CHEMISTRY 9251 A LEVEL 2007

for
Chemistry

(Advanced Level)

for use in all papers for the above syllabus, except practical examinations

47

CHEMISTRY 9251 A LEVEL 2007

TABLES OF CHEMICAL DATA
Important values, constants and standards
molar gas constant

R

= 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

the Faraday constant

F

= 9.65 x 104 C mol-1

the Avogadro constant

L

= 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

the Planck constant

h

= 6.63 x 10-34 J s

speed of light in a vacuum

c

= 3.00 x 108 m s-1

mp

= 1.67 x 10-27 kg

rest mass of neutron, 0 n

mn

= 1.67 x 10-27 kg

0
−1

me

= 9.11 x 10-31 kg

e

= -1.60 x 10-19 C

1

rest mass of proton, 1H
1

rest mass of electron,

e

electronic charge

Vm
= 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at s.t.p.
Vm
= 24 dm3 mol-1 under room conditions
(where s.t.p. is expressed as 101 kPa, approximately, and 273 K (0 ºC))
molar volume of gas

ionic product of water

= 1.00 x 10-14 mol2 dm-6
(at 298 K [25 ºC])

Kw

specific heat capacity of water

= 4.18 kJ kg-1 K-1
(= 4.18 J g-1 K-1)

48

CHEMISTRY 9251 A LEVEL 2007

Ionisation energies (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th) of selected elements, in kJ mol-1
Proton
Number

First

Second

Third

Fourth

H

1

1310

-

-

-

He

2

2370

5250

-

-

Li

3

519

7300

11800

-

Be

4

900

1760

14800

21000

B

5

799

2420

3660

25000

C

6

1090

2350

4610

6220

N

7

1400

2860

4590

7480

O

8

1310

3390

5320

7450

F

9

1680

3370

6040

8410

Ne

10

2080

3950

6150

9290

Na

11

494

4560

6940

9540

Mg

12

736

1450

7740

10500

Al

13

577

1820

2740

11600

Si

14

786

1580

3230

4360

P

15

1060

1900

2920

4960

S

16

1000

2260

3390

4540

Cl

17

1260

2300

3850

5150

Ar

18

1520

2660

3950

5770

K

19

418

3070

4600

5860

Ca

20

590

1150

4940

6480

Sc

21

632

1240

2390

7110

Ti

22

661

1310

2720

4170

V

23

648

1370

2870

4600

Cr

24

653

1590

2990

4770

Mn

25

716

1510

3250

5190

Fe

26

762

1560

2960

5400

Co

27

757

1640

3230

5100

Ni

28

736

1750

3390

5400

Cu

29

745

1960

3350

5690

Zn

30

908

1730

3828

5980

Ga

31

577

1980

2960

6190

Ge

32

762

1540

3300

4390

Br

35

1140

2080

3460

4850

Sr

38

548

1060

4120

5440

Sn

50

707

1410

2940

3930

I

53

1010

1840

2040

4030

Ba

56

502

966

3390

-

Pb

82

716

1450

3080

4080

49

CHEMISTRY 9251 A LEVEL 2007

Bond energies
(a)

Diatomic molecules
Bond
HH
DD
N≡N
O=O
FF
ClCl
BrBr
II
HF
HCl
HBr
HI

(b)

Energy/kJ mol-1
436
442
994
496
158
244
193
151
562
431
366
299

Polyatomic molecules
Bond
CC
C=C
C≡C
C….C (benzene)
CH
CCl
CBr
CI
CO
C=O
CN
C=N
C≡N
NH
NN
N=N
OH
OO
SiCl
SiH
SiO
SiSi
S Cl
SH
SS

Energy/kJ mol-1
350
610
840
520
410
340
280
240
360
740
305
610
890
390
160
410
460
150
359
320
444
222
250
347
264

50

CHEMISTRY 9251 A LEVEL 2007

Standard electrode potential and redox potentials, E
For ease of reference, two tabulations are given:

at 298 K (25 oC)

(a) an extended list in alphabetical order;
(b) a shorter list in decreasing order of magnitude, i.e. a redox series.
(a)

E

in alphabetical order
E /V

Electrode reaction
+

Ag + e
Al

3+
2+

Ba

+ 3e
+ 2e

Br2 + 2e

-

Ca2+ + 2eCl2 + 2e
+

-

2+

-

2HOCl + 2H + 2e
Co

-

Co

+ 2e

3+

2+

[Co(NH3)6]

+e

+ 2e

-

Cr2+ + 2eCr3+ + 3eCr
Cr2O72-

3+

+e

+

+ 14H + 6e
+

Cu + e
Cu

2+

Cu

+ 2e

2+

+e

-

[Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 2eF2 + 2e
Fe
Fe

2+
3+

Fe

+ 2e
+ 3e

3+

+e

3-

[Fe(CN)6] + e

-

Fe(OH)3 + e+

2H + 2e
I2 + 2e

-

+

-

Li + e
Mg

-

+

K +e
2+

-

+ 2e

-

Mn2+ + 2eMn

3+

+e

+

MnO2 + 4H + 2e

-

MnO4- + eMnO4- + 4H+ + 3eMnO4- + 8H+ + 5eNO3- + 2H+ + eNO3- + 3H+ + 2eNO3- + 10H+ + 8e+
Na + e

