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# CHAPTER 7: Forces in Beams

Beams Various types of loading and support Shear and bending moment in a beam Shear and bending moment diagrams Relations among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

## 7.1 Internal Forces in Members

F B F B

C A F C A F Tension C F F A

C C F C A F Compression F F

D E C B W G A F

D T C Cy B Ax A Ay J Cx FEB T

D J V N M V C Cy B Ax A

M J

Cx FEB

Ay

B D P A
C

B M D P P A V V N M N D
C

Example 7.1
In the frame shown, determine the internal forces (a) in member ACF at point J and in member BCD at point K. (b) determine the equation of internal forces of member ACD and draw its diagram. This frame has been previously considered in sample 3.6 m 1000 N A 1.2 m J K 1.5 m E 4.8 m C 2400 N D F

2.7 m B 2.7 m

Guide : Assuming that Frame can be treated as a rigid body. The reactions and the forces acting on each member of the frame are determined. Member ACF is cut at point J and member BCD is cut at point K, the internal forces are represented by an equivalent force-couple system and can be determined by considering the equilibrium of either part.

(a)

## Define the state of the problem

3.6 m 1200 N A 1.2 m J K 1.5 m E 4.8 m C 2400 N D F

2.7 m B 2.7 m

Assuming that Frame can be treated as a rigid body. Member ACF is cut at point J and member BCD is cut at point K, the internal forces are represented by an equivalent force-couple system.

Construct the physical model, construct mathematical model and 3.6 m solve equations
1200 N A 1.2 m 2400 N C 1.5 m E 4.8 m D F F = 3150 N A 2.4 m 1.2 m 2400 N 2400 N D B C 2400 N 1200 N 3600 N 2.7 m B 2.7 m F 4.8 m 750 N 3150 N 450 N 2400 N 3600 N C

2400 N

## The diagram of internal forces of member BCD

Nx1 = +2400 N Nx2 = 0 Vx1= -1200 N Vx2= 2400 N Mx1 = -1200x1 Nm Mx2 = -2400x2 Nm 2.4 m 1.2 m 2400 N 2400 N B x1 D C 2400 N

## 1200 N 3600 N N (N) x2 +2400 x V (N) 2400

A = -2880 A = +2880

## -1200 M (Nm) x -1800 -2880

BEAMS
P1 A B P2 C D

w A B Distributed load C

## L Simply supported beam

L1

L2

Continuous beam

L Overhanging beam

L Beam fixed at one end and simply supported at the other end

L Fixed beam

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## 7.3 Shear and Bending Moment in a Beam

Internal Loadings at a Specified Point Sign Convention M N V N V N N M V

## M V Positive Sign Convention

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Shear and Moment Functions P x1 A L/2 P/2 x1 A P/2 + Vx1 Mx1 L/2

## + Mx1 = 0: Mx1 = (P/2)x1 Mx2 Vx2 x2 B P/2

Fy = 0: Vx2 = -P/2

## + Mx2 = 0: Mx2 = (P/2)x2 V P/2

x M PL/4 -P/2 x

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P w A x1 x2 x3 OR P w A x1 B x2 C x3 D B C D

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## 7.4 Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending F1 F2 F3 Moment

w = w(x) A

.
M1 x

.
B

.
C x

.
M2

w(x)x w(x) V M O x

w + Fy = 0:
V w( x) x (V + V ) = 0

V = w( x)x

M + M V + V

+ MO = 0:
Vx M + w( x) x (x) + ( M + M ) = 0

M = Vx w( x) (x) 2

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V = w( x)x

M = Vx w( x) ( x) 2

dV = w( x) dx

----------(7-1)

## Slope of Shear Diagram = -Intensity of Distributed Load

dM =V dx

----------(7-2)

Slope of Moment Diagram = Shear Equations (7-1) and (7-2) can be integrated from one point to another between concentrated forces or couples, in which case
V = w( x)dx

Change in Shear = -Area under Distributed Loading Diagram and Change in Moment = Area under Shear Diagram
M = V ( x)dx

----------(7-3)

----------(7-4)

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F V M x M + M V + V M V M

. O

M + M V + V

Fy = 0:

V = F

Thus, when F acts downward on the beam, V is negative so that the shear diagram shows a jump downward. Likewise, if F acts upward, the jump (V) is upward. + MO = 0:
M = M '

In this case, if an external couple moment M is applied clockwise, M is positive, so that the moment diagram jumps upward, and when M acts counterclockwise, the jump (M) must be downward.

