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I. What is a judicial clerkship? A judicial clerkship is the opportunity to work directly for a judge or judges. Typically, judicial clerkships last for a period of one or two years. The primary duties of a judicial clerk involve assisting a judge with a variety of tasks, including conducting legal research, drafting opinions, editing, writing memoranda, analyzing legal issues, and performing cite checks. Most federal and some state court judges have two to four clerks, while the majority of other judges have only one clerk. Approximately 10% of VLS graduates serve as a judicial law clerk in either a federal or state court after law school. (See Appendix A for a list of where recent graduates have clerked.) A clerkship, at any level, is a rewarding experience, and a wonderful way to begin your legal career. This handout is designed to get you started with the process of applying for a clerkship. II. Why clerk? The value of a judicial clerkship to your professional development and ultimate career success cannot be overstated. It is an excellent way to bridge the gap between law school and the practice of law. Serving as a judicial clerk after law school can be an extremely beneficial experience for a variety of reasons: Clerks have the rare opportunity, at the start of their careers, to view the judicial process from the perspective of a judge. Judges often develop mentoring relationships with their clerks, which continue well after the clerkships end. Clerks may have the opportunity to meet and observe many attorneys, which not only may lead to future employment possibilities but also provides the opportunity to see different advocacy styles in action. Because legal employers hold judicial clerkships in high regard, your marketability will likely improve as a result of your clerkship.

III. Where to clerk? Federal judges at the trial and appellate levels all hire law clerks. Within the federal system, there are two primary choices: the courts of appeal and the district courts. However, do not overlook the federal magistrate judges, the federal bankruptcy courts or the other specialty courts, including the Tax Court, the Court of International Trade, the Court of Military Appeals, the Court of Veterans Appeals and the Court of Federal Claims. Federal agencies also employ administrative law judges who hire judicial clerks. There are trial and appellate clerkships in all state court systems as well. Some state courts are known for their strength in certain areas. For example, the Massachusetts Land Court is a great place to clerk if you are interested in land use law. When looking at state courts, pay close attention to the details of each system since no two state systems are alike. For example, the highest court in the New York Court System is called the Court of Appeals and the trial-level courts are called Supreme Courts. See BNA's Directory of State and Federal Courts, Judges and Clerks, located in the Cornell Library for organizational charts for each states court system. There are some basic differences between trial and appellate level clerkships. A trial court judicial clerks duties generally are broader in scope and relate to the litigation process. In contrast, an appellate court clerks duties are more academic in nature since they involve addressing more complicated legal issues in depth. Clerks in specialty courts will perform duties similar to trial court clerks while gaining a greater understanding in a particular field of law.

IV. Narrowing down the choices Faced with the number of potential clerkships, clerkship applicants often become overwhelmed by the process. To help keep the process manageable: First, reflect on why you are pursuing a clerkship. For instance, if you are interested in a litigation career, then perhaps you should consider a trial court clerkship. If you are interested in relocating to a particular state, then perhaps you should clerk for a state court to become familiar with that states practices and procedures. If you are interested in a particular area of law, then perhaps you should pursue opportunities with either federal or state specialty courts. Second, speak with faculty members and/or alumni who have clerked to gain a sense of what the experience is like and how it would impact your future career. (See Appendix B for a list of faculty members who have clerked.) Third, research the judges to whom you might apply. You can read general biographical data in the Almanac of the Federal Judiciary or the Judicial Yellow Book as well as on Lexis and Westlaw. Fourth, you can schedule a meeting with a career counselor in the OCS to discuss your individual goals and develop a clerkship strategy.

