ArraySHOW TM Instruction Manual

Table of Contents
Installation What's new in version 1.1 General usage comments Constructing arrays Saving your work Working with multiple array documents Printing Copy and paste into other programs Preference Settings Theoretical Background and Interpretation of Results Bandwidth of Results The Directivity Globe Signal Delay, Misalignment, and Steering ArraySHOW and Arraying Guidelines Minimizing Device Interference for Smooth Coverage Degree of array solution possible Properties of the Individual Array Elements Specific Guidelines to Narrow the "Angular Zone of Interference" Using Device Interference Constructively Additional Comments ArraySHOW Seminar Video Tape Historical Comment "Perfectly Arrayable Boxes" Appendix I: Table of Device Physical Dimensions

Installation
From CD-ROM: Insert the CD into the CD-ROM drive. If the program does not start automatically, double click the file named "setup.exe" From a downloaded installer:

Results are updated interactively as the parameters and/or array is modified.exe" file. locating. Added access to on-line documentation from Help Menu.) Constructing new Arrays .If installing from the web. to look directly at the lobes and nulls of given array geometries. download and run the "setup. and aiming one or more loudspeakers. General Usage Comments The use of ArraySHOW is both highly intuitive and powerful. (See details on comparisons. Save arrays for recall at any time. Build and array by selecting. It allows the user to analyze arrays of loudspeakers independent of the room. below. Quickly and easily edit the array to convolve new results to optimize array directivity.1        Fixed a bug in the globe drawing code that caused an overflow error on Windows 2000 and Windows XP A few inner-loop optimizations to eliminate some duplicated trig and exponent operations Removed "convolve" button and made convolution calculation automatic with each change to an array Included device data installation to main program installer Added all devices currently available on the EVI website as separate WinZip archives to the main installer Updated on-line documentation (this document). ArraySHOW asks/allows the user to: 1. 3. 2. Select a frequency and microphone distance. and quickly compare different results. A diagram of the array built will appear for the you when you click ok. 4. What's new in version 1. adding explanatory figures and converted to more-standard HTML format. A unique and highly colorful"directivity globe" which ranges from the highest output level in red to the lowest output level in blue. Directivity is displayed in both horizontal and vertical polars.

Set azimuth and elevation of the device selected (enter in degrees) and click to enter. This position represents the center of the front face of the device. Move the cursor to the spread-sheet box: 2. Double-click to add or edit devices. Click on X. g. If the device is not listed in the list. This will provide a list of database items included in your copy of ArraySHOW.spd file anywhere in your file system by selecting "Browse" d. you may select an individual *. .) b.1. (Additional devices may be added to your installation by copying the appropriate *. When you double-click. f.see the preference section). (Click once and press the "del" key to delete a device) 3. c. Set delay and relative gain of each device as desired. Click "OK" when you are finished editing this device. e. Select a device by clicking on the "Device" select arrow. Scroll the device you wish to select and click on that device.Y and Z in turn to indicate the coordinate position of the device in the array. the "Add Device to Array" box appears: a.spd files into the "devices" folder in the ArraySHOW installation directory. (in inches or centimeters .

6. yet physical placement of this combination is not possible. For example. Construction of the array can be verified by viewing the display in the lower left hand corner showing the coordinate system and the orientation of each device. Note that you can quickly step up and down through the frequency range with the up and down arrow keys when the frequency selector is highlighted.4. . Select the distance from with the array is to be viewed using the "distance to Microphone" slider. below. you must take into account the physical dimensions of each device. ArraySHOW will allow the acoustic centers of two XArray Xf enclosures to be separated by one inch. 5. Results are displayed interactively as you manipulate the array. When array construction is completed. Saving your work Arrays may be saved by choosing the "Save" or "Save As" commands. When building arrays. and frequency controls. distance. Note: in real life it is not possible to place multiple devices in the same physical space. Working with Multiple Documents for Comparison Multiple "open" array documents may be compared by selecting the "next window" command from the program icon (immediately to the left of the File Menu). See Appendix I for dimensional dataassociated with devices included in your database. Repeat step 3 as required to complete your array. 7. choose the one-third-octave center frequency you wish to view by using the "Frequency" selector. See "interpretation of results".

