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The Journal of Energy and Development volume 37, number 1, autumn 2011 (copyright 2012) http://www.scribd.

com/doc/122595275/ Benjamin K. Sovacool, “Policy Lessons from Ten Renewable Energy Access Programs in Developing Asia,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 37, number 1 (autumn 2011, copyright 2012), pp. 1–44. Abstract: Based on 441 research interviews over the course of four years, site visits to 90 renewable energy facilities, and focus groups with almost 800 community members in 10 countries, this study develops 12 overarching lessons and 42 qualitative factors that correlate with successful energy access programs. Through an in-depth exploration of 10 case studies, the article highlights the applicability of different approaches and technologies and illuminates how household and commercial innovations occur (or fail to occur) within particular energy development programs. It also, uniquely, explores successful case studies alongside failures or “worst practice” examples that are often just as revealing as those that met their targets. Keywords: energy poverty, energy development, renewable energy, developing Asia, Bangladesh, China, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea Mehdi Sadeghi, “Analysis of Distorted Energy Prices in Iran,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 37, no. 1 (autumn 2011, copyright 2012), pp. 45–52. Abstract: The energy sector in Iran is facing a critical situation at the present time. One of the most important issues is energy price distortions and inappropriate pricing mechanisms. At the moment, the overall energy consumption in Iran is estimated more than U.S. $18 billion. In 2002, the gasoline import expense reached U.S. $1 billion and, by the end of 2009, it had exceeded U.S. $3 billion in order to fulfill total gasoline demand. The forecasts indicate that energy-related environmental emissions will be the most serious problem challenging the energy sector by the year 2020. The interesting point is that about 70 percent of these emissions are the result of energy consumption in the transportation sector. Our results, based on a cointegration approach, indicate that energy price distortion removal —in fact, subsidization removal—cannot play an effective role in energy conservation in Iran. This energy pricing policy should have embodied adjustment mechanism in order to cover the national economy. The public expenditures modifications associated with income distribution priorities also should be considered. Keywords: energy price distortions, energy subsidies, Engle-Granger causality, government expenditure, income distribution, Iran

Kyriaki Noussia and Markela Stamati, “On Damages and Other Substantive and Procedural Issues in International Energy Industry and Investment-Related Arbitrations,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 37, number 1 (autumn 2011, copyright 2012), pp. 53–85.

Abstract: International energy infrastructure trade and investment have grown rapidly over the last decades, especially in emerging markets, which since the mid-1990s, have been subjected to substantial changes in energy policies and regulations, energy market conditions, and commodity prices. Those changes, in turn, have engendered a wide range of disputes related to expropriations, investment impairment, changes in energy and investment law/regulation, and contract breach and termination. Critical legal foundations for many investments, financing, and commercial agreements are contractual clauses related to binding international arbitration and dispute resolution procedures and/or bilateral investment treaties between an investment project’s host government and the home country of the international investor. Crucial to all of the above is also the issue of the award of damages. In examining some salient issues regarding substantive and procedural aspects of energy disputes, we evaluate the question of the award of damages, perform a critical discussion, and draw overall conclusions. Keywords: International energy infrastructure, energy investment arbitration, energy, investment, oil and gas arbitration, award of damages Dianah Mukwate Ngui, Wilson Wasike, and John Mutua, “Energy Planning Models: A Survey with Future Directions for Kenya’s Energy Planning,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 37, no. 2 (spring 2012, copyright 2012), pp. 87–114. Abstract: This article was intended to provide information for developing and operationalizing the most suited energy planning model for Kenya. Various energy planning models were reviewed, and general features of the models identified in addition to the advantages and disadvantages of the various models. In conclusion, energy planning for Kenya can be best supported by a modular package of models, which should include models for assessing energy demand, supply, impacts, and a model for developing a series of relationships that provide a direct link between the energy model and the KIPPRA-Treasury macroeconomic model (KTMM) model. Keywords: energy in Kenya, energy planning, energy planning models, integrated model, model classification, modular package models, energy sector, energy demand, energy supply Rania Ben Hamida, Amina Feki, and Sami Hammami, “Energy, Polluting Emissions, and Economic Development in Tunisia,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 37, number 1 (autumn 2011, copyright 2012), pp. 115–128. Abstract: In this paper, we examine the dynamic relationship among carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and per-capita gross domestic product in Tunisia for the period between 1974 and 2005

using Engle and Granger’s cointegration. The empirical results show that the relationship between Tunisia’s economic development and environmental quality are not in line with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis; rather, it is a matter of a monotone increasing relationship where polluting emissions go hand-in-hand with the country’s economic development and reflects inefficiency in energy usage. Keywords: energy, economic development, Environmental Kuznets Curve, EKC-hypothesis, emissions, carbon dioxide, environment, GDP, Tunisia, Engle and Granger cointegration, empirical modelling Khalid H. A. Alqudair, “Causal Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 37, number 1 (autumn 2011, copyright 2012), pp. 129–142. Abstract: The study examines the long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1970–2008), using a cointegration technique and the direction of causality relationship for both the long and short run with the vector error correction model (VECM). The cointegration test indicates the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. The causality test indicates that there is a uni-directional causal relationship that runs from economic growth to energy consumption in the long run and not vice versa. In addition, the causality test indicates the absence of short-run causality between energy consumption and economic growth. Overall, it may be concluded that the results provide support to the conservation hypothesis that entails a positive causality running from economic growth to energy consumption in the long run only. Keywords: economic growth, energy consumption, conservation hypothesis, energy policy, cointegration, causality, Saudi Arabia