V. Application strategies to consider Geographical Diversity: Many students think about applying only to federal courts or state supreme courts in major metropolitan areas. These are the most competitive clerkships and are likely to be filled by students with the strongest academic backgrounds. Therefore, consider applying to a broader range of courts and locations. For example, if you are determined to clerk for a federal court, consider judges in less popular areas where you also have a logical nexus, i.e., Northern New England or where you are from (even if its not where you hope to work longterm). Conversely, if you are set on a particular geographic location, then apply to all of the federal and state court judges in that area. Senior Judges and Recent Appointees: Consider judges who are at the beginning or end of their careers. In the federal appellate and district courts, judges are entitled to take senior status at a certain age, but they can continue to carry a full or reduced caseload. Since judges on senior status are still entitled to hire one or two clerks, this may be a viable option and may be slightly less competitive, depending on the judge and the caseload he or she oversees. On the other end of the spectrum are recently appointed judges. New appointees need law clerks but may not receive many applicants because students do not know that they are on or will be on the bench. (For information on the latest nominees see the list located at: Staff Attorneys: Another route to consider may be serving as a staff attorney. All federal appellate and some state courts employ recent law graduates to fill these positions. In general, staff attorneys do not serve a particular judge. Rather, they work for the judges as a whole on matters such as emergency motions or jurisdictional issues. Staff attorney positions can provide useful practical experience, exposure to a particular jurisdiction and court, and will be looked upon favorably by employers. Political Affiliation: Many applicants to federal judges will choose to apply to a particular judge based on the political affiliation of the judge or the president who nominated that judge to the bench. This political litmus test can have both positive and negative repercussions. On the plus side, if you have very strongly held political convictions and think that you could not possibly work for a judge with whom you have fundamental disagreement, you should be forewarned of that potential conflict. However, there are significant down sides as well. Most judicial decisions do not turn on politically-charged issues, so the frequency with which your and your judge's political ideals may clash are likely to be few. Also, the strength of some judges' political affiliation varies 2

over time. Finally, with the right mind set, you might actually enjoy a bit of mental sparring with a judge whose perspective is different than yours, provided that you always understand that the judge is in charge and gets the final say, regardless of how correct you believe your position is. Number of judges to whom to apply: Because many students apply for relatively few positions, the judicial clerkship application experience is different from other job searches. Even strong clerkship candidates may have to apply to a large number of judges in order to secure a small handful of interviews and perhaps only one offer of employment. On average, even a very qualified candidate may enjoy an interview return rate of five percent; i.e., for every 100 applications, the student will receive five interviews. However, applying to hundreds of judges without reflection on the fit between you and those judges is not advisable. While everyones situation is different, it is not unusual for students to apply to between 50 and 100 judges. You must decide the right number of applications for you. Final thoughts on narrowing down your list: First, be realistic about your selections. Consider your credentials and the likelihood of being hired by a certain judge or court. Next, do not reflexively apply to a particular judge or a cohort of judges without thinking about your goals and needs. In other words, even though it may be considered more prestigious to clerk for a particular court, if that court does not fit into your long-term plans, look at other courts which may be better aligned with your career goals. Also, do not, under any circumstances, apply to a judge for whom you really do not want to clerk. This approach wastes not only your time, but also the judges time and can ultimately hurt your reputation as well as that of the law school among the judiciary. So, take the time early to figure out why you want to clerk, what you think you want to do after that, and which judges would be the ones with whom you will have the best fit.

VI. Financial considerations Many people think that they cannot afford to clerk for one or two years after they graduate. For most students, the long-term benefits, discussed above, outweigh the short-term expenses. The primary cost involved in applying for clerkships is the potential interview costs. While a few judges, especially in remote places, may interview you by phone or video conferencing, most judges will require an in-person interview. Judges do not pay your travel expenses to interview for a position. Hence, if selected to interview, you will bear all the costs associated with that visit, including airfare, hotel and/or rental car. You may use the VLS travel reimbursement program to help mitigate some of these costs. The bottom line is this: there are expenses associated with interviewing. However, similar to buying an interview suit or paying for books, you should view this as part of the cost of investing in your legal career. VII. When to apply? Federal Courts For federal courts, the answer depends on whether the judge is following the federal hiring plan, which nearly all judges now follow. Under the hiring plan, the critical dates - which are set forth at - are as follows: First date when applications may be received from third-year applicants: Tuesday, September 4, 2012 First date when judges may contact applicants to schedule interviews: Friday, September 17, 2012 First date when interviews may be held and offers made: Thursday, September 13, 2012 These judges will begin to review applications immediately after the opening of the application period, i.e., the day after Labor Day, so you are STRONGLY advised to submit complete applications before the first day of the application period. Federal judges who do not follow the hiring plan will decide when they wish