Printing The entire screen may be printed in gray scale or color. or later.The CTRL-F6 keystroke can also be used to quickly cycle through all open windows in ArraySHOW. including: . individual array diagrams. polar plots or directivity globes may be selected and then cut and pasted into Windows-compatible programs that handle graphics. polar plots. Also. and directivity globes may be selected and printed in gray scale or color. or globe plots. Copy and Paste into other programs The entire screen or individual array diagrams.) Preference Settings Choose Edit->Preferences. polar plots. you may move between open Windows using the "Window" menu. click on the view of interest and choose "Copy to Clipboard" from the "Edit" menu. (You can change the copied image size and color scheme inside the Edit->Preferences dialog. XP. To capture individual array orientations. Alternatively. On Windows 2000. you can use CTRL-PrintScreen to capture the entire screen. and you will various settings.

    Choice between color and gray-scale globe displays The size in pixels of copied globes. and vector diagrams Choice between English (IP) and Metric (SI) units Optional display of dB legend on globe diagrams Theoretical Background and Interpretation of Results ArraySHOW predicts the interference or interaction of multiple devices as a function of device type. Bandwidth of Results At each available center frequency. . Basically. The globe is drawn as if you are standing at the end of the "+X" axis looking toward the origin. Directivity Globe View Interpretation The globe view is a three-dimensional representation of the array's response at the frequency and distance specified in the controls above. (Horn mouth for component horns and box front for systems. polars. this is done by mathematically convolving measured device amplitude-only spherical directivity data with the complex (amplitude and time) calculated directivity of point sources located at the center of each device. the results are show for a spectrum one-third octave wide.) This process is described in detail in Mark Ureda's Audio Engineering Society Preprints available from EVI Audio:     The Convolution Method for Horn Array Directivity Prediction (Preprint 3790) Directivity Response of Horn Arrays (Preprint 3963) Amplitude and Signal Delay Shading of Vertical Horn Arrays (Preprint 4061) Wave Field Synthesis with Horn Arrays (Preprint 4144) Extensive validation of ArraySHOW performance has been undertaken. location and aiming with a high degree of accuracy. the results are shown in the preprints.

Single HP640 oriented toward +X axis Polars of same HP640. added signal delay can be used for device "misalignment. In general. Furthermore. and the lowest are shown in dark blue. in terms of smoothness and evenness of coverage (see Minimizing Device Interference for Smooth Coverage for details). Since there is no audience present in the ceiling. For both systems and components. we believe that the destructuve interference effects of multiple loudspeakers in arrays is a subject too little understood in our industry." This technique is useful because part of the pattern is substantially improved from a "smoothness" standpoint while a corresponding part of the polar radiation is mare "worse". the technique can substantially improve radiation smoothnes onto an audience space while "making worse" the radiation into the corresponding upper half or ceiling portion of the array. there are a number of beliefs about "arrayability" and .used in multiples -.in order to achieve more uniform audience coverage and/or higher sound pressure levels than are possible with a single device. The latter are used to match arrival times of components within the single multiway system. and "Steering" The option of adding signal delay to selected components or systems should not be confused with the signal delay used in electronic processors associated with biamplified or triamplified multiway loudspeaker systems. Note vertica High SPL levels are shown in red. Oftentimes. ArraySHOWTM and Loudspeaker Arraying Guidelines Loudspeaker components and systems are typically "arrayed" -. Signal Delay. the net effect from an observer's point is an improvement because of the misalignment. Adding signal delay to a multiway system in ArraySHOW affects the entire system. "Misalignment".

