impermanence of the body. By the omission of rites sinfulness arises. Then he should worship the world-deities with foot-water. 31-33. therefore one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. 118 Until the Sapiṇḍa has been performed the mendicant should not accept alms. in the forms of Vasu. having bathed. he should sip water. the mother's with the grandmother's and the father's with the grandfather's. He should worship with sandal-paste. marriage and other ceremonies should not be done. mouth-scents. He should offer three rice-balls in order to his grandfather and others. p. It is my decision. the fruit which accrues from performing all sacrifices: that fruit is obtained by doing the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. Hence. having given rice-balls to other departed ones. The daily and the occasional ceremonies should be discontinued. 34. agreeable fools. that for the four caste s the Sapiṇḍa should be on the twelfth day. Rudra and Arka. 2 Next. 36-30. The fruit which accrues from visiting all the sacred bathing-places. the fulfilment of vows. 1 and āchamana.

Afterwards he should always have a guest fed until he says "hanta. 120 120-48 49-51. food. O Tārkṣya. having put grasses between them. the rite for the mother. and make to him a gift. "The Sapiṇḍa rite for women should be done with that for the husband." and four abundances is called "hantakāra. a chariot and a plot of ground given to a preceptor. 47. he should make the offering of water to the forefathers. an elephant." 52-53. If the father dies while the grandfather still lives. The husband should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for his. silver. his father and grandfather"--that. then. divided into three parts should be mixed with their rice-balls." 1 By this the forefathers. If. O Kāśyapa! husband and wife ascend the same funeral pyre. the Shining Ones and the Dānavas are pleased. He should utter "Let there be Swadhā. a horse. for his continued satisfaction. 46. he should perform it with that of the mother-in-law and fatherin-law. p. gold. and after that. because the wife being already half the body of her husband requires no Sapiṇḍa ceremony with regard to her husband. As much as a mouthful is called "alms. The father's rice-ball. the sages. If the mother dies before the grandmother-Then he should perform the mother's Śrāddha in the same way as the fathers. three rice balls should be offered to the great grandfather and his predecessors. clarified butter. he should do the Sapiṇḍa for her along with the mother -in-law and others. if she has no son. a good cow. 45. O Tārkṣya. first the offering of a rice-ball and other things for the father. . Only one son should perform the rites.41-43. having bathed again." four mouthfuls is "abundance. is not my opinion. Having done the Sapiṇḍa. 44. During the Sapiṇḍa he should worship the feet of a twice-born with sandalpaste and coloured rice. wife." along with Vaidic mantras. He should have maintenance for a year. or should mix the rice-ball with both mine and great Lakṣmī's.

strong. painted in beautiful colours. And. he should have the red dye. during life or else after death. water. with mantras. the gift of a bed should he made. 65-66. an oxtail fan. in their proper places. canopied with silken cloth. having placed them on the bed. Well-bound with bright bands. with saffron. and a canopy of five colours. weapons and clothes. 122 And all the other accompaniments of the bed he should place round it. Having beautiful pillows stuffed with swans' down. Therefore a bed should be given. saffron. who are respectively thus purified. sprinkle water. in the case of women. 55. with all the ornaments. Then he should worship with mantras--after saying "Hail to thee"--the planets. 59-64. and all the other necessary things. clothes. On it he should have placed a golden Hari. and white cloths having been donned. a row of silver lamps. 58. Devi. a mirror. coloured rice and eatables. and he should give them presents. it should be placed on the ground covered with cloth. together with Lakṣmī. a vessel. An umbrella. Then he should have Brāhmiṇs fed with various pleasant sweetened foods. 1 headed by Indra. extol the gift of a bed. All the Devās. The preceptor should then. scales. ornamented with gold leaves. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony having been thus performed. should present the coloured rice also consecrated with mantras. a water-pot. 121 50-57. the cloths worn during the rite should be cast off. broad and pleasant: such a bed as this being made. and twelve pots with water and food. Made of the choicest wood.54. . ornaments. After the feeding of the twice-born. 2 and Vinīyakam 3. and having bound a thread upon the hand. a weapon. p. and a rod should be touched severally by the castes. delightful. a seat. p. together with a coverlet made fragrant with the scent of flowers.

and at the abode of Yama. 69-71. 75. If a living man makes with his own hand the gift of a bed. with ear and finger ornaments and golden necklaces. in front of Lakṣmī and Nārāyaṇa. This bed should be given to one only. give them leave. and tells about Brāhmiṇ. and then. Facing north. your bed is the ocean full of milk. O Kṛiṣṇa. may this likewise be not empty in my future births. receive these. waited upon by numbers of celestial damsels. How seldom does any one so give!" He should rock the twice-born and Lakṣmī and Hari. He should worship Hari and Lakṣmī with saffron and flower-garlands. he will arrive without doubt through the potency of the gift of a bed. is a teacher. If he is rich he should give a very beautiful house. seated in the best of chariots.67-68. 76. He should give it to him who observes vows. Divided or sold it drags down the giver. 123 72-74. He will reside there free from trouble. . Then a Brāhmiṇ. rejoices here and hereafter. with his wife adorned with fragrances and flowers. and say. At the celestial house of Indra. and the son giving it. while he is still living. standing in front of the Brāhmiṇ: "Just as. on full moon day the dedication of a bull. The father. 77. furnished with all the necessaries. he should pronounce this mantra. according to the rite. and holding flowers in his palms." p. and never to several. and then the bed-gift with its accompaniments. 78. and adore the Guardians of the World. so that he may sleep happily on the bed. he may obtain the fruit of his desires. seated on the bed. 79-80. "O Brāhmiṇ. Wearing a turban and an upper cloth and jacket. having walked round and bowed. should be seated by him on the comfortable bed. Having given a bed to a deserving person. the Planetary Spirits and Vināyaka. until the coming of the deluge. Thus he should place the handsful of flowers before the Brāhmiṇ and the image of Hari. there should be performed.

An umbrella. leisurely going on the path he comfortably enjoys his provisions. 82-86. uncooked rice. By this padadāna the righteous go to a good condition. gives a water-vessel made of copper. foods. them to thirteen Brāhmiṇs on the twelfth day. full of great thorns. by which the man is scorched. Having this made the gift of a bed.p. through the gift of a water pot he. valuables. Who. the son should have Padadāna given. O Bird. a set of five vessels--are called the seven kinds of padas. 124 81. This pada becomes complete with a staff. shoes. fierce and brown-black. And on the path in the world of Yama. for the dead. clothes. It is enveloped in great heat. a seat. and sacred threads. but the gift of an umbrella makes pleasant shade above his head. a signet ring. drinks water. The messengers of Yama. p. but by the power of the gift of clothes he goes happily along the way. a copper vessel. do not trouble on the road him who made the gift of a signet ring. obtained these thirteen padas he should give. when thirsty. Having. The miseries of cold and heat and wind are dreadful there. very terrible. Listen to my words. and this padadāna gives happiness to those who have gone on the way of Yama. The merit from all the sacred bathing places. and I will tell you the method of it. a water-pot. There is there intense heat. and on all the days of the changes of the moon: even superior to these is the merit arising from the gift of a bed. 125 87-93. Through properly giving to a twice-born a seat and a vessel. those who gave shoes go riding horses. is windless and without water. according to his means. . certainly enjoys the fruit which is obtained by thousands of gifts of wells.

