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Chapter Nine Passing of Bhma

|| 1.9.1 || sta uvca iti bhta praj-droht sarva-dharma-vivitsay | tato vinaana1 prgd yatra deva-vrato patat || TRANSLATI N S!ta sai"# Being fearf$% &e'a$se of ha(ing 'ommitte" (io%en'e against the pop$%ation) *$"hi+hira) "esiring to e,amine a%% dharmas) -ent to .$r$/etra -here Bhma ha" fa%%en. C 001NTAR* In the ninth chapter Bhma sees Ka, and at his request speaks on dharma. Being praised profusely, filled with de otion, he attains the !ord. "hen all present agreed that the correct ad ice was to ask Bhma # who knew all dharmas # whether $udhi%hira had lost his sense of &udgment, $udhi%hira went to Kuruketra to meet Bhma. Vivitsay means with a desire to e'amine. Vinaanam refers to Kuruketra. Devavrata is Bhma. || 1.9.2 || tad te2 bhrtara sarve sadavai svar a-bh!itai | anvagacchan rathair vipr vysa-dhaumydayas tath || TRANSLATI N 3is &rother an" brhmaas s$'h as 456sa an" 7ha$m5a fo%%o-e" &ehin" -ith 'hariots "e'orate" -ith go%" an" fine horses. || 1.9.8 ||
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)viasanam" iti p#ha | $tad tam" iti p#ha |

bhagavn api viprar!e rathena sa-dhana%jaya | sa tair vyarocata n&pa 'uvera iva guhya'ai || TRANSLATI N 9a$na/a: The Lor" a%ong -ith Ar;$na a%so fo%%o-e" &ehin" in his 'hariot. .ing *$"hi+hira shone %i/e the go" of -ea%th .$(era a''ompanie" &5 the <$h5a/as) g$ar"ians of his treas$res. C 001NTAR* Ka also followed +ehind $udhi%hira. || 1.9.= || d&!#v nipatita bhmau diva cyutam ivmaram | pra emu p (av bh!ma snug saha ca'ri || TRANSLATI N Seeing Bhma %5ing on the gro$n" %i/e a fa%%en devat) the P6>?a(as offere" respe'ts to him a%ong -ith their fo%%o-ers an" .@>a. || 1.9.A || tatra brahmar!aya sarve devar!aya ca sattama8 | rjar!aya ca tatrsan dra!#u bharata-pu)gavam ,, TRANSLATI N 9a$na/a: There the brhmaa sages, the sages of the hea(en%5 p%anets an" the /ings -ho -ere sages ha" gathere" to see the &est of the Bharata %ineage. || 1.9.BCD || parvato nrado dhaumyo bhagavn bdarya a | b&hadavo bharadvja sai!yo re u'-suta || vasi!#ha indrapramadas trito g&tsamado sita | 'a'!vn gautamo tri ca 'aui'o tha sudarana || anye ca munayo brahman brahmartdayo ma* | i!yair upet jagmu 'ayap)girasdaya || TRANSLATI N brhmaa: Par(ata) N6ra"a) 7ha$m5a) 456sa) B@ha"aE(a) Bhara"(6;a) Par6E$r6ma) 4asi+ha) In"raprama"a) Trita) <@tsama"a) Asita) .a/i(6n)
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$sattam" iti p#ha ,

<a$tama) Atri) .a$Ei/a) S$"arEana) a%ong -ith their "is'ip%es) an" as -e%% man5 other p$re sages s$'h as 9$/a) .aE5apa an" B@haspati 'ame a%ong -ith their "is'ip%es. C 001NTAR* +enu'-suta is .ara/ur0ma. ,rahma-rta is 1ukade a. -)girasa is Bhaspati. || 1.9.9 || tn sametn mah-bhgn upa*abhya vasttama | pjaym sa dharma-j%o dea-'*a-vibhgavit || TRANSLATI N The &est of the 4as$s) Bhma) en"o-e" -ith great F$a%ities) /no-%e"gea&%e of dharma as app%i'a&%e a''or"ing to p%a'e an" time) seeing that the5 ha" gathere") -orshippe" them.2 C 001NTAR* Vasttama is Bhma. || 1.9.1G || '&! a ca tat-prabhva-j%a sna jagad-varam | h&di-stha pjaym sa myayoptta-vigraham || TRANSLATI N Bhma) $n"erstan"ing .@>aHs po-ers) -orshippe" .@>a) the %or" of the $ni(erse) sit$ate" -ithin the heart) -ho -as seate" there an" -ho ha" 'ome &efore Bhma o$t of great mer'5. C 001NTAR* .yayoptta-vigraham can mean Ka who had a conflict 3vigraha4 with $udhi%hira +y co ering up his discrimination with his yoga-my/ 5r it means Ka who +rought himself +efore the eyes of Bhma 3uptta4 +y his mercy 3myay4. || 1.9.11 || p (u-putrn upsnn praraya-prema-sa)gatn |
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1rdhara 6 0m says that since he could not rise, Bhma worshipped them mentally and with words.

abhyca!#nurgrair andhbhtena ca'!u! || TRANSLATI N 3is e5es &%in"e" &5 tears of %o(e) he spo/e to the P6>?a(as sitting there) fi%%e" -ith h$mi%it5 an" %o(e. C 001NTAR* 0bhyca!ta means 7he spoke.8 || 1.9.12 || aho 'a!#am aho nyyya yad yya dharma-nandan | jvitu nrhatha '*i!#a vipra-dharmcyutray || TRANSLATI N 3a(ing the she%ter of brhmaas, dharma an" .@>a) 5o$ sho$%" not %i(e 5o$r %ife in s$ffering sin'e that is "angero$s an" improper. C 001NTAR* 9he words 7dangerous8 3'a!#am4 and 7improper8 3anyyyam4 do not really apply to the king. 9o whom do the words refer: 9he improper situation has arisen +ecause of ;iu, the mo er and maintainer of the whole uni erse. $ou should not li e your life in suffering 3 '*i!#am taken ad er+ially4. If others li e like that, that is their concern. || 1.9.18 || sasthite tirathe p (au p&th b*a-praj vadh | yu!mat-'&te bahn '*en prpt to'avat muhu || TRANSLATI N Ihen the great -arrior P6>?$ "ie") his -ife .$nt -ith 5o$ng 'hi%"ren 'onstant%5 $n"er-ent man5 "iffi'$%ties in raising 5o$ sin'e 5o$ -ere 5o$ng at that time. C 001NTAR* 7"hat was the suffering:8 9his erse descri+es it. Being alone with young children causes much suffering. 9hough you are now grown up, she underwent great suffering with you as a young child. || 1.9.1= || sarva '*a-'&ta manye bhavat ca yad apriyam |