Here are three major points on the destructive interference effects of multiple loudspeakers in arrays:    Optimal arraying is not manufacturer or model-number specific. In all cases. In fact. The idea that tight-packed trapezoidal boxes form a "coherent wavefront" across the bandwidth. imagine two identical and equally-powered trapezoidal enclosures viewed from the top and tight packed the way one sees it much of the time: . EVI Audio has developed and offered ArraySHOW software to the industry to aid the system designer -. the typical box is likely to array poorly. This application is covered as well. To get the basic idea. a vertical dipole array that extends vertical directivity control to a frequency lower than the size of the horn operating above it in frequency allows.g. and only a few take into account on or more of the principles outlined below which minimize (but do not eliminate) array coverage problems. ArraySHOW shows quickly and easily the interaction of multiple speakers as a function of frequency. is incorrect.whether for fixed installation or concert touring -. the following material is intended to simplify this iterative process for common applications. The interaction of multiple loudspeakers can also be used constructively. e. Boxes that fit into nice physical arrays do not necessarily array acoustically in an optimum (read "uniform coverage") way.in maximizing the performance of arrays. optimizing the array is an iterative rather than automatic process. No audio marketer or engineer can change this. one is dealing with multiple acoustic sources.the propotion thereof which seem to fly in the face of both the laws of physics and actual demonstration. individual device characteristics and the relative location and aiming of the devices. with a "virtual acoustic source" at the intersection of the individual box axes extended to the rear of an array. Thus. each somewhere within each box.

There will be strong cancellation of output at those frequencies where the distance differences are equal to one-have wavelength or multiples thereof." For typical box dimensions. for 30º of pure overlap from the two systems. unless the observer is on the exact centerline of the array. Ignoring the important issue of just over what frequency range the typically smallish box can maintain the nominal 60º coverage angle. these cancellations are right in the middle of the critical vocal range (500-1000 Hz). This efffect is commonly called "comb filter interference. What does overlap do under the conditions noted above? Whenever two transducers operate in the same frequency range and cover the same audience area at levels equal to one another. difference specific models . As the observer moves to the left and/or right of the array axis. while the nominal horizontal coverage for each system is say. unacceptable reductions in voice intelligibility. 60º. and/or gain-before-feedback occur (usually in the vertical case. this means that box axes are displaced by only 30º. located symmetrically about the array axis. very audible (to many people) disturbing changes in sound quality will be observed as the specific cancellation or null frequencies "swish" back and forth along the range.Box draft angles are usually on the order of 15º or less (Higher draft angles sacrifice a lot a box volume. In extreme cases. This phenomenon is very general for more than two array elements in both horizontal and vertical planes. which is not good for bass). of which figure 1 is not). Think of this "interference zone" as an angular zone in the listening space. he or she will receive two strong signals from two different sources at two different distances. spectral fidelity.

the prevalent type today. and a = nominal coverage angle in degrees.e. The formula shows that low break frequencies tend to be associated with large horns and wide coverage angles. The detail and geometry of what has been described is different. a major step in directivity control over classic radial/sectorial (and to a lesser degree) multicell horns. Consider constant-directivity (CD) horns. but the general effect is the same. The coverage angle of a horn or direct radiator at the low end of its operating range id determined principally by the mouth or effective cone dimension. Detail of horn or cone shape have no effect on directivity when their dimensions are short with respect to the reproduced wavelengths. Minimizing Device Interference for Smooth Coverage Degree of "Array Solution" Possible The destructive interference of loudspeakers in arrays can be reduced.in an array and varying amplitude levels -. even minimized. .) CD horns have a "break frequency" below which the coverage angle is no longer controlled but "balloons out. There is a simple formula for break frequency: f = 1.the typical "real world" situation. the less severe are the arraying effects. also called the "6-dB-down beamwidth". on-axis level). Properties of the Individual Array Elements The lower the frequency to which a device maintains its nominal coverage angle.000 / (x)(a) where f = approximate break frequency in HZ." doubling with every octave lowering of frequency.000. the more omni-directional it will be a low frequencies). (Agreement on this definition is prettymuch industry-wide. CD horns maintain their nominal coverage angles over a broad though often unstated frequency range. (i. but not eliminated. the smaller the device. x = dimension of the mouth in the same plane as the nominal coverage angle. "Coverage angle" in these is the angle included by the the 6dB-down points on a horn's far-field polar response (down from "hot".

