EmbaThesis 20 Dis | Emotional Intelligence | Motivation

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The public sector has played a very significant and supportive role in the
development of this country. Its strong administrative machinery has enabled
us to propel the country to a level of development that has earned the
admiration of countries around the world. The public sector is a heavy weight
component of our national economy. It remains the largest service provider of
the country – ranging from the service provided by local councils, district
offices, and government agencies, to teachers, doctors, policemen, military
personnel and administrators serving in schools, hospitals, police stations, army
camp and universities throughout Malaysia.
However, Human Resource Minister, Datu Dr. !ong "han #nn in a statement
on $une %&th '(() said that Malaysian worers are becoming less competitive
*+,T, '(()-. .ess competitive here refers to the performance of Malaysian
worers that /had gone down0. 1lthough he focused to those woring in the
small and medium industries, this would also affect the country0s
competitiveness in the globali2e area including the non3industry sectors.
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,ome organi2ations are not properly administrated and employees are assigned
e4cessive duties causing them to feel overwhelmed or overwored. Many
employees, especially those at lower levels, are sometimes e4pected to perform
duties that someone at a higher level than theirs should be completing. 5hile,
some managers or supervisors re6uire their employees to do their best, but
neglect to do their best themselves. ,ometimes an employee needs to see that
their employer wors 7ust as hard as they do and this maes it easier for them to
perform a pro7ect or tas as well as mae the organi2ation a pleasure for them to
wor.
In addition, many employees feel that they are not recogni2ed or appreciated by
their employers for their hard wor and in turn develop decreased motivation.
.ac of communication and feedbac from employers cause employees to feel
overlooed and inhibits them from performing to the best of their ability. If an
employee is addressed or commended on their wor by their employer on a
regular basis, this would enhance interest as well as improvement in 7ob
performance.
!urthermore, the environment of a worplace can also have an effect on the
motivation and 7ob performance of employees0 disadvantages such as a lac of
advances in the office or corporation, improper ergonomics, poor office
structure, ha2ardous lighting, inappropriate level of noise, old office e6uipment
and computers and even a poor structured organi2ation overall can play a ma7or
part in the loss of motivation.
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1 conducive woring environment is not limited to improving the physical
worplace. It also means ensuring that there is open communication and mutual
respect for all employees regardless of status. "reating a 8people3friendly8
environment re6uires discipline, commitment, transparency and trust.
Discipline and commitment re6uires each and every employee to fulfill his or
her responsibility while striving always to meet the stated ob7ectives of the
organi2ation. Meanwhile, transparency demands management to lead by
e4ample and trust ensures that there is respect for the individual and the
organi2ation. !urthermore, training and development programs must be aligned
with the organi2ation0s ob7ectives. The programs must ensure that employees
are developed to not only meet present and future organi2ational needs but also
develop employees for progression up the career ladder within the organi2ation.
The Human Resource Minister added that one way to solve this problem is that
the organi2ation should organi2e more training program for their worers to
enhance their 7ob performance. In line with that suggestion, public relations
officer to the 9ublic ,ervice Department *9,D- Hasniah Rashid when
interviewed by The +ew ,traits Time on $une :(
th
'(() said that all civil
servants will have to undergo at least seven days of training annually to improve
their competence, under a new 9,D re6uirement *+,T, '(()-. The policy is to
ensure that every civil servant has the appropriate attitude, sills and
nowledge, through planned human resources programs based on competency
development and life3long learning.
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It shows that our government is concerned with the performance of its
employee especially from the public sector and the public higher learning
institution as part of the government body will be affected too especially in the
6uest to become a world class university. It shows that our government is
committed to continue building on past achievements towards attaining greater
success. In order to achieve greater success, there must be a transformation in
the way things are done and the needs to refocus on ey strategic areas.
In the '(() ;udget ,peech at The Dewan Rayat, the 9rime Minister, <1;
Dato0 ,eri 1bdullah bin H7 1hmad ;adawi stressed the four strategies to be
implemented to ensure continuity and sustainability of growth. #ne of the four
strategies mentioned was developing human capital as a catalyst of growth
especially in education sector. The government0s ob7ective is to enable the
nation0s education system to achieve world class status. !urthermore, the
largest allocation is for education sector, amounting for almost a 6uarter of the
total operating allocation in '((), where RM).' billion is for the Ministry of
Higher .earning *The ,tar, '((=-.
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The Importance of 1ob Performance in a Higher Learning Institution
political boundaries. The organi2ation themselves are transformed to varying
degrees, in response to this environmental turbulence. This has created urgent
demands on the role of the public higher learning institutions today as they are
moving towards a world class university by restructuring the institutions in the
conte4t of research, curriculum, teaching and learning, industrial linages,
infrastructure, networing and training. The focus will be on clear mission
statements, different organi2ational structures, professional university
management, shared governance and committed leadership.
1.4 UNIFIELD TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE
1.4.1 Background of company
The history of >nifield Technology "ollege *>T"- dates bac to %% $uly %??@
when it was founded by Datu 5ira 1bu ,eman where the college was earlier
nown as Tenologi <ayasan 1lor Aa7ah Institute. 1fter some improvement
had been made, the institute officially changed its name to Bole7 Tenologi
<ayasan 1lor Aa7ah *BT<1A1- on %% Mei '(('. This private college was
wholly owned by a private company called <1A "ollege ,dn ;hd. BT<1A1
operates at a four *=- storey building, 5isma >M+# situated in the centre of
1lor Aa7ah town. BT<1A1 is one of the Malaysian ,ills 1ccreditation "entre
)
that offered Malaysian ,ills "ertificate programmes. BT<1A1 runs a few
programmes which were offered to the local students to further studies after the
secondary school. ;esides Malaysian ,ills "ertificate programmes, it offers
programmes in collaboration with >niversiti Tenologi Mara *>iTM- which are
Diploma in 1ccountancy, Diploma in ;usiness ,tudy and 9re "ommerce.
BT<1A1 was doing well for several years. The students

In year '((?, BT<1A1 have been taen over by B+ Cducation ,dn.;hd.
result from the rapid changing in higher education industry. #n & $anuary '(%%,
with the aggressive management the application to change the name to >nifield
Technology "ollege *>T"- had approved by the Ministry of Higher Cducation.
Recently, the company have about almost :,((( student comes from various
country in Malaysia.
>T" located at $alan Bemus, 1 !amosa Resort Malaysia, @D((( 1lor Aa7ah,
and Melaa, Malaysia. This location is suitable for the company concept. The
concept of this company is Ecollege in resortF where they provide the place for
their customer to have learning process in the resort. This concept is useful to
help the students to live as a competent student, master and credibility to be a
successful person in the future.
Recently, >T" has almost ',&(( student in various programs offered with %%'
staffs that are woring together to achieve the vision and mission of the
&
company. ;esides that, >T" has also a few competitors in this area for e4ample
Bole7 >niversiti Islam Melaa *B>IM- and also Bole7 Risda.
1.4.2 Vision and Mission
The company vision is to be a prestige high learning provider by produce many
professional graduates those have credibility to fulfill country vision. The
mission of the company is to create opportunity to develop graduate potential
and achieve e4cellent in academic as well as sill programming. These are the
ob7ectives of the companyG
• 9rovide academic and sill program at certificate, diploma
and degree level.
• 9rovide place of learning that have same level with I9T1.
• Aiving the nowledge and also develop sill at higher level
• 9roduce graduate that suit with the need of industry
1.4.3 Organization Chart
@
Figure 1: UTC Organization Chart.
1.4.4 Program Offered By UTC
;il "ourse "ode "ourse +ame
% 9D((: 9re "ommerce *>iTM-
' ;M%%% Diploma in ;usiness ,tudy *>iTM-
: 1"%%( Diploma in 1ccountancy *>iTM-
= DHM%%( Diploma in Hotel Management *>T"-
) D;M%%( Diploma in ;usiness Management *>T"-
& DBM3,B Diploma Bemahiran Malaysia ,istem Bomputer
@ DBM3,M Diploma Bemahiran Malaysia ,istem Malumat
D ,BM3$C ,i7il Bemahiran Malaysia Cletri
D
Figure 2: The program offered by UTC
1.4.5 Student`s Enrollment
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figure 3: Resource from registrar of utc from year 2010 to 2011
!or the program the collaboration with the >iTM 9rogram that is ;M%%% and
1"%%(,as we can see the 6uantity of student enrollment from $uly '(%( is
%(
increase compare with the year before that is '((? which the number of student
is only =( student including ;M%%% and 1"%%(. This is due the taeover by the
B+ Cducation Aroup. The increment number of student enrollment for year
'(%( shows the aggressive mareting activities done from this company to
boost it sales.
However, in this year the intae is divided into two categories which is the first
intae and second intae. +ormally, the first intae enrollment is higher because
of the student has 7ust finished the ,i7il 9ela7aran Malaysia *,9M- and
immediately get the program offered. 5hile the second intae is the student that
has less choice to further it study. The trend of student enrollment for the first
intae shows the increasing trend by the increase of '&H from year '(%( but the
second intae student shows the decreasing trend because of the decrease by
&'H from the year '(%(.
!or the DHM%%% and D;M%%( the intae is divided into three for a year. The
above statistic shows that the student enrollment is increase in '(%% compare
with '(%(. It is because of the program D;M%%( has 7ust started the intae in
'(%%. However the student enrolment for this course is decrease gradually. !or
the ,i7il Bemahiran the student enrollments increase for DBM but not ,BM.
The total number of student enrollment is increase but it seems that the
unfavorable trend will come if the company cannot sustain their number of
student enrollment.
%%
Statement of the problem
In view of the significant role played by administrators in helping >iTM
achieve its goal to become a world class university, the issue of 7ob
performance of administrators is more important than it was before. This issue
still remains unclear as there have been no studies investigating on direct
indices of performance of these administrators. 1lthough it has been
consistently reported that >iTM0s authority was satisfied with their 7ob
performance but the e4act level of their performance has yet to be investigated.
!urthermore, literature research fails to locate any published studies that dealt
specifically on the issue of 7ob performance among administrators in >iTM.
+umerous studies were conducted in the west. 1lthough the debate continues
on the applicability of western findings, not much is nown as to whether their
findings have cross3culturally valid. Therefore, the applicability of such
findings still remains unclear, which maes it an important research agenda.
Moreover, in the absence of data reporting on the performance of administrators
in >iTM, it is the purpose of this study to contribute significantly to begin to fill
the literature gap and to add to the e4isting theoretical nowledge on 7ob
performance.
It is also important to note that with the increased attention to wor sill
standards only, will not bring long3term benefits. In order to enhance 7ob
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performance of administrators in >iTM, there have been evidences that they
have to be highly emotional intelligent and committed to their organi2ation.
9revious research done in other countries by researchers such as Aoleman
*%??Da-, $ohnson and Indvi *%???-, Dulewic2 I Higgs *'(((-, +el *'((%-,
;radberry *'(('-, "armeli *'((:- and .aw, 5ong I ,ong *'((=-J had proven
that emotional intelligence *people sills- was the best predictors for 7ob
performance and has the potential to improve performance on both personal and
organi2ational levels.
