A PROJECT REPORT ON “EXPLORING MARKET POTENTIAL OF AMMONIA ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION PLANT IN DAIRY, COLD STORAGES, & FISH PROCESSING INDUSTRY

.” FOR “TRANSPARENT ENERGY SYSTEMS PVT.LTD” SUBMITTED BY AJINKYA P BHARASWADKAR UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Dr. Vandana H. Gote SUBMITTED TO “UNIVERSITY OF PUNE” IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) THROUGH VISHWAKARMA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express great pleasure in introducing my project report titled Exploring Market Potential of Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant in Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing industry.

I take this opportunity to express my most sincere and heartfelt gratitude to Kulkarni (Director-Mktg. & Sales), Mr. S.B. Bhagwat (Vice President-HR) and

Mr. B.G Mr. Pankaj

Bhangale(Manager-Mktg.), Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd., Pune, for providing me with a wonderful opportunity to execute this project in their esteemed organization and for patiently

mentoring and guiding me throughout the project.

This project would not have been successful without the precious guidance of our director Dr. Sharad Joshi & my project guide Dr. Vandana H. Gote, to whom I express my sincere gratitude and all those who have helped me directly and indirectly.

Moreover, I would also like to thank all the employees of Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd. for their constant support and help.

Once again I express my gratitude to TRANSPARENT ENERGY SYSTEMS PVT.LTD., for providing me this enviable opportunity to carry out the project. Ajinkya P Bharaswadkar. 2

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9

Description Executive Summary Company Profile Objectives & Scope of Project Product Profile Research Methodology Research Analysis & Findings Limitations Conclusion Recommendations Annexure I Bibliography

Page No. 1 4 13 15 33 36 43 44 45

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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The objective of the project is to determine the market potential and enquiry generation for an industrial product i.e. Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (AARP) in Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish processing industry. The project was carried out for TRANSPARENT ENERGY SYSTEMS PVT. LTD., Pune. Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd. is one of the umbrella divisions of Transparent Group Of Companies.

Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd. has developed a novel Refrigeration System using heat from exhaust gases and other sources of waste heat.

The company has been thinking of providing Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration System in Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing industry. Hence the project was carried out to determine the market potential for Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant. The field selected for the survey was the state of Gujarat as there is high intensity of the targeted market segment due to availability of resources used in concerned industry.

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Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd. has a turnover of 75 crores as per the last financial year. The industries selected for sample size were segmented according to size of the plant, quantity of products being manufactured daily/yearly, market share, availability of waste heat from the manufacturing process etc.

The data collected during the project was secondary as well as primary data. The secondary data was collected to create the database of the survey. The sources used for secondary data are various magazines, governmental & non-governmental publications and internet.

Primary data was collected through the questionnaire filled by industry visited. The analysis was carried out on the basis of the information obtained from questionnaire. The market potential was estimated by some assumptions for the Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant.

From the analysis it is concluded that the Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant has a very good potential Dairy and cold storages (other than grocery) and fisheries in the state of Gujarat.

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After undergoing the project it is understood that even the analysis shows good potential for Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant, to make it practical, the company has to arrange some awareness programs such as demonstrations, exposing the product in exhibitions, etc.

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2. COMPANY PROFILE
Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd was incorporated on 16th April, 1986 with the name of Vapour Energy Machines Pvt. Ltd. The first commercial production was started in January, 1988.

The name of the company was changed from Vapour Energy Machine Private Limited to Transparent Energy Systems Private Limited on 18th December, 1995.

Transparent Group of Companies are known as the technology leaders working in the field of Co-generation systems, Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plants (AARP), Water Recycling Plants, Super-efficient boilers and heaters, Waste Heat Recovery Systems, Pollution Control Equipments, Drying Plants, Energy and Water Consultancy, LiBr Chillers, Noise Abatement Products and Systems etc.

Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd. has acquired proficiency in the entire spectrum of products and technologies covering all possible facets of Energy Efficiency, Environment Conservation and Cogeneration Business. It has designed and implemented over 150 installations of waste heat recovery and power generation alone for different industries in India as well as numerous countries abroad.