1. Splay the box axes so that the 6-dB-down beamwidths just touch. such as the EV HPXXXX series and the Altex largeformat Mantaray® horns. for 60º boxes. there is still lots of overlap to cause lots of interference in the voice range.. a nominally 60º box with a horn 16 inches wide has a break frequency of approximately 1.563 Hz Specific Guidelines to Narrow the "Angular Zone of Interference" ArraySHOW makes it easy to illustrate the following guidelines by building actual examples. this means with rear box edges touching there must be separation at the front edges -. 32 in 32 in Nominal Beamwidth 90º 60º 40º 20º 90º 60º 40º 20º Approximate Break Frequency 694 Hz 1. 16 in. here is an illustrative table for a variety of Altec and Electro-Voice horns and systems presented in Appendix I Calculated Break Frequencies for a variety of Altex and Electrovoice Horns Horn Dimension 16 in.From this formula. The degree to which "beamwidths touching" is successful increases as the device break frequency decreases.not tightly packed. For example.042 Hz 1. . 2. 16 in 32 in 32 in. Boxes such as the EV PI Modular series and the large Altec DTS systems.g..563 Hz 3. the box axes should be 60º apart.125 Hz 347 Hz 521 Hz 781 Hz 1. 16 in. Thus. e. improve things by only about 1 octave (to 500 Hz). on par with "old fashioned" large-format CD horns.000 Hz. with horn mouth dimensions in excess of 30 inches in both directions. For the typical trap box. since the devices are simply not large enough to maintain directivity control below 1000 Hz.

until it finally moves away from the listening space. When high break frequencies must be used (due to customer preference or space limitations). employ "optimal misalignment" by introducing signal delays on the order of 2-8 milliseconds to adjacent devices." Practicioners of optimum misalignment do so experimentally and interactively. Some object to the "time smear" of optimal misalignment. but not so acoustically: 1. usually by checking the "house curve" to see what if any broadband EQ adjustments may have to be made to preserve the intended spectral balance. Physically the result is tight-packed. (A trick possible in some product lines is to insert an identically-sized LF system between two MB/HF or FR systems. Imagine again the two identical and equally-powered trapezoidal enclosures viewed from the top and tight-packed. This reduces markedly the angular size and audible severity of the interference zone. but notable more so that two devices in "high interference. The observer gets "in and out of it" faster. The end result is not as smooth as a single device. physically separate the devices. The physical effect of introducing and increasing signal delay to one of the two devices is that of rotating the zone of interference in one direction or the other from the array axis. However.3. One opinion is that the time aberrations are typically a lesser evil than the spectral balance and coverage evils of distance-related comb-filter interference. Using Device Interference Constructively . If high-break frequency devices cannot be separated and/or further improvement is desired. keep in mind that the time differences associated with the time smear of "optimal misalignment" are what cause the comb-filter nulls in the first place. Further. the delays in arrival times that causes comb-filtering are on the order of those typically used in "optimal misalignment".

horizontat "donut" of directivity when separated by a distance equal to one-half wavelength of the frequency of interest. Note un attenuation above an The 34-inch separation is determined as follows: First. wavelength200 = 13.560 is the speed of sound in inches/second. there is no radiation along the array physical axis. Some basic points follow: Two sources vertically arrayed form a useful. to something like 200 Hz or lower. a separation of 34 inches is appropriate. 13. This arrangement produces higher directivity in the direction perpindicular to the physical axis of the array.560 / 200 = 67. since the half-eavelength separation cancels array output in the direction of the array axis: Vertical dipole point sources at 34" apart. A major example of constructive interference is a "dipole array" -. Polars of dipole source at 200Hz. 200 Hz: wavelength = 13. For example. The improvements in system performance include (1) Increased gain-before-feedback when microphones are located under an array and both (2) increased intelligiblity and (3) tighter. Thus. and frequency is in Hz.8 inches. for control at 200 Hz.560 / frequency where wavelength is in inches. the break frequency of a typical large-format constant-directivity horn such as the Altec MR94B and EV HP9040 high-frequency horns or the EV MH940C midbass/high-frequency system. . determing the wavelength for the frequency of interent. higherimpact bass in reverberant environments. A typical example would be to extend control below 500 Hz.Device interference can be used constructively to extend directivity control to frequencies lower than usual. to a frequency lower (1) the size of individual sources themselves or (2) the size of the horn operating in frequency above the dipole allows.two sources seperated by some distance. For perfect point sources and exactly (and only at) one appropriate frequency.