#n top of that, other researchers such as .iou and +yhan, ,cott and !alcone,
<oung, 5orchel and 5oehr found that the public sector employees had the
lowest average level of organi2ational commitment compared to non3profit and
for3profit sectors *in Aoulet and !ran, '(('-. 9revious research by Keithaml,
9arasuraman, I ;erry *%??(-L Mathieu and Ka7ac *%??(-L Hartline and !errell
*%??:-L Aanster and Dwyer *%??)-L ;oshoff and Tait *%??&-L ;enhoff *%??@-L
and ,ergeant and !renel *'(((- also found that the relationship between
organi2ational commitment and 7ob performance were inconsistent.
1t present, the theoretical linages between 7ob performance and these variables
in the higher learning institution are not fully established by past researchers.
Therefore, it is the aim of this study to e4plore and test a model to e4plain the
inter3relationship between emotional intelligence and organi2ational
commitment with 7ob performance. ,o, the 6uestion is to what e4tent does the
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influence of emotional intelligence on 7ob performance and how different form
of commitment is reflected in the level of 7ob performance among
administrators in >iTM.
Research Objectives
General Objective
The purpose of this study is to e4amine the e4tent of 7ob performance of
administrators in >iTM and its relationship with emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment dimensions.
Specific Objectives
The specific ob7ectives of this study are toG
%. measure the level of person3organi2ational fit, learning organi2ation
culture *5atins I Marsic- and total organi2ational commitment
among administrators in >iTML
'. determine the relationship between learning organi2ation culture *self3
management, relationship3management and communication- and
person3organi2ation fit among administrators in >iTML
:. determine the relationship between the selected independent variablesG
emotional intelligence *self3management, relationship3management and
communication- and organi2ational commitment *affective commitment,
continuance commitment and normative commitment- and 7ob
performance among administrators in >iTML
=.
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Research Questions
;ased on the specific ob7ectives above, this study sees to find the answers for
the following research 6uestions.
%. 5hat is the level of 7ob performance among administrators in
>iTMM
'. 5hat is the level of each of the component of 7ob performance
among administrators in >iTMM
:. 5hat is the level of total emotional intelligence and total
organi2ational commitment among administrators in >iTMM
=. 5hat is the level of emotional intelligence and organi2ational
commitment dimensions among administrators in >iTMM
). Is there a significant relationship between total emotional
intelligence and total organi2ational commitment with 7ob
performanceM
&. Is there a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment dimensions with 7ob performanceM
@. 5hat is the contribution of each of the significant predictor variables
towards the variance of 7ob performanceM
%)
Significance of the Study
The study of emotions and commitment has played a ma7or role in organi2ation
studies. Researchers have described the benefits of possessing a high emotional
intelligence and organi2ational commitment. ,uch individuals are found to be
healthier and more successful than their less emotionally intelligent peers
*"ooper, %??@- and employees who identify with the organi2ation and support
organi2ational goals generally perform well *,omers and ;imbaum, '(((-.
!rom the previous research, emotional intelligence has been proven to be the
best predictor of 7ob performance. 1lthough it was also found that the
relationship between organi2ational commitment and 7ob performance were not
consistent, it is important to conduct this study as it will help the researcher to
e4amine the contribution of organi2ational commitment towards 7ob
performance and understand the nature of commitment e4perience by the
administrators in >iTM. #nce an accurate assessment of the emotional
intelligence and organi2ational commitment level as well as their relationship
with 7ob performance has been identified, then only >iTM can educate and
create the awareness on the importance of emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment in developing human capital among them.
Researchers representing primarily sociological and cognitive perspectives have
started to e4amine emotions as integral and inseparable parts of everyday
organi2ational life *1shforth I Humphrey, %??) and !ineman, %??@-. Aoing
beyond the understanding that the e4perience of wor is saturated with feeling,
this new perspective is based on the themes that emotionality and rationality are
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interpenetrated and that, emotions are natural and inseparable concomitants of
tas activity.
Cmotionally intelligent individuals stand out. Their ability to empathi2e,
persevere, control impulses, communicate clearly, mae thoughtful decisions,
solve problems, and wor with others earns them with friends and success.
They tend to lead happier lives, with more satisfying relationships. In a
university, they are more productive, and they spur productivity in others. 1s
Aoleman *%??Db- reiterated that emotional intelligence3based competencies are
learned abilities, so, it is hoped that emotional intelligence being a new
measurement of success could result in developing the potential of individuals
in a holistic and integrated manner and producing individuals who are not only
intellectually but emotionally balanced in accomplishing their tass as an
administrator especially in the process of maing decision and to enhance 7ob
performance.
The nature of emotional intelligence as discussed above is such that it is
possible to enhance the overall level by planning and sustaining personal
development. Much of this development will result from reflecting on the
individual0s behaviors which tend to be e4hibited in differing situations,
consciously practicing different behaviors and actively seeing feedbac on the
way in which others interpret and respond to these behaviors. The appropriate
way in which to use the overall feedbac is to e4amine each of the emotional
intelligence scales and identifyG %- those where individuals have strengths which
%@
may be developed and generali2edL '- those where they are specific
opportunities for improvement.
Meanwhile, understanding the influence of organi2ational commitment is also
important as organi2ations restructure and shrin in response to global
competitive pressures while still e4pecting a worforce of committed survivors.
1s employees develop emotional attachment to >iTM, they also feel more
obligated to stay with the organi2ation. Cmployees that have different levels of
organi2ational commitment may re6uire different management style and
motivational strategies for optimum organi2ational effectiveness. The findings
can assist >iTM in determining the type of management style and motivational
strategies needed by their employees. 9rior research has indicated that
individuals who are committed to their organi2ation e4hibit the most positive
wor outcomes. The present study promotes additional support for this
proposition, but it also may suggest that positive outcomes may be affected by
the nature of organi2ational commitment. This study also attempts to e4tend the
organi2ational commitment literature in higher education.
The information related to individual performance may be useful in terms of the
implication it may have for wor and human resource related issues such as
personnel recruiting, selection and training. This study will enrich and add to
the literature on emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment in the
%D
wor place. The findings will also provide an understanding on the importance
of the two independent variables among employees in >iTM.
This study can also provide practical results to >iTM by providing empirical
support on the correlations of 7ob performance of administrators. !rom the
standpoint of >iTM, it is useful to find out if performance of >iTM0s
administrators can be enhanced by increasing the emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment level that were clearly indicated in the literature
review.
,o, the completion of the research should therefore enable the researcher to
identify the emotional intelligence sills and the nature of organi2ational
commitment that need to be developed through training needs analysis to
indicate sills that are the most significantly related to performance. Thus,
when specific sills are identified as being critical to the determination of
success, programs can then be designed to help develop these sills to facilitate
better performance for administrators in >iTM.
Limitations of the Study
These findings may be viewed with a few limitations in mind. This pro7ect is a
first attempt to compare the emotional intelligence and organi2ational
commitment of the individuals of a higher learning institution administration
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team *>iTM- with their 7ob performance evaluation score. Cmotional
intelligence is a relatively new area of study and the first serious research being
conducted by Mayer and ,alovey was in %??(. ,everal different models and
related instruments designed to measure a person0s emotional intelligence have
evolved over this time period. 1lthough the theories, models, and instruments
have received a great deal of interest, they still are considered evolving at this
time.
The self3administered 6uestionnaire of an individual0s 7ob performance,
emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment is also a limiting factor.
1lthough care has been taen to ensure that ambiguous words and meaning
were made clear to every respondents, there is always a possibility that
individual respondent might interpret the meanings of the 6uestions differently
from others. 1s a result of the occurrence of misinterpretations in the way
respondents might respond to 6uestions, inconsistency might have taen place,
which might affect the 6uality of the data. Therefore, readers should be
reminded that these results might not reflect the range of variability in
perceptions among the administrators understudied.
In addition, when self3assessment instruments are given to administrators, they
usually evaluate themselves as supportive, caring people. <et when these same
people are evaluated on the same instrument by the people who wor for them,
they are not seen as supportive, caring people. The reality is that unless we
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e4press our good feelings, people often do not now they e4ist. 9eople are not
mind readers *Hersey, ;lanchard, I $ohnson in Cdwards I Cwen, %??&-. ,elf3
ratings have been shown to be inflated due to a self3serving bias, that is, some
individuals tend to have a higher opinion of themselves than do others. If there
is a lac of nowledge or insight, individuals will tend to inflate their self3
assessment. In the case of minority groups, the reverse is true, that is, they tend
to assess themselves lower than do ma7ority groups *Cdwards I Cwen, %??&-.
1nother limitation is the use of translated 6uestionnaires. There is always a
possibility that the e6uivalence of the translated 6uestionnaires with that of the
source language might not be achieved even though e4tensive pre3testing were
conducted in the process of translating the 6uestionnaire into a different
language to preserve the meaning and intent of the scale items used. 1s 9eng,
9eterson, I ,hyi *%??%- said that no translation would be able to convey the
intended message perfectly.
!urthermore, too many items in the 6uestionnaire may also affect the mood of
the respondents. The respondents might feel bored and tired to respond the %?'
items and this might affect their concentration in attempting to complete
answering the 6uestionnaire.
!inally, the researcher only sample one university. Data collected from the
present study were drawn solely from a random sample of %)' administrators
woring in >iTM and thus, represent one university of the country. Therefore,
generali2ation should be confined to those administrators woring in >iTM
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only. In order to e4tend the boundaries of generali2ation to cover the
population of administrators in other universities in Malaysia as a whole,
research involving additional samples is needed. 1nd to enhance e4ternal
validity, future research efforts should obtain a representative sample from
several universities.
Definition of terms
To ensure clarity of meaning, the definition of some terms that will be used in
this study.
1ob Performance
$ob performance, in this study, is a summation of +owac0s *%??=- four 7ob
performance componentsG communication, tas3management, interpersonal and
problem3solving. $ob performance is measured using a %((3item performance
scale to determine the behavior of an administrator0s communication, tas3
management, interpersonal and problem3solving sills that in turn leads to
desired outcomes.
Communication skills refer to the administrator0s ability to be attentive,
understand the verbal communications of others and to eep others informed in
a timely manner. HeNshe is also able to e4press written thoughts and ideas in a
clear and concise manner, present individual and organi2ational viewpoints to
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groups in a clear and persuasive manner and finally, share a common vision and
develop strategic goals for the organi2ation.
Task-management skills refer to the administrator0s ability to set realistic and
measurable goals, allocate resources *people, budget, materials, etc.-, assign
wor, clarify e4pectations, and define how individual performance will be
measured. HeNshe is also able to develop procedures to evaluate and monitor
7ob activities and tass on an on3going basis, provide on3going feedbac and
conduct timely and effective performance reviews. 1n administrator0s
performance is also characteri2ed by the ability to provide others with regular
and clear feedbac on their performance, offer support when individuals are
confronted with problems and finally, ability to reward and recogni2e
performance in a timely and appropriate manner.
Interpersonal skills refer to the administrator0s ability to create and develop
motivated, cohesive, and high performance teams, tae actions that demonstrate
consideration for the feelings and needs of others, negotiate and effectively
resolve interpersonal differences with others. 1n administrator0s performance
is also characteri2ed by the ability to coach, train, develop others and utili2e
appropriate interpersonal styles and approaches in facilitating a group towards
tas achievement. HeNshe is also able to involve employees in organi2ational
planning, decision maing, and problem solving processes.
Summary
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$ob performance of the administrators in >iTM is particularly important. Their
performance is crucial in ensuring to achieve >iTM0s mission to become a
world class university. >iTM needs a pool of highly performed administrators
to develop the university human resources in order to speed up the development
of the university and to face the challenges of a more globali2ation that are
characteri2ed by an accelerating rate of technological change, turbulent marets,
international competition and shifting political boundaries. Therefore, the main
purpose of this study was to e4amine the performance of administrators in
>iTM.
CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
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Introduction
This chapter describes and analyses related literature that supports the premise
of this research. There are five ma7or sections in this chapter. The first section
deals with the concept of 7ob performance, the performance domains and 7ob
performance appraisals. The second section discusses the theory of emotional
intelligence including the history and conceptuali2ation of emotional
intelligence. The third section is the discussion of the organi2ational
commitment aspect. The fourth section discusses the relationship between both
emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment with 7ob performance.
1nd, finally, the last section deals with the theoretical framewor of this
research.
The concept of 1ob Performance
9erformance appraisal of managerial has been a ma7or concern of previous
research *Hempel, '((%-. 9erformance has been defined in terms of outcomes,
or behavior that in turn leads to desired outcomes *$ames, ,mith, .anday and
!arr, in Hempel, '((%-. ,henar, Ronen and De Mente *in Hempel, '((%-
defined performance from "hinese managers0 perspective as personal characters
such as loyalty and obedience instead of outcomes. ,ome researcher such as
+yaw and 5ang *in Hempel, '((%- agreed that "hinese performance appraisals
focus on /moral0 characteristics.
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9erformance has several dimensionsG individual performanceL group
performance and organi2ational performance, and this study emphasi2ed on
individual performance. #rgani2ations need highly performing individuals in
order to meet their goals, to deliver the products and services they speciali2ed
in, and finally to achieve competitive advantage. 9erformance is also important
for the individual. 1ccomplishing tass and performing at a high level can be a
source of satisfaction. 1ccording to ,onnentag and !rese *'(('-, individual
performance was mainly treated as a dependent variable which made perfect
sense from a practical point of view, that is, individual performance was
something organi2ations want to enhance and optimi2e. This was based on the
literature search done by ,onnentag and !rese *'(('- in the twelve of the ma7or
wor and organi2ational psychological research on a total number of %=& meta3
analyses within the past '( years. It was found that individual performance was
the dependent variable or outcome measure *@'.)H-. It shows that individual
performance is a ey variable in wor and organi2ational psychology.
Individual performance is not stable over time. Oariability in an individual0s
performance over time reflectsG %- learning processes and other long3term
changesL and '- temporary changes in performance. !irst, individual
performance changes as a result of learning. ,tudies by 1volio, 5aldman, and
McDanielL McDaniel, ,chmidt, Hunter and PuiQnonesL !ord, and Teachout *in
,onnentag and !rese, '(('- showed that performance initially increases with
increasing time spent in a specific 7ob and later reaches a plateau. Moreover,
the processes underlying performance change over time. During early phases of
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sill ac6uisition, performance relies largely on /controlled processing0, the
availability of declarative nowledge and the optimal allocation of limited
attentional resources, whereas later in the sill ac6uisition process, performance
largely relies on automatic processing, procedural nowledge, and psychomotor
abilities.
To identify the processes underlying changes of 7ob performance, Murphy
*%?D?- differentiated between a transition and a maintenance stage. The
transition stage occurs when individuals are new in a 7ob and when the tass are
novel. The maintenance stage occurs when the nowledge and sills needed to
perform the 7ob are learned and when tas accomplishment becomes automatic.
!or performing during the transition phase, cognitive ability is highly relevant.
During the maintenance stage, cognitive ability becomes less important and
dispositional factors *motivation, interests and values- increase in relevance.
9erformance changes over time are not invariable across individuals. There is
increasing empirical evidence that individuals differ with respect to patterns of
intra3individual change *Hofmann, $acobs and AerrasL 9loyhard and HaelL
Kicar and ,laughter in ,onnentag and !reese *'(('-. These findings indicate
that there is no uniform pattern of performance development over time.
,econdly, there is short3term variability in performance which is due to changes
in an individual0s psycho3physiological state, including processing capacity
across time *Bahneman in ,onnentag and !reese, '(('-. These changes may be
'@
caused by long woring hours, disturbances of the circadian rhythm, or
e4posure to stress and may result in fatigue or in a decrease in activity.
However, these states do not necessarily result in a performance decrease.
Individuals are, for e4ample, able to compensate for fatigue, be it by switching
to different strategies or by increasing effort *,onnentag I !rese, '(('-.
1uthors such as "ampbellL "ampbell, Mc"loy, #ppler, and ,agerL Banfer and
Roe *in ,onnentag and !rese *'(('- agreed that when conceptuali2ing
performance one has to differentiate between an action *that is, behavioral-
aspect and an outcome aspect of performance. They defined the behavioral
aspect as to what an individual does in the wor situation. It encompasses
behaviors which is relevant for the organi2ational goals. "ampbell *%??(- said
that performance was what the organi2ation hired one to do, and do well. Thus,
performance is not defined by the action itself but by 7udgmental and evaluative
processes. Moreover, only actions which can be scaled or measured are
considered to constitute performance.
#n the other hand, the outcome aspect refers to the conse6uence or result of the
individual0s behavior and it depends also on factors other than the individual0s
behavior. In practice, it might be difficult to describe the action aspect of
performance without any reference to the outcome aspect. This is because not
any action but only actions relevant for organi2ational goals constitute
performance.
'D
In studying performance, researchers such as "ampbell *%??(-L Hacman and
#ldham *%?@&-L !reese and ,onnentag *'(((- and others have adopted three
different perspectivesG *%- an individual differences perspective which searches
for individual characteristics *e.g., general mental ability, personality- as
sources for variation in performanceL *'- a situational perspective which focuses
on situational aspects as facilitators and impediments for performanceL and *:- a
performance regulation perspective which describes the performance process.
These perspectives are not mutually e4clusive but approach the performance
phenomenon from different angles which complement one another.
1n overview of the three perspectives is presented in Table %. There is a large
body of research which showed that motivation is essential for performance.
Motivational constructs related to performance can be partly subsumed under
the individual differences perspectives *e.g., need for achievement-, partly
under the situational perspectives *e.g., e4trinsic rewards-, and partly under the
performance regulation perspective *e.g., goal setting-.
Table 1: Overview of Perspectives on Performance
Individual
differences
perspective
Situational
perspective
Performance
regulation
perspective
'?
Core question 5hich individuals
perform bestM
In which
situations do
individuals
perform bestM
How does the
performance
process loo lieM
5hat is happening
when someone is
/performing0M
Core
assumptions
and findings
3"ognitive ability
3Motivation and
personality
39rofessional
e4perience
3 $ob
characteristics
3 Role stressors
3 ,ituational
constraints
3 1ction process
factors
3 1de6uate
hierarchical level
Practical
implications
for
performance
improvement
3 Training
3 9ersonnel
selection
3 C4posure to
specific
e4periences
$ob design 3 Aoal setting
3 !eedbac
interventions
3 ;ehavior
modification
3 Improvement of
action process
3 Training $ob
design
The three different perspectives of performance are as followsG
1. Individual Differences Perspective
The individual differences perspective focuses on performance differences
between individuals can be e4plained by individual differences in abilities,
personality andNor motivation. The core 6uestion to be answered by this
perspective isG 5hich individuals perform bestM "ampbell *%??(- proposed a
general model of individual differences in performance which differentiates
performance components *e.g., 7ob specific tas proficiency-, determinants of
7ob performance components and predictors of these determinants. He
describes the performance components as a function of three determinants *%-
declarative nowledge, *'- procedural nowledge and sills, and *:- motivation.
:(
Motowidlo *'(((- defined declarative nowledge as nowledge about facts,
principles, goals, and the self. It is assumed to be a function of a person0s
abilities, personality, interests, education, training, e4perience, and aptitude3
treatment interactions. 5hile procedural nowledge and sills refers to actually
doing what must be done *eg., performing the 7ob- and hence is a combination
of nowing what to do and actually being able to do it. This is because
procedural nowledge includes cognitive and psychomotor sills, physical sill,
self3management sill, and interpersonal sill. 9redictors of procedural
nowledge and sills are again abilities, personality, interests, education,
training, e4perience, and aptitude3treatment interactions and additionally
practice. Meanwhile, motivation comprises choice to perform, level of effort,
and persistence of effort *"ampbell, %??(-.
Motowidlo, ;orman and ,chmit *%??@- agreed that cognitive ability variables
have an effect on tas nowledge, tas sills, and tas habits that are seen as
predictors of tas performance. However, personality variables are assumed to
have an effect on conte4tual nowledge, conte4tual sill, conte4tual habits and,
additionally, tas habits that are regarded as predictors of conte4tual
performance.
This implies that tas performance is predominantly a function of cognitive
ability and conte4tual performance is predominantly a function of personality.
However, according to this model, cognitive ability has a minor effect on
:%
conte4tual performance, mediated by conte4tual nowledge, and personality has
a minor effect on tas performance, mediated by tas habits *Motowidlo and
Oan ,cotter, %??=-.
Individual differences in motivation may be caused by differences in
motivational traits and differences in motivational sills *Banfer and Heggestad,
as cited in ,onnentag and !reese *'(('-. Motivational traits are closely related
to personality constructs. 1chievement and an4iety has been identified as two
basic wor3relevant motivational traits that provide evidence for the need for
achievement to be related to 7ob performance. #n the other hand, Buhl in
,onnentag and !reese, '((' defined motivational sills as self3regulatory
strategies pursued during goal striving and comprise emotional control and
motivation control. 1nother important construct in the motivational domain
which is highly relevant for performance is self3efficacy *;andura, %??@-.
2. Situational perspective
,ituational perspective refers to factors in the individual0s environment which
stimulate and support or hinder performance and it encompasses approaches
which focus on worplace factors. There are two ma7or approaches in relation
to worplace factors and their relationship to individual performance. !irst,
those focus on situational factors that enhance and facilitate performance.
There are two models that fall in this approachG 7ob characteristic modelL and
socio3technical theory. Hacman and #ldham *%?@&- assumed that 7ob
characteristics *that is, sill variety, tas identity, tas significance, autonomy,
:'
feedbac- have an effect on critical psychological states *that is, e4perienced
meaningfulness, e4perienced responsibility for wor outcomes, nowledge of
the results of the wor activities- which in turn have an effect on personal wor
outcomes including 7ob performance. Meanwhile, Trist and ;amforth in
,onnentag and !reese *'(('- described socio3technical system as wor system
that comprised of social and technical subsystems and suggested that
performance improvement can only follow from the 7oint optimi2ation of both
subsystems.
The second approach focuses on situational factors which impede performance.
,ituational constraint such as lac of necessary information, problems with
machines and supplies as well as stressors within the wor environment are
assumed to impair 7ob performance directly. However, !ay and ,onnentag
*'(((- suggested that stressors can have a positive effect on personal initiatives,
that is, one aspect of conte4tual performance. This finding suggests that within
a situational perspective, the performance3enhancing factors *eg., control at
wor, meaningful tass- play a more important role than stressors.
3. Performance regulation perspective
This perspective focuses on the performance process itself and conceptuali2es it
as an action process. 1ccording to ,onnentag and !reese *'(('-, there are two
types of approaches that focus on regulatory forces within the individualG e4pert
research approach within cognitive psychology by Cricson and .ehman *%??&-L
::
and the action theory approach of performance by !reese and ,onnentag *'(((-L
!reese and Kapf *%??=-L Hacer *%?@:-L and Hacer *%??D-.