to accept applications. If the judge posts an opening on OSCAR the application period will be noted. (See Appendix C for a federal law clerk hiring timeline.) State Courts Some state Supreme Court judges may seek law clerk applications from second year law students. Most, however, now accept applications during the third year. The VLS Guide to State Judicial Clerkship Procedures provides an overview of the application timing and procedures - ask Shelly Parker or Michelle Parent in Career Services for the password, which will change in June as the Guide is updated. If you receive an offer to interview with a judge in a city where you have applied to other judges, you may call those other judges and let them know that you will be in the city interviewing. Usually, if a judge is already inclined to interview you, he or she will be sensitive to the financial implications of multiple visits and will try to accommodate your schedule. Also, while there are no guarantees, knowing that a colleague is interviewing you may encourage a judge to reconsider your application or move your application from the maybe pile to the interview pile. The application process can be time consuming, so begin preparing as soon as you can. It may take you some time to make a list of judges and courts offering clerkships that interest you. It will also take time to determine what application materials you need for each application. You should also spend time polishing your writing sample. Finally, make sure you line up your recommendation writers early, so that each has time to write a thorough letter on your behalf. VIII. Preparing Your Application Materials Application materials are critical when applying for judicial clerkships. The primary responsibilities of a law clerk are research and writing, and your application materials are the first indication of your ability to perform these skills. If you have grammatical, typographical, or spelling errors anywhere in your materials, you will likely be eliminated as a candidate. The typical clerkship application includes a cover letter, resume, transcript, writing sample, and letters of recommendation from faculty members and/or employers. Cover Letters In general, cover letters should be well written and to the point. The first paragraph should include who you are, the position for which you are applying, and the approximate date your tenure would begin. The second paragraph should address why you are interested in serving as a judicial law clerk for that judge or court. Also include in this paragraph any geographical connection you may have to the area in which the judges chambers are located or the jurisdiction the judge serves. If there are other connections you have to the judge or reasons that you want to clerk for that particular judge, take the opportunity to make your case. The third paragraph should address why you are qualified to clerk for that judge or court. Your final paragraph should thank the judge for his or her time and consideration, and state that you are available to meet with the judge for an interview at his or her convenience. Recognize that judges get many hundreds of letters each year. They do not have staff dedicated to reading your application, nor do they have the funding to hire recruitment professionals to facilitate the hiring process for them. In short, their law clerks and secretaries are taking time out of their very busy schedules to read your letter and application materials. The more efficient and interesting your letter is, the more likely the reader will read on and possibly pass your information along to the judge for further consideration. In some courthouses judges compare notes on their clerkship applicants. If you choose to include language in your form letter that a judge might interpret to be addressed uniquely to him or her, you run the risk of sabotaging your clerkship search. That impassioned paragraph about your desire to clerk for a particular judge rings hollow when the judge discovers at a weekly judges luncheon that everyone at the table received the same letter. While it may seem simple, addressing your cover letter and envelope correctly, with correct titles, spellings and salutation lines, is absolutely critical. A misspelling or awkward construction 4

shows the judge that you do not pay attention to detail and may relegate your resume to the do not interview pile. Judges participating in a recent panel discussion estimated that one third of clerkship applications are discarded due to obvious typographical errors, misuse of titles or court names and similar errors. Do not disqualify yourself with carelessness! Information on addressing your cover letter and envelopes, as well as guidelines for producing your letters using a word processing mail merge, is available from Career Services. Transcripts Virtually all judges will require a transcript but most will accept an unofficial copy, which you may obtain in pdf form from the Registrars Office. If you need an official law school transcript, you must request that specifically from the Registrar. Some judges require undergraduate transcripts as well as law school transcripts. Writing Sample Before hiring you, a judge will want to see a sample of your writing. Some judges will want a writing sample sent in the initial packet of materials; others will ask you to send a writing sample only after reviewing your other materials first. The typical suggested length of a writing sample is between 5 and 7 pages, although it can vary from judge to judge. If the instructions regarding writing samples are not clear, contact the judges chambers to determine how to proceed. The writing sample you choose to send should be the best piece of legal writing you have done to date. You should consider all of the work you have done, including work you produced in your summer job, a draft of your journal note if you are working on one, and your legal writing course assignments. Regardless of what sample you choose, all samples must be (1) substantially your own work; (2) accessible to the non-specialist reader; and (3) error free. Number one is by far the most important. You cannot submit a piece of writing to a judge which has been so heavily edited that it is not your own. If you cannot write as well as the judge thinks you can, you will fail to meet the judges expectations. This is a terrible trap to set for yourself, and you will have a difficult clerkship if you fall into it. The second rule exists because most judges and their law clerks (who often make the first cut through reading clerkship applications) are legal generalists, unless you are applying to a specialized court like the Land Court. Therefore, choosing a piece of writing in a very technical legal area may put you at a slight disadvantage over others who have chosen a piece of writing which is more accessible to smart lawyers without specialized knowledge of the topic. Finally, rule three sounds unimportant, but can be the difference between getting an interview and being passed over. All judges, regardless of which court they sit on, have very high standards for themselves and the work that leaves their chambers. As a law clerk, you represent your judge to the outside world and your work product reflects your judge. If you are unable to produce a letterperfect document as a sample of your work, the judge may rightly conclude that you do not possess the requisite attention to detail which a representative of his or her chambers must have.