Ni

2+

+ 2e

- 

Ag

+0.80 

Al

-1.66 

Ba 

2Br 

Ca 

2Cl 

Cl2 + 2H2O

+1.64 

Co

-0.28 

Co 

Co + 6NH3

-0.43 

Cr

-0.91 

Cr 

Cr 

2Cr + 7H2O

+1.33 

Cu

+0.52 

Cu 

Cu 

Cu + 4NH3 

2F 

Fe 

Fe 

Fe 

[Fe(CN)6]

+0.36 

Fe(OH)2 + OH-

-0.56 

H2

0.00 

2I 

K

-2.92 

Li

-3.04 

Mg

-2.38 

Mn 

Mn 

Mn

-2.90
-

+1.07
-2.87

-

+1.36

2+

+1.82

-0.74
2+

-0.41

3+

+0.34
+

+0.15

-

-0.05
+2.87
-0.44
-0.04

2+

+0.77
4-

-

+0.54

-1.18
2+
2+

+1.49
+ 2H2O

+1.23 

MnO42-

+0.56 

MnO2 + 2H2O

+1.67 

Mn 

NO2 + H2O

+0.81 

HNO2 + H2O

+0.94 

NH4+ + 3H2O

+0.87 

Na

-2.71 

Ni

-0.25

2+

+ 4H2O

51

+1.52

CHEMISTRY 9251 A LEVEL 2007

[Ni(NH3)6]2+ + 2eH2O2 + 2H+ + 2eO2 + 4H+ + 4eO2 + 2H2O + 4e
+

O2 + 2H + 2e
2H2O + 2e
2+

Pb

+ 2e

-

Pb4+ + 2ePbO2 + 4H+ + 2eSO42-

+

+ 4H + 2e
S2O82-+
S4O62-+
2+
Sn

2e
2e

+ 2e

4+

Sn

+ 2e

-

V2+ + 2e3+

V
2+

VO

VO2+
VO3-

+e

+

-

+

-

+

-

+ 2H + e
+ 2H + e
+ 4H + e
Zn

2+

-

+ 2e

- 

Ni + 6NH3

-0.51 

2H2O

+1.77 

2H2O

+1.23 

4OH 

H2O2 

H2 + 2OH 

Pb

-0.13

Pb2+

+1.69 

Pb2+ + 2H2O

+1.47 

SO2 + 2H2O

+0.17
+2.01 

2SO422S2O32- 

Sn

-0.14 

Sn

+0.15 

V

-1.20 

V 

V 

VO 

VO 

Zn  

-

+0.40
+0.68
-

2+

2+

-0.83

+0.09

-0.26

3+

+ H2O
2+
2+

+0.34

+ H2O

+1.00

+ 2H2O

+1.00
-0.76

All ionic states refer to aqueous ions but other state symbols have been omitted.

52

CHEMISTRY 9251 A LEVEL 2007

(b)

E

in decreasing order of oxidising power

(see also the extended alphabetical list on the previous pages)
E /V

Electrode reaction
F2 + 2e
S2O82-+
+

2e

H2O2 + 2H + 2e
MnO4-

-

+

-

+

-

+ 8H + 5e

PbO2 + 4H + 2e

Cl2 + 2eCr2O72- + 14H+ + 6eBr2 + 2e
NO3-

+

-

+

-

3+

-

+ 2H + e
Ag + e
Fe

-

+e

I2 + 2eO2 + 2H2O + 4eCu
SO42-

2+

+ 2e

-

+

-

4+

-

+ 4H + 2e
Sn

+ 2e

S4O62-+
+

2e

-

2H + 2e2+

Pb

2+

Sn
Fe
Zn
Mg

2+
2+
2+

+ 2e
+ 2e
+ 2e
+ 2e
+ 2e

-

Ca2+ + 2eK+ + e- 

2F

-

+2.87 

2SO42-

+2.01 

2H2O

+1.77 

Mn 

Pb

2+

2+

+ 4H2O
+ 2H2O

+1.52
+1.47

2Cl-

+1.36 

2Cr3+ + 7H2O

+1.33 

2Br

+1.07 

NO2 + H2O

+0.81 

Ag

+0.80 

Fe 

-

2+

+0.77

2I-

+0.54 

4OH-

+0.40 

Cu

+0.34 

SO2 + 2H2O

+0.17 

Sn

+0.15 

2S2O32-

+0.09 

H2

0.00 

Pb

-0.13 

Sn

-0.14 

Fe

-0.44 

Zn

-0.76 

Mg

-2.38 

Ca

-2.87 

K

-2.92 

2+

53

CHEMISTRY 9251 A LEVEL 2007

Atomic and ionic radii
(a)

(b)

(c)