!irst, the e4pertise research focuses on process characteristics of the tas
accomplishment process. It aims at a description of the differences between
high and moderate performers while woring on a tas. ,onnentag *'(((-
found that high performers differ from moderate performers in the way they
approach their tass and how they arrive at solutions. !or e4ample, during
problem comprehension, high performers focus on abstract and general
information, they proceed from general to specific information and apply a
/relational strategy0 in which they combine and integrate various aspects of the
tas and the solution process.
+e4t, the action theory approach describes the performance process from both
process and structural point of view. The process point of view focuses on the
se6uential aspects of an action, while the structural point of view refers to its
hierarchical organi2ation. 1nd Roe *%???- incorporated the action theory
approach as one of the five performance regulatory perspective. The other four
components are energetic regulation, emotional regulation, vitality regulation,
and self3image regulation.
1lthough the three perspectives represent different approaches to the
performance phenomenon, researchers such as Hacman and #ldham *%?@&-
and 5aldman *%??=- often combine two or more approaches when e4plaining
:=
performance. To them, a combination between individual differences *growth
need strength- and the situational perspective *7ob characteristics- is crucial for
individual performance because both have an effect on 7ob performance. This
was supported by Mitchell *%??@- in which he assumed that individual
differences and situational perspective additionally affect motivated behavior
via motivational processes such as arousal, attention, direction, intensity and
persistence.
1t present, organi2ation and wor as a whole are undergoing dramatic change
which has implications for conceptuali2ing and understanding performance.
1ccording to ,onnentag and !reese *'(('-, this dramatic change is due to five
ma7or trendsG %- the importance of continuous learningL '- the relevance of
proactivityL :- increase in teamworL =- globali2ationL and )- technology. The
five ma7or trends that cause dramatic change in an organi2ation are as followsG
1. Continuous learning
Individual wor re6uirement are 6uicly changing because of technical
innovations and changes in organi2ational structures and processes. 1s a
conse6uence, continuous learning and competence development become
increasingly important. .ondon and ,mither *%???- stressed that learning was
part of the performance concept which would be measured or rewarded as a
performance component because learning mattered mostly with respect to future
performance in which the newly ac6uired sills and nowledge were needed.
5hen learning becomes a continuous necessity, the duration and occurrence of
:)
the traditional sill ac6uisition and maintenance stage changes. Individuals will
go bac and forth between the sill ac6uisition and the maintenance phase.
2. Proactivity
In today0s wor environment, it is no longer sufficient for an individual to
comply with prescribed 7ob re6uirements but to go beyond what is formally
re6uested. 9roactive behaviors such as personal initiative becomes increasingly
important and as an essential part of conte4tual performance *!reese, %??@-.
1nd Morrison and 9helps *%???- assumed that the relevance of personal
initiative and similar behaviors increases further when environmental and
globali2ation changes become even more dynamic. This development implies
that proactivity might become an important predictor of tas performance.
3. Working in teams
Ilgen *%???- found out that organi2ations are increasingly implementing
teamwor and other group wor arrangements. It shows that organi2ations
become more interested in team performance than in individual performance.
However, because teams are composed of individuals, team processes and team
performance cannot be completely understood and improved without taing
individual performance into account. !rom the perspective of individual
performance, an organi2ation should focus on the three important aspects.
:&
!irst, interpersonal and self3management sills nowledge are essential for
performing well in a teamwor setting. This is because tas3related sills and
nowledge are not sufficient when accomplishing tass in a teamwor setting
*,tevens and "ampion, %??=-. ,econd, individual tas performance is
necessary for high team performance. Moreover, one can assume that specific
facets of conte4tual performance particularly helping and altruistic behavior are
highly relevant here. !inally, the combination of individual performance is 7ust
the sum of team members0 individual performance *Bo2lowsi and Blien,
'(((-.
4. Globalization
Alobali2ation according to #nes and Oiswesvaran *%??@- comprises two ma7or
developmentsG %- production and servicesL and '- worforces. !irst, production
and services are produced for a global maret and are competing world wide.
1nd, the conse6uences of globali2ation are most obvious within direct
employee3customer interactions. 5hat is regarded as good individual
performance in these interactions varies largely between different cultures. 1n
organi2ation should aware of these difference and behaviors which are
perceived as the most appropriate in a specific culture.
,econd, organi2ations worforces become increasingly global, that is,
Eculturally diverseF. Individual performance in these settings is predicted by a
comple4 set of specific variables. Thus, globally operating organi2ation should
consider an appropriate and the latest techni6ues in implementing performance
:@
appraisal system so that it can identify and improve the most significance
factors that can enhance 7ob performance.
5. Technology
In many 7obs, individual wor behavior *performance- is very closely lined to
the use of technology3based systems. This development has implications for
conceptuali2ing and measuring 7ob performance. !urthermore, with the
increased of well3designed user interfaces of technically high sophisticated
devices, the relevance sills and nowledge needed in previous wor systems
decreases while other sills and nowledge become more important in the
performance process *5all and Davids, %??'-.
1s a conclusion, individual performance can be described as an individual0s
measurable behavior which is relevant for organi2ational goals. 1s 7ob
performance is characteri2ed as multi3dimensional and dynamic in nature, the
integration of the three different perspectives on performance is needed for
understanding why specific individual characteristics and situational factors
result in high individual performance.
The generali2ation that people always wor in groups, and the groups are
always structured in terms of status hierarchies is relevant to organi2ational
behavior *Motowidlo, ;orman and ,chmit, %??@-. They suggested that people
try to get along and get ahead while woring. Hunt as cited in Hogan and
:D
Holland *'((:- highlighted the importance of technical proficiency or tas
performance for 7ob success *getting ahead- and also emphasi2es conte4tual
performance, organi2ational citi2enship and pro3social behavior *getting along
at wor-. Hogan and Holland *'((:- defined getting along as behavior that
gains the approval of others that enhances cooperation, and serves to build and
maintain relationships, whereas, getting ahead as behavior that produces results
and advances an individual within the group and the group within its
competition. Tas performance corresponds to getting ahead and conte4tual
performance corresponds to getting along *;orman and Motowidlo, %??:-.
In order to get along, people must cooperate and seem compliant, friendly and
positive. 5hen successful, they are evaluated by others as good team players,
organi2ational citi2ens and service providers *MoonL Mount, ;arric and
,tewart in Hogan and Holland *'((:-. #n the other hand, to get ahead, people
must tae initiative, see responsibility, compete and try to be organi2ed. 5hen
successful, they are described by others as achieving results, providing
leadership, communicating a vision, and motivating others toward goals
*"onway, %???-.
#ccupational life consists of episodes organi2ed according to agendas and rolesG
what will be done and who will do it. Cfforts to get along and get ahead tae
place during these episodes. Aetting along and getting ahead are associated
with emotional stability. 9eople who are emotionally stable are those who seem
calm, self3confident and resilient. This is because according to Hogan and
:?
Holland *'((:-, when successful 7ob performance re6uires getting along, it is
associated with being positive *that is, emotional stabilityL Aeorge, %??(L Mount
et al., %??DL ,taw, ,utton and 9elled, %??=-L predictable *that is,
conscientiousnessL Hough, %??', 9arasuraman, Keithaml, and ;erry, %?D&-L and
sensitive to others *that is. agreeablenessL ;arric, ,tewart and 9iotrowsi,
'(((L R, Hogan, and ;usch, %?D=-. 1nd when successful 7ob performance
re6uires getting ahead, it is associated with being confident *i.e. emotional
stabilityL Aough, %??(L ,todgill, %??D-, ambitious and hardworing *i.e.
e4traversion3surgencyL R. Hogan, "urphy, and Hogan, %??=L Mc"lelland,
1tinson, "lar, and .owell, %?):L Oinchir et al., %??D-, and curious and eager
to learn *that is, intellect3openness to e4perienceL ;arric and Mount, %??%L
"osta and Mc"rae, %??'L Mc"rae and "osta, %??@-.
In short, when successful 7ob performance re6uires both getting along and
getting head, a few of the emotional intelligence components mentioned above
will predict 7ob performance. There is a lin between 7ob performance and
emotional stability. In a study done using socio3analytic theory on ),'='
sample from different 7ob title by Hogan and Holland *'((:-, it was found that
the emotional stability construct were important predictors for 7ob performance
when compared to other personality variables *Cmotional stabilityG .=:,
C4traversion3ambitionG .:), 1greeablenessG .:=, "onscientiousnessG .:&, and
Intellect3#penness to C4periencesG .:= -. !rom these findings, it can be
concluded that people with high emotional intelligence or emotionally stable
perform better in the worplace.
=(
#n top of that, highly committed employees are said to perform well in an
organi2ation. This is because those who value and want to maintain
membership should be willing to e4ert considerable effort on behalf of the
organi2ation *Mowday, 9orter, and ,teers, %?D'-. Thus, employees who are
affectively committed to the organi2ation for e4ample, tend to perform at a
higher level than those who are not. Interest in organi2ational commitment has
been stimulated largely by its demonstrated negative relation to turnover.
Meyer et al. *%?D?- also said that committed employees have been found to be
less liely to leave an organi2ation than those who are uncommitted. ;ecause
turnover can be costly to organi2ations, commitment is generally assumed to be
a desirable 6uality that should be fostered in employees. !urthermore, they
added that there has been comparatively little research in e4amining the lin
between organi2ational commitment and wor3relevant behavior other than
turnover. However, employeesR 7ob performance is arguably as important as, or
more important than, whether they ultimately stay or leave.

The 1ob Performance Domains
1ccording to Hogan and Holland *'((:-, 7ob performance is a multidimensional
construct that consist of tas performance, conte4tual performance *Motowidlo,
;orman and ,chmit, %??@-, adaptive performance *9ulaos, 1rad, Donovon and
=%
9lamondo, '(((- and counterproductive behavior *,acett, '(('-. The
performance domains are as followsG
Task performanceG
• "ore technical part of a 7ob and tas activities.
Contextual performanceG
• Interpersonal support *helping, supporting, motivating others-
• #rgani2ational support *defending and promoting the organi2ation-
• "onscientious initiative *persistence of individual effort in
completing tass and in self3development-
Adaptive performance
• Interpersonal adaptability
• "ultural adaptability
• 9hysical adaptability
Counterproductive behavior
• ;ehavior that is intentional and contrary to the organi2ation0s
interest.
Tas performance is the proficiency with which 7ob incumbents perform
activities that formally recogni2ed as part of their 7obs *;orman and Motowidlo,
='
%??:-. It also refers to the core technical part of a 7ob and the tas activities
vary from 7ob to 7ob.
Motowidlo *'(((- defined conte4tual performance as non3re6uired tas that
were performed to help individuals in organi2ation or organi2ational as a whole
and had identified three dimensions of conte4tual performanceG interpersonal
support *helping, supporting, motivating others-L organi2ational support
*defending and promoting the organi2ation-L and conscientious initiative
*persistence of individual effort in completing tass and in self3development-.
"onte4tual performance supports the organi2ational, social and psychological
environment in which the technical core must function.
It includes activities such as *%- volunteering to carry out tas activities even if
not part of the 7obL *'- persisting with e4tra effort when necessary to complete
own worL *:- helping and cooperating with othersL *=- following organi2ational
rules and proceduresL and *)- endorsing and supporting organi2ational
procedures *;orman and Motowidlo, %??:-. ,train and "harles in Motowidlo
*'(((- for e4ample, used supervisory rating scale and percentage of sales goal
achievement as 7ob performance in retail salespeople. However, this
measurement has some weanesses, that is, the employees are not aware of the
value of the goal.