Letters of Recommendation Recommendation letters can be very influential in a judges decision-making process. Judges usually like you to send three letters of recommendation, at least two of which come from law school faculty members. The third may be from a legal employer who knows your work well. This is not a hard and fast rule, so if you are uncertain, call the individual judges chambers to see what letters that judge requires. The people you ask to submit letters on your behalf should be familiar with you and your work. The better the person writing the letter can speak to your abilities personally, the stronger the recommendation will be to a judge. Also, do not be concerned about the status of your recommender; a glowing letter of reference by a senior associate is always a better choice than a tepid letter from a named partner.

For letters of recommendation from faculty members, we recommend that you contact them before the summer so as to give them substantial time in which to write a letter. Also, for recommendation letters from faculty members, the Office of Career Services will help process those letters. Please discuss this process with Michelle Parent in Career Services ( who coordinates this effort. For letters of recommendation from people other than faculty members, we recommend that you give the recommender your resume and transcript to refresh his or her memory as to your background. Inform the recommender of the names of the judges to whom you will be applying. Request that the recommender supply signed, sealed letters to you well in advance of the mailing date so that you can include them in your application package. If you are requesting a letter from someone who is unable to individually address the letters, request that they address their letter in a generic fashion (To Whom It May Concern), and provide you with the necessary number of signed copies in sealed envelopes. If your recommender is unable or unwilling to deliver reference letters to you, request that they send the letters directly to the judges to whom you are applying, for receipt as soon after your application mailing date as possible.

IX. Interviewing First, before your interview, you must research and read significant decisions in which the judge has been involved. It would not be unusual for a judge to ask you which of his or her opinions you found most interesting. Not only should you read opinions in which the judge writes for the majority, but you should pay special attention to concurrences and dissents. The judges particular philosophy or interests may be best revealed by reading those opinions in which the judge is not in agreement with the majority. You should also be aware of opinions that have been overruled. Second, be knowledgeable about United States Supreme Court jurisprudence. The U.S. Supreme Court is the one court in the nation to which judges and lawyers pay the most attention. A judge may ask you who your favorite or least favorite Supreme Court justice is and why. Others may ask you to comment on recent notable decisions, especially those pertinent to the jurisdiction in which you are interviewing. Third, be prepared to discuss your writing sample in great detail. Judges will often ask you questions about your sample and engage you in discussion of its implications to assess your ability to present ideals orally and think on your feet. Also, be familiar with other large pieces of writing you have done either during or before law school; they are all fair game for discussion in the interview. Fourth, because you will be working very closely with the judge, he or she will want to get to know you as a person. The judge may be very interested in the hobbies or extracurricular activities you listed on your resume and may ask you to elaborate on such topics and other personal information at greater length than other legal employers. Fifth, be prepared to ask good questions of the judge. Often the best questions are those that result from the research that you do on the judge and the jurisdiction. Substantive questions about interesting current decisions are always a good idea, but do not ask questions of the judge which would require the judge to reveal anything confidential, such as questions about cases pending before the court. Also, asking questions which could be answered with reference to easily accessed materials will only show your lack of preparation; do your homework to avoid looking foolish in the interview. Sixth, the judge is not your only audience. Often, the judges current law clerks will speak with you by phone before you enter the judges chambers. Be prepared for this discussion as well. Some clerks will ask substantive questions and want to discuss your writing sample or other legal topics. Even if the discussion with the clerk is less formal, do not be fooled; this too is an interview and not the time to try to get the dirt on the judge or the clerkship experience. Use this time to find out how the judge organizes his or her chambers. For example you might inquire as to how the judge uses clerks; e.g., do clerks draft the bulk of decisions or does the judge do the writing with 6