The latest development of the company is a novel low pressure heat recovery and power generation system using heat from exhaust gases of rotary kiln and clinker cooler in cement industry. The company has received a patent from Government of India for the

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boilers used in this kind of a system which is in addition to the numerous other patents for its various systems and products. The business divisions of Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd. includes the following 1. Heat Recovery Systems: -- Waste Heat Recovery Boilers and Systems. 2. Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration: -- Refrigeration up to -55° (know- how from Mattes Engg. Germany) 3. Cogeneration Systems: -- Power, Heating and Chilling. 4. Boilers and Heaters: -95% super efficient oil/gas fuelled boilers, 89% super efficient Agro fuelled/coal fired boilers, 93% super efficient Thermic Fluid Heater/Hot air generators. 5. LiBr Chillers: -Wide range of heat inputs viz.--Low and Medium pressure steam/super heated hot water. Special proven design to utilize heat from low temperature hot water of 55° C or higher. 6. Evaporators & Water Recycling: -- Multistage evaporators/desalination. 7. Energy and Water Consultancy: -- Energy/Water conservation.

The other umbrella companies of Transparent Group of Companies are listed below:
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Transparent Technologies Pvt. Ltd - Dryers, Coolers, Granulators, Waste to Energy Incinators, Evaporators and Concentrators. Ecokleen Pollution Control Pvt. Ltd - Pollution control, Flue gas desulphurization plants, Fume & Dust extraction plants, Air Stripping Plants & Airborne solvent vapour Recovery Plant, Thermal Oxidation System of Airborne Solvent Vapours, Bulk material handling. Decimin Control Systems Pvt. Ltd. - Noise Abatement Products and Systems (in collaboration with IAC-BOET STOPSON, France)

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Transparent Group of Companies are known as the technology leaders working in the field of Co-generation systems, Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plants (AARP), Water Recycling Plants, Super-efficient boilers and heaters, Waste Heat Recovery Systems, Pollution Control Equipments, Drying Plants, Energy and Water Consultancy, LiBr Chillers, Noise Abatement Products and Systems etc. It was incorporated in 1986 and the actual manufacturing started in 1988. The slogan of the company is Loyal to resource conservation. Transparent Energy Systems has more than 20 years of experience in field of energy conservation projects. Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd. has acquired proficiency in the entire spectrum of products and technologies covering all possible facets of Energy Efficiency, Environment Conservation and Cogeneration Business. It has designed and implemented over 150 installations of waste heat recovery and power generation alone for different industries in India as well as numerous countries abroad. The latest development of the company is a novel Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant in Dairy, cold storage & fish processing Industry. The company has received a patent from the Government of India for the boilers used in energy savings which is in addition to the numerous other patents for its various systems and products.

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COMPANY POLICIES MISSION: To provide Sustainable solutions in Energy and Environment and be Loyal to Energy Resource Conservation. VISION: To be globally respected high performance organization offering sustainable solutions in energy and environment. BUSINESS PHILOSOPHY: Loyal To Energy Resource Conversation On this principle Transparent Energy System has developed energy-efficient and ecofriendly solutions for industry and commerce. For over 2 decades. Transparent Energy Systems has been helping customers improve their processes, conserve energy, increase their competitiveness and adhere to environmental norms. Transparent Energy Systems equipments helps several tens of thousands of customers the world over enjoy increased profitability, and earn community goodwill by: • • • • Maximizing energy efficiency and slashing operating costs. Minimizing waste. Recovering precious resource from waste. Keeping pollutants out of the water and the air.
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BUSINESS AREAS: In focus with the business mission; to provide Sustainable solutions in Energy and Environment, and loyal to energy resource conservation Transparent Energy Systems core business areas are • • • • • • Boilers and Heaters Absorption Cooling Water and Waste Solutions Chemicals for Energy and Environmental applications Captive Power and Cogeneration systems Air Pollution and Purification

Transparent Energy Systems provides standard products in these areas of business. Drawing on decades of research and experience in process productivity improvement and energy generation, Transparent also customizes integrated sustainable solutions for the project requirements of a wide range of industries.