;oth tas and conte4tual performance are important contributors to
organi2ational effectiveness. Motowildo and Oan ,cotter *%??=- have
demonstrated that e4perienced supervisor weighted employee tas and
=:
conte4tual performance about e6ually when maing overall performance or
effectiveness 7udgments of these employees.
9ulaos et al. *'(((- have shown that adaptability was also a multidimensional
construct, consisting ofG solving problems creativelyL dealing with uncertain and
unpredictable wor environmentsL learning wor tass, technologies, and
proceduresL interpersonal adaptability, cultural adaptabilityL and physical
adaptability. These dimensions are differentially important across occupational
groups.
!inally, counterproductive behavior is defined as behavior that is intentional
and contrary to the organi2ation0s interests such as theft, destruction of
property, misuse of information, misuse of time and resources, unsafe behavior,
poor attendance, and poor wor 6uality *,acett, '(('-.
The concept of 7ob performance was further enhanced through other scholars
wor such as +owac *'(()- that 7ob performance dimensions were based on
an e4tensive 7ob analysis of supervisory and managerial positions in several
large service, manufacturing and aerospace companies which will be discussed
later in this chapter.
1ob Performance Appraisal
$ob performance is a fundamentally important construct in organi2ational
practice, research and human resource management. !rom a theoretical
==
perspective, researchers have long been interested in understanding the causal
mechanism that lead to effective 7ob performance. !rom a practical perspective,
it plays a central role in most personnel decisions such as merit3based
compensation, promotion and retention. It is also used as an important source
of developmental feedbac.
In early %D((s, Robert #wen used a particular color representing a grade
*rating- of the employee0s performance *5iese and ;ucley, %??D-. "arnegie3
Mellon >niversity introduced the trait psychology to develop man3to3man
performance rating system, while Donald 9atterson in %?'' proposed the
graphic3rating scale to evaluate individual 7ob performance *5iese and
;ucley, %??D-. The most typical rating of individual performance includes
/outstanding0, /satisfactory0 and need /improvement0.
Man3to3man rating system developed by the >, 1rmy in %?%=, used five
dimensions of individual 7ob performanceG physical 6ualities, intelligence,
leadership, personal 6ualities and general value to the service. Cach of the
employees can be ran from highest *%-, middle *'-, lowest *:-, between highest
and middle *=- and between middle and lowest *)-. .eadership, initiative,
cooperative, 7udgment, creativity, resourcefulness, innovativeness and
dependability among individual 7ob performance were used in graphic or traits
rating scales *;en7amin, in 5iese and ;ucley, %??D-. However, these rating
scale have not withstood legal scrutiny *;ernardin and ;ucley, in 5iese and
;ucley, %??D-.
=)
1fter world war two, the forced3choice and critical incident methods were
introduced. In the forced3choice method, the performance evaluators will rate a
set of statements, phrases or words describing 7ob performance. #f the four
statements, two appear favorable and another two unfavorable. The rater
chooses the statements which heNshe believes to be the most appropriate for the
employee. This method creating a more accurate rating and reduce rater bias
*5iese and ;ucley, %??D-. In the critical incident method, supervisors must
document positive and negative incidents that occur during a given performance
period and observe to review the employee0s performance. However, this
method is comple4, costly and time3consuming *in 5iese and ;ucley, %??D-.
McAregor in %?)@ recommended that appraisals of individuals performance
was based on the accomplishment of goals set forth at the beginning of the
appraisal period *5iese and ;ucley, %??D-.
"ampbell, *%??(-L "ampbell, Mc"loy, #ppler, and ,ager *%??:- provided one
of the first large scale attempts to integrate the numerous dimensions of
performance into a comprehensive model. It can be modeled using the
following eight general factors *%- 7ob3specific tas proficiencyL *'- non37ob
tas proficiencyL *:- written and oral communicationL *=- demonstrating effortL
*)- maintaining personal disciplineL *&- facilitating peer and team performanceL
*@- supervisionNleadershipL and *D- managementN administration. These eight
factors represent the highest3order factors that can be useful for describing
performance in every 7ob in the occupational domain, although some factors
=&
may not be relevant for all 7obs. $ob performance ratings are sub7ective
evaluations that can be obtained from supervisors, peers, subordinates, self or
customers.
Meanwhile, the Malaysian Aovernment has introduced several initiatives to
motivate its employees and improve their 7ob performance. 1s mentioned
earlier in chapter one, performance measures are not new in the government
such as the annual assessment, competency assessment and efficiency
measurement. The government has introduced the Bey 9erformance Indicator0s
*B9I- guideline to all government agencies through its circular unveiled by the
"hief ,ecretary to the government, Tan ,ri ,hamsuddin #sman to mae sure
the performance measures provide a holistic picture of an individual0s and
organi2ation0s performance *+,T, '(()-.
However, to date, only si4 agencies have established and implemented B9I.
They are the $ohor ,tate Immigration Department, Malacca Municipal "ouncil,
,hah 1lam 9olice Department, ,elangor ,tate .and and District #ffice, 9enang
,tate +ational Registration Department and Bota ;ahru Hospital *+,T, '(()-.
1nd, >iTM is still using the competency assessment or /,istem ,araan
Malaysia0 to measure its employees0 7ob performance.
In this study the Management OiewN9ractices Puestionnaire were used to
evaluate the administrators. It is a widely used instrument and a comprehensive
7ob3tas activity 6uestionnaire that summari2ed both the importance and
=@
fre6uency of each 7ob tass relative to the targeted supervisory and management
positions. It was first designed and developed in early %?D) by Benneth M.
+owac and was based on an e4tensive 7ob analysis of supervisory and
managerial positions in several large service, manufacturing and aerospace
companies *in +owac, %??@-. 1 set of critical supervisory and managerial
dimensions or competencies were derived in four specific areasG %-
"ommunicationL '-L Tas3managementL :- InterpersonalL and =- 9roblem3
solving. The managerial dimensions or competencies are as followsG
Theory of Emotional Intelligence
1ccording to Dulewic2 and Higgs *'(((-, the literature in this field contains a
range of terminologies, which tends to be confusing and includes the terms
emotional intelligence *e.g. Aoleman, %??&L ,alovey and Mayer, %??(-,
emotional literacy *e.g. ,teiner, %??@-, emotional 6uotient *e.g. ;ar3on, %?D)L
Aoleman, %??&, %??@L "ooper, %??@-, personal intelligences *e.g. Aardner,
%??:-, social intelligence *e.g. Thorndie, %?'(- and interpersonal intelligence
*e.g. Aardner and Hatch, %?D?-. However, the most used terminology is
emotional intelligence *CP-.
History and the concept of Emotional Intelligence
5hen reviewing the literature, the wor of particular researchers often appears.
,ome of the most recogni2ed authors and a discussion of their wors follow.
The most widely accepted models of emotional intelligence have been
influenced by several prominent scientists and researchers. 1ccording to
Aoleman *%??)-, Cdward Thorndie is credited with the initial study of
=D
emotional intelligence. The term had not yet been coined, but Thorndie *%?'(-
researched dimensions of emotional intelligence as a form of Esocial
intelligenceF. He defined social intelligence as Ethe ability to understand and
manage men and women, boys and girls to react wisely in human relationsF.
Howard Aardner *in Aoleman, %??)- continued to e4pand the nowledge of
interpersonal and intrapersonal sills in the mid3%?D(s and emotional
intelligence can be viewed as a combination of the intrapersonal and
interpersonal intelligence of an individual. ,alovey and Mayer *%??(- are given
credit for introducing the term Eemotional intelligenceF in the early l??(s.
!inally, Aoleman *%??)- published two very successful boos in which he
described emotional intelligence and how emotional intelligence was used in
the worplace.
The development of the construct of emotional intelligence is lined to the
history of social intelligence. Cmotional intelligence can be considered as
another phase in the evolution and development of social intelligence models.
1ccording to Aardner *in ,utarso, %??D-, social intelligence can be placed in the
conte4t of intelligence theories. Meanwhile, Thorndie in Aoleman *%??)- was
one of the first theorists to attempt to define the aspect of social intelligence that
we now now as emotional intelligence. ,ocial intelligence can be e4plained as
the ability to understand others and act appropriately in human relations.
Marlowe as cited in ,tewart *%??&- defined social intelligence as the ability to
understand other people and social interactions and to use this nowledge to
=?
lead and guide others to mutually satisfying outcomes. He added researchers
agreed that social intelligence is important for academic and career
achievement.
5aler and !oley in ,tewart *%??@- identified two elements of social
intelligence. "ognitive sill in drawing accurate conclusions from social
interactions and the effectiveness of social behavior based on such observations
e4press the foundation of social intelligence. Thorndie *in ,tewart, %??@-
initially investigated social intelligence as one component of intelligence
measured by the IP score. He ultimately distinguished social intelligence from
other forms of intelligence and defined it as the capability to understand people
and to act wisely in human relations. .ater, ,ternberg *in ,tewart in %??@-
concurred with Thorndie0s findings stating that social intelligence is not only
distinct from academic abilities but is also an integral part of what maes people
do well in the practicalities of life. He noted that conventional IP tests assess
only the analytical aspect of intelligence. Aoleman credited ,ternberg for
attempting to widen the sphere of intelligence and reinvent it in terms of what it
taes to lead a successful life.
Then according to Dulewic2 and Higgs *'(((-, in %??D, Reuven ;ar3#n
developed his concept of emotional intelligence in the conte4t of personality,
health and well being. He coined the term ECPF *Cmotional Puotient- to
describe his approach to assessing emotional and social competence. He
e4plained emotional intelligence by saying that it reflects our ability to deal
)(
successfully with other people and with our feelings. He developed the ;ar3#n
Cmotional Intelligence Inventory *CP3i- after %@ years of research, and this
inventory is the first scientifically developed and validated measure of
emotional intelligence that reflects one0s ability to deal with daily
environmental challenges and helps predict one0s success in life, including
professional and personal pursuits. It was published by Multi3Health ,ystems
in %??& as the first test of its ind. The test covers five areasG intrapersonal,
interpersonal, adaptability, stress management and general mood.
Then, the term emotional intelligence appeared in a series of academic articles
authored by Mayer and ,alovey *in ,utarso, %??D-. Their first article presented
the first model of emotional intelligence. ,alovey and Mayer *%??(- stated that
emotional intelligence was a type of social intelligence, which was in agreement
with the operational definition provided by Aardner. They saw it similarly as
the ability to monitor one0s own and others0 emotions, to discriminate among
them, and to use the information to guide one0s thining and actions. ,alovey
and Mayer separated emotional intelligence from general intelligence and social
intelligence. To them, emotional intelligence can include intrapersonal and
interpersonal intelligence.
They see emotional intelligence as a type of social intelligence that involves the
ability to monitor one0s own and others emotions, to discriminate among them,
and to use the information to guide one0s thining and actions. They first
categori2ed emotional intelligence into five domainsG
)%
%. ,elf3awarenessG The ability to now one3self and to recogni2e a feeling
as it happensL
'. Managing emotionsG The ability to handle feelings appropriately and to
build on one0s self3awareness so that the feelings are appropriateL
reali2ing what is behind a feeling, finding ways to handle fears and
an4ieties, anger, and sadnessL
:. Motivating oneselfG The ability to focus enthusiasm, confidence, and
concentration, demonstrate emotional self3control, delay gratification,
and stifle impulses to achieve goalL
=. CmpathyG The ability to recogni2e emotions in others or to be sensitive
to others0 feelings and concernsL taing others0 perspectivesL
appreciating the differences in how people feel about thingsL
). Handling relationshipsG The ability to manage emotions in others, to
demonstrate interpersonal or social competence and social sills.