In these cases one should perform the fortnightly Śrāddha on the twentieth day. the Śrāddha is not performed.94-95. 100-105. 911. a water-pot with rice-balls should be given every month. Thus are understood by the wise the two months which are in the irregular month. p. similarly the monthly and the first annual Śrāddhas. When in one month [Kṣayamāsa] two saṅkrāntis occur. If one dies on the ninth day. as a means of unfading satisfaction. 126 If one dies at the full moon his rites fall on the fourth day. the month being double. this gift. p. O bird. in the irregular month.] For the first half day take the former [the dark]. for the sake of the departed it may be done again. the twice-born should be fed. Now I shall tell you the rules concerning the monthly. in addition. the annual and the fortnightly ceremonies. of those two. on the day of the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. Having thus given. for the second half. If there is an additional month in the middle of a year. rice-balls are proper. as prescribed. his day is the fourteenth. at the end of the first year one should perform the annual Śrāddha. Thus. Then. rice-balls are not used. 127 the latter. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony. . also chaṇḍalās and other outcasts. If one dies on the fourth day his rites fall on the ninth. When there is no sankrānta. after the Sapinda and before the annual ceremony. 1 O Bird. 1 When there are two months in one month. but. Thus the annual Śrāddha should be done in both months. and in that. when there is sankrānta. then in the thirteenth month the annual ceremony for the departed occurs. 106. There is no re-doing of what is done excepting the rites for the departed. he should have many Brāhmiṇs fed. 97-99. and of dying on lunar days. the two fortnights and the thirty days are the same [both must be performed. should be done when there is no sankrānta.

having gone to Gayā. nor at eclipses. the forefathers hear a song sung by the Holy Ones in Kalāpa. they go to the supreme state. the son of Manu:-"Are there none in your family. The seven sons of Bharadwāja. for the fathers--these he should not do during the year. If the son performs the Śrāddha at Gayā. He who offers. nor on yuga days. on the head of Gayā. like the son of Kauśika. The ceremony for one only should not be done. the Gajachchhāyam. 111-115. O Lord of birds. The Śrāddha at a sacred bathing-place. treading the good path. although they killed a cow. will offer us rice-balls. O Lord of Birds. the Śrāddha at Gaya. The seven hunters in the country of Daśārṇas. He should worship the feet of Viṣṇu with the shoots of the holy basil. performs the Śrāddha and gives satisfaction to the forefathers. it should be done after a year. O Tārkshya. 128 111-113. p. delighting the family. the Chakravaka birds in Śaradvīpa: and the swans in the Mānasa lake Were born as Brāhmiṇs learned in the Vedas.107-110. 129 . a rice-ball of the size of even a śamī leaf helps over seven clans and one hundred and one fatuities. O Tārkshya. who. The son who thus performs the rites for the other world. with devotion to the forefathers. with devotion?" 116-119. by it one becomes the destroyer of his forefathers. his life is fruitful. After a year one should always offer three rice-balls at the Śrāddha. The forefathers are freed from the ocean of existence by the Śrāddha at Gayā and. were liberated by the favour of the forefathers. having experienced a series of births. is happy and becomes liberated. He who. and all these sons of the twice-born attained liberation through devotion to the forefathers. having gone to Gayā. by favour of the Viṣṇu. p. the garden of Ikṣvāku. the deer on the mountain of Kālinjira. and in proper order offer rice-balls round them. on the field of the Kurus.

and also hears the Garuḍa Purāṇa. in the assembly of Righteousness. He who performs.--all males and unmarried females. 122. and giving liberation to the forefathers. Any man who is poor. Footnotes 114:1 The grandfather.--listen to the fruit for him:-The father gives good sons. highly respected. on the male line. Rudra is Śiva. Rudra and Āditya. according to the rite. 118:1 Consisting of rice. but hears this account. 118:2 See "Daily Practice of the Hindus" for an account of āchamana.120. with water. The great-great-grandfather gives foods in abundance: all these. Sūta said: Having heard the result of the after-death gifts and their mighty greatness. 123-126. wealth of cows and his greatgrandfather becomes the giver of riches. 127. 121. Therefore a man should make every effort in devotion to the forefathers. obtains the fruit of gifts. absolved from sins. and flowers. his father and grandfather are considered as corresponding to Vasu. 115:2 Cousins up to the fourteenth. granting the son's desires. even he. Go on the way of righteousness to the mansion of the King of Justice. . on the male line. for by devotion to the forefathers he becomes happy either in this or the other world. O Tārkṣya. 115:1 Cousins up to the seventh. Garuḍa went into raptures. giving merit to and satisfying the desires of the son.--all males and unmarried females. the grandfather. concerning the deceased. thus declared by the Blessed Viṣṇu. darbha grass. on the male line.--all males and unmarried females. 115:3 Cousins up to the forty-second. gratified by the Śrāddha. all the ceremonies. and there they remain. the Śrāddha offerings described by me. Thus I have told you.

a main has died and his month is dropped the preceding month is taken for the annual Śrāddha. although it is a year of intercalary month. but the regular mouth is dropped. and on the same day in the bright half if he died during the second half of the day. Garuḍa said: what is the extent of the world of Yama? What is it like? By whom was it made? What is the assembly like. not 13. 120:3 Gaṇeśa. It is November. if his death occurred during the first half of the day. 120:2 The consort of Śiva. 120:1 A benediction which the recipient makes when he has had enough. The kṣaya-māsa is a name for a month which occurs every 149th year. in which there is no sankrānti. If a man dies in the second fortnight in this case the annual ceremony belongs to the month which was dropped. Astrological calculations are done with solar months. the passing of the sun through one zodiacal constellation.--thus there are only 12 months in that year. 126:1 "The ceremonies are performed according to the lunar months. on the other hand. The sankrānta is a solar month. then his annual Śrāddha must be done in the dark half on the same day on which he died. lf. while the second half is regular. An Account of the City of the King of Justice. or irregular portion. If a man dies in the adigmāsa. but the intercalary is always associated with one of the other eight. 1-2. 125:1 If other ceremonies have been badly done they may not be re-performed. hence an additional irregular month occurs once in 27 months. CHAPTER XIV. and with whom does Justice reside? . In this case the intercalary is added and (?) treated as such. In this long month. but there are to be only twelve of the monthly ones in a year. Hence there is an intercalary month of 30 days every three years. 121:1 A high class of superhuman beings. December. the malamasa. The difference of solar and lunar months is about 11 days in the year. January or February which is thus dropped. The month preceding month which is dropped has its two fortnights taken as belonging to the regular and the dropped month respectively.120:120-48 . but this may. is the first half.