Period 3
metallic

atomic/nm
Na
0.186
Mg
0.160
Al
0.143

ionic/nm
Na+
0.095
Mg2+ 0.065
Al3+
0.050

single covalent

Si
P
S
Cl

0.117
0.110
0.104
0.099

Si4+
P3S2Cl-

0.041
0.212
0.184
0.181

van der Waals

Ar

0.192

Be
Mg
Ca
Sr
Ba
Ra

0.112
0.160
0.197
0.215
0.217
0.220

Be2+
Mg2+
Ca2+
Sr2+
Ba2+
Ra2+

0.031
0.065
0.099
0.113
0.135
0.140

C
Si
Ge

0.077
0.117
0.122

Si4+
Ge2+

0.041
0.093

Sn
Pb

0.162
0.175

Sn2+
Pb2+

0.112
0.120

F
Cl
Br
I
At

0.072
0.099
0.114
0.133
0.140

FClBrI-

0.136
0.181
0.195
0.216

First row transition elements
single covalent
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe

0.144
0.132
0.122
0.117
0.117
0.116

Co
Ni
Cu
Zn

0.116
0.115
0.117
0.125

Sc3+
Ti2+
V3+
Cr3+
Mn2+
Fe2+
Fe3+
Co2+
Ni2+
Cu2+
Zn2+

0.081
0.090
0.074
0.069
0.080
0.076
0.064
0.078
0.078
0.069
0.074

Group II
metallic

Group IV
single covalent

metallic

(d)

(e)

Group VII
single covalent

54

55

beryllium

lithium

Key

barium

caesium

Y

88.9

Ac

89

actinium

57

lanthanum

La

39
139

yttrium

21

Ti

Zr

91.2

Hf

178

Nb

92.9

Ta

181

73

Db

tantalum

41

niobium

23

vanadium

V

50.9

*

54.9

25

Tc

W

184

Sg

Re

186

Bh

Pm

107

bohrium

75

rhenium

43

protactinium

thorium

91

Pa

Th

U

92

uranium

60

93

neptunium

Np

61

Nd

144

106

seaborgium

74

tungsten

42

59

90

Mo

95.9
molybdenum technetium

24

Mn
manganese

promethium

58

Cr
chromium

praseodymium neodymium

Pr

Ce

cerium

141

140

* rutherfordium dubnium
* 104
105

Rf

hafnium

40

zirconium

22

titanium

* 72

actinides *
*

lanthanides

radium

88

francium

87

Ra

Fr

56

Ba

Cs

55

137

133

38

Sr

strontium

Rb

rubidium

37

87.6

20

85.5

19

Sc

Ca

calcium

K

potassium

scandium

45.0

12

40.1

39.1

26

55.8

58.9

58.7

63.5

30

65.4

Os

190

Hs

Pu

94

plutonium

62

samarium

Sm

150

108

hassium

76

osmium

44

ruthenium

Ru

101

iron

Fe

Rh

103

Mt

95

americium

Am

europium

Eu

152

Cm

96

curium

64

gadolinium

Gd

157

110

ununnilium

Unu

78

platinum

Pt

46
195

109

63

Pd

106
palladium

28

Ir

meitnerium

77

Ni
nickel

192
iridium

45

rhodium

27

cobalt

Co

gold

Au

197

silver

Ag

108

Bk

97

berkelium

65

terbium

Tb

159

111

unununium

Uuu

79

47

29

copper

Cu

Hg

201

Cf

98

californium

66

dysprosium

Dy

163

112

ununbium

Uub

80

mercury

48

cadmium

Cd

112

zinc

Zn

Al

Ga

69.7

6

Tl

204

Ho

165

Es

99

einsteinium

67

holmium

81

lead

Pb

207

Fm

100

fermium

68

erbium

Er

167

114

ununquadium

Uuq

82

50

tin

Sn

In

32
119

thallium

49

Ge

72.6
germanium

14

silicon

Si

28.1

carbon

C

115
indium

31

gallium

13

aluminium

Mg

magnesium

Na

sodium

52.0

5

boron

name

27.0

47.9

1

B

atomic number

7

14.0

8

16.0

VI

9

19.0

VII

2

0
4.0

As

74.9

Sb

122

Bi

209

Tm

169

Md

101

mendelevium

69

thulium

83

bismuth

51

antimony

33

arsenic

15

phosphorus

P

31.0

nitrogen

N

Se

79.0

Te

128

Po

No

102

nobelium

70

ytterbium

Yb

173

116

ununhexium

Uuh

84

polonium

52

tellurium

34

selenium

16

sulphur

S

32.1

oxygen

O

Br

79.9

Kr

83.8

Lu

175

Lw
103

lawrencium

71

lutetium

85

astatine

At

Rn

118

ununoctium

Uuo

86

radon

54

Xe
xenon

I
iodine

53

131

36

krypton

18

argon

Ar

10
39.9

neon

Ne

20.2

127

35

bromine

17

chlorine

Cl

35.5

fluorine

F

He
12.0

V

helium

10.8

IV

H

atomic symbol

relative atomic mass

III

hydrogen

1.0

Group

24.3

4

Be

Li

23.0

9.0

6.9

11

3

II

I

The Periodic Table of the Elements

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