However, the term Eemotional intelligenceF entered the mainstream only with
Daniel Aoleman in %??). He became aware of ,alovey and Mayer0s wor and
this eventually led to his boo, emotional intelligence. He argued in his boo
that everyone was able to achieve success because IP accounted for only '(H
of a person0s success while emotional intelligence accounted for D(H. He also
said that emotional intelligence was a new concept indeed, but the e4isting data
implied that it can be as powerful as IP and sometimes even more. Hunter and
Hunter in "herniss *'(((- estimated that at best IP accounts for about ') H of
the variance, while ,ternberg has pointed out that studies varied and that %(H
)'
may be a more realistic estimate. In some studies, IP accounted for as little as
=H of the variance.
1t least, unlie what is claimed about IP, we can teach and improve in
employees some crucial emotional competencies. Aoleman *%??)- described
emotional intelligence as Eother characteristicsF of intelligence, which include
the following abilitiesG %- to motivate oneself and persist in the face of
frustration, '- to control impulse and delay gratification, :- to regulate one0s
moods and eep distress from swamping the ability to thin, =- to empathi2e,
and )- to hope.
!or many years organi2ational researchers and practitioners have assumed that
rationality and emotion cannot coe4ist in an organi2ation. In fact, many have
believed that emotionality is the antithesis of rationalityL hence, emotion is
potentially problematic for organi2ations. Today, some believe that
management research and practice have overemphasi2ed rationality at the
e4pense of emotionality. Cmotion is not the dysfunctional antithesis of
rationality, but is the functional complement of rationality. Cmotions are an
integral and inseparable part of organi2ational life and hence are often
functional in positive ways for the organi2ation *1shforth and Humphrey,
%??)-.
In the past, emotions were ignored in studies of organi2ational behavior and
considered to get in the way of sound 7udgment in the worplace. This view in
):
now being dismantled as more researchers are finding that worplace emotions
help e4plain important individual and organi2ational outcomes. Researchers are
beginning to e4amine how emotions are managed by employees to improve
wor outcomes.
1s the study of emotional intelligence continues to e4pand, it is being
discovered that emotions do e4ist in the worplace and that they have a great
impact in the worplace and on the employees. It is believed that emotions and
their regulation may be an important factor in e4plaining many aspects of
organi2ational life and the employees who wor within the organi2ation. This
is because emotions are an intrinsic part of an employees0 biological maeup,
and every morning they march into the office with them and influence their
behavior *"audron in 1shforth and Humphrey, %??)-.
Aoleman added that emotional intelligence encompasses traits such as self3
awareness, empathy, optimism, impulse control, and the ability to manage anger
and an4iety. 9eople who lac these traits are more liely to be unpopular and
have difficulty in learning. Cmotional intelligence also has an impact on how
people function in the worplace, where Epeople sillsF may be as important as
or more important than Ewor sills.F !urthermore, 1lder *'(((- described
emotional intelligence as the involvement of Epeople sillsF, and emotional
strengths that one needed to do well in life regardless of one0s educational
attainments and IP score.
)=
5hat set the real achievers apart was not IP or academic genius, but good
relationships with co3worers. This may reflect a difference in the worplace.
In the past, many 7obs were highly competitive and often done alone. The new
worplace is highly dependent upon teamwor. In the ;ell .aboratories, for
e4ample, successful people could gather support and advice. They could get a
group to reach consensus, seemed to be persuasive, and were able to see from
different perspectives *Belley, %??D-. 1s Aoleman noted, an office tyrant may
be high on e4pertise but low on trust. This is a view that might be endorsed by
Cman *in ,utarso, %??D- who attributes different 6ualities to intelligence and
social sills.
1ccording to Aardner and ,tough in Rosete and "iarrochi *'(()-, emotional
intelligence that was originally conceptuali2ed by ,alovey and Mayer *%??(-,
involved the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and e4press emotionL the
ability to access andNor generate feelings when they facilitate thoughtL the
ability to understand emotion and emotional nowledgeL and the ability to
regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth.
Researchers were pu22led by the fact that while IP could predict to a significant
degree the academic performance and, to some degree, professional and
personal success, there was something missing in the e6uation. ,ome of those
with fabulous IP scores were doing poorly in lifeL one could say that they were
wasting their potential by thining, behaving and communicating in a way that
))
hindered their chances to succeed. #ne of the ma7or missing parts in the
success e6uation is emotional intelligence, a concept made popular by the
groundbreaing boo, Daniel Aoleman, which is based on years of research by
numerous scientists such as 9eter ,alovey, $ohn Meyer, Howard Aardner,
Robert ,ternberg and $ac ;loc, 7ust to name a few. !or various reasons and
thans to a wide range of abilities, people with high emotional intelligence tend
to be more successful in life than those with lower emotional intelligence even
if their classical IP is average.
The 6uestion is, can emotional intelligence predict 7ob performanceM There is a
good possibility that it can because general intelligence accounts for only %(H
to '(H of success in academic and occupational areas *Aardner, %??D-. This
means that other variables are responsible for the other D(H to ?(H, thus
allowing for some predictive value for the concept of emotional intelligence
*Aardner, %??D-. This suggests that if general intelligence has not been
predictive to success, then emotional intelligence would differentiate the
potential productivity of one person from another.
Cmotional intelligence is a bigger predictor of worplace success. In fact, an
individual0s success at wor is D(H dependent on emotional intelligence and
only '(H dependent on IP *Martine2, %??@-. !or e4ample, administrators
failed most often because of Einterpersonal flawsF rather than a technical
inability. ,ome of the fatal flaws include classic emotional failings such as
poor wor relations, being authoritarian or too ambitious and having conflict
)&
with subordinate. 1nd not surprisingly, the higher up an employee goes in any
organi2ation, the more important emotional intelligence becomes because
relationships become more important *Aibb as cited in $ohnson, 9. R. and
Indvi, $, %???-. 1nd to improve their relationships, administrators and their
subordinates must address the components of emotional intelligence and
develop them. Then, administrators will have a worforce who is willing to
engage with passion and subordinates will have administrators who are
receptive and open to their needs.
,eligman and ,chulman *%?D&- brought this point home with their wor on the
effects of optimism on the selling performance of Metlife insurance agents.
#ptimism is relevant to the concept of emotional intelligence in that it reflects
the ability of the person to reason from the emotions associated with the
e4perience. Individuals who are pessimistic perceive they are personally
responsible for their failures and consider the effects of failure to be permanent
and generali2ed to other areas in their lives, whereas, optimists frame their
failures more positively and are able to move past the negative event.
The Concept of Commitment
1ll commitments have an ob7ect, that is, a target of commitment. The target
can be organi2ation, wor team, pro7ect goal or idea. "ommitment is a
continuous variable because the strength of commitment varies depending on
the personal meaning associated with the commitment focus, that is, the
)@
respective commitment target. In other words, people are referred to as being
more or less committed rather than being simply committed or not. Morrow in
Rietta and .anderer *'(('-, identifies four universal forms of commitmentG *%-
wor ethic endorsementL *'- 7ob involvementL *:- organi2ational commitmentL
and *=- career commitment.
1 thorough literature review indicated that the most often used definition of
organi2ational commitment comes from 9orter, ,teers, Mowday and ;oulian
*%?@=- where it has been characteri2ed as having three factorsG *%- a strong
belief in and acceptance of the goals and values of an organi2ationL *'- a
willingness to e4ert considerable effort on behalf of the organi2ationL and *:- a
strong desire to remain in organi2ation. "ommitment was viewed as a
unidimensional construct, measuring the emotional or attachment of an
individual to the organi2ation.
However, Meyer and 1llen *%??@- had e4panded the nature of organi2ational
commitment by developing it into three componentsG *%- affectiveL *'-
continuanceL and *:- normative. ,pecifically, employees0 commitment to an
organi2ation has been seen as a function of affective, continuance and
normative involvement. Recent studies are increasingly e4panding including
these three components of commitment in their multidimensional commitment
framewor where each component was reviewed as an independent
conceptuali2ation and measure. 9revious research such as Hart and 5illower
*%??=-L ;urrows and Munday *%??&-L .ahai *%??@-L Cby and !reeman *%???-L
)D
Mathieu et al. *'(((-L and "he 1ni2a *'((%- had e4amined commitment that
focused primarily on organi2ational commitment.
The Concept of Organizational Commitment
This section aims to cover a few issues surrounding the conceptuali2ation of
organi2ational commitment. Reichers *%?D)- stated that organi2ational
commitment research has made a distinction between two schools of thoughtG
attitudinal and behavioral commitment. 1ttitudinal commitment stems from the
wors of ;uchanan, 9orter, and Mowday et al. *in Meyer et al. %?D?-.
1ccording to Mowday et al. *%?D'-, attitudinal commitment focused on the
process by which people come to thin about their relationship with the
organi2ation. #n the other hand, behavioral commitment that stems from the
wor of ;ecer, Biesler and ,alanci in ;rown and Aaylor *'(('- related to the
process by which individuals become loced into a certain organi2ation and
how they deal with this problem.
Despite the difficulties in providing a clear3cut definition of commitment due to
the e4istence of different interpretations, Meyer and 1llen *%??%- have
proposed that commitment was a psychological attachment that too the
following three formsG affective, normative and continuance types of
commitment. 1nd these forms may also be seen as bases of commitment.
In this study, organi2ational commitment was operationali2ed as a
multidimensional construct. #rgani2ational commitment as defined by Meyer
and 1llen *%??@- consisted of three componentsG *%- affectiveL *'- continuanceL
)?
and *:- normative. The affective component is similar to the scale developed
by 9orter et al. *%?@=-. The continuance component assessed perceived costs of
leaving and the normative component assessed feelings of obligation.
Meyer and 1llen0s three3component model of commitment have been used
e4tensively in previous research. 1ccording to *"lugston, '(((-, more than =(
published studies have been conducted using this model since %??(3%??= and
today, it is still being consistently used by current researchers such as 1bubar
and Iles *'(((-, Hartmann *'(((-, and Meyer and ,mith *'(((- where maes it
both content valid and reliable.
This study also used Meyer and 1llen0s three3component model of commitment
based on a few reasons. !irstly, it could provide a relatively more
comprehensive report on the nature and structure of organi2ational commitment
among administrators. ,econdly, it was also potentially important to
differentiate the construct to which administrators are committed. This is
because different component of commitment is believed to have different
implications to the performance of both personal and the organi2ation.
Theoretically, all three components of commitment were related to
administrator0s lielihood to remain in the organi2ation.
However, the nature of the administrator0s lielihood to remain in the
organi2ation might be 6uite different depending on which component of
commitment is predominant. !or instance, administrators who are affectively
&(
committed *has a strong desire to remain in organi2ation- might be more liely
to spend more non3woring hour than someone who does not posses that ind
of attachment. The same applies to administrators who have a strong normative
commitment *a sense of obligation to remain-. In contrast, administrators who
have strong continuance commitment *who recogni2ed high costs of leaving-
might be less inclined to spend more non3woring hour in the organi2ation.
Moreover, research investigating the different components of commitment of
administrators is still limited, which warranted this study.