sa-p*oA yad-vae *o'o vyor iva ghanva*i || TRANSLATI N I 'onsi"er that this) -hi'h is $n-e%'ome) has a%% &een "one to 5o$ &5 time) -hi'h 'ontro%s the -or%" an" its prote'tors ;$st as the -in" 'ontro%s the '%o$"s. C 001NTAR* "hat is the cause of our suffering: It cannot +e said, since I do not see either recent or old 'armas as the cause. 9herefore Bhma speaks words of the common people. 7But time is simply the su+stratum of the e'perience of happiness and distress which are prrabdha-'armas. 9hus, when you say that time is the cause, time is acting as an assistant. "hy do you not &ust say clearly that our suffering is our prrabdha-'arma resulting from our sins:8 $udhi%hira is well known as the direct incarnation of dharma/ If <harma 3$udhi%hira4 has prrabdha-'armas, how can he ha e any sense of dharma: 9he cause is not 'arma, +ut time, which cannot +e countered and cannot +e e'plained. || 1.9.1A || yatra dharma-suto rj gad-p ir v&'odara | '&! o str g (iva cpa suh&t '&! as tato vipat || TRANSLATI N *o$ are %amenting -here there is *$"hi+hira) the son of 7harma) Bhma) ho%"er of the '%$&) Ar;$na ho%"er of the &o- <6>?i(a) an" 5o$r frien" .@>a. C 001NTAR* 7Kapila has said= na 'arhicin mat-par nta-rpe na)'!yanti no me nimi!o *e(hi heti ye!m aha priya tm suta ca sa'h guru suh&do daivam i!#am

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)sa '*a" ity api 'vacit p#ha |

The "e(otees in the spirit$a% -or%" are "epri(e" of an5 en;o5ment. 05 -hee% of time "oes not aff%i't those "e(otees) for -hom I am a %o(er) the tm, son) frien") e%"er) 'ompanion or -orshipa&%e "eit5. 6B -.*>.-?

@ow then could time attack the .0Aa as who were filled with dsya1 sa'hya and vtsa*ya for Ka: 9his is most astonishingB "ithout a cause, time has produced effects, whose cause we must infer, +ut which looks similar to 'arma.8 9hat is the intention of this erse. 2&s a means Cr&una, with his +ow 3 astr4. 9hough you ha e strength of piety, strength of +ody, strength of skill, strength of scriptural knowledge, strength of friends and strength of wealth, still you lament. || 1.9.1B || na hy asya 'arhicid rjan pumn veda vidhitsitam | yad vijij%say yu't muhyanti 'avayo pi hi || TRANSLATI N .ing: No one 'an $n"erstan" the p%an of .@>a &e'a$se e(en those engage" in reasoning an" s'ript$re are &e-i%"ere" &5 that inF$ir5. C 001NTAR* 76o what should I conclude:8 @ere is the general conclusion. D eryone agrees that no one can interfere with the plans of the Ka and no one can e en understand what his plans are, e en today. Eo person, starting with Brahm0 and 1i a, knows the plan of the !ord, what to speak of meB Fay+e no one knows. But inquiry is necessary. <oes he want to gi e us suffering: <oes he want to gi e us &oy: <oes he want to gi e us suffering and happiness: It cannot +e the first, +ecause then his quality of +eing affectionate to his de otee would +e cancelled. It cannot +e the second option, +ecause we ha e not seen any happiness. It cannot +e the third option +ecause that would +e a contradiction to his kind nature. It is finally decided that one cannot sol e the pro+lem +y inquiry. 9hus the erse says that e en those who use their intelligence to discriminate and those use knowledge of scripture are +ewildered +y inquiry.

|| 1.9.1J || tasmd ida daiva-tantra vyavasya bharatar!abha | tasynuvihito nth ntha phi praj prabho || TRANSLATI N master: 'ontro%%er: f &est of the Bharata %ineage: Therefore) "is'erning that the s$ffering an" happiness is "epen"ent on%5 on .@>a) fo%%o- him an" prote't the he%p%ess 'itiKens. C 001NTAR* <iscern 3vyavasya4 that this happiness and suffering 3idam4 is dependent on the lord 3daiva-tantram4, +ut understand that the purpose of gi ing happiness and distress to his de otee is not easily understood, since it has already +een said that his plan is hard to comprehend. @a ing discerned this, follow Ka 3 tasya anuvihita4 and protect the citiGens who are without a guide 3anth4 to lead them to Ka. || 1.9.1D || e!a vai bhagavn s'!d dyo nrya a pumn | mohayan myay *o'a g(ha carati v&! i!u || TRANSLATI N Bhaga(6n .@>a) the origina% N6r65a>a) the purua, -ho &e-i%"ers the -or%" -ith his energ5) se'ret%5 mo(es in the *6"a(a fami%5. C 001NTAR* 7But how can you say that it is all dependent on the !ord and that no one knows the plan of the !ord, when the !ord is at this moment right in front of you: @ow can you not know his plan when you can ask him:8 In reply, Bhma speaks this erse. 7@e +ewilders us with his energy.8 D en if asked +y Bhma, the !ord will not speak, +ut instead will e ade him +y answering, 7Cm I so intelligent:8 D en if he says something, he still +ewilders e eryone. 9herefore his plan is to +e followed, +ut is not su+&ect to inquiry. || 1.9.19 || asynubhva bhagavn veda guhyatama iva | devar!ir nrada s'!d bhagavn 'api*o n&pa ||