Syncope. and sounding with the songs of various birds. and Biliousness also. all built of diamonds. To the south are those of Rheumatism and skin diseases. to the south-east. resplendent.The righteous go by righteous ways to the mansion of Justice. and smallpox likewise. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. decorated by skilful painters and constructed by divine architects. Abounding in chariots. O Treasure-house of Compassion. Beautiful with gardens and parks. which is accessible to Nārada and others find is reached by the very meritorious. resounding with songs and music. Surrounded with shining ramparts of iron. In that city is the very lovely dwelling of Chitragupta. which extends to the number of twenty-five yojanas. To the east of the abode of Chitragupta is the great house of Fever. with hundreds of streets decorated with flags and banners. p. to the north-west. with four gateways. 3-5. impregnable by Holy Ones or Demons. It is declared to be four-angled. . 10-15. surrounded by high ramparts and measuring a thousand yojanas. To the north there is consumption and Jaundice likewise. He is never mistaken in distinguishing between good and evil deeds. 131 6-9. I will tell you about that shining city of Justice. Between the south and south-west is the city of the son of Vivaswata. To the west are those of the Snare of Death. seated on his most wonderful throne in that assembly. tell me about those righteous ones and the ways. Headache. up to ten [yojanas] heights. Chitragupta. O Tārkṣya. considers the lives of men individually. habited in every part by celestial damsels and choristers. or by whom good or evil deeds have been done And by order of Chitragupta he experiences all of them there. Dyspepsia.

The water. Chitragupta records the good and evil of men. O Tārkṣya. and trees always bear the fruit desired. That assembly. is Dysentery. ornamented with gold. with hundreds of golden doors. p. and enjoyable in every way. It is supported by thousands of pillars. flame and the sun. beautiful with trees. With these and other embellishments decorated always--it was created by the architect of the Universe by the power of his own Yoga. decorated with flags and banners. and splendid like lightning. is a fulfiller of desires. the sounds and other things there are pleasant. and was created by the Architect of the Universe by doing tapas 2 for a long time. and in every way satisfying. is enchanting. whether they be human or divine. most ravishing to the mind with no sorrows and no old age there. rich with the sounds of bells and drums. All there are in a condition of happiness. In that there is a divine assembly place which is a thousand yojanas in extent. Twenty yojanas before the abode of Chitragupta. p. has no bondage. are sweet. is the very resplendent mansion of the king of justice. It is certainly two hundred yojanas in extent. 1 With no extreme heat and no extreme cold. and measures fifty yojanas in height. . and no trouble of hunger and thirst. Pleasing to the mind with cupolas of the splendour of the autumnal sky. splendid like the sun. 133 24-28. Filled with various wonders. and embellished with golden fringes.To the south-west. In the middle of the city. and is full of palaces and mansions. with beautiful crystal stairways and walls beautified with diamonds. decorated with emeralds. plants and creepers without thorns. 132 16-23. And with windows of strings of pearls. to the north-west cold and heat--with these and other diseases it is surrounded. It is shining with jewels. full of light. both hot and cold. the eatables are tasteful and plentiful.

31-33. accomplished. the Dharmaśāstras. 2 the Somapās and the Uṣmapās. his head dignified with the regal umbrella. with the sages: Atri. hosts of progenitors. 1 serve the King of Justice by order of Parameṣṭhin. round about.29-30. All there have bodies of light. Dakṣa.--all these wait upon the King of Justice. Who are the Agniṣvāttha. splendid as a blue cloud. tranquil. ready to do his bidding. ornamented with ear-rings. prosperous. Pulaha. music and dances. Those who have done great tapas. bearing awful nooses and rods. and also Bhṛigu. Multitudes of celestial choristers and numerous groups of celestial damsels. Those who expound with accurate commentaries. Aṅgiras. Jāmadagnya. O Bird. and others having forms. renouncing. and by Chitragupta. Pulastya. and remain there ornamented with their own meritorious actions. He is waited up by Mṛityu 1 with a noose in his hand.-These. on a throne pure and incomparable. and purified by good actions go there. and are adorned with shining garments. serve him with songs. Agastya. either by their names or their deeds. 2 . 134 34-40. bedecked with all kinds of jewels-Sits. Adorned with all ornaments. and many others in the assembly of the King of Progenitors. truth-speaking. There the Lord of Justice. p. Pitṛis. the recorder of fate. and fanned by celestial damsels bearing in their hands fans of hair. made splendid with a large crown. the powerful Barhiṣads formed and formless. p. Nārada. Surrounded by various servants equal to him in prowess. Kraturatha. Vaśiṣṭha. Aryamās and others. 135 41-45. impossible to enumerate. the Best of the Good. by kāla 1 still more powerful. ten yojanas in extent. are of good vows.

the stainless royal sages. There is an eastern way. There is there no favouritism. O Tārkṣya. do not behold it. 136 51-55. no untruthfulness. Pāṇdu. By their merits they go into it. magicians and great serpents. Ambarīṣa. . and paved with jewels. and no jealousy. And worshippers of the deities. Such. Dilīpa. Sagara. Nimi. All those assembled are knowers of the scriptures. is the assembly of the great-souled King of Justice. well-read in the Vedas. 50. There are four ways leading into the city of the King of Justice: The way for the sinful has already been described to you. meritorious. Puru. famous. The sinners. Muchakunda. By that go the holy Brāhmiṇ-sages. having the essence of nectar.The kings of the Solar Race. and who give fuel in winter. Those who go into the mansion of righteousness by the three gateways. 46-47. Śāntaṇu. and also Sahasrārjuna. Śibi. Righteousness alone prevails in the assembly of the King of Justice. Hear about them:-p. Manu.--these knowers of righteousness wait upon the King of Justice in the assembly. eastern and others. Bhagīratha. splendidly lined with swans. Nahuṣa. Bharata. having performed many horse sacrifices. who go by the southern path. Anaraṇya. also of the Lunar Race. covered with the shade of Pārijāta trees. Duṣmanta. and Pṛithu. Busy with numerous chariots. abounding in all enjoyments. and in that assembly they continually wait upon Vaivasvata 3 48-49. Māndhātā. Nala. and multitudes of celestial damsels.-These royal sages. are in the assembly of Righteousness. and the devotees of Śiva. all are devoted to righteousness. those who give rest-houses in the summer. choristers. are those of good deeds. bounded by trees and pleasure-gardens. Yayāti.