The definition of organi2ational commitment in this study was adapted from
Meyer and 1llen *%??@-. The first component, affective commitment, is
characteri2ed as an emotional or psychological attachment to the organi2ation.
Cmployees with a strong affective commitment remain with the organi2ation
because they want to. It includes a feeling of belonging and sense of
psychological attachment to the target of commitment. In this study, affective
commitment refers to the administrators0 emotional attachment to, identification
with and involvement in the organi2ation. They strongly support or associated
their values and goal with the organi2ation that was hypothesi2ed to directly
influence the administrators0 desire to remain in the organi2ation.
1ffective commitment also reflected feelings of belonging to the organi2ation.
1ffectively committed administrators would be more willing to invest e4tra
personal resources such as time, money or effort towards the organi2ation. This
&%
ind of attachment taes on a moral element that could be characteri2ed by
devotion and dedication.
The second component, continuance commitment, refers to an awareness of the
costs associated with leaving or abandoning the respective entity *Meyer and
1llen, %??@-. Cmployees with a strong continuance commitment remain
because they need to do so. There is a need to stay with the organi2ation
because one has accumulated too many investments and leaving would be
therefore very costly. 5hen the cost of leaving was perceived as high by
administrators, they would be more liely to remain in the organi2ation.
Therefore, administrators with a strong continuance commitment remain with
the organi2ation because they feel as though they have to do so.
The concept of normative commitment *third component- was originally
introduced by 5iener, %?D' who viewed it as Ethe totally of internali2ed
normative pressures to act in a way that need organi2ational goals and
interestsF. +ormative commitment reflects on the administrator0s level of moral
obligation to continue with the organi2ation. The desire to stay is based on a
sense of duty, loyalty or moral obligation. +ormative commitment towards an
organi2ation develops through a sociali2ation process *5iener, %?D'-. !or
e4ample, a new employee to an organi2ation learns what is valued and what is
e4pected of a novice by the organi2ation. In turn, the new employee is e4pected
to behave in an acceptable manner. This process is called internali2ation, the
appropriateness concerning loyalty to an organi2ation.
&'
In this study, the #rgani2ational "ommitment Puestionnaire *#"P- was used to
evaluate the administrators. It is the most commonly used measure of
employeeRs affective attachment to an organi2ation *Meyer I 1llen, %??@-. The
#"P was designed to assess acceptance of organi2ational values, desire to
remain with the organi2ation and willingness to e4ert effort. Mowday, ,teers
and 9orter *in Morrison, '((=- have provided strong evidence for the test3re3test
reliability, convergent validity, internal consistency, and predictive validity of
the #"P.
The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and 1ob
Performance
+ot all forms of commitment can be associated with high 7ob performance but it
is the nature of commitment that counts in the commitment3performance
relationship *Meyer et al., %?D?-. 1lthough committed employees are believed
to wor harder for an organi2ation than those who are not committed, research
has yielded mi4ed results with regard to the relationship between organi2ational
commitment and 7ob performance *Kerthaml et al., %??(-. ,ome researchers
have established a positive relationship between the two *Kerthaml et al., %??(L
;oshoff and Tait, %??&L ;enhoff, %??@L ,ergeant and !renel, '(((-, some see
no relationship at all *Mathhieu and Ka7ac, %??(L Aanster and Dwyer, %??)-,
while some have surprisingly even established a negative relationship *Hartline
and !errell, %??:-.
&:
Theoretical Framework
1 theoretical framewor outlines the theory or construct a study is based on. It
provides collections of assumptions, concepts and forms of e4planation
*+euman, '(((-. In this study, 7ob performance was the variable of primary
interest to the researcher, that is, the dependent variable. The researcher0s goal
was to e4plain or predict the variability in 7ob performance, that is, the
researcher was interested in 6uantifying and measuring 7ob performance, as well
as the other variables that influence 7ob performance.
Meanwhile, emotional intelligence was the first independent variable that
influenced 7ob performance in either a positive or a negative way. 5hen
emotional intelligence is present, 7ob performance is also present and with each
unit of increase in emotional intelligence, there is also an increase or decrease in
7ob performance, too. In other words, the variance in 7ob performance is
accounted for by emotional intelligence. This is based on the previous research
done by researchers such as ;radberry *'(('-, ;radberry and Areaves *'((:-,
"armeli *'((:- and .aw, 5ong and ,ong *'((=-. !rom the findings, it showed
that emotional intelligence played an important role in determining success at
worplace and a very important element for administrators. The findings also
provided evidence that emotional intelligence did e4ist in the worplace and has
a great impact on 7ob performance. !inally, the researchers concluded that
emotional intelligence has a strong correlation with 7ob performance.
&=
The competency3based model by Aoleman, ;oyat2is and McBee *'((=-
revealed that the competencies enable a person to demonstrate intelligent use of
hisNher emotions in managing himselfNherself and woring with others to be
effective at wor, results in outstanding performance at wor and distinguish
individual differences in worplace performance. Cmotional intelligence is
observed when a person demonstrates the competencies that constitute self3
awareness, self3management, social3awareness and social sills at appropriate
time and ways in sufficient fre6uency to be effective in the situation. Therefore,
emotional intelligence should predict behavioral patterns of >iTM/s
administrators in the form of wor outcomes.
The second independent variable, organi2ational commitment which comprises
of three dimensionsG affective, normative and continuance has yielded
confusing results. 1ccording to ;rown and Aaylor *'(('-, some studies by
researchers such as Meyer et al *%?D(-, Meyer et al *%??:- and "aruana et al
*%??@- have established a positive relationship, negative relationship and even
no relationship with between organi2ational commitment and 7ob performance.
Most of the research was conducted outside Malaysia. Therefore, the researcher
tried to e4amine the relationship between organi2ational commitment and 7ob
performance and to understand the nature of commitment e4perienced by the
administrators in >iTM.
Cmployees0 7ob performance is arguably as important as, or more important
than, whether they ultimately stay or leave. Cmployees with a strong affective
&)
commitment remain with the organi2ation because they want to, whereas those
with strong continuance commitment remain because they need to do so.
"onse6uently, one might e4pect the on3the37ob behavior of those who are
affectively committed to the organi2ation to differ from that of employees
whose primary lin to the organi2ation is based on continuance commitment.
Those who value and want to maintain membership should be willing to e4ert
considerable effort on behalf of the organi2ation *Mowday et al., %?D'-. In
contrast, those who feel compelled to remain to avoid financial or other costs
may do little more than the minimum re6uired to retain their employment.
The value of commitment to the organi2ation, therefore, may depend on the
nature of that commitment. 5hen commitment reflects the identification with
and involvement in the organi2ation as conceptuali2ed by 9orter and his
associates *e.g., 9orter et al., %?@=- then, the organi2ation may benefit in terms
of superior performance from its employees.
Measurement of the Variables
$ob performance, emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment rating3
based on self3appraisals were used in this study and it was recogni2ed as an
important element of the 7ob for managers and supervisors as well as for
employees. The ma7or reason of using self3appraisals comes from the trend
toward the use of a developmental focus. It places ma7or emphasis on the
personal growth, self3motivation, and organi2ational potential of the employee.
It becomes an important part of the feedbac process to the employee.
&&
1ccording to "ampbell and .ee *%?DD-, self3appraisals may complement
evaluative supervisory ratings, to lessen defensiveness of employees regarding
the overall appraisal process and to improve 7ob performance.
9articularly for some respondents with poor self3insight, overly optimistic and
unrealistic appraisals of oneRs self may have important negative repercussions
for professional growth and development within an organi2ation. !or e4ample,
employees might fail to perceive or accurately interpret negative feedbac from
internal and e4ternal customers leading to behaviors that are largely
dysfunctional or resulting in 8derailment8 within the organi2ation. ,imilarly,
employees with poor self3insight might tend to ignore discrepant, yet accurate,
feedbac from others and be unwilling to mae specific behavioral changes in
critical sills and behaviors.
There is a tendency for some employees to rate their sills and abilities higher
than others. This 8leniency effect8 should be recogni2ed and e4pected,
particularly in employees who possess poor self3insight and self3awareness.
Aetting employees to acnowledge and accept critical feedbac from others in a
non3defensive manner is a necessary first step for commitment to change and
continued professional development.
1 number of scholars such as "ummings and ,chwab *%?@:- and ,chneider,
*%?@@- have argued that self3ratings can promote personal development,
improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, and clarify
&@
differences of opinion between supervisors and managers. !urthermore,
;oshoff and Mels as cited in Malhotra and Muher7ee *'((=- clearly argued
that self3rating is valid and correlated highly with other measures of
performance and this has been supported by other researchers such as 9ym and
1uld *%?&)- and "hurchill et al. *%?D)-.
Summary
+owac0s *%??=- four3component model of performance was used to
conceptuali2e 7ob performance, the dependent variable of the study. $ob
performance was perceived as the multidimensional construct comprising of
communication, tas3management, interpersonal and problem3solving
components. $ob performance refers to behaviors of the administrators that in
turn lead to desired outcomes.
1lthough various variables or conditions have been lined to 7ob performance,
it is beyond the scope of the study to cover all presumably possible variables.
The aim of this study was to provide an in3depth study of selected variablesG
emotional intelligence *self3management, relationship3management and
communication- and organi2ational commitment *affective, continuance and
normative- which according to literature review were found to either facilitate
or impede the performance of an administrator. Therefore, these variables were
considered and their associations with 7ob performance were investigated on a
randomly selected sample comprising administrators in >iTM.
&D
CHAPTER III:
METHODOLOGY
&?
Introduction
This chapter presents an overview of the research design and aims to deal with
the methods and procedures employed to address the following research
ob7ectivesG %- measure the level of 7ob performance, emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment among administrators in >iTML '- determine the
level of specific dimensions of 7ob performance, emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment among administrators in >iTML :- determine the
relationship between total emotional intelligence and total organi2ational
commitment with 7ob performance among administrators in >iTML =-
determine the relationship between specific dimensions of emotional
intelligence and 7ob performance among administrators in >iTML )- determine
the relationship between specific dimensions of organi2ational commitment and
7ob performance among administrators in >iTML &- determine the contributions
of each of the significant predictor variables towards the variance of the
criterion variables, 7ob performance among administrators in >iTM.
The procedures that were employed to achieve the ob7ectives stated above are
described in the following sections. ,pecifically, this chapter provides
description of the research design of this study, the research framewor,
descriptions of how the research variables were measured, instrument used in
collecting data, the targeted population and estimation of sampling si2e,
sampling techni6ue used, the data collection procedures and finally, how the
data was analy2ed.
@(
Research Design
"oolican *%???- stated that a research design provided an overall structure and
strategy of the research as it gave information of how research data was
collected, analy2ed and interpreted. This study is a 6uantitative research study.
"reswell *%??=- defined a 6uantitative study as an in6uiry into a social or
human problem, based on testing a theory composed of variables, measured
with number and analy2ed with statistical procedures, in order to determine
whether the predictive generali2ations of the theory hold true.
This study was designed to use a descriptive correlational design to investigate
the differences in means and fre6uency distribution of 7ob performance, the
dependent variable and the selected independent variables and their dimensions.
!irstly, the dependent and the independent variables were identified. Then, the
measurement scales of the identified variables were sought and determined.
;efore the measurement scales were used, the validity and reliability of the
scales were assessed. ,econdly, a representative sample was selected to
represent the population of the study so that the results of the study could be
generali2ed to the population at large. A39ower ,tatistical 1nalysis was used to
determine an appropriate sample si2e and the recommended si2e of samples in
this study was %):.