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ML VL ML

MR
VL

0 0 VR Slope = VL ML 0 0 ML

Slope = VR

MR

VR M MR

0 MR Slope = VR

ML VL ML w1

w0

VL

MR VR w2 MR VR w2 M R VR

-wo VR

Slope = VL ML

MR

VL

Slope = VR

MR Slope = VR

VL w1 ML VL

VL

## Slope = w1 Slope = -w2 VR Slope = VL ML

MR

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Example 7.2
From the structure show. Draw the shear and bending moment diagram for the beam and loading. (a) use the equations each section. (b) use the relations among load, shear, and bending moment. 20 kN A 2.5 m B 3 m C 2 m 40 kN D

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## (a) use the equations each section. 20 kN A 2.5 m

By =

x1

x2 3 m

40 kN x3 C D 2 m Dy = 20 + 40 - 46 = 14 kN

40( 2) + 20(7.5) = 46 kN 5

20 kN A 20 kN A

x1 Mx1 Vx1 B

Fy = 0: Vx1 = -20

## + Mx1 = 0: Mx1 = -20x1 x2 Mx2 Vx2 Mx3

Fy = 0: Vx2 = 46-20 = 26

## + Mx3 = 0: Mx3 = 14x3

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(a) use the equations each section. 20 kN A 2.5 m Vx1 = -20 V (kN) x1 B x2 3 m 46 kN Vx2 = 26 26 x -20 V (kNm) -14 28 x 40 kN x3 C D 2 m 14 kN

Vx3 = -14

## Mx1 = -20x1 Mx2 = 26x2 - 50 Mx3 = 14x3

-50

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(b) use the relations among load, shear, and bending moment. 20 kN A 2.5 m B 3 m 46 kN V (kN) C 2 m 40 kN D 14 kN

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A = +78 A = -50

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A = -28

x -14

-20 M (kNm)

-20

-14 28

-50

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Example 7.3
Draw the shear and bending moment diagram for the the mechanical link AB. The distributed load of 40 N/mm extends over 12 mm of the beam, from A to C, and 400 N load is applied at E.

40 N/mm A C 12 mm D 6 mm 4 mm 10 mm 400 N 32 mm B

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## 480 N A Ay = 480 + 400 - 365 = 515 kN C 12 mm 480 N D 6 mm 4 mm 10 mm 400 N 32 mm 1600 Nmm B

By = 480(6) + 400(22) 32 = 365 kN

## 515 N V (N) 515

A = +3300

400 N

365 N

35 x
A = 210 A = 5110

V (Nmm)

3300

3510

-365 5110

-365

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Example 7.4
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown in the figure.

20 kN/m

9m

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## (1/2)(9)(20) = 90 kN 20 kN/m (2/3)9 = 6 m

x 3 1 x ( )( x )(20 ) 2 9

x (20 ) 9 M

90-60 = 30 kN V (kN) 30 +

9m

90(6)/9 = 60 kN

30 kN

V=0 x

V=0 x x = 5.20 m 60

Fy = 0:
1 x 30 ( )( x)(20 ) = 0 2 9

## x = 5.20 m M (kNm) + x + Mx = 0: 104

1 5. 2 5. 2 M + [( )(5.2)(20 )]( ) 30(5.2) = 0 2 9 3

M = 104 kNm

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Example 7.5
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown in the figure. 3 kN 5 kNm A C 3m 1.5 m D 1.5 m B

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## 3 kN 5 kNm A 0.67 kN 3m C 1.5 m D 1.5 m B 2.33 kN

V (N)

0.67

+ -2.33 3.52 +

x (m)

2.01 M (kNm) +

x (m)

-1.49

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Example 7.6
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the compound beam shown in the figure. Assume the supports at A is fix C is roller and B is pin connections. 8 kN 30 kNm C 15 m

hinge B

12 m

12 m

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8 kN

hinge B

30 kNm C

12 m

12 m

15 m

30 kNm

0 = Bx By = 2 kN Cy = 2 kN MA = 48 kNm 8 kN By = 2 kN Ax = 0 Ay = 6 kN Bx = 0

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## 8 kN 48 kNm A 6 kN 6 V (kN) -2 24 M (kNm) 8m B

30 kNm

C 15 m 2 kN

12 m

12 m

6 x (m) -2

x (m)

-30 -48

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Example 7.7
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the compound beam shown in the figure. Assume the supports at A and C are rollers and B and D are pin connections.

60 kN m A

2 kN/m Hinge B 10 m 6m

5 kN

3 kN/m C D 6m 6m

4m

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60 kN m A

2 kN/m Hinge B 10 m 20 kN 6m

5 kN

3 kN/m C D 6m 6m

4m

60 kN m

By = 16 kN Bx = 0 kN Ay = 4 kN 5 kN 0 = Bx By = 16 kN Cy = 45 kN 4m 9 kN 4m 9 kN Dx = 0 kN Dy = -6 kN

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60 kN m A 4 kN

2 kN/m Hinge B 10 m 6m

5 kN

3 kN/m C 6m 45 kN

D 6m

4m 24

6 kN

V (kN)

2m

6 x (m) -16

64 60 M (kN m)

-21

-21 x (m)

-96 -180

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