reach the Assembly of Righteousness. those who are accidentally drowned in the sacred waters. enter by the eastern gate. the western way. And those who delight in truth and righteousness. those who are worshippers of Dūrgā 1 and Bhanu. of cows. is beautified with jewelled mansions. those who die in the practice of Yoga. 2 and those who bathe at the sacred waters at the changes of the moon. also those who honour guests. those devoted to father and mother. at the sacred waters and on holy ground. It is full of swans and water-fowl. and beautiful with Brāhmany ducks. The third. Those who die in the pursuit of righteousness. and of purified intelligence. and is paved with yellow sandal-wood. . The second.--are travellers on the path-These. and those who die of vow of starvation. Skilful in goodness. they go to the Assembly of Righteousness. those who speak consolation to the mentally distressed. the northern way. and make them gifts. always filled with the essence of nectar. by the will of the Shining Ones. 137 59-61.-these. and those who delight in making great gifts. those free from anger and greed. p. is filled with hundreds of great chariots and with palanquins. those who die in Benares. those who tell and listen to the Purāṇas. of houses. and splendid with ponds. Those who make gifts of land. those who die in the protection of cattle. and there is there a delightful tank full of the essence of nectar. in the service of the master. those who impart learning. entering by the northern gate.Those who shelter ascetics 1 in their houses during the rains. and others of good deeds. Those who die for the sake of Brāhmiṇs. 138 65-73. and certainly those who give a hermitage. those taking pleasure in the service of their Teacher. p. On this way go those who are learned in the Vedas. Those who always honour the deserving.

devoted to the society of the good. seeing them come. from the wealth of others. Then. He. departing from my dominion. He offers them the throne. Those who turn away from injury to others. those who contemplate the good scriptures. Those who abstain from the company of the wicked.--these. those intent upon the welfare of all beings. those who repeat the Gāyatrī-mantra. They drink nectar. and then honours them with sandal-paste and other things. and entering by the western gate. mace and sword. rising and coming forward. Those who are rid of the three-fold debt. 77-81. those who keep vows to Śiva and Viṣṇu. devotees of the feet of Śrī. ascend the best of chariots. those who perform the Sandhyā at the proper times. 139 74-76. he speaks and acts in a hind and friendly way to those who delight in meritorious deeds. "O’ You Assembled! Salute with deepest reverence the knower. . Those who have attained knowledge and dispassion. those who perform the rites of Brahmā. washes their feet. stone and earth. accompanied by numbers of celestial damsels. those who repeat the Vedas. those who maintain household fires. those faithful to their wives. those who perform Śrāddha for the forefathers. and go to the mansion of righteousness. the austere. will go to the world of Brahmā. those intent upon renunciation.Is filled with maddened elephants sprung of the family of Airāvata 1 and with jewels of horses sprung from Uchchaiḥśravā. 2 By this way go the self-reliant. and bows to them. Observers of the vow of celibacy. those entirely devoted to Viṣṇu. and from calumny. the good. discus. forest dwellers. p. assuming his four arms. those who always take pleasure in the five sacrifices. repeatedly bids them welcome. Yama. go to the Assembly of Righteousness. holding his conch. those who look equally upon gold.

Go you to the holy place which abounds in all enjoyments." p. the state of happiness. Footnotes 133:1 Taking any form desired. as a result of their merits. Best of the Wise."O. holy human birth. 135:1 Scriptures teaching the duties of life. accompanied by multitudes of chariots. . and having saluted him and the assembly. then those in that assembly of righteousness rise up with great respect Having spent there 1 some ages. 86. Who is more foolish than he? "He who. never acts wisely. you have by your merits attained divinity. he alone is a wise man. with every effort. Wealthy and wise. he goes to a dreadful hell. amid perishable wealth and other things. who avoid the pains of hell. stores up unchanging righteousness. 134:1 Forms of Death. 133:2 Meditation with an effort to produce physical effects. They. difficult to reach. 134:2 A class of progenitors. "He who. All this about the abode of Yama has been told you upon your asking. 140 82-85. expert in all the scriptures. and enjoyed superhuman pleasures. "Therefore should righteousness be accumulated. Go along the highest path. having heard the words of Justice. attaining the human state. they obtain. Then again they go to the highest condition by their own good conduct. in the impermanent body. and being honoured by the immortals and extolled by the leaders of the sages. The man who hears this with devotion goes to the assembly of the King of Justice.

1-2. The Blessed. the man of good deeds thinks. the son of Visvasvat. Tell me. Garuḍa said: The righteous man having enjoyed heaven. Hear how the Yogins perform the meditation upon the six chakras 1 within it. 142 7-10. I will tell you also about the rites and observances of the parents. . even by knowing which one becomes all-knowing. 5-6. I will tell you that supreme secret. An Account of the Coming to Birth of People who have done Good. and likewise meditation upon the nature of Chit and Ānanda in the Brahmarandhra. 137:1 The consort of Śiva.--the object of concentration of Yogins. I wish to hear what. 137:2 The Sun. O Treasurehouse of Compassion! 3-4. 136:1 Those who have renounced the world. lest sin should arise in the body. After menstruation the women should be avoided for four days. Lord said: You have asked well. 138:2 The divine horse. Now tell me how he is produced in the womb of the mother. 140:1 That is in Heaven world. CHAPTER XV. is born in a stainless family. Their face should not be seen during that time. 135:3 Yama. And how he of good deeds is born in the house of the pure and prosperous. in this body.135:2 Brāhmaṇ. p. I will tell you the real nature of that body which possesses the attributes of the universal Egg. O Tārkṣya. 138:1 The divine elephant.

acid. and with righteous thoughts in his mind. having chewed betel. and clean clothes. That night is never obtained by vulgar people. should unite with his good wife.Having bathed. 1 On the fourteenth night the seed remains there certainly. Sixteen nights are declared to be common for women. Here the sons gradually enter during the eighth day. According to the thoughts in his mind at the time of union will be the nature of the one who enters the womb. The man. reaps a good harvest. 1 put on flowers and sandal-paste. The meritorious soul obtains birth in a high family. a store of auspicious qualities. . having sown the seed of great potentiality in the field which is productive of grain. and in the interior of the womb the formation of ovum takes place. Then is produced the righteous son. daughters on odd. such as the Punsavana. Sons are born on even nights. For him there are numerous rites. The good son who enters the womb is the giver of the highest bliss. on even nights he enters. p. a woman becomes pure on the fourth day. When desire. 143 14-18. 11-12. The husband. 13. 2 20-23. Then the man obtains semen. like a husbandman. thought and sperm become united. From the seventh day she becomes fit to perform the rites of worship to the forefathers and the Shining Ones. astringent and hot things should be entirely avoided. and washed her clothes. Pungent. The intelligence joined with the seed remains always in the sperm. On the firth. At the time of his birth Brāhmiṇs receive much wealth. day women should eat sweet foods. Keeping away from. by the union of sperm and germ [cells] 19. her during the first seven days. During the seven days the embryo continues impure.