TRANSLATI N /ing: Lor" 9i(a) N6ra"a) sage of the hea(ens) an" Lor" .api%a /no- the most se'ret anubhvas of .@>a) tho$gh not his intentions. C 001NTAR* 1i a and others knows particular actions of Ka##those actions he chooses to re eal to them 3anubhvam4, +ut not his intentions, his real form or his real powers. 9he knower of rasa-stras knows first of all anubhvas and sttvi'a-bhvas - paralysis, perspiration, hair standing on end etc. By that he can understand the sthyi-bhva. By the particular qualities and intensity of the anubhvas1 he can understand the particular qualities and intensity of the sthyi-bhva. 9he knower of rasa-stra knows the anubhva of Ka +eing tied +y a rope +y the gops like $a/od0, and the dependent anubhva of Ka +eing the charioteer for Cr&una, $udhi%hira and Hgrasena. 9hese are anubhvas of Ka indicating his dependence on others. 9he knower of rasa then infers that there e'ists something special in these cases which controls and melts the heart of e en the 6upreme !ord, the controller of all, the supremely independent entity. 9hat o+&ect, which melts the hearts of the vi!aya and raya, which has many arieties, and which +rings +oth parties under the control of the other is called prema/ It is the crest &ewel of all goals for the human +eing and is descri+ed +y terms such as bha'ti1 sneha and anurga. 6eeing that Ka is controlled more when he sees his de otees, who generate prema in him, the knower of rasa infers that there is intense prema in the siddha and sdha'a de otees. @e then concludes that the Ka is cause of difficulties for de otees, in order to increase their de otion to that le el. 1i a, E0rada and Kapila know this. 5ne sees an increase in prema in <raupad and others when their difficulties increase. yasyham anug&h mi hari!ye tad-dhana anai tato dhana tyajanty asya svajan du'ha-du'hitam If I especially fa or someone, I gradually depri e him of his wealth. 9hen the relati es and friends of such a po erty#stricken man a+andon him. In this way he suffers one distress after another. 6B (I.??.?

9hus the difficulties the de otees e'perience are not prrabdha-'armas since they are gi en +y the !ord alone, who wants to +enefit the de otees. @owe er, this is not an inclusi e rule. 6ometimes the !ord increases his de oteeJs bha'ti without gi ing pro+lems to him. 9hus it is said that no one knows the plan of the !ord. 1i a and E0rada know the anubhvas or symptoms in the !ord. 5ther foolish people do not know the anubhvas1 like Ka allowing himself to +e tied up. 9hey e'plain it as some sort of fake display. || 1.9.2G || ya manyase mtu*eya priya mitra suh&ttamam | a'aro saciva dta sauh&dd atha srathim || TRANSLATI N *o$ thin/ of .@>a as 5o$r 'o$sin) as a "ear frien") as 5o$r se%f%ess he%per) an" o$t of affe'tion ma"e him 5o$r 'o$nse%or) messenger) an" 'harioteer. C 001NTAR* 9his erse shows KaJs anubhvas or actions performed out of deep lo e. 9hough Ka is the supreme lord he displays actions indicating that he is under your control +y +eing your counselor and messenger. 9he erse is actually a continuation of the pre ious erse= no one knows the actions of Ka whom you consider your cousin and friend. || 1.9.21 || sarvtmana sama-d&o hy advayasynaha)'&te | tat-'&ta mati-vai!amya niravadyasya na 'vacit || TRANSLATI N 3is a'tions are not a mista/e of his ;$"gment for he is fa$%t%ess) he is the so$% of a%% &eings) he sees a%% eF$a%%5) he is -itho$t a se'on") an" is -itho$t pri"e. C 001NTAR* 7Becoming a messenger or charioteer +ecause of +eing controlled +y bha'ti is a degradation of his position. If he is like that, how can the !ordJs prema gi e him real happiness:8 9his erse answers. Ka is without fault, and possesses faultless prema 3niravadyasya4. @is actions like +eing a messenger 3tat-'&tam4 are not a de iation of his mind, +ecause he is at all times the possessor of great powers which accomplish e erything automatically. @e is the soul of e eryone 3sarvtmana4, e en of Cr&una, since he acts as his charioteer and also

fights in the chariot. Because he is the soul of e eryone, he sees e eryone as equal to himself 3sama-d&a4. Because he is the soul of e eryone, there is no one e'cept him 3 advayasya4. Because there is no one else, he has no pride 3anaha)'&te4. Foreo er, e en a person without great powers, +eing filled with prema, does not consider his suffering, caused +y sinful acts that he alone has performed, to +e suffering, +ecause of his prema/ 9hus the !ord who is full of all powers and is +liss personified can ha e no suffering from his actions of prema. $ou are special e'amples of prema +ecause this !ord has +ecome your messenger 3tat-'&tam4. @e is +rought under control +y your prema/ || 1.9.22 || tathpy e'nta-bha'te!u paya bhpnu'ampitam | yan me ss tyajata s'!t '&! o daranam gata || TRANSLATI N /ing: See his mer'5 to his "e"i'ate" "e(otees: B5 that mer'5 he has 'ome &efore me "ire't%5 -hen I am a&o$t to %ea(e m5 &o"5. C 001NTAR* 4athpi here means 7though it is not possi+le for me to +e like you.8 76till see his mercy to me, +y which that form of brahman which is filled with +liss has come near such a low person like me. 9his is another of his anubhvas1 for it is actually to show mercy to you that he comes to me.8 || 1.9.28C2= || bha'tyveya mano yasmin vc yan-nma 'rtayan | tyajan 'a*evara yog mucyate 'ma-'armabhiB || sa deva-devo bhagavn prat'!at 'a*evara yvad ida hinomy aham | prasanna-hsru a-*ocano**asanmu'hmbujo dhyna-patha catur-bhuja || TRANSLATI N