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Marketing Policy The company depends for its survival on its customers. The company believes that everyone can contribute to customer satisfaction. Guidelines and Norms for every employee in the organization, no matter in what function or level he/she is in, have a responsibility towards the customer. Everyone is expected to provide the best possible service to the next person in the chain so that the ultimate service which we give to the customer is the best. Everyone is expected to see the person, who requests his service as his customer. In all situations, employees are expected to be courteous and responsive to external as well as internal customers. Every communication is to be acknowledged at the earliest even if a specific response or decision may take a longer time. The deadline or target date for finishing a task or for giving a decision should be communicated along with the acknowledgement. Anyone who has a problem, whether within the organization or outside, must be heard and helped out to the best of one’s ability. After action has been completed, a check for customer satisfaction must be undertaken, as far as possible.

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Every employee should ensure that commitments given to the customer are honoured and we do not try and short-change the customer. In whatever we do, we should aim for the highest quality and continuous improvement. Quality Policy Our Quality policy starts and ends with the customer as a focal point, understanding the customer’s requirements, designing optimal solutions to meet those requirements, building systems and processes in place to ensure quality at every stage, and achieving our commitments on delivery and service before and after sales. It is our endeavour to create a culture of Total Quality where continuous improvement of our people, our processes and our products become a way of life.

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Organization Structure of Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd.
MANAGING DIRECTOR

Director Finance

Director HR

Director Design

Director Marketing & Sales

Director Production

A.V.P. Finance

A.V.P. HR

Sr. Design Engineer

V.P. Production

Accountant

Executive

Jr. Design Engineer

Sales Manager

Marketing Manager

Sales Engineer

Sales Engineer

Marketing Engineer

Marketing Engineer

Worker

Production Supervisor

Asst. Manager Production

Production Manager

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3. OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
TITLE OF THE PROJECT

Exploring Market Potential of Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant in Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing industry.

THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT ARE

To find out geographically the location and required details of Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing industry.

To find out market potential for Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant in the Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing industry.

• •

To compare the existing refrigeration systems used by the companies. To educate the Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing companies about the Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Technology and its benefits.

To find out the obstacles for implementing Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Technology.

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SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The project was carried out Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing industry.

The product selected for the project was Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant.

The state of Gujarat was selected for operations.

The sample size of 22 is selected for the survey.

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4. PRODUCT PROFILE
AMMONIA ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION PLANT

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THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Anhydrous Ammonia has been used for many years to perform all types of refrigeration and air conditioning chores. Anhydrous means ammonia without water, Aqua Ammonia is a solution of ammonia and water which is used in refrigeration and air conditioners that are not a vapour compression type. Vapour compression systems use compressors to compress the ammonia vapour. Absorption type systems do not use a compressor but instead use a generator. This system shall be the crux of the project. It is assumed by the Author that you have some knowledge of refrigeration and are aware of the cycles and pressures of refrigeration in general.

The typical Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration plant with single stage absorption and single stage desorption is shown in the block diagram given overleaf.

Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd. has acquired proficiency in the entire spectrum of products and technologies covering all possible facets of Energy Efficiency, Environment Conservation and Cogeneration Business. Transparent has developed a novel Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Technology for the Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing industry.

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Typical Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant with single stage Absorption & single stage Desorption.

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Explanation:• Liquid ammonia evaporates in the evaporator (HE1) to give the refrigeration effect. • Ammonia vapours from evaporator are used for sub-cooling (HE2) the liquid ammonia supplied to evaporator. This improves energy efficiency of the plant. • Ammonia vapours are absorbed in absorber (HE3). The heat of absorption is removed by cooling water. • • The strong ammonia solution is pumped to desorber (HE4). Heat is supplied in the desorber to boil off the ammonia from strong solution. These vapours also contain some water vapours due to affinity between ammonia and water. • The ammonia vapours are rectified (purified) in the rectifying column (HE5) and generate pure ammonia vapours. • These vapours are condensed (HE6) and liquid ammonia is stored in the receiver (V). • The receiver supplies liquid ammonia to evaporator Weak ammonia solution in the desorber is sent to absorber for absorption. • A solution heat exchanger (HE7) is provided to cool the weak solution before entering the absorber and preheat the strong solution before entering the desorber. This greatly improves of energy efficiency of the plant.