Now hear those of fire:-Hunger. Speech. jumping. O Tārkṣya. becoming skilful in all the sciences. and have the flavour of past karma. thirst. vacuity. sleep and sexual desire--are called the five attributes of fire by Yogins everywhere. nerves. 145 32. Skin. marrow. Earth. and pilgrimages to sacred waters. O Lord of birds. by association with the wise. Vāta. stretching and moving. are declared to be the duties of the organs of sense and action. delusion and mental instability--the five attributes of ether. bones. arising as the result of great merit. running.--are said to be the five attributes of water. analysis--these four are called the Internal Means. tongue and nose are the sense organs. Dik. air and ether--these are called the stable elements. p. I will tell you the attributes of earth and the others.He grows up in his parents' house. the two Aśvins. 144 Then he constantly strives to discriminate between the self and the not-self. austerities. Indra.--these are the five attributes of earth. Ears. By adhyāropa 1 and apavāda 2 he meditates upon Brāhmaṇ. sloth. Saliva. Mitra. In his youth he is divinely handsome. Bending. reason. hands. For the understanding of the dissociation of Brāhmaṇ from that with which he is associated. Prachetas. The organs of speech. Upeudra. . feet. and blood. hair and flesh." 25-30. may be understood by you with effort. the organs of generation and of excretion are the organs of action. sperm. 24. 33. declared to you by me. urine. fire. thought. individualisation. water. which are of the genus "Not-self. Arka. skin. Mind. the fifth. This body is made up of the five elements.--these are declared the five attributes of air. formerly done. p. Vahni. 31. endowed with learning and modesty. eyes. wealthy and benevolent.

as soon as eaten. Apāna.34-35. eyes. The air called Vyāna carries the essential part in all the Nāḍīs. in the anus. Thus the airs. is ejected from the body. Now hear. opening and shutting the eyes is known as Kūrma. Prāṇa. Samāna. affecting people. Kṛikala. is split into two by that air. 7 Alambuṣa. the two-fold nature of the body of man. Samāna. navel. Having entered near the anus it separates the solid and liquid portions. 10 the tenth as well--are situated in the interior of the body. in the region of the throat. forced through the twelve gateways. head. in the navel. hair--are called unclean places. placing the water over the fire. Apāna. 45.--Nāga. 40-43. Kūrma. inflamed by the air. and are the ten principal Naḍīs. and the solid over the water. just as does the rising of the sun. 46. anus. 5 Pūṣā. 8 and Kuhū. 9 and Saṅkhinī. does not leave even the corpse. Food. 2 Suṣumnā. all-pervading. Devadatta and Dhanañjaya 12:-In the heart. tongue. One is Vyāvahārika. nostrils. inflames it slowly. teeth. having derived their power from the self. and the waste. nails. trunk. Prāṇa. 146 Vomiting is called Nāga. 44. 11 36-39. Devadatta. p. Iḍā. the cause of hunger is to be known as Kṛikala. The Prāna standing under the fire. perform their own functions. 1 Pingalā. and carries all over the body the nourishment which is obtained by eating mouthfuls of food. and Vyāna also. Yawning. 147 . Udāna. and the second Pāramārthika. Udāna. O Bird. 4 Gajajihva. separates the substance from the waste. 3 thirdly. Dhanañjaya. Vyāna: p. and also Gāndhārī. and distributed all over the body. Ears. The fire. 6 Yaśasvinī. generative organs. The Vyāna air makes the essence go all over.

mountains. as they are constantly changing. I will tell you about these. phlegm is half of that. at the loins Pātāla. Kailāśa is in the right triangle. above the feet. continents. Fat is ten palās. The body which possesses these attributes is Vyāvahārika. number tens of million. There are said to be thirty-two teeth usually. seven hundred thousands of hairs of the head. oceans. 4 p. at the middle of the navel. 148 56-59. 60-61. Seed is known to be two kuḍavas. in the heart. and twenty nails. bile is fifty palās. At the hips. at the thighs Mahātala. Janaloka. skin is seven palās. ovum one kuḍava. both dense and subtle. suns and planets are in the Pāramārthika 3 body. above it the Bhuvarloka. O son of Vinatā. it is said. The waste materials are not measurable. in the left triangle.47-52. Tapolaka. the flesh is said to be one thousand palās 1 and blood one hundredpalās. All the worlds. in the region of the mouth. at the knees know it as Sutala. Mandara is in the inverted triangle. at the forehead. Below the feet is called Atala. The nāḍīs. Himāchala. at the throat it should be known as Maharloka. which are the objects of meditation of Yogins. marrow is twelve palās. and bones in the body are said to be three hundred and sixty. Satyaloka in the Brahmarandhra--these are the fourteen worlds. 2 53. 55. Vitala. . In the Pāramārthika body. Svarloka. at the secret part Rasātala. Talātala. By pondering upon them one becomes the enjoyer of the nature of Vairāja. Meru is situated in the triangle 1. there are six chakras in which are said to be located the attributes of the egg of Brahmā. the "great blood" is three palas. 54. On the Vyāvahārika there are thirty-five millions of hairs of the body. these are declared to be the seven worlds: Bhūloka.

in the mass of hair. in the heart. in the place of the nails. Ketu is situated in the lungs. in the marrow. in the region of the pelvis. in the eyes. Maṇipūraka. 149 In the urine the Kṣāra ocean.--in the body is the circle of the planets. 1 The Gāyatrī called Ajapā is the giver of liberation to the sages. Saturn is in the navel. Anāhatam. 150 One should meditate in order upon the chakras. Ramaṇa in the lines on the left.-are spoken of as the six chakras. p. the Ghṛita ocean. the Dadhi ocean is known to be in the ova. at the top of the head. the Krauncha continent in the nerves. In all these forms one should meditate on his own body.--and next the oceans: p. it should be known. and I will explain the best method of Ajapā. 72-73. in the face. by doing which the individual always gives up his separateness. 62-65. sitting steadily cross-legged. Mūlādhāra. The sun is situated in the Nāda chakra. Listen. it is declared. O Tārkṣya. in the throat.--the seven great mountains. you should know son of Vinatā. Jambu is in the place of the bones. Rāhu. The Rasa ocean in the juices. Mercury is in the heart. the Kuśa continent is situated in the flesh. at the root of the generative organ. the moon is in the Bindu chakra. 69-71. the Swādu ocean in the region of the soft palate. Swādhishthāna. Jupiter is in the Viṣṇu-sthāna. The Śālmalī continent is in the skin. Always at dawn. the Kṣīra ocean in the milk. it should be known. . between the eyebrows. Sāka is situated in the marrow. Gomeda. Puṣkara. the Sura ocean is situated in the phlegm. Mars is situated. 66-68. in the navel. Viśuddhi and also Ājñā. by merely thinking upon it one is released from all sin. in the order of the Ajapā.Niṣada is in the upper lines Gandhamādana in the lines on the right. it is declared. Venus is situated in the seed. one should meditate upon the six chakras.