$'mya-'armabhi" ity api p#ha ,

The "e(otee -hose min" is a&sor&e" in .@>a) -hose (oi'e 'hants his name) &e'omes free" from a%% karmas on gi(ing $p the materia% &o"5. 0a5 that .@>a) %or" of %or"s) -ith g%o-ing %ot$s fa'e) re" e5es an" p%easing smi%e) -ith fo$r arms) the o&;e't of m5 me"itation) remain &efore me -hi%e I "rin/ his &ea$t5 an" praise him) &efore gi(ing $p this &o"5. C 001NTAR* Fay he remain here 3prat'!atm4 until I, after some time, after drinking the sweetness of his +eauty with my eyes, after I praise him and re eal what is in my mind, gi e up my +ody. Fay he with four arms, who should at all times +e the o+&ect of my meditation, since he is my o+&ect of worship, with his pleasing form and smile, remain directly in front of my eyes at the time of my passing from the +ody. Bhma addressed him as a form with four arms +ecause that was the form of Ka mentioned in the mantra he used during meditation. || 1.9.2A || sta uvca5 yudhi!#hiras tad 'ar ya ayna ara-pa%jare | ap&cchad vividhn dharmn &! cnu& vatm || TRANSLATI N S!ta sai"# *$"hi+hira) hearing -hat he ha" sai") then as/e" Bhma) %5ing on a &e" of arro-s) a&o$t (ario$s dharmas -hi%e the sages -ere %istening. C 001NTAR* $udhi%hira, an'ious a+out who would free him from delusion, +egan to ask Bhma, lying on a +ed of arrows. 9hough one should not ask questions when Bhma is in such a situation, +ecause he had no alternati e, he asked. || 1.9.2B || puru!a-sva-bhva-vihitn yath-var a yathramam | vairgya-rgopdhibhym mntobhaya-*a'!a n || TRANSLATI N 3e "es'ri&e" dharmas s$ita&%e for men a''or"ing to their nat$res) a''or"ing to vara an" rama) -hi'h ha(e F$a%ities of ren$n'iation an" en;o5ment "es'ri&e" a''or"ing to a personHs "eta'hment or atta'hment.

C 001NTAR* @e descri+ed the general dharma for humans according to their natures 3puru!a-sva-bhva-vihitn4. 9hree erses are &oined in one sentence. 6ath-var am is an indeclina+le, meaning 7+eing qualified +y var a.8 6athramam means 7+eing qualified +y rama.8 9he ramas ha e qualities of renunciation and en&oyment, which are descri+ed respecti ely according to qualification of detachment or attachment. It is a rule that all the ramas, such as brahmacar, need not +e undertaken one after the other +y all brhma as/ If they ha e constant renunciation they +ecome sannysis and if they ha e constant attachment, they +ecome g&hasthas/ || 1.9.2J || dna-dharmn rja-dharmn mo'!a-dharmn vibhgaa | str-dharmn bhagavad-dharmn samsa-vysa-yogata || TRANSLATI N Iithin varama) he "es'ri&e" "$ties of 'harit5) "$ties of the /ing) "$ties for attaining %i&eration) "$ties of -omen an" bhakti-yoga) in &rief an" in "etai%. C 001NTAR* Cnd within var rama, more particularly he descri+ed dna or charity, kingJs duties and duties for attaining li+eration, womenJs duties and finally duties to the !ord 3 bhagavad-dharmn4. 9his refers to the a)gas of bha'ti/ It is placed at the end to indicate that it is the +est. @e descri+ed them in +rief and in detail 3samsa-vysa-yogata4. || 1.9.2D || dharmrtha-'ma-mo'! ca sahopyn yath mune | nn'hynetihse!u var aym sa tattvavitJ || TRANSLATI N 9a$na/a: Bhma) /no-er of tr$th) a''$rate%5 "es'ri&e" dharma, artha, kma an" moka a%ong -ith their metho"s) $sing (ario$s stories an" histories as proof. C 001NTAR*
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)dharma-vit" ity api p#ha |

Cll the dharmas descri+ed can +e placed ultimately in four categories of artha1 dharma, 'ma and mo'!a. @e mentions these categories in order to strengthen what has +een said. 7pyn means the means of attaining dharma1 artha1 'ma and mo'!a/ 6ath means 7accurately.8 @e pro ed what he said +y showing instances in the histories. || 1.9.29 || dharmaD pravadatas tasya sa '*a pratyupasthita9 | yo yogina chanda-m&tyor v%chitas tttarya a || TRANSLATI N The time of uttaryaa) -hi'h -as "esire" &5 Bhma) -ho ha" finishe" spea/ing on dharma an" 'o$%" "ie -hen he 'hose) then arri(e". C 001NTAR* 8handa-m&tyo means 7of he who could die when he pleased.8 || 1.9.8G || tadopasah&tya gira sahasra r vimu'ta-sa)ga mana di-pru!e | '&! e *asat-pta-pa#e catur-bhuje pura sthite m*ita-d&g vyadhrayat || TRANSLATI N At that time) -ith"ra-ing his -or"s from other s$&;e'ts) -ith e5es -i"e open) Bhma) %ea"er of a tho$san" 'hariots) 'on'entrate" himse%f) free of a%% materia% atta'hment) $pon .@>a) the origina% person) "resse" in shining 5e%%o- garments) -ith fo$r arms) stan"ing &efore him. C 001NTAR* 9ahasra refers to Bhma, who led 3n: or protected a thousand charioteers gathered for +attle. Cnother ersion has sahasri which means 7possessing a thousand treasures.8 "ithdrawing his words from other su+&ects 3gira upasah&tya4, with eyes completely open without +linking, he completely a+sor+ed his mind in Ka. || 1.9.81 ||

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$dharmn" iti p#ha sa eva yu'to ne'a-dharma-pra'athant | $paryupasthita" iti p#he pi sa evrtha |

viuddhay dhra ay hatubhas tad-'!ayaivu gat-yudha-rama | niv&tta-sarvendriya-v&tti-vibhramas tu!#va janya vis&ja janrdanam || TRANSLATI N As Bhma) free of a%% ina$spi'io$sness &5 his p$re 'on'entration) free of ph5si'a% fatig$e from fighting an" free of -an"ering senses &5 .@>aHs g%an'e of mer'5) %eft his &o"5) he &egan to praise .@>a. C 001NTAR* 4ad-'!ay means +y the glance of mercy of Ka. Vibhrama means the arious wandeings 3vividha-bhrama a4 of the senses. ;anyam means the material +ody, or the material world. || 1.9.82 || r-bh!ma uvca5 iti matir upa'a*pit vit&! bhagavati stvata-pu)gave vibhmni | sva-su'ham upagate 'vacid vihartu pra'&tim upeyu!i yad bhava-pravha || TRANSLATI N Bhma sai"# At the en" of m5 %ife I offer m5 tho$ghts to 5o$) bhagavn f$%% of si, F$a%ities) &est of the *a"$s) s$perior to a%% other forms of the Lor") a&sor&e" in &%iss -ith 5o$r asso'iates) an" -ho) as a pastime) in the form of the puruvatara) sometimes a''epts my &5 5o$r g%an'e) -hi'h pro"$'es the materia% -or%". C 001NTAR* Ct the end of my life 3 iti4, my thoughts are offered to the !ord. 6ince my master has come to me at the time of my passing away under the influence of his mercy, I must gi e him a gift. 9here is nothing suita+le in this a+ode of possessi eness and ego. 9herefore I make a gift of my thoughts alone. 7But in this world we see people who gi e also desire to take.8 7Fy thoughts are without desire 3vit&! 4. I offer them to bhagavn, who is full of si' wondrous qualities.8 7But the !ord is famous as E0r0yaa.8