Note: for this technique to be successful. appropriate amplitude shading is required. the cancellation along the array axis is gone. more An interesting possible improvement to the situation noted in the above paragraph is employ a tripole radiator. This suggests that the useful frequency range of the dipole radiator is restricted to something less than an octave above the half-wavelength frequency. with the same overall dimension. Note s frequency. at twice the dipole halfwavelength frequemcy. This would be equivalent to being at a crossover frequecy from the dipole to a centrally located MB horn at twice the diple half-wavelength frequency. perhaps something like 2/3 of an octave above. there is a narrow forward lobe and a major lobe of equal output above and below the array axis (see below). There is also the opportunity of crossing over to a separate. Note s frequency. Vertical dipole point sources at 34" apart. At higher frequencies. At higher frequencies. At an octave below the half-wavelength frequency (100 Hz). but there is still a useful increase in directivity compared to that of a point source or many specific individual devices operating alone. Vertical dipole point sources at 34" apart. . 315 Hz. more At an octave above the half-wavelength frequency (400 Hz). Polars of dipole source at 400Hz.Then the half-wavelength dipole frequency is 34 inches. or in this exmaple. larger dipole. Polars of dipole source at 100Hz.

ArraySHOW Seminar Video Tape EVI Audio sponsered an Array presentation at the 1997 Charlotte. perhaps the amount of a "ghost box" in between them. tight-pack the boxes. A typical demo would go something like this: 1.so the effect of break frequencies of 1. with Jim long as moderator. 5. You will hear reduced interference. Still with no delay.) 2. (In this case. Drive both with a pink noise signal of identical level and polarity. rotate the array in from of the observer.0000 Hz and higher can be heard. separate the front edges to achieve a horizontal splay angle of the boxes equal to the nominal horizontal coverage angle. Tight-pack the boxes again.5 hour presentation featured Mark Ureda. A variation of this is to keep the box sides together (paralell). "small" is stated --say a 12 or 15 inch two-way or three-way -. available for $25 plus shipping from Customer Service. but you can try other amounts of signal delay up to 8ms). and listen to the interference effects. acoustics/audio consultants Bob Coffeen and Craig Janssen.ArraySHOW makes it easy to see how the ideas descrived above work. This approximately 1. With no delay. North Carolina NSCA Expo. with the option of introducing signal delay in the systems. but introduce 3 ms of signal delay to one box (3ms normally works well. 4. 3. The event was edited to video tape. Historical Comment . consultant to EVI Audio. indoors or out. but move the box a few inches forward or backward. Additional Comments The interference effects descrived can be easily tested and demonstrated in the field. A typical choice would be the prevalent approximately 15º side draft angles and 60º horizontal coverage. Again. Place two small. separate the boxes left to right. rotate the array in front of the observer. You will hear reduced intereference. Still with no delay. Rotate. 6. identical trapezoidal systems on a turntable (projector stands and road cases work great). EVI Audio at 800/234-6831. You will hear reduced intereference.

but the break frequency of the devices cannot be ignored. e.Arrays of "old fashioned" large-format horns. These appear to be boxes with draft angles equal to one-half the nominal horizontal coverage angle. with their large and differing dimensions. This is certainly a step in the right direction. achieved basically automatically many of the guidelines noted above.g. "Perfectly Arrayable Boxes" One or two manufacturers have introduced product lines touted as "improved" or "perfectly" arrayable. Those laws of physics again! Appendix I: Table of Device Physical Dimensions .000 Hz or higher) that lots of overlap interference still occurs in the middle of the voice range. the break frequency will be so high (on the order of 3. Small trapezoidal full-range systems make this more difficult to achieve. But in a 40º box which is barely wider than a 15-inch speaker. separation of sources. a horizontal angle of 40º with draft angles of 20º would appear to be a nice solution.. For example.

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ArraySHOW and manual copyright 1998-2004 EVI Audio. Inc .

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