3 A thousand for the Jīvātman. The viśuddhi lotus is sixteen-petalled. The sages. should always meditate thus. upon the Blessed Teacher within the Haṁsa. who know the succession of Teachers. meditate upon the deities presiding over the chakras. all-pervading. the one at the top of the head is the most resplendent. 81-82. It is said by the wise that the subtle movements of the breath in one day and night number twenty-one thousand six hundred. Śuka and ethers. from ka to tḥa. light-possessing and eternal. with unwavering mind. on Guru. a thousand or the Chidātman. 152 He should regard his body as being washed in the flow of nectar from His feet. the Anāhata is twelvepetalled. on Gaṇeṣa. always repeating the mantra. p. with letters from va to sa. a thousand for Guru. in order. whose lotus-hand frees from fear. 84-88. with the vowels. and is golden-coloured. in the chakras." The individual is. and is the seat of truth and bliss. and has the light of the moon. Having worshipped mentally in all the chakras. six thousand for Hari 2. he should repeat the Ajapā-gāyatrī according to the instructions of the Teacher. the Mātra 1 lotus is two-petalled. haṁsa. and has the letters from ba to la. He should meditate in the Ranḍhra. is six-petalled. on Jīva. teach it to their pupils. from da to pha. 83. therefore a wise man. p. this lotus has a thousand petals. after meditating upon the path of the Great Ones. indeed. One should meditate. with the thousand-petalled lotus inverted.--thus one should understand the respective numbers of the repetitions. Aruṇa and other sages. 17-80. six thousand for Vedhas 1. and is red in colour. ever auspicious. "Haṁsa. six thousand for Hara. the Svādhiṣṭhāna resembles the sun."-Six hundred for Gaṇeśa. The mūlādhāra is four-petalled and resplendent. 76. has the letters ha and kṣa. on Śiva." and enters again with the sound of "sa. who are rays of Brahmaṇ. 151 It goes out with the sound of "ha.74-75. Having worshipped in the five-fold way he should prostrate. the Maṇipūraka is red in colour and has ten petals. 2 on Viṣhṇu. on Vidhi. and on Parambrahmaṇ. . singing His praise.

153 95. after having conned the Vedas and the Śāstras for three periods. thereby he goes to the highest state of Viṣṇu. and others. 91-94. Then he should always meditate. For those who are attached to the body facing-inward 1 does not come about. Footnotes 141:1 Certain centres in the etheric and higher bodies. which revolves like wheels when set in motion by meditation. which goes out of the Randhra. This is the conclusion of the all-knowing Brahma and others. The good man who follows this. The devotion to me has a form of fruit from which the obtainer never falls away. on my form. goes to eternal liberation. without whom he falls. 90. he should worship Ha ri and Hara. 89. are also ways to liberation. Tapas. between four o'clock and sunrise. Having done the purificatory ablution. Sacrifices and other righteous duties purify the mind. p. but the fourteenth of them is best. O Tārkṣya. selfillumined. . He should bring his mind to a state of steadiness. not by efforts alone. Then he should meditate on the place called Suṣumnā. For then devotion is easier. 142:1 Sixteen are favourable. by the union due to devotion to me. but under the instruction of a teacher. placed in three-and-a-half coils.Then he should meditate on the Kuṇḍalinī. as making a tour of the six chakras. 143:1 To augment the virile power. hence the name chakra. eternal and ever-blissful. but for those who are attached to the world of change the path by devotion to me is far superior. and that gives liberation. as moving upwards and downwards. if some other cause doer not render it inauspicious. and the Sandhyā. Having done the inward-sacrifice he should perform the outward-sacrifice. and Yoga.

143:2 A rite performed when living conception is observed. and . 145:5 This goes to the right eye.. 145:3 The central one. ." 148:1 The triangle in the triangle. 144:2 refutation. 145:12 Various forms of the vital breath. 145:10 This gees to the mūla. 145:2 The right hand one. 145:8 This goes to the mouth. 145:4 This goes to the left eye. two sorts of arguments. the Ājñā. 145:11 An inner nerve. 145:1 The left hand nāḍī. 149:1 The saying of "Haṁsa. 145:9 This goes to the liṅgam. 147:1 Pala is a little more than an ounce (6/5 oz." 150:1 That is.) 147:2 Individual and common physical body. 147:3 Universal and spiritual body. Meru is the sacred mountain or pakk. 147:4 Viraj means "to shine. channel for the vital breath. 145:7 This goes to the left ear. 144:1 False ascription.. 145:6 This goes to the right ear.

O Lord. Lord of all. 151:3 Śiva. p. 151:2 Viṣṇu. are born and die--of them no end is known. even by the hearing of which a man is released from the world of change. 151:1 Brahmā. 152:1 Their meditation is unsuccessful. O Tārkṣya. and I will explain to you what you have asked. like sparks of a fire. in the worlds of change. That which is considered the individual is from a part of Him. Always miserable in this world. Being and Knowing and Bliss. all-doing. compassionate to those who seek refuge. 155 Self-illumined. all-knowing.--in this terrible world of change. The endless multitudes of individuals. I now wish to hear about the means for eternal liberation. O Lord. who has the nature of Supreme Brāhmaṇ. because they are thinking of outer things. with beginningless ignorance. tell me by what means they may obtain release. 1-4. in all deep miseries. 5-7. without attributes.150:2 Brahmā. beginningless and endless. O Lord of Liberation. about the transmigrating of the individual. An Account of the Law for Liberation. placed in various kinds of bodies. beyond the Beyond. CHAPTER XVI. 8-10 These. through ignorance. O Ocean of compassion. who is partless. . The Blessed Lord said: Listen. Śiva. no one is ever known to be happy. stainless and secondless. Garuḍa said: I have heard from you. O Ruler of the Shining Ones. in the unsubstantial. There is a Shining One. separated and encased in bodies by beginningless karma.

according to their order. It should be guarded for the sake of duty. a field again. Living.--with nationality of body. They have also. and fortune born of karma. wealth again. The embodied. can obtain no knowledge of the truth. knowledge for the sake of Yoga-meditation. 1 20-21.Are fettered by forms of good and evil. animals. . having obtained a human body. and a step to liberation. Without a body. even those afflicted with diseases such as leprosy do not wish to give it up. having obtained this highest birth and superior senses. the righteous. and also the liberated. therefore should he guard his body as wealth and perform meritorious deeds. Through millions of myriads of thousands of births some time a being obtains human birth. If he does not guard himself against harm who else will? Therefore should he look after his own benefit. O Bird. 11-13. length of life. the liṅga. a house again. difficult to get. in view of welfare. does not understand what benefits the soul is a slayer of Brāhmaṇ.--then he is soon released. He should always guard his body.--who in this world is more sinful than he? The man who. The unmoving things. in the eighty-four hundred thousands of bodies before attaining human birth. p. through the accumulation of merit. nobody obtains the object of human life. which is the means to everything. 22-23. does not help himself over. The wise always adopt means for the preservation of the body. Having worn and cast aside the four sorts of bodies thousands of times. good and evil actions again--the body never again. a higher and more subtle body. birds. 14-16. lasting until liberation. the thirty-three deities. In every life obtained. 17-19. men. duty for the sake of knowledge. giving happiness and misery. he should make every effort to protect it. 156 He who. one becomes a man by good deeds. and if he becomes a knower 1 he attains liberation. goats. worms. A village again.