7Eo, he is famous as the +est of the $adu dynasty.8 7But E0r0yaa is greatly famous as bhagavn for all time.8 79here is no greatness superior to his 3vibhmni4. @e is the source of E0r0yaa.8 @e attained 3gate4 profusely 3upa4 the highest +liss 3su'ham4 with his own $0da as and .0Aa as 3sva:. 9he main qualities of the !ord ha e thus +een descri+ed. Ee't the secondary qualities are descri+ed. $ou contact my +y glancing for e ol ing mahattattva from which arises the sequence of material creation. $ou do this in your forms of the puru!vatras/ || 1.9.88 || tri-bhuvana-'amana tam*a-var a ravi-'ara-gaura-varmbara dadhne | vapur a*a'a-'u*v&tnanbja vijaya-sa'he ratir astu me navady || TRANSLATI N Let me ha(e p$re prema for .@>a) the frien" of Ar;$na) -ho possesses a &o"5 "esire" &5 a%% the inha&itants of the three -or%"s) -hi'h is '%othe" -ith intense 5e%%o- garments shining in the s$n) -hose 'omp%e,ion is "ar/ %i/e the tam6%a tree) an" -hose %ot$s fa'e is s$rro$n"e" &5 %o'/s of hair. C 001NTAR* 7"hat is the nature of your thoughts:8 !et me ha e pure prema 3rati4 without desire for results, for the friend of Cr&una 3vijaya-sa'he4, who accepts a +ody which is desired +y all persons in the upper, middle and lower planets, which is clothed in garments golden in the sunJs rays. I saw that intense yellow from his upper and lower cloth sparkling in the sunJs rays as he stood on the chariot of Cr&una. Fy thoughts take the form of a prayer to ha e this prema for the most +eautiful Ka as the charioteer of Cr&una. In the prayers of following erses also there is no use of the second person, though Ka was present +efore him 9his indicates his attraction for the sweetness of the !ord a+sor+ed in vra-rasa during the +attle, and his a+sorption in relishing it.

|| 1.9.8= || yudhi turaga-rajo-vidhmra-vi!va''aca-*u*ita-ramavry-a*a)'&tsye | mama niita-arair vibhidyamnatvaci vi*asat-'avace stu '&! a tm || TRANSLATI N 0a5 m5 min" 'on'entrate on .@>a) -hose fa'e -as "e'orate" -ith hair 'o(ere" -ith the "$st raise" &5 horses) tosse" a%% a&o$t &e'a$se of the spee" of his "ri(ing) an" -ith perspiration &e'a$se of his great effort in prote'ting Ar;$na) -hose armor shone &right%5) pier'e" s%ight%5 &5 m5 sharp arro-s. C 001NTAR* @a ing spoken of KaJs face surrounded +y locks of hair, Bhma cannot gi e up that sweetness. Cgain he descri+es more details. 9he face is decorated with hair thrown all a+out +ecause of the speed of the chariot, and colored with the dust raised +y the horses. D en in what is not +eautiful, +eauty can +e found.(I 9he face is decorated with perspiration arising from effort. 9his indicates KaJs efforts +ecause of his affection for Cr&una. KaJs skin was pierced +y BhmaJs sharp arrows. Nust as the man in ol ed in lo e deri es happiness from the +ite marks of a +old lo er, Ka, the most courageous warrior, in the mood of fighting, deri ed pleasure from my strength in the form of the wounds from my arrows. 5ne should not think that I, e en o ercome +y the mood of fighting with Ka, was e er de oid of prema/ 6imilarly the woman who inflicts deep wounds upon her +elo ed, dearer than a million of her li es, with her nails and teeth during the +attle of lo e, cannot +e said to +e de oid of lo e for him. KaJs skin was not really pierced +ecause he was wearing an armor, which shone +rightly. It means that the arrows slightly pierced the armor. 0tm means mind. || 1.9.8A || sapadi sa'hi-vaco niamya madhye nija-parayor ba*ayo ratha niveya | sthitavati para-saini'yur a'! h&tavati prtha-sa'he ratir mamstu || TRANSLATI N
(I

sundare 'im asundaram nyya/

0a5 I ha(e prema for the 'hariot "ri(er of Ar;$na) -ho p%a'e" the 'hariot &et-een the t-o opposing armies imme"iate%5 on hearing Ar;$naHs reF$est) an") sit$ate" there) &5 his g%an'e) too/ a-a5 the prrabdha-karmas of the opposing part5. C 001NTAR* Cnd he immediately followed Cr&unaJs order. senayor ubhayor madhye ratha sthpaya me cyuta | yvad etn nir'!ye ha yoddhu'mn avasthitn || 5 Ccyuta please station my chariot +etween the two armies, so I can iew at the commencement of the war those situated with a desire to fight, and can see my companions in +attle. BO.(.*( Nust +y his glance 3a'! 4, showing to Cr&una 79his is Bhma, this is <roa, this is Kara,8 he took away their li es. 9his actually indicates he took away their prrabdha-'arma, since it will +e said later yam iha nir'!ya hat gat sva-rpam= those who saw him on the +attlefield of Kuruketra attained their original forms after death. 36B (.M.-M4 || 1.9.8B || vyavahita-p&tan-mu'ha nir'!ya sva-jana-vadhd vimu'hasya do!a-buddhy| 'umatim aharad tma-vidyay ya cara a-rati paramasya tasya me stu || TRANSLATI N 0a5 I ha(e prema for the feet of the S$preme Lor" -ho) &5 gi(ing /no-%e"ge of 3imse%f) "estro5e" the ignoran'e of Ar;$na -ho) on seeing the hea"s of the opposing arm5 at a "istan'e) ref$se" to fight &e'a$se he tho$ght it -as a sin to /i%% his re%ati(es. C 001NTAR* Vyavahita-p&tan-mu'ha nir'!ya means 7seeing Bhma and others standing in front of the army at a distance.8 Cr&una +ecame disinclined to kill his relati es. evam u'tvrjuna sa)'hye rathopastha upviat | vis&jya saara cpa o'a-savigna-mnasa ||