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The traces of water in the evaporator are bleed from evaporator to absorber through Bleed heat Exchanger (HE8).

Bleed Heat Exchanger further sub cools liquid ammonia and improves efficiency.

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I) AMMONIA ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGY • • One of the oldest known method of refrigeration. Our principles M/s Hans Guentner GmbH & Co Absorptions Kaelte KG, Germany are world leaders in Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration technology with over 80 years of experience. • Transparent Energy Systems & Hans Guentner have jointly developed Ammonia absorption Refrigeration Plant for Indian market • Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration has many applications in industries with a large potential to save running cost, as it runs on low grade heat energy instead of high grade electricity • Also it has many other advantages viz. very low maintenance, long life, good part load efficiency etc.

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II) WHAT IS AMMONIA ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION PLANT (AARP)? • • AARP uses pure liquid ammonia as refrigerant and water as absorbent. Energy input for AARP is heat from various sources viz. Low Pressure Steam/Superheated Water /Thermal Oil etc. • Latent heat of vaporization of Liquid Ammonia is used for refrigeration in evaporator. • Pure liquid ammonia goes from Receiver to the evaporator. While going to the evaporator, liquid ammonia is sub cooled in sub cooler by cold ammonia vapours coming from evaporator. This gives energy efficiency. • • In the evaporator, necessary refrigeration effect is achieved. Ammonia vapours from Evaporator are absorbed by weak Ammonia water solution in absorber. • • • Heat of absorption is removed from absorber by cooling water. Ammonia rich water solution from Absorber is pumped to the rectifying column. While Ammonia rich water solution goes to rectifying column, it recovers heat in solution Heat Exchanger from hot weak Ammonia Solution being returned back to absorber. This renders energy efficiency. • Ammonia from ammonia rich solution is boiled off in the desorber by supply of heat. • Rectifying column purifies ammonia vapours.

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Pure ammonia vapour is condensed to liquid form by cooling water in the condenser.

• •

The pure ammonia liquid is stored in the Receiver. Part of the pure liquid ammonia is recycled to rectifying column as reflux to maintain necessary purity of ammonia vapours.

Various temperatures, pressures and flow control systems are installed on the above processes to ensure safety, reliability and accuracy.

AARP can give temperatures up to minus 60 C. Standardized models are designed for 300 C Special construction for below 30 C to 60 C.

AARP is fully automatic in operation and consumes thermal energy in proportion to the refrigeration demand in 30 to 100% of their rated capacity. This excludes of course the electric Pumps.

AARP routinely achieves a turndown ratio of 30%. With additional equipment and controls a turndown ratio down to 0% can be achieved.

Evaporator design is done separately to suit the application.

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III) EXCLUSIVE FEATURES OF AMMONIA ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION PLANT (SYSTEM BORSIG) A). Design & Material of Construction: 1) Heat Exchangers to standard TEMA / AD Merck Blatter / ASME. 2) Thorough Fabrication stage inspection as per Quality Control Plan. 3) All heat exchangers are so designed that they have self cleaning feature to avoid fouling. 4) System is fabricated and factory assembled & modular in construction. Therefore site work is minimal. 5) System is standardized in design & is designed for wide operating parameters e.g. NH3 Evaporation Temperature = +5 to -30C. Steam Pressure = 0 to 10 kg/cm2(g). Therefore BORSIG System can be tuned to different parameters as the need be – 6) By fitting some additional components standard system BORRSIG can be used below -30C up to -60C. 7) Operating settings can be changed without change of Hardware Components.

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(B)Maintenance & Trouble Shooting: 1) A large number of isolation valves have been provided to facilitate quick inspection and maintenance. 2) Filters and strainers can be cleaned without stopping system.