The time of death is not known by those who are variously embodied in the world of change. the afflicted. the impermanent permanent. so long should truth be pursued. He who does not know what is good for him thinks the harmful beneficial. youth is like a flower. afflicted with disease and having gone to a country where there is no medicine. and even that little is unfruitful owing to the miseries of childhood. Therefore should he strive for the best. So long as misery does not come. Riches are like unto a dream. having drunk the liquor of delusion. people are never afraid. be free from fear? 33-35. So long as the body lasts. diseases attack like foes. Old age comes on like a tigress.--the stupid man digs his well when the corner of his house is already afire. How shall the individual who has taken a body. he does not understand. 26-32. where he should fear he confides. Though seeing. though reading. Alas! what man is not stricken. the dead. so long as calamity does not befall. 157 24-25. he does not know. what will he do? p. so long as the senses are not decayed. disease and old age. p.--though grasped by the crocodiles of death. This universe is immersed in the boundless ocean of death. he falters. Though seeing those just born. 158 He does not do what ought to be done. which is like foam on water and is attached to passing objects. he does not understand. does not know his own benefit.He who does not take precautions against the diseases of hell while here. Alas! a man. and half of it is sleep and idleness. though hearing. and the evil good. and the miserable. those whom calamity has befallen. life goes like water from a broken pot. life is fickle as lightning. disease and old age. between happiness and misery. when he should be awake he sleeps.--where is there a discerning one who is at ease? Even a hundred years of life is very little. so long should he strive for the best. bewildered by the divine magic. .

father. This world of change. goes to the abode of Yama. ether may be split. This individual. 159 39-41. leaving his own body. Earth is burnt away by time. even Meru is reduced to powder. this is to be done." "This has been done.--such is this world of creatures. What is the good of association with wife.36-38. young men. Air may be enclosed. but from the fetters of son and wife can never be freed.--life cannot be made permanent. coming is shown by age. Death attacks children. my wealth. waves may be bound. mother. it must be done to-day. my wife. those in the embryo condition. son and others? The world of change is verily the root of misery. He who abandons it becomes happy. Time. He who is in it is afflicted with misery. and the refuge of all sins. should be abandoned at once. in the morning or in the afternoon. though wearing away with every moment. just as an unbaked pot placed in water disappears imperceptibly. this other is done or not done. 160 . 42. the old. A man bound in fetters of iron or wood may be released."--death does not consider whether it leas been done or not done. death. The wolf of death forcibly slays the lamb of a mortal. 45-48. the seat of all calamities. "It must be done to-morrow. which is the source of all misery." Him who is thus prating death overpowers.--otherwise never. p. Thou shalt encounter the enemy. Death preys upon the man afflicted with the needles of thirst. and baked in the fire of desire and repulsion. who has an army of dreadful diseases--wilt thou not see the saviour? 43-44. bitten by the serpent of sense-objects. the water of the ocean is dried away--what shall be said of the body? p. is unnoticed. my relatives. who prates of "my offspring. whose.

sexual pleasure. so the embodied. 61-62. therefore should friendship with the great be cultivated. with self enveloped in ignorance the imposters go about. People are destroyed every day by the desire for great wealth. covetous of flesh. who constantly pursue evil courses. desire to obtain the invisible by single meals. does not see the torments of Yama. alas! 56-57. The fools. Sleep. 52-55. when the sun is in the meridian by hunger and thirst. The men who are attached to the ceremonial alone are satisfied with mere names. are born and die deluded by ignorance. Therefore should attachment be shunned always. Who possesses knowledge is called a man. Just as the fish. attached to the practice of vows. and do not understand the highest righteousness. Those men who do not understand what is good and what is not good for them. 161 Attachment to the good. who is devoid of it is called a beast. does not see the iron hook. Some are intent upon ceremonies. wife and other things. How shall he not tread evil ways? 58. . wealth. fasts and other restraints. and are intent on the filling of the belly. deluded by the repetitions of mantras. and by the emaciation of the body. bewildered by My magic. and by elaborate rituals. p. All those beings who are attached to their bodies. so long shall the dagger of sorrow pierce his heart. and eating are common to all creatures. covetous of pleasure. All those deluded men who turn away from the duties of their respective castes and orders. in the night by passion and sleep. discrimination. Foolish men are tormented at break of day by nature's calls. are destined for hell. which steal away the senses of the body. as a remedy for attachment. 59-60. perish fruitlessly. It is not possible to give up everything.49-51. Alas! Fie upon the foods of the senses. O Bird. and purity of the eyes--the man who has not these is blind. So long as the being makes attachments pleasant to the mind. oblations and other things.

O Lord of Birds. 71-73. quite naked and unashamed."--thus bewildered by anxiety they read the scriptures day and night. and even delude people.--direct knowledge of the Truth is the cause of liberation.--do these become Yogins? Pigeons at times eat stones. leaves and water. Therefore this class of practices is a thing which makes pleasure for people. p. 1 O Bird." and is devoid of both rites and Brāhmaṇ should be shunned like a low outcaste. turning away from the highest truth. p. Donkeys walk about among people. 162 65-69. and using antelope skins. Are these free from attachment? If men are to be liberated by earth. rats.--of that imitator all this is as the speech of a crow. and always live in forests. and Chātaka birds do not drink water from the earth. Fallen into the great well of the six philosophies. the Śāstras and the Purāṇas. The hypocrites. They are tossed hither and thither in the dreadful ocean of Vedas and Śāstras. the brutes do not understand the chief good. . ashes and dust. 163 He who knows the Vedas.Of those who have no discrimination. bound in the snare of animalism. 64. and wearing quantities of matted hair. 71-76. deer and others. this must be known. in forests and among houses. fishes and others. which feed upon grass. but does not know the chief good. saying "I am a knower of Brāhmaṇ. putting on appearances. caught in the six waves they remain sophists. what liberation can there be by bodily tortures alone? What great serpent is killed by beating the anthill alone? 1 63. He who is attached to the pleasures of the worlds of change. does the dog which always live among earth and ashes become liberated? The jackals. wander about like knowers.--are these observers of vows? 70.--do these become ascetics? The crocodiles. which from birth to death. dwell in the waters of Ganges. "This is known.