clerks providing research assistance? Law clerks are often fiercely loyal to their judges, and you should expect that anything you say to a clerk will be reported back to the judge. Also, the judges secretary, court reporter, bailiff and other support staff are incredibly important to the functioning of the judges chambers and/or court. These people have usually been around much longer than any law clerk will ever be. Therefore, treat all judicial staff with the utmost courtesy and respect. X. The offer The judicial clerkship application process is unlike any other job search you have encountered, with perhaps the biggest difference coming when you are offered a position to clerk. Judges must choose among hundreds of highly qualified applicants. When a judge finally decides to hire you, he or she usually expects that you will accept the offer, since you are, to the judges mind, the best of the applicant pool. And, given the highly competitive atmosphere, the first offer you receive may be the only one you will get. Both of these facts mitigate in favor of your accepting the first clerkship opportunity presented to you. Unfortunately, the first judge who offers you a position may not be at the top of your list. Can you reject the offer? Conventional wisdom dictates that you accept the first offer you get for several reasons. First, judges, like most people, do not like to be rejected. By rejecting an offer you may be hurting your chances of clerking for other judges in the jurisdiction or hurting other VLS students chances of clerking for the judge in the future. Second, most former law clerks would tell you that clerking was a truly rewarding experience. Therefore, clerking for a judge who was number 15 on your list is almost definitely better than losing the opportunity to clerk at all. Can you ask for time to think about the offer after it is extended? Yes, but understand that some judges will be offended if you do not accept their offer on the spot; they may require that you decide, then and there. Others may give you 24 hours to think it over. The most any judge may give you might be a week or two. Whether to ask for time to think it over is a personal decision. You have to determine whether you are willing to risk offending the judge and how much difference 24 hours or a week will make to you. While it is true that some applicants may try to leverage an offer from a more-preferred judge with the offer from a less-preferred judge, most judges will not look kindly on this practice. Our final advice is this: for most people, the clerkship experience is so overwhelmingly positive with almost all judges that you should take any opportunity to serve as a judicial clerk. The possible benefits that you could gain by asking for time to decide whether to accept an offer or reject an offer hoping that something better will come along seem small in comparison to the great opportunity you might miss if you hesitate in accepting an offer on the spot.

XI. Questions If you have questions or want to discuss any aspect of a judicial clerkship, contact Career Services at 831-1243 to schedule an appointment.

Appendix A VLS Clerkships

Class 2012 Judge Name Judge Peter Hall Judge Leonard T. Strand Justice Paula Nakayama Multiple Judges Multiple Judges Justice Brian Burgess Multiple Judges 2011 Judge Peter Hall Judge Mark D. Houle Court U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit U.S. Magistrate for the Northern District of Iowa Alaska Trial Court (multiple students) Hawaii Supreme Court New Hampshire Superior Court (multiple students) New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division Vermont Environmental Court Vermont Supreme Court Vermont Trial Courts U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Central District of CA Alaska Superior Court (multiple students) Colorado District Court Maine Supreme Court Montana District Court New Hampshire Superior Court (multiple students) New Jersey Superior Court (multiple students) New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division Oregon Court of Appeals Vermont Trial Courts Wyoming District Court U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of NY U.S. District Court for the Northern District of NY U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of NC U.S. NRC - Atomic Safety & Licensing Board Panel Alaska Trial Court (multiple students) Maryland District Court Nevada District Court New Hampshire Superior Court (multiple students) New Jersey Superior Court (multiple students) New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division Fairfax County (VA) Circuit Court U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit City Rutland Sioux City Various Locations Honolulu Concord Albany Barre Montpelier Montpelier Rutland Riverside Kenai Boulder Portland Billings Various Locations Various Locations Albany Salem Burlington Cody Boston Brooklyn Utica Greensboro Rockville Anchorage Baltimore Reno Various Locations Various Locations Albany Fairfax Rutland New York Denver and Oklahoma City Rockville Anchorage Various Locations Hartford Portland Lansing Helena State VT IA AK HI NH NY VT VT VT VT CA AK CO ME MT NH NJ NY OR VT WY MA NY NY NC MD AK MD NV NH NJ NY VA VT NY CO and OK MD AK AK CT ME MI MT