C) Safety & reliability: 1. Reliable adequate control instruments for proper monitoring of various parameters & interlocks. 2. System is controlled through full proof (fool proof?) PLC based control. 3. Each pressure vessel is protected by double safety valves with three way isolation facility. 4. Safety valve can be maintained without stopping the system. 5. The components are thoroughly tested and inspected by TES before put to use.

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D). Capacity & Operating Control of Parameters for Fluctuating Loads & Other Parameters: 1. System can modulate without loss of efficiency over 30 to 100% capacity. 2. System works automatically even on 0 to 100% load variation. 3. Proprietary try type distillation column operates reliably on wide fluctuations in load WITHOUT loss of efficiency or stability. 4. Due to tray type rectifying column, System restarts quickly even on power failure for 20 minutes.

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IV) TYPICAL INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF AMMONIA ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION PLANT 1. Cold Storage. 2. Freeze Drying. 3. Food Refrigeration. 4. Brine Cooling. 5. Vapor Ammonia Recovery Chemical Processes. 6. Ammonia Recovery from Liquor Ammonia from Chemical Processes. 7. Ice Making Plants. 8. Ice Cream Plants. 9. Meat Processing Industries. 10. Fish Processing Industries. 11. Dairies. 12. Refineries. 13. Fertilizer plants. 14. Bulk Drug Industries. 15. Pesticide Plant.

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V) AMMONIA ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION PLANT Vs. COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION PLANT Comparison Between Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant & Compression Cycle Refrigeration Plant

Sr. No 1

Ammonia Refrigeration

Absorption Sr. No

Compression Cycle Refrigeration Plant High Running Cost due to Electricity as Energy Input High maintenance cost

Low running cost on cheap fuels like 1 Agro fuels, furnace oil, waste heat.

2

Very low maintenance costs due 2 to no reciprocating parts having

high wear & tear. 3 High Plant availability due to no 3 reciprocating parts (only one Frequent outage on plant needs standby compressor.

Centrifugal pump is moving part which has standby ) 4 No loss of efficiency at part load. 4 Efficiency improves at part load. Loss of efficiency at part load due to fixed mechanical losses & motor electrical Losses. 5 No fouling of Evaporator surfaces 5 due to lubricating oil. 6 Small size standby D.G. Set is 6 Possibility of fouling due to lube oil on evaporator Surfaces. Large D.G. Set needed on standby.

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sufficient 7 Outdoor installation, hence low civil 7 structural costs. Indoor to Electrical systems 8 Low foundation costs due to no 8 reciprocating parts. 9 Long life of plant of at least 25 9 years. 10 No loss of efficiency with usage 10 Loss of efficiency with usage due to Compressor parts wear & tear. High foundation costs due to installation is needed due

reciprocating Compressors. Low life of Compressor.

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VI). COMPARISON OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND RUNNING COST OF AARP AS COMPARED TO COMPRESSION CYCLE PLANT. BASIS OF DESIGN AND SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

No

Description

Technical Specificatio ns

Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration plant

Compression

Cycle

Refrigeration plant

1 A

Technical Specifications Refrigeratio n Load TR 100 100 100 100

B

Ammonia Evaporation Temp.

Deg. C

-10

-30

-10

-30

C

Cooling Water Temp. (Deg.C.).

Summer Monsoon Winter Average

28 32 24 28

28 32 24 28

28 32 24 28

28 32 24 28

2

System configuratio n

AARP Model

Modern Reciprocating Compression Cycle Plant

AMMONIA EVAPORATION TEMPERATURE = -100 C & -300 C REQUIREMENT OF UTILITIES No Description Technical Ammonia Compression Refrigeration plant Cycle

Specificati Absorption ons Refrigeration plant

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Ammonia Evaporation Temp. A

Deg.C

-10

-30

-10

-30

HEAT INPUT kcal/hr : STEAM Steam Pressure Steam Temperature Steam required Given Pressure at kg/hr Deg. C kg/cm2(g)

567264.1 770897. 5 43

NA

NA

1.7

5.18

NA

NA

130

160.1

NA

NA

1092.60

1551.03

NA

NA

B

Boiler Data Calorific value Boiler efficiency

Fuel

F.O.

