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The Journal of Energy and Development volume 38, number 2, spring 2013 (copyright 2013) http://www.scribd.

com/doc/202948614/ Mohamed Nagy Eltony, “Transport-Sector Demand for Energy in Kuwait—Revisited,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 38, number 2 (spring 2013, copyright 2013), pp. 133– 146. Abstract: In recent years, the Kuwaiti government has considered measures to reduce inefficiency and waste in domestic energy consumption by the key sectors, especially transportation. The policy makers are considering raising the price of domestic oil refined products among other measures to curb consumption and deal with road congestion. One of the key elements of these measures that are currently under discussion is the complete or partial removal of fuel price subsidies for road transportation. The aim of this study is to estimate the demand for oil products in the transportation sector in Kuwait using time series data for the period 1975–2010. The results indicate that the demand for motor gasoline is inelastic with respect to price and income in the short and long run. The demand has a short-run elasticity approaching unity when it comes to the average fuel economy of the fleet of automobiles, which indicates a rapid response to global changes in automobile technology. Furthermore, the results also reveal that diesel fuel consumption is price and income inelastic in the short run but exceeds unit elasticity in the long run. As for the case of aviation fuel, the demand is inelastic with respect to the price in the short run but it exceeds unit elasticity with respect to the number of flights landed at Kuwait airport, which indicates that the level of activity is a more important explanatory variable of the demand for aviation fuel than its own price. Furthermore, the simulation of the estimated model under various scenarios regarding energy prices revealed that there are definite long-run advantages to introducing fuel prices adjustment upward. There is a great potential for energy conservation and fuel efficiency gains in the Kuwaiti transportation sector. The moderate, the extreme, and the complete removal of subsidies scenarios showed that the transportation sector will observe a decline in the range of 3 percent to 7 percent from the base-line scenario. The size of the fleet of automobiles and improvements in technical fuel efficiency will contribute significantly in that direction. Finally, for the result under total removal of price subsidies, fuel prices for the transportation sector will be the highest prices among all the scenarios and the total energy demand will be lower than the base-line scenario by about 7 percent in 2020. Keywords: energy demand in Kuwait, transport sector, demand for oil products, time series Jack Fuller and Steven Richmond, “Modes of Electricity Generation, Delivery Systems, and the Role of Trust in Creating Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Markets,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 38, number 2 (spring 2013, copyright 2013), pp. 147–156. Abstract: Fossil fuel-burning power plants have been a central feature of electricity delivery systems since their inception. This highly centralized and top-down method of producing electric power for consumption is extremely effective. However, recent political and social trends have called for the increased use of alternative and renewable energy sources to mitigate the harmful effects that burning fossil fuels has on

the environment. Energy portfolio standards (EPS) policies have mandated that utilities produce a percentage of their electricity using clean technologies. These mandates will have a profound effect on traditional power delivery systems. Some technologies have been adopted rather easily while solar photovoltaic (PV) installations continue to remain largely underutilized. This paper will make the case that solar PV installations simply do not fit into the traditional power delivery system. They require that consumers also become producers in the electricity market, creating a decentralized power network which completely changes the traditional relationship between customers and utilities. When consumers become part producers, they begin to think like the management team of a business. They must be certain that their investments will have positive returns. The current regulatory and legal structure does not address the needs of the consumer-producer hybrid. This will have to change in order to create trust in the solar PV market and attract potential investors. Keywords: solar photovoltaic markets, alternative energy sources, renewable energy, energy portfolio standards, decentralized power networks, power delivery systems Olivier Grosse and Benoît Sévi, “Decreasing R&D Expenditures in the European Energy Industry and Deregulation,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 38, number 2 (spring 2013, copyright 2013), pp. 157–188. Abstract: Since the middle of the 1980s, particularly in Europe, the public energy expenditures on research and development (R&D) have slowed down noticeably. Meanwhile, the European deregulation of energy network activities and the consecutive restructuring of energy sectors have led companies to significantly reduce their R&D investments. What will be the consequences of the public and private declines in energy R&D on the output of new technical knowledge? We suggest that the private energy R&D restructuring in the long term might favor the exploitation strategies of companies to the detriment of their exploration strategies, thereby limiting the potential to develop new technologies that may deal with the global warming issue. We also examine whether specific incentives—intended to correct the present trend of energy R&D—have been and or should be implemented by the leading European countries. Keywords: energy industry restructuring, R&D budgets, global warming, innovation, patents, technological knowledge, gas, electricity, European R&D Ignacio César Cruz Islas, “Energy Consumption of Mexican Households,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 38, number 2 (spring 2013, copyright 2013), pp. 189–219. Abstract: Energy consumption of households is closely linked to domestic activities, the social and economic status of people, and practices that surround their daily lives. The objective of this article is to study energy consumption patterns in Mexican households, at a specific moment in time, by incorporating two levels of analysis. First, the linkage between energy consumption of households within a particular geographical context—urban and non-urban areas—and regions of the country is examined. Second, the relationship between energy consumption and socio-demographic characteristics of Mexican households is assessed. Using income and expenditure survey ENIGH 2008 as the information source, we construct a proxy for energy consumption. To obtain this proxy we use electricity and fuel spending; next we

