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7/2/2012

Chapter II

Highway Surveys
4 Hours

Highway Surveys

2.1 Process of identifying best route location 2.2 Physical surveys: map study and reconnaissance, preliminary and detailed surveys 2.3 Highway alignment and controlling factors
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Chapter II

Flow Chart of Route Location Process

Map study:
By careful study of topographical maps, it is possible to have an idea of several alternate routes so that further details of these may be studied later at the site. The probable alignment can be located on the map from the following details available on the map.
Alignment avoiding valleys, ponds or lakes. Possibility of crossing through a mountain pass. Avoiding bend of the river for crossing rivers. Keeping the permissible gradient.

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Reconnaissance:
The second stage of surveys for highway location is the reconnaissance to examine the general character of the area for deciding the most feasible routes for detailed studies. Some of the details to be collected during reconnaissance are given below. Valley, ponds, lakes, ridge, hills, permanent structures and other obstructions along the route which are not available in the map. Approximate values of gradient, length of gradient and radius of curves of alternate alignment.

Cont..
Number and types of cross drainage structure, maximum flood level and natural water level. Soil type and observation of geological features. Sources of construction materials, water and location of stone quarries. Type of rocks, seepage flow, may observe when the road passes through hilly or mountainous terrain.
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Preliminary surveys
The main objectives of the preliminary survey are; To survey the various alternate alignments proposed after the reconnaissance. To collect all the necessary physical information and details of topography, drainage, and soil. To compare the different proposals in view of the requirements of a good alignment. To estimate quantity of earth work. To finalize the best alignment.
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Detailed survey;
The alignment finalized at the design office is to be located on the field by establishing center line. The center line stakes are driven at suitable intervals (50m intervals in plain and rolling terrain and 20 m intervals hilly terrain.) Bench marks are fixed at interval of about 250m and all drainage structures. Levels along the final center line should be taken at all staked points.
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Cont..
The cross section levels are taken up to the desired width. All river crossing, valley etc. should be surveyed in detail Detailed soil survey is carried out The data during the detailed survey should be complete for preparing detailed plans, design and estimate of the project
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Highway Alignment:
The position or the layout of the centre line of the highway on the ground is called alignment. Horizontal alignment (straight path, curves, horizontal deviations) Vertical alignment (Changes in gradient and vertical curves)
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Disadvantages of improper alignment


Increase in construction cost Increase in maintenance cost Increase in vehicle operation cost Increase in accident rate.

Basic requirements of an ideal alignment


Short It is desirable to have a shortest alignment between two terminal stations. Easy The alignment should be such that it is easy to construct and maintain easy with minimum problems.

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Cont
Safe The alignment should be safe enough for construction and maintenance from the view point of stability of natural hill slopes, embankment and cut slopes and foundation of embankments. It should be safe for the traffic operation with safe geometric features. Economical If the total cost including initial cost, maintenance cost and vehicle operation cost is low the road alignment could be considered economical.
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Factors controlling the highway alignment


Obligatory points Traffic Geometric design Economy Others

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Obligatory point:
Points through which the alignment is to pass Bridge site Industrial area Hill pass Intermediate town

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Alignment along the hill pass

Connecting intermediate town

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Cont.
Points through which the alignment should not pass: Waterlogged area Historical or archeological site Restricted zone for defense/national security Densely populated area Very costly structures
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Traffic
The alignment should suit traffic requirements. Origin and destination study should be carried out in the area.

Geometric design
The geometric design of a highway deals with the dimensions and layout of visible features of the highway such as gradients, radius of curve, sight distance, and super elevation etc.

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Economy
The alignment should also be economical Others Various other factors such as drainage, hydrological factors, political considerations, monotony, Sub-surface water level, seepage flow and high flood level are to be keeping in view
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