Hon. Mary Jane Knisely Multiple Judges Judge Richard Hoffman

Multiple Judges Honorable Steven Cranfill 2010 U.S. Mag. Judge Robert B. Collings Judge David N. Hurd Judge Catharine R. Aron Anthony C. Eitreim, Chief Counsel

Judge Brent Adams Multiple Judges Multiple Judges Chief Judge Dennis Smith 2009 Judge Peter W. Hall Pro Se Law Clerk

Honorable Jerome A. Holmes Anthony C. Eitreim, Chief Counsel Judge Joel H. Bolger Hon. William J. Lavery Multiple Judges

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit U.S. NRC - Atomic Safety & Licensing Board Panel Alaska Court of Appeals Alaska Superior Court (multiple students) Connecticut Appellate Court Maine Trial Court (multiple students) Michigan District Court Montana Supreme Court

Multiple Judges Multiple Judges Judge Thomas Durkin Judge Merideth Wright Judge J. Robin Hunt Justice Brian Burgess The Honorable Marilyn Skoglund

Nevada Third Judicial Court New Hampshire Superior Court New Jersey Superior Court (multiple students) Vermont Environmental Court Vermont Environmental Court Washington State Court of Appeals Vermont Supreme Court Vermont Supreme Court Washington State Court of Appeals U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit U.S. Magistrate for the District of New Jersey Alaska Superior Court (multiple students) Colorado District Court D.C. Court of Appeals Massachusetts Land Court Montana Supreme Court Montana Trial Court New Hampshire Superior Court (multiple students) New Hampshire Supreme Court New Jersey Superior Court (multiple students) Pennsylvania Trial Court Vermont Supreme Court Vermont Trial Courts (multiple locations) Superior Court of the Virgin Islands Fairfax County (VA) Circuit Court U.S, Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit U. S. Bankruptcy Judge for the Middle District of FL U.S. NRC - Atomic Safety & Licensing Board Panel U.S. Office of the Immigration Judge Alaska Superior Court (multiple students) Colorado District Court (multiple students) Connecticut Court of Appeals Connecticut Superior Court New Castle (DE) Superior Court Hawaii District Court Kennebec County (ME) Superior Court Maryland District Court Massachusetts Appeals Court New Jersey Superior Court (multiple students) Vermont Environmental Court Vermont Trial Courts

Yerington Various Locations Various Locations Barre Barre Tacoma Montpelier Montpelier Olympia New York Newark Various Locations Denver Washington Boston Helena Bozeman Various Locations Concord Various Locations Harrisburg Montpelier Various Locations Christiansted Fairfax Rutland Philadelphia Tampa Rockville Eloy Various Locations Boulder Hartford Hartford Wilmington Maui Augusta Baltimore Boston Various Locations Montpelier Rutland



Pro Se Law Clerk Judge Michael Shipp Honorable Anne Mansfield Judge Kathryn A. Oberly Honorable Alexander H. Sands, III Justice W. William Leaphart Judge Michael Salvagni Justice John T. Broderick

Justice Brian Burgess Multiple Judges Judge Julio A. Brady Chief Judge Dennis J. Smith 2007 Honorable Peter W. Hall Judge Anthony J. Scirica Judge Catherine Peek McEwen Anthony C. Eitreim, Chief Counsel Multiple Judges

Multiple Judges Multiple Judges Multiple Judges Multiple Judges Honorable Fernande R.V. Duffly Judge Meredith Wright Multiple Judges