O son of Vinatā. Just as there is no use for food to one who is satisfied with nectar. 83-84. Haring practised the Vedas and the Śāstras. not otherwise. but the highest truth is otherwise. 78-82. just as one rich in grains abandons the straw. decorated with garlands of poetry constructed of forms of speech. to the knower of the Truth. 76-77. "'This is known.--darkness never disappears by talking of a lamp. to a man devoid of wisdom. p. with the young goat under his arm. and argue with one another.-a foolish goatherd. not realising them themselves. is like a mirror to the blind. Śāstras are only a potter to the knowledge of the truth. Reading. peers into the well."--he wishes to hear everything. If one lives for a thousand celestial years he cannot reach the end of the Śāstras. nor by the reading of the Śāstras. 164 The fool. miserable with anxiety. The head bears flowers. They talk of the highest experiences. not knowing that the truth is seated in himself. the wise man should abandon all the scriptures. remain with senses bewildered. being engrossed in egotism.--like the swan taking the milk in the water. therefore the essence should be understood. but find impossible the understanding of the truth. and having known the Truth. life is brief. Emancipation is by knowledge alone. O Tārkṣya. 87-88. Men trouble themselves variously. They read the Vedas and the Śāstras. 85-86. they explain in different ways but the best purport of the Śāstras is otherwise. and there are tens of millions of obstacles. hence. They repeat the Vedas and the Śāstras.The fools. There is no liberation by the study of the Vedas. so is there not use for the scriptures. but they do not understand the highest truth. . for those who have understanding. The Śāstras are numerous. the nostril knows the smell. Verbal knowledge cannot destroy the illusions of the world of change. is bewildered by the Śāstras. this must be known.--like the spoon the flavour of the food. Some have ceased preaching.

is beyond efforts of action. beyond the Dual and Non-dual. oblations. so long as there is the sense of "mineness. 165 89-90. always.---knowledge only is the cause. worship and reading of the prescribed texts of the Vedas and Śāstras. nor are the philosophies. so long as there is imagination of plans. Two phrases make for bondage and liberation: "Mine" and "Not-mine. other knowledge is skilful chiselling. he should every effort.The stages of life are not the cause of liberation. not by the study of tens of millions of texts. so long should he do austerities. all learning is masquerade. Para Brahmaṇ is reached by discrimination. 93-94. O Tārkṣya. and to be obtained by the word of the Teacher. So long as one does not reach Truth. pilgrimage to sacred waters. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? 98-99. and under all circumstances he attached to Truth. So long as actions are performed. recitations. p. nor are actions. So long as there is not stability of mind. The study is of Śabda Brāhmaṇ. so long as the senses are fickle. vows." The being saying "Mine" is bound. Some prefer the Non-dual 2. 92. The word from the Teacher gives liberation. The non-dual. . that the knowledge that gives release. if one desires liberation for himself. so long as there is no love for the Teacher. so long as the impressions of the world of change remain. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? So long as there is pride of body. other prefer the Dual 3 but they do not understand the One Reality. so long as there is no meditation upon the Śāstras. saying "Not-mine" is released. verily declared auspicious. That is the karma that does not bind. 91. 166 95-97. p. other karma is worrying. Among thousands of woods the Sañjīvana 1 is best." so long as there is excited striving. Knowledge is said to be of two kinds: study and discrimination. Therefore.

108. p. He should. devoid of knowledge and unattachment. they go. the desires connected with the body. and fruits are heaven and liberation. not forgetting the Brahma Bīja. who go to that goal. always dwelling in the Higher Self. I will tell you about the wise. undeluded. should cut off. with the sword of unattachment. rid of fear. and should fix his mind. 102. One who is tormented by the three miseries and the rest. 167 103-107. He should practise mentally upon the supreme three-fold pure Word of Brahmā. He who. 109-110. The hypocrites. drawn away by karmas. the Supreme Abode. goes to the Highest Goal. sitting alone on a pure seat prepared as prescribed. utters the one-syllabled Brāhmaṇ. Courageously wandering from home. restrain his mind. 168 . Listen! I will tell you now about the final actions of the knower of the Truth. p.100. when leaving the body. on that eternal path. released from the contracts known as pleasure and pain. His last days approaching. with understanding. with the evils of attachment conquered. with breath controlled. which is called the Nirvāṇa of Brāhmaṇ."--having realised this and placed the self in the self he should meditate. "1 am Brāhmaṇ. upon the pure. should resort to the shade of the tree of Liberation." remembering me. the man. 1 With reason for charioteer he should withdraw the senses from the sense-objects by the mind. I am Brāhmaṇ. with desires overcome. Free from pride and delusion. "Oṁ. whose flowers are righteousness and knowledge. do not go there. by which he obtains liberation. By knowledge the being is easily released from the awful bondage of the worlds of change. 101. Therefore from the mouth of the Blessed Teacher the Truth of the self should be known. performing ablutions in the water of the holy bathing places. the Highest Goal.

O Lord. with tranquil self. 115. He who. thinking of no other.--protect us. and who gives liberation for supreme devotion to Him. Knowers of Truth attain liberation. the remembrance of whom removes evil. righteous men go to heaven. What else do you wish to hear? p. dwells at a sacred bathing-place. 1 which removes the impurities of attraction and repulsion. these words from the mouth of the Lord. He who bathes in the water of the Mānasa. He who.--he verily attains liberation. O God of Gods. May Hari. repeatedly prostrating himself. 169 118-120. sinners go to an evil condition. expecting to die. My desires have been completely fulfilled. This eternal way of liberal in al has been described to you. O Tārkṣya. Garuḍa became silent and lost in meditation. 6 Avantikā. with hands folded together: -"O Lord." Having said this. worships me. 8--these seven cities should be known as the givers of liberation. Protector! "I stand freed from doubts. O. or dies in a place of liberation. 116. 4 Kaśī.--he verily attains liberation. in the lake of knowledge. in the waters of Truth. firm in non-attachment. having heard these words of nectar I have been helped over the ocean of existence. One who knows the Self. Sūta said: Having thus heard. Footnotes 155:1 That is. 2 Mathurā. full-visioned. 117. he verily attains liberation. leaning his home. Thus in sixteen chapters I have related to you the extracted essence of all the scriptures.111-114. 5 Kañchi. who gives the condition of happiness for the sacrifice of worship.--hearing it with knowledge and dispassion one attains liberation. said this. 3 Gayā. 7 Dwārāvatī. birds and others transmigrate. 121. Ayodhyā. O King. . Garuḍa.

168:7 Ujjain. 161:1 There is supposed to be a serpent living in the ground beneath the ant-hill. 168:3 Muttra. 168:4 Gayā.156:1 Meaning that one may re-obtain these things after losing them--but not the body. 168:6 Conjeeveram. 165:3 Dwaita. 167:1 Bīja is a seed. 168:5 Benares. Mīmānsā. Sāṅkhya. Yoga. 165:1 The plant brought by Hanumat to restore Lakṣman when killed by Indrajit. Separateness of the individual and universal self. a mantra governing a work such as an Upaniṣad Oṁ. 165:2 Adwaita philosophy. Vaiśeṣika. Eternal inseparateness and non-duality. . 168:8 Dwārakā. also a mystical place. 162:1 Nyāya. 168:2 Perhaps Oudh. 168:1 A holy lake in the Himālayas. Vedānta.