Baggas e

Coal

kcal/kg

9710.00

2200.00

4500.0

%

95.00

75.00

80.0

C) Fuel Consumption for above Steam Output. (f90degC) (Refer NOTE below). F.O. Bagasse. Coal. HOT WATER Supply Temp. C Return Temp. Rate Circulation D) Fuel Consumption for above Hot Water Output. Deg. Deg. of m3/hr 150 120 18.90 180 150 25.69 NA NA NA NA NA NA lit/hr kg/hr kg/hr 69.69 370.15 169.65 100.62 534.41 244.94 NA NA NA NA NA NA

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F.O. Bagasse. Coal. E)

lit/hr kg/hr kg/hr

64.73 343.80 157.57

87.96 467.21 214.13

NA NA NA

NA NA NA

Fuel Prices including C.Excise Duty, Sales Tax and Transport.

F.O. Bagasse.

Rs./lit Rs/kg

9.25 0.50

Coal. F) Fuel Cost for Steam.

Rs/kg

2.50

F.O.

Rs/hr

644.63

930.73

NA

NA

Bagasse.

Rs/hr

185.07

267.20

NA

NA

Coal.

Rs/hr

424.12

612.35

NA

NA

Fuel cost for Hot Water

F.O.

Rs/hr

598.75

813.63

NA

NA

Bagasse.

Rs/hr

171.90

233.60

NA

NA

Coal.

Rs/hr

393.92

535.32

NA

NA

AMMONIA EVAPORATION TEMPERATURE = -100 C & -300 C REQUIREMENT OF UTILITIES ( continued ) G) ELECTRIC POWER : Power required for Compressor : At shaft Compressor KW 110 191

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Belt losses ( 8% )

KW

-

-

8.8

15.28

Power required at Motor shaft

KW

-

-

118.8

206.28

Power Solution Motor.

for KW Pumps

7.5

15

-

-

Power for Cooling KW water Pump. Total Power at KW

12.3

12.3

5.6

5.3

19.8

27.3

124.4

211.6

Motor Shaft Add Motor Losses KW (Motor Efficiency assumed 93%). Total Power at KW Motor Terminals 1.5 2.1 9.4 15.9

21.3

29.4

133.8

227.50

Add HT metering losses (Transformer efficiency assumed 95%) Total Power Metered at incoming of HT Transformer H) Make-upWater Make-up-Water Cost of make up water (@Rs.10.00 per m3/hr)

KW

1.1

1.5

6.7

11.40

KW

22.4

30.9

140.5

238.9

M3/hr Rs.

1.50 15

1.85 18.50

0.68 6.80

0.80 8.00

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5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The methodology is basically the set of rules, procedures, tools, and techniques used by the researcher for realization of research objective. The process of designing research study involves many interrelated decisions. The most significant decision is the choice of research approach. This determines how the information will obtain. There are three types of research approach: 1) Exploratory research 2) Descriptive research 3) Causal research These types differ significantly in terms of research purpose, research question, precision of hypotheses that are formed and data collection method used. 1) Exploratory research: Exploratory research is seeking insight into general nature of a problem, the possible decision alternatives and relevant variables that need to be considered. The objective of exploratory research is to find out new ideas flexibility, & ingenuity characterized by the investigation. In the exploratory research emphasis is given on the finding practices and policies that need changing and developing possible alternatives. Exploratory research seeks to discover new relationships. Hence most of the marketing
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research is of an exploratory type. Exploratory research defines problem, which is then solved by conclusive research.

2) Descriptive research: Descriptive research gives emphasis on description & such studies are simply fact gathering expedition. Descriptive studies attempt to obtain a complete & accurate description of situation. Descriptive data are based as direct basis for marketing decisions.

3) Causal approach: When it is necessary to show that one variable causes or determine the value of other variable the causal research approach is used. In our research approach the exploratory as well as descriptive approach is used to explore the various ways of obtaining the information. In planning and designing a specific research project it is necessary to anticipate all the points that must be undertaken if the project is to be successful in collecting valid and reliable information.