6peaking in this manner, Cr&una, gi ing up his +ow and arrows, mind distur+ed with lamentation, sat down on his chariot amidst the warriors assem+led for +attle. BO (.2K 9his is descri+ed +y the word 'umatim/ Cr&unaJs loss of intelligence was caused +y the !ord himself, like $udhi%hiraJs present loss of intelligence, +ecause loss of intelligence is impossi+le for the eternal associate of the !ord, who is also the avatra1 Eara. Ka did this in order to re eal ,hagavad-gt, which deli ers the whole world +y showing the truth a+out Ka. -tma-vidyay means +y knowledge fi'ed in Ka. || 1.9.8J || sva-nigamam apahya mat-pratij%m &tam adhi'artum avap*uto rathastha | dh&ta-ratha-cara o bhyayc ca*adgur harir iva hantum ibha gatottarya || TRANSLATI N <i(ing $p his o-n promise not to fight) an" ma/ing m5 (o- to ma/e him fight 'ome tr$e) .@>a) sit$ate" on the 'hariot) F$i'/%5 got "o-n an" ho%"ing the -hee% of a 'hariot) ran to-ar"s me) %i/e a %ion 'oming to /i%% an e%ephant) -hi%e the earth shoo/ an" his top '%oth fe%% to the gro$n". C 001NTAR* 7It is said that Ka ele ates his de otee to a higher position than his own. I saw that directly.8 9his is e'plained in two erses. Ka made a promise 3sva-nigamam4 that he would not take up weapons, +ut would only assist Cr&una. I made a promise that I would make him gi e up that promise and take up weapons. 9o make sure that this would +ecome true, Ka, situated on the chariot, quickly got down from the chariot in such a manner that no one could see his separation from the chariot. 5r Ka, though he got down, remained on the chariot to protect it in another form in isi+le to others. 9his pastime was spontaneously carried out, and was not +ecause of my request. @e took the wheel of the chariot and ran towards me. 9he earth trem+led +ecause of his great strength e'erted through running in e'citement. @is cloth fell down. Because of his e'cited running he was not aware whether his cloth had fallen or not. Because Ka cannot gi e up his quality of affection for his de otee, when Cr&una would +e una+le to fight, Ka would gi e up his promise and use weapons to protect Cr&una. It is impossi+le for others to make Cr&una una+le to fight. 9hus o erpowering Cr&una for a moment, I will see Ka fight as an

indication of his affection for his de otee. Bhma made this promise that Ka should take up weapons in order to fulfill this desire. @a ing seen KaJs prema for Cr&una when he +roke his own promise, and satisfying Bhma, KaJs e'cellence +ecame famous in the world. 9hat is the meaning of this incident. || 1.9.8D || ita-vii'ha-hato vir a-daa '!ataja-parip*uta tatyino me | prasabham abhisasra mad-vadhrtha sa bhavatu me bhagavn gatir mu'unda || TRANSLATI N .@>a: Let m5 on%5 goa% &e 0$/$n"a) -ho) aff%i'te" &5 m5 sharp arro-s) armor &ro/en) 'o(ere" in &%oo") r$she" to-ar"s me) his enem5) -ith great for'e) in or"er to /i%% me. C 001NTAR* "hen Ka got down from the chariot he +ecame co ered with +lood, +ecause the earth was co ered with ri ers of +lood from the slain warriors. @ow did his armor get pierced: It was struck +y my sharp arrows. I fired the arrows to increase the thrill of his anger. In other words, he pierced the armor +efore Ka got down from the chariot. "ith force 3prasabham4 he protected Cr&una and came towards me with the intention 79oday I will kill Bhma with my own hands.8 9he word abhisasra is used to indicate a hero desiring to meet his lo er. In a similar manner I +ecame e'traordinarily happy when Ka approached me in anger. Fay my goal +e no one else, only Fukunda, gi er of li+eration, who acted in this way. 5 KaB I ha e offered only this prayer to you. || 1.9.89 || vijaya-ratha-'u#umba tta-totre dh&ta-haya-ramini tac-chriye'!a ye | bhagavati ratir astu me mumr!or yam iha nir'!ya hat gat sva-rpam11 || TRANSLATI N 7esiring to "ie) ma5 I ha(e prema for the Lor" -ho prote'te" Ar;$naHs 'hariot -hi%e ho%"ing a -hip in his right han") the reins in his %eft han") -hose &ea$t5
((

$sva-rpam" iti p#ha sa ca #'nanuga a | tatra samna rpa gat iti vy'hynt ,

m$st &e seen) an" -ho &esto-e" %i&eration to those -ho "ie" on the &att%e fie%" after seeing him. C 001NTAR* Bhma has a desire that e en the unrighteous should de elop prema for Ka, who is eager to protect his de otees. Ka protected 3'u#umbe4 Cr&una 3vijaya4 from the sinful. @e held a whip 3totre4. @e held the reins of the horses. I, and not Cr&una, saw with my eyes, his +eauty as he held the reins in his left hand, the whip in his right hand, while saying 7@um, hum8 to speed the horses. Fay I ha e prema for that Ka. I desire to die now 3 mumr!o4, for ha ing died, I will constantly see that sweetness. If I am re i ed how will I see that, +ecause the !ord has +rought a+out an end to his pastimes on this earth: Bhma does not say 7I am dying8 +ut 7I want to die.8 @e could die when he chose, and now he had de eloped great greed for directly participating in KaJs pastimes. Prom this it is understood that the fighting pastimes are also eternal, what to speak of other pastimes. 79rue, you ha e great attachment to my pastime as a charioteer, and relish that in each of your erses, spout them from your mouth. $ou pray for prema for me in that pastime. But ha ing died, what is your proof that you will attain that pastime:8 79here is a well known saying mara e y mati s gati = whate er you think of when you die, you attain that. 6eeing you at present is the highest proof. By seeing you those who die, e en +eing killed +y others in this +attle, e en if they are demons, attain li+eration 3sva-rpam4 of merging in brahman similar to the j%ns/ But I am a de otee, with thoughts &ust descri+ed, and dying while seeing you personally at the time of death, how can I not attain that pastime: 9he form of Ka as the charioteer +estowed li+eration e en to unqualified persons 3demons4. 6imultaneously, at that time the most e'traordinary of all the !ordJs forms, full of the greatest sweetness, characteriGed +y no power and great power made its appearance 3for the de otees4.8

|| 1.9.=G ||
*a*ita-gati-vi*sa-va*gu-hsapra aya-nir'!a a-'a*pitoru-mn | '&tam anu'&ta-vatya unmadndh pra'&tim agan 'i*a yasya gopa-vadhva || TRANSLATI N