Appendix B VLS Faculty Clerkships

Faculty Tracy Bach Betsy Baker Michael Dworkin John Echeverria Jackie Gardina Jackie Gardina Clara Gimenez Oliver Goodenough Greg Johnson Greg Johnson Greg Johnson Greg Johnson Donald Kreis Donald Kreis Donald Kreis Donald Kreis Gil Kujovich Gil Kujovich Gil Kujovich Reed Loder Michele Martinez Campbell Janet Milne Brian Porto Robert Sand Jeff Shields Pamela Stephens Joan Vogel Stephanie Willbanks Contact Harriet Lansing John T. Noonan, Jr. Catherine Kelly Gerhard Gesell William Young Levin Campbell Jeffrey L. Amestoy Jed Rakoff Edmund Burke Allen Compton Rene Gonzalez Arthur Ngiralkson Caroline Glassman Robert Clifford John Dooley David Cohen - Magistrate Shirley Hufstedler Potter Stewart Byron White Thomas P. Smith - Magistrate Robert F. Peckham Frank Coffin Denise Johnson Franklin Billings, Jr. James L. Oakes John W. Peck Alfred T. Goodwin Rosalie E. Wahl Federal/State State Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal State Federal State State State International State State State Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal State Federal Federal Federal Federal State Court Minnesota Court of Appeals US Court of Appeals 9th Circuit US Court of Appeals DC Circuit US District Court DC US District Court MA US Court of Appeals 1st Circuit VT Supreme Court US Court of Appeals 9th Circuit Alaska Supreme Court Alaska Supreme Court Alaska Superior Court Palau Supreme Court Maine Supreme Court Maine Supreme Court VT Supreme Court US District Court ME US Court of Appeals 9th Circuit US Supreme Court US Supreme Court US District Court CT US District Court Northern CA US Court of Appeals 1st Circuit VT Supreme Court US District Court VT US Court of Appeals 2nd Circuit US Court of Appeals 6th Circuit US Court of Appeals 9th Circuit Minnesota Supreme Court


Appendix C 2012 Federal Judicial Clerkship Hiring Plan and Suggested Timeline
Critical Dates for the 2012 Federal Law Clerk Hiring Plan (taken from 1. First date when applications may be received from third-year law students Tuesday, September 4, 2012 2. First date and time when judges may contact applicants to schedule interviews: Friday, September 7, 2012 3. First date and time when interviews may be held and offers made: Thursday, September 13, 2012 Suggested Timeline April May: Contact Career Services to schedule an appointment to discuss clerkship strategy and the application process (phone interviews over the summer are available) May - June: OSCAR: includes contact information on ALL federal judges. Use OSCAR to develop a list of hiring plan judges to whom you will apply Request letters of recommendation from faculty, informing them of your application strategy and a list of the judges you are considering applying to; give faculty recommenders a copy of your resume and transcript; notify career services of who your recommenders are Familiarize yourself with the OSCAR system if you are going to apply to federal clerkships Coordinate faculty recommendation letters with Michelle Parent in Career Services July:

Register on OSCAR to apply to federal judges who accept online applications Request official transcript (if required) from the Registrar Request undergraduate transcript (if required) Select your recommenders in your OSCAR applications using the drop down menus this will trigger an email notice to the recommenders and to VLS Career Services Upload documents required by OSCAR judges Select the judges to whom you will apply online through OSCAR

August Perfect and proofread writing sample Draft cover letter (OCS will be happy to review your draft) Prepare mailing labels and affix to manila envelopes; copy all supporting materials (OCS can help) Assemble application packets, add faculty recommendation letters to application packets and seal August 28 - September 4: Conduct a final review of all applications uploaded to OSCAR to ensure your applications are complete. Any applications you are unable to complete should be withdrawn. Once you FINALIZE your application, your materials are LOCKED and cannot be revised by anyone except a Judge who requests a document update via email.

Appendix D Additional Resources List Federal Court Clerkship Resources:

OSCAR - Online System for Clerkship Application and Review Federal Judicial Center - comprehensive and fully searchable judge biographies Federal Judiciary Home Page Federal Magistrate Judges Association - contains information about federal magistrate judges Federal ALJ Post Graduate Clerkships Database (available in consultation with Career Services see Michelle Parent for more details) Recent federal judicial nominations and confirmations:

State Court Clerkship Resources:

Vermont Law Schools Guide to State Judicial Clerkship Procedures - click on judicial clerkship guide (current username is green and password is mountains note this password will change in June, contact Career Services then to get the new one) Insight and Inside Information for Select State Court Clerkships (in OCS library)

General Judicial Clerkship Resources

Behind the Bench; the Guide to Judicial Clerkships, Strauss, 2002 by the BarBri Group (in OCS library) Yale Law School Judicial Clerkship Guide terrific, comprehensive resource for all things clerkship-related