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The steps in which the project was carried out were as follows: 1) Define the problem and specify objective. 2) Developing research plan. 3) Design the data collection method. 4) Organize and carryout the field work. 5) Analyze the collected data. 6) Presentation of the project report.

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6. RESEARCH ANALYSIS & FINDINGS
The survey was carried out in the state of Gujarat. The analysis has shown that all the Dairy, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing industry located in these regions use Vapour Compression Refrigeration System for their manufacturing processes. The power cost of these industries is high due to the utilization of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System. Hence the analysis has shown that there is a lot of energy saving potential by utilizing our Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant.

Different tabulations and graphs are made from the data collected during field survey

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Current Refrigeration Method Used:

Current Refrigeration Method Used Vapour Compression AARP None

Response 18 2 2

Interpretation: As there are 82 % of companies using Vapour compression Refrigeration there is good scope for AARP.

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Industrywise Distribution of Companies:

Type of Industry No.

Dairy 6

Cold Storages 6

Fisheries 3

Ice plant 5

Refinery 1

Interpretation: 1. There is good number of dairies, cold storages, & ice plants. 2. There is moderate number of fish processing companies.

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Types of Cold Storages:

Type Grocery Cold Storages General Cold Storages Fruits Cold Storages

No 3 1 1

Cold Storage Types

Fruits Cold Storages, 1

General Cold Storages, 1

Grocery Cold Storages, 3

Interpretation: 1. There are a good number of grocery cold storages in Gujarat. 2. The general & fruits cold storages are not too many.

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Types of Ice Plants:

Type Industrial Ice Suppliers Ice for Fishing

No 3 4

Intepretation: 1. The no of fishing ice suppliers is higher than industrial ice suppliers.

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Interest in Using AARP:

No of Respondents

Already Using 2

Highly Interested 5

Somewhat Interested 8

Not Interested 7

Interpretation: 1. The number of companies interested in using AARP is very good. 2. the number of companies resisting the use of AARP is very high, which is very bad.

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FINDINGS

• • • • •

10% people knew Transparent. Gujarat has a sound Dairy industry. There is no shortage of Grid power in Gujarat. Dairy & Cold storages were found interested. Everyone wanted references of installations.

• There is good number of fishing ice suppliers in Gujarat.

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7. LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT

No project is ideal. In reality I came across different problems which act as limitations of the project such as1) Some of the respondents did not give other relevant information which was required for the project. 2) Non-availability of official data. 3) There was time constraint (2 months). Hence total no. of plant visits was limited. 4) To keep the project cost minimum due to budget constraints. 5) Transportation problems due to rainy season.

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8. CONCLUSION
After collecting data from the field research following conclusions is made. 1. There are a good numbers of Dairies, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing companies in Gujarat. 2. There is a refrigeration requirement in the Dairy, Cold storages & Fish Processing industries. 3. The existing refrigeration system used for manufacturing process is Vapour compression refrigeration system the running cost of which is very high. 4. The Dairies, Cold Storages, & Fish Processing companies came to know about the Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Technology and its benefits.

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9. RECOMMENDATIONS
1. As the Ammonia Absorption Technology is new the product demonstrations and intensive product awareness programs should be carried out in trade shows, exhibitions etc. 2. The product literatures and catalogues should be revised to make it more users friendly. 3. For first installation of Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant in Cold Storage & Fish Processing industry, Transparent Energy Systems should provide financing facilities and other monetary concessions in order to promote its product in other dairies & cold storages. 4. Due to complex plant layouts and complex processes of storage in Cold storage industries the period of warranty and free after sales services should be extended for installation of AARP in cold storage sector. 5. As Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd are technologically sound but are not known throughout India, hence intensive corporate brand promotion campaigns should be carried out in order to develop confidence amongst the industrial buyers.

ANNEXURE
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PHOTOGRAPHS OF AARP INSTALLATIONS

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Marketing Management- Second edition, Rajan Saxena. 2. Refrigeration & Air conditioning, R. S. Khurmi & J. K. Gupta. 3. www.google.com 4. www.doii.net 5. www.aifpa.net 6. Product literatures & catalogues of Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd.

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