The gops -ere -orshippe" &5 .@>aHs e,pert a'tions) emotiona% "isp%a5s) -or"s an" g%an'es. Attaining those F$a%ities) the5 respon"e" in harmon5 to his most e,traor"inar5 "isp%a5s of %o(e) &%in"e" &5 the ma"ness of %o(e. 3oamaKing that these gops attaine" the nat$re of .@>a himse%f. C 001NTAR* 79hough you are omniscient, the prema that you desire in my charioteer pastime is in Cr&una alone. It is understood that among all the associates with prema, he is the chief.8 9hat is not so. $our dear gops ha e the most e'alted prema among all de otees. 9hey are superior to Cr&una. Eo one can dare to pray for their position. !et that +eB I will +e successful at my death &ust +y indicating their nature. 9hus he speaks this erse. @e was e'pert at physical arts such as dancing in the rsa-**, e'pert in e'pressing mental qualities such as dhira-*a*ita, e'pert in words with &oking, e'pert with the eyes at glancing to show all aspects of prema. 9he gops were to +e worshipped +y all these skilful actions of Ka. In order to please them, Ka endowed them with all the +est, outstanding qualities of himself. 9he result of their e'treme prema, was that Ka, in gi ing all his own qualities, attempted to please them with conciliating lo e. 9hat display of lo e, which is without restraints for either party, showed e'treme control of Ka +y the gops and was filled with great +liss. Qontrol of the !ord, manifested as a result of Cr&unaJs prema, was that Ka +ecame his messenger and charioteer. 9hat role had restraints for +oth parties. Cr&una could thus not attain intimacy with the !ord. @e +ecame compliant +y offering all his qualities to them 3 gops:. 9hey had a mutual friendship filled with happiness +ecause of mutual compliance. 9hen he +estowed an e'traordinary fortuneRthe dancing, songs and speech during the rsa-**. Cnd in response, the gops did the same 3anu'&ta-vatya4. In harmony with him, they offered him dancing, songs and speech in the rsa-**. 9here was no need to teach them anything. 9hey were +linded +y the increase of great prema 3unmadndh4. 9hey did not need practice. @ow astonishing 3 'i*a4B 9hey attained all his e'traordinary qualities such as skills in dancing and singing. Ka did not gi e his unique, e'traordinary power to Cr&una. 2&tam can also refer to KaJs actions such as lifting Oo ardhana. 9hey imitated those actions. Instead of unmada sometimes unmda is

seen. 9his indicates madness in separation. In that e'treme state some of them e en merged with the !ord. 9his is the highest le el of e'alted prema/ 6ince I am situated +etween the two limits, why can I not attain your pastime as the charioteer, which I desire: || 1.9.=1 || muni-ga a-n&pa-varya-sa)'u*e ntasadasi yudhi!#hira-rjasya e!m | arha am upapeda '!a yo mama d&i-gocara e!a vir tm || TRANSLATI N The %or" of m5 %ife) -orth5 of &eing seen) -ho re'ei(e" the -orship of a%% the greatest sages an" /ings in the assem&%5 "$ring the rjasya sa'rifi'e of *$"hi+hira) has &e'ome (isi&%e to m5 e5es. C 001NTAR* Bhma relates his great fortune which is directly isi+le now, to the necessity of attaining the !ord. Ka was seen with amaGement +y the sages e'claiming 75 what +eautyB "hat greatnessB8 In the midst of the gathering composed of the +est sages and kings, during the rjasya sacrifice of $udhi%hira, he recei ed 3upapede4 worship. @e, my soul, the lord of my life 3mama tm4, is now isi+le to my eyes. @e has fulfilled my request. || 1.9.=2 || tam imam aham aja arra-bhj h&di h&di dhi!#hitam tma-'a*pitnm | pratid&am iva nai'adhr'am e'a samadhigato smi vidhta-bheda-moha || TRANSLATI N Lree" of the i%%$sion of "ifferen'e in the Lor"Hs (ario$s forms) I ha(e attaine" the Lor" -ho is one tho$gh appearing to &e man5 %i/e the s$n seen &5 man5 peop%e) -ho is the 'harioteer) &$t -ho is a%so in m5 heart) the $n&orn an" is sit$ate" in the hearts of a%% the jvas, -ho 'reate their o-n &o"ies. C 001NTAR* "hy do you not address the !ord directly +ut instead address him indirectly with word like vijaya-sa'he vijaya-ratha-'u#umba me ratir astu and cara a-rati paramasya tasya me stu and sa bhavatu me bhagavn

gatir/< 9his erse answers, indicating that Bhima desires the !ord as a charioteer. I ha e attained that !ord 3tam4 who is the charioteer of Cr&una, holding the whip and +ridle in his hands, who is now appearing in my heart 3imam4. But the charioteer is not the !ord in the heart. Because Ka the charioteer has already entered and per aded my heart completely +y practice, it is not possi+le for the paramtm to enter. @e does not make his appearance &ust at this time 3 ajam4. 9hough he appeared to my eyes in this form at the time of +attle, e en +efore the +attle he was already in my heart +ecause of my spontaneous desire. @e is un+orn +ecause he has always +een isi+le to me. 9here is no fault on my part in this, +ut the 6upreme !ord alone situated in the heart ordains good fortunate or misfortune of the jvas/ @e is situated 3dhi!#hitam4 in the hearts of all jvas 3arra-bhjm4, who create their own +odies. 9he missing 7a8 in 3dhi!#hitam: is for meter. 9he ruti says yathgne '!udr visphu*i)ga vyuccarantiS the souls wander around like small sparks. 3,&had-ra ya'a 7pani!ad *.(.*I4 I know that the charioteer indicated +y the word tam and the four# handed form in < 0rak0 indicated +y the word imam are not different. 9he one sun in the sky appears to indi idual seers to +e not one +ut many, a+o e each personJs head. By such distincti e seeing the sun appears to +e many. Bhma is free of such illusionary seeing 3 vidhtabheda-moha4. 9hough Ka appears in my heart, and in the hearts of $udhi%hira, ;asude a, Hddha a, Eanda and the gops with arious degrees of prema and type of lo e, with different pastimes for each, I know that this is one Ka only. I know the arious degrees of e'cellence of their prema and lo e. But I can ne er gi e up my natural attachment to the form of Ka as the charioteer. D en thinking of the four#handed form of Ka in < 0rak0 is not interesting to me. || 1.9.=8 || sta uvca5 '&! a eva bhagavati mano-vg-d&!#i-v&ttibhi | tmany tmnam veya so ntavsa upramat || TRANSLATI N S$ta sai"#

Th$s Bhma) a&sor&ing himse%f in .@>a) bhagavn) the 'harioteer sit$ate" in his heart) $sing his min") -or"s an" sight) stoppe" his &reathing an" 'ease" e,terna% f$n'tions. C 001NTAR* @e a+sor+ed himself 3tmnam veya4 in Ka, the charioteer, situated in his heart 3tmani4, and stopped his +reathing 3antavsa4. 7pramat means he stopped e'ternal functioning. || 1.9.== || sampadyamnam j%ya bh!ma brahma i ni!'a*e | sarve babhvus te t! vaysva dintyaye || TRANSLATI N The ignorant) -ho -ere %i/e &ir"s -ho thin/ that "a5 has &een "estro5e" at the approa'h of e(ening) tho$ght that Bhma ha" attaine" the brahman) an" &e'ame si%ent. C 001NTAR* Bhma had attained his cherished form of Ka as the charioteer, +ut the common people, not knowing this though that he had entered into brahman/ 9hat is e'pressed in this erse. Cn e'ample of ignorance is gi en. Birds, thinking that the day has +een destroyed at the end of day +ecause they cannot see it, +ecome silent. 9he day has not actually +e destroyed, +ecause one understands that after some time, that day still e'ists, since after twel e hours daylight appears again. 9he ignorant think that when Bhma passed away he attained li+eration. 9he intelligent understand that at that ery moment in an in isi+le form Bhma fights on the ground with Ka holding the chariot wheel in his hand, and that in a future appearance of Ka, Bhma will also appear with him. 5r brahma i ni!'a*i can mean 7into the brahman Ka, who wears a gold ornament.8 5ne should not e'plain that Bhma merged into the brahman, since +y gi ing him something de oid of his goal, this would +e cheating his eternal associate Bhma of prema, since Bhma did not desire li+eration, and since it would +e improper for the !ord to gi e undesired results forci+ly. || 1.9.=A || tatra dundubhayo nedur deva-mnava-vdit | aasu sdhavo rj% 'ht petu pu!pa-v&!#aya ||

TRANSLATI N 7r$ms p%a5e" &5 devats an" men so$n"e") the /ings -itho$t hatre" praise" him) an" f%o-ers fe%% from the s/5. C 001NTAR* 9dahava rj%m means 7those who were without hatred among the kings.8 || 1.9.=B || tasya nirhara dni samparetasya bhrgava | yudhi!#hira 'rayitv muhrta du'hito bhavat || TRANSLATI N 9a$na/a of the Bh@g$ "5nast5: *$"hi+hira ha" %ast rites of the "eparte" Bhma performe" an" &e'ame sa" for a moment. C 001NTAR* =irhara dni means sas'ras/ 9hough Bhma is an eternal associate of the !ord, his aa had entered into ;asu 3who then descended from the hea enly planets to earth.4 9hus Bhma is shown +y the !ord to gi e up his +ody. @is aa was situated in ;asu, and he himself attained the spiritual world. yvad adhi'ram avasthitir dhi'ri' m= those designated +y the !ord remain in their posts on earth as long as that !ord chooses. 3Vednta-stra -.-.--4 9amparetasya can +e analyGed as sam for samya' 3completely4, para for paramevara 3supreme lord4 and itasya for prptasya 3o+tained4. 9hus the word means 7of the person who attained the 6upreme !ord completely.8 9his is supported +y the ruti e'plaining the details of li+eration. 4asya sarve!u *o'e!u 'ma-ca&o bhavati= the li+erated soul is free to tra el in all the planets as he pleases. 38hndogya 7pani!ad L.*>.*4 It has +een said that Bhma, an eternal associate of the !ord, attained Ka as the charioteer in apra'a#a-**. 9hus in the pre ious description of Bhma stopping his +reath and gi ing up his +ody, one should say that he simply +ecame detached from 3upramat4 his manifested +ody on earth. 5ne should not say that he ga e up a material +ody and ga e up +reathing. $udhi%hira was sad for a short period. 9his he did to follow the custom of the people 3since he understood that Bhma did not ha e a material +ody4. || 1.9.=J ||

tu!#uvur munayo h&!# '&! a tad-guhya-nmabhi | tatas te '&! a-h&day svramn prayayu puna || TRANSLATI N The sages in ;o5 praise" .@>a -ith his 'onfi"entia% names an" then -ith .@>a in their hearts "eparte" again for their hermitages. C 001NTAR* 4ad-guhya-nmabhi indicates that they said, 75 Ka, affectionate to the de otees, controlled +y premaB "e offer respects to your affection nature.8 || 1.9.=D || tato yudhi!#hiro gatv saha-'&! o gajhvayam | pitara sntvaym sa gndhr ca tapasvinm || TRANSLATI N Then *$"hi+hira -ent to 3astin6p$ra -ith .@>a an" 'onso%e" 7h@tar6t@a an" <6n"h6r) -ho -as o(er'ome -ith grief. C 001NTAR* >itaram means <htar0ta. || 1.9.=9 ||

pitr cnumato rj vsudevnumodita | ca'ra rjya dharme a pit&-paitmaha vibhu || TRANSLATI N Iith the permission of 7h@tar6+ra) an" agreement of .@>a) po-erf$% *$"hi+hira r$%e" the an'estra% /ing"om a''or"ing to dharma.