+e4t, the data were collected from the sample using the validated and reliable
research instrument. 1fter the data were collected, it was analy2ed using a
combination of statistical analyses such as descriptive statistics, correlation and
multiple regression analysis. 1mong the descriptive statistics used were
@%
fre6uency distribution, measures of central tendency and measures of
variability. "orrelation analysis was used to determine the relationship between
the independent and dependent variables. This study also incorporated multiple
regression analysis to ascertain the contribution of each of the significant
predictor variables towards the variance in the dependent variable. !urther
clarification of data collection and data analysis procedures is presented in the
later part of this chapter.
Research Framework
#n the basis of the preceding chapters, a research model was developed *!igure
'-. This model was used to assist in determining research instruments,
formulating relationships between variables as well as to enable research
6uestions to be tested. The model was also used for validation and model
testing and in this study, it served as a heuristic character for e4ploring
relationships between variables.
$ob performance as the dependent variable was conceptuali2ed to include
communication, tas3management, interpersonal and problem3solving sills.
Included in the model was a list of carefully selected independent variables that
were investigated together with 7ob performance. ;ased on empirical studies, it
was reported that these variablesG emotional intelligence *self3management,
relationship3management and communication- and organi2ational commitment
*affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment-
were associated with 7ob performance. Hence, this study was conceptuali2ed to
@'
determine the nature and degree of the relationship between these independent
variables with 7ob performance.
@:
MANAGEMENT CULTURE
%. 9ower Distance
'. >ncertainty 1voidance
:. "ollectivism
=. Masculinity
PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT





Figure 2: Research Framework
It is important to note that there are other variables could be associated with 7ob
performance among administrators. However, it is beyond the scope of this
study to cover all the possible variables in the research model. This model was
specially designed to determine the association between the independent
variables and 7ob performance, the dependent variable. The model only
proposed that the occurrence of these variables would either increase or
decrease 7ob performance of the administrators understudied.
@=
LEARNING CULTURE
%. "ontinuous learning
'. In6uiry I Dialo6ue
:. "ollaboration I Team
.earning
=. Cmbedded ,ystems
). Cmpowerment
&. ,ystem "onnection
@. 9rovide .eadership
Measurement and Instrumentation
Puestionnaires were used as a research instrument to collect data from the
respondents identified for this study. The 6uestionnaire consisted of %( pages
containing four main sections. ,ection 1 measured the demographic
information of the respondentsL section ; consisted of a list of items to measure
7ob performanceL section " comprised items to measure emotional intelligenceL
and section D comprised items to measure organi2ational commitment.
9ermissions were permitted by Benneth M. +owac, 9hD., the 9resident and
"hief Research #fficer of Cnvisia .earning to use The Management OiewN
9ractices Puestionnaire to measure 7ob performance and the 9eopleInde4 to
measure emotional intelligence. The researcher was also given the permission
by $ohn Meyer, 9hD to use the #rgani2ational "ommitment Puestionnaire to
measure organi2ational commitment

Demographic Information
Respondents were ased to provide personal information to indicate their
gender, age and educational attainment. Information pertaining to their
profession includes their 7ob title, 7ob status, wor e4perience and the amount of
wor load given to them.
1ob Performance
In this study, 7ob performance, the dependent variable was defined in terms of
outcomes, or behavior of an administrator0s communication, tas3management,
@)
interpersonal and problem3solving performance that in turn leads to desired
outcomes. The concept of 7ob performance was assessed using items developed
by +owac *%?D)- in the 7ob performance scale. This initial version was
piloted with a group of D) supervisors and managers within two organi2ations.
Internal consistency reliability *"ronbach0s alpha- was calculated for each of
the twenty Manager OiewN9ractice scale.
These moderately high coefficients range from .@% to .?% establishing the
reliability of the instrument. ;ased upon the results of the pilot testing and
statistical analysis, some revision in item content and wording was done
resulted the copyrighted %??= %((3item version. This new scale consisted of a
four3component performance scale which yielded separate scores for four
components of communication sills, tas3management sills, interpersonal
sills and problem3solving sills. ,ince the 7ob performance scale revised
version by +owac *%??=- was found to be reliable by past studies, this scale
was used to measure 7ob performance in this study.
Items were rationally constructed to measure the full range of supervisory and
management sills in these four areas. Twenty scales were derived, each
measured by four 6uestions. It consisted of %(( items that measured 7ob
performance. The scale *%(( items- has been e4tensively used by researchers in
several studies such as +owac *%???-, Rietta and .anderer *'(('- and
;radberry *'(('-, 7ust to name a few. >sing self3report3paper3pen, straight
@&
answer 6uestionnaire techni6ues, administrators were ased to rate their
preference on a )3point .iert scale on which they were to indicate whether
items were Estrongly agreeF, Esomewhat agreeF, Eneither agree nor disagreeF,
Esomewhat disagreeF or Estrongly disagreeF characteristic of themselves.
The independent variables selected for this study included emotional
intelligence *self management, relationship3management and communication-
and organi2ational commitment *affective, continuance and normative
commitment-.
Emotional Intelligence
Cmotional intelligence referred to the capacity for recogni2ing an
administrator0s feelings and those of others, motivating one3self, and for
managing emotions well personal and social development of one0s being. In
this study, the 9eopleInde4 used as the indicator of emotional intelligence was
conceptually based on the Aoleman organi2ational model of emotional
intelligence focusing on four basic concepts including self3awareness, self3
management, social awareness, and relationship3management. 1 set of critical
interpersonal, social and communication competencies were derived in three
specific areas based upon Aoleman organi2ational model of emotional
intelligenceG self3management, relationship3management and communication.
The 9eopleInde4 was piloted by past researchers with a group of %&)
e4ecutives, managers and professional employees within two organi2ations.
@@
Internal consistency reliability *"ronbach0s alpha- was calculated for each of
the %@ 9eopleInde4 scale. These moderately high coefficients range from .&@ to
.D? establishing the reliability of the instrument. ;ased upon the results of the
pilot testing, @=3item version were drawn from three already validated multi3
rater feedbac tools *+owac, %??@- originally published by "onsulting Tools
Inc. *now Cnvisia .earning- including Manager Oiew :&(.
,ince the 9eopleInde4 was found to be reliable by past studies, this scale was
used to measure emotional intelligence in this study. !urthermore, through
personal contacts using electronic mails with the researcher, +owac, the
researcher has been granted the permission to use his scale in this research.
Items were rationally constructed to measure the full range of emotional
intelligence competencies based on the Aoleman *%??Da- model. It consists of
@= items that measure emotional intelligence for use in the worplace. Cach
item in the 6uestionnaire described a wor3related behavior. ,eventeen scales
were derived, each measured by : to ) 6uestions using )3point .iert scale.
Respondents indicated whether items were Estrongly agreeF, Esomewhat agreeF,
Eneither agree nor disagreeF, Esomewhat disagreeF or Estrongly disagreeF
characteristic of themselves. The higher the score, the greater the tendency an
individual possessed to e4hibit emotionally intelligent behavior.
Organizational Commitment
@D
In this study, organi2ational commitment was defined as a psychological
attachment of an administrator towards hisNher organi2ation. The concept of
organi2ational commitment and its three components were assessed using items
developed by Meyer, et al. *%??:- in the organi2ational commitment scale. The
commitment scale was chosen as it is a well3validated instrument and it is able
to mae distinction of the different components of commitment. This scale
consisted of a three components of commitmentG affective, continuance and
normative.
In terms of reliability, Meyer, et al0s *%??:- organi2ational commitment scale
achieved reasonably high reliability coefficients for the three subscales. The
scale was administered to a group nursing students and the reliability reported
for the three components ranged from .@: to .D@. 1mong the nursing students,
reliability coefficients alpha values reported were .D@ for affective commitment,
.@? for continuance commitment, and .@: for normative commitment. ;ased on
the reported reliability coefficient alpha, it is logical to suggest that Meyer, et al
*%??:- commitment subscales are highly reliable.
#rgani2ational "ommitment Puestionnaire *#"P- was used to measure of
administrators0 affective attachment to an organi2ation. The #"P is an %D3item
scale, designed to assess acceptance of organi2ational values, desire to remain
with the organi2ation and willingness to e4ert effort *e.g., I am proud to tell
others I am part of this organi2ation-. Items are rated on a )3point .iert scale
@?
from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Mowday, ,teers and 9orter in
Morrison *'((=- have provided strong evidence for the test3re3test reliability,
convergent validity, internal consistency, and predictive validity of the #"P,
finding the overall measure of organi2ational commitment to be relatively stable
over time *r S (.):, (.&: and (.@) over '3, :3 and =3month periods-,
demonstrating test3re3test reliability.
Mowday et al. calculated internal consistency using coefficient T, item analysis
and factor analysis, finding coefficient T to be consistently high, ranging from .
D' to .?: with a median of .?(. Item analysis indicated that each item had a
positive correlation with the total score for the #"P, with the range being
from .:' to .@'. In addition, factor analysis resulted in a single factor solution.
Internal consistency results suggested the %D items of the #"P were relatively
homogeneous with respect to the underlying attitude construct they measure.
,ignificant correlations were found between the #"P scores and Rintention to
remain with the organi2ationR across several studies, illustrating convergent
validity. In addition, the #"P was found to correlate significantly with scores
from the #rgani2ational 1ttachment Puestionnaire *convergent validities across
si4 diverse samples ranged from .&: to .@=-.
Conclusion
Through personal contacts using electronic mails with the researcher, +owac
and Meyer, the researcher has been granted the permission to use the Manager
Oiew 9ractice, 9eopleInde4 and #rgani2ational "ommitment scale in this
research. However, a reliability test was performed on those instruments during
D(
pilot testing to establish their reliability in the local setting before they were
administered to the targeted population. The results of the reliability test are
reported in the later part of this chapter.
Response Scale of Research Instrument
1 response scale is a scale used to collect response from respondents on each
item or statement in a research instrument *Trochim, '(('-. In this study, an
interval response of odd3numbered scale *one to five- was used. #dd3numbered
scales have a middle value, often labeled as neutral or undecided. 1 )3point
liert response scale was used to measure both the dependent and independent
variables. The response options for the scale ranged from *%- strongly disagreeL
*'- disagreeL *:- neutralL *=- agreeL and *)- strongly agree.
Translation of Research Instrument
The research instrument used in this study was originally written in Cnglish
.anguage. However, in the society where more than one language prevails, lie
Malaysia and that ;ahasa Melayu is the declared official language for the
country, it was necessary for the instrument to be translated in order to facilitate
respondents who might not be proficient in Cnglish language. Therefore, the
instrument was translated into ;ahasa Melayu. To ensure the meanings,
thoughts and concepts of the items remained unchanged in the ;ahasa Melayu
version, the 6uestionnaire was translated by a group of Cnglish .ecturers from
>iTM, Melaa who have nowledge and sills in linguistics and also proficient
in both the Cnglish .anguage and ;ahasa Melayu language.
D%
1 bac translation with the incorporation of parallel3blind techni6ue was used
in this study. ;ac translation is a process of translating a document that has
already been translated into a foreign language bac to the original language. In
this study, the original language of the instrument is Cnglish and the foreign
language is ;ahasa Melayu.
The translators translated the instrument using a process that involved three
stages. !irst, the Cnglish version of the instrument was translated from Cnglish
into ;ahasa Melayu. