Fields: Smallest unit in a table Records: collections of fields or columns Table: Collections of fields Primary Key: A primary key

has a immutable responsibility of serving a unique identifier in a table. Foreign Key: Is a column that refers to a primary key in another table. Composite Index: more than one column are included to make primary key Database: Collections all the tables and objects are called database DBA: The integrity, security, connectivity, performance, tuning, ensuring the recovery of the database is maintained by DBA’s. They use oracle enterprise management tools to do the task. Developers: They use tools like forms, reports, graphics for front-end development, schema, procedure, query builder tools for back end. Project builder tools for delivery to clients. A table can have unique keys, composite keys, primary keys, foreign keys. Avoid having too many keys on the table. Joins: Joining two or more tables is the best use of relational database INNER JOIN OR EQUI JOIN Cartisian Product: x Outer Join: Matching + unmatched Records If Join keyword is used in the query then On key word condition is used or else Where condition: only for natural join on key, where is not required Using¨displayes only one caolumn On displays all the common columns Using = On(are interchangeable A correlated sub-query is a term used for specific types of queries in SQL in computer databases. It is a sub-query (a query nested inside another query) that uses values from the outer query in its WHERE clause. The sub-query is evaluated once for each row processed by the outer query. Employees with their managers Select e.empno, e.ename, e.mgr , m.empno, m.ename from emp e, emp m where e.mgr = m.empno; Escape Character queries If the escape character is & then to find %, _ in the string use the query
SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ename LIKE '%^_%^%%' ESCAPE '^' insert into emp1 (ename) values ('IMRAN&BAIG%1_2#') NOTE: Error it will ask for value of baig If you want to insert & in the field then From sql> prompt set define off then insert statement This will work.

SQL Loader: LOAD DATA INFILE ‘path’ or *(if the data is given using BEGINDATA key in the ctl file at the end) APPEND/INSERT/REPLACE INTO TABLE table_name FIELDS TERMINATED BY ‘,’ OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY ‘”’ ( column_name1 [position(value1:value2) if begindata is used] , column_name2 [position(value1:value2) if begindata is used] , column_name3 [position(value1:value2) if begindata is used] , . . . ) [([] means optional) BEGINDATA Column1_value Column2_value Column3_value………(give exact positions) ] TRAILING NULLCOLS will allow null values into the table columns BELOW is an example If values are giving using begindata then null values can be passed by giving , without values like ename, empno, , sal If values are freom the data file then no need LOAD DATA INFILE * APPEND INTO TABLE emp1 FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"' TRAILING NULLCOLS ( empno, ename, sal, comm, deptno ) BEGINDATA 2222, "IMRAN BAIG", ,22, 20 3222, "IMRAN,BAIG", 3222, 32, 20 4222, "IMRAN&BAIG", 4222, 42, 30 Exists Operator

If the sub-query returns data, then the EXISTS operation will return TRUE and a record from the parent query will be returned.