calculate energy units according to their energy content. As a final result there are two logistic regression models. In these models we use energy consumption per household and per capita as dependent variables, respectively. Keywords: Mexico, energy consumption, developing countries, estimation methods, household energy use patterns Uday Shankar and Surendra Sharma, “Access to Energy: Looking through the Prism of Human Rights—The Indian Experience,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 38, number 2 (spring 2013, copyright 2013), pp. 221–239. Abstract: The paper attempts to identify the right of access to energy on the landscape of human rights using India as the case study. The contents of what comprises human rights increasingly are expanding and evolving to keep pace not only with societal needs but also with individuals’ expectations and perceptions. We begin with an analysis of the evolution of human rights, the expansion of the discourse on human rights, and the identification of new rights. In particular, we examine these issues by evaluating the development of India’s laws and most pertinent cases regarding this subject. We continue with a discussion of why the access to energy itself constitutes an element of human rights. In conclusion, the paper presents the importance of the right to energy within the overall discussion on human rights. Keywords: access to energy, human rights, India, Indian legal system Rania Ben Hamida, “Electricity Consumption and Industrial Gross Domestic Product Nexus in Sfax: An ARDL Bounds Testing Approach,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 38, number 2 (spring 2013, copyright 2013), pp. 241–255. Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the causal relationship between the level of development expressed by the gross domestic product (GDP) for the industrial manufacturing of Sfax (Tunisia) and the energy consumption expressed by the electricity consumption in the industrial sector. The study period is from 1980 to 2010. Unlike the majority of works in this area, we use the developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach by M. H. Pesaran et al. (2001). This cointegration procedure is considered the most appropriate one in this case where the variables concerned in our study are not derived from the same order of integration. This regional study is specific to Sfax because it is considered to be the second largest industrial center in Tunisia and among the top regions in terms of fossil-fuel energy resource use in the nation. Keywords: gross domestic product (GDP), causality, electricity consumption in Tunisia, cointegration, ARDL bounds testing, long-term relationships, Sfax, industrial GDP

Mine Şenel, Bilgin Şenel, Levent Bilir, and Vedat Zeytin, “The Relation between Electricity Demand and the Economic and Demographic State: A Multiple Regression Analysis,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 38, number 2 (spring 2013, copyright 2013), pp. 257–274. Abstract: In this study, the electricity demand of a Turkish city (Eskişehir), which has contributed considerably to the industrial development of the country, is forecasted with linear and non-linear regression models. We run our models based upon gross national product values, which is a significant indicator of population and economic development. The electricity demand for the period between 2009 and 2015 is forecasted with the most consistent model among the ones we investigated. Based upon our research, we offer some recommendations about the policies and precautions that Eskişehir should take into account. Keywords: gross national product (GNP), electrical peak load, regression model, electricity demand, electricity in Turkey, Eskişehir