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Contents
Contents

o Aim of the project o Introduction o Theory o Requirements o Chemical Equations o Procedure o Precautions o Observations o Calculations o Conclusions

Contents o Aim of the project o Introduction o Theory o Requirements o Chemical Equations o

AIM

To study the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.

AIM To study the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.

G

uava

is

found in India and What is oxalate?
found in
India
and
What is oxalate?

a common sweet fruit

many
many

other places around the world. Guavas are plants in the Myrtle family (Myrtaceae) genus Psidium

(meaning "pomegranate" in Latin), which contains about 100 species of tropical shrub. On ripening it turns yellow in color. Rich in vitamin C, this fruit is a rich source of oxalate ions whose content varies during the different stages of ripening.

Guavas have a pronounced and typical fragrance, similar to lemon rind but less in strength.

I

t is a carboxylic acid, primarily found in plants and animals. It is not an essential molecule and is excreted from our body, unchanged. Our body either produces oxalate on its own or converts other molecules like Vitamin C to oxalate. External sources like food also contribute to the accumulation of oxalate in our body. The

AIM To study the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.

in the body is excreted in the as waste. Too much of oxalate in our urine results in a medical condition called hyperoxaluria, commonly referred to as kidney stones. Diet is looked

upon as a preventive measure in addition to medication to treat

kidney stones.

oxalate present form of urine

AIM To study the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.

Theory

Theory O xalate ions with dilute T he are estimated are extracted from the fruit by

O xalate ions

with

dilute

The are estimated

are extracted from the

fruit by boiling pulp

H 2 SO 4 .

Theory O xalate ions with dilute T he are estimated are extracted from the fruit by

oxalate ions volumetrically,

of

moles

of

by titrating the solution with

KMnO 4 solution. A reagent, called the titrant, of a known concentration (a standard solution) and
KMnO 4 solution. A reagent,
called
the
titrant,
of
a
known
concentration
(a
standard
solution)
and
volume
is
used
to

is

not

react with a solution of the analyte or titrand, whose concentration

known. Using a calibrated burette or chemistry pipetting syringe to add the titrant, it is possible to determine the exact amount that has been consumed when the endpoint is reached. The endpoint is the point at which the titration is complete, as determined by an indicator. This is ideally the same volume as the equivalence point.

equal to the in polyprotic
equal
to
the
in
polyprotic

T

he volume of added titrant at which the number of moles of titrant is

number

analyte, or some multiple thereof (as

acids).

base

In

the

classic

titration,

the

Theory O xalate ions with dilute T he are estimated are extracted from the fruit by

strong acid-strong

endpoint of a titration is the point at which the pH of the reactant is just about equal to 7, and often when the solution takes on a persisting solid colour as in the pink of phenolphthalein indicator.

Requirements

  • (A) Apparatus

100 ml measuring flask

Pestle & Mortar

Beaker

Burette

Requirements (A) A pparatus 100 ml measuring flask Pestle & Mortar Beaker Burette Funnel Weighingmachine Filter

Funnel

Weighingmachine Filter Papers
Weighingmachine
Filter Papers

2. (N/10)

KMnO 4

solution

Requirements (A) A pparatus 100 ml measuring flask Pestle & Mortar Beaker Burette Funnel Weighingmachine Filter
Requirements (A) A pparatus 100 ml measuring flask Pestle & Mortar Beaker Burette Funnel Weighingmachine Filter
(B) Chemicals 1. dil. H 2 SO 4
(B)
Chemicals
1. dil. H 2 SO 4
  • (C) Guava fruits at different stages of ripening.

Chemical Equations

Molecular Equations

Chemical Equations Molecular Equations Ionic Equations Procedure (1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed
Chemical Equations Molecular Equations Ionic Equations Procedure (1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed
Chemical Equations Molecular Equations Ionic Equations Procedure (1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed

Ionic Equations

Chemical Equations Molecular Equations Ionic Equations Procedure (1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed
Procedure
Procedure
Chemical Equations Molecular Equations Ionic Equations Procedure (1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed

(1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed it to a fine pulp using pestle and mortar. (2) Transferredthecrushed pulp to a beaker and added about 50 ml dilute H 2 SO 4 to it. (3) Boiled the content for about 10 minutes. Cooled and filtered the contents in a 100 ml measuring flask. (4) Made up the volume 100 ml by adding ample amount of distilled water. (5) Took 20 ml of the solution from the flask and added 20 ml of dilute sulphuric acid to it. (6) Heated the mixture to about 60 0 C and titrated it against (n/10) KMnO 4 solution taken in a burette till the end point had an appearance of pink colour. (7) Repeated the above experiment with 50 g of 1day, 2 day and 3 day old guava fruits.

Chemical Equations Molecular Equations Ionic Equations Procedure (1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed

Precautions

1. There should be no parallax while taking measurements. 2. Spillage of chemicals should be checked.

  • 3. Avoid the use of burette having a rubber tap as KMnO 4 attacksrubber.

Observations
Observations
  • 4. In order to get some idea about the temperature of the solution touchthe

flask with the back side of your hand. When it becomes unbearable totouch, the required temperature is reached.

  • 5. Add about an equal volume of dil. H 2 SO 4 to the guava extract tobe titrated (say a full test tube) before adding KMnO 4 .

  • 6. Read the upper meniscus while taking burette reading withKMnO4 solution.

  • 7. In case, on addition of KMnO 4 a brown ppt. appears, this showsthat either H 2 SO 4 has not been added or has been added ininsufficient amount. In such a case, throw away the solutionand titrate again.

1. 2. 3. 4.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Weight of the guava fruit for each time was 50 g.

Volume of guava extract taken for each titration was 20 ml.

Normality of KMnO 4 solution was (1/10).

END POINT: Colour Changes to pink

Guava

Burette

Final

Volume of

Concurrent

Solution

reading

Reading

KMnO4

Reading

Initial

Raw

150

18

132

 

Semi-ripened

150

13

137

136.06

 

Ripened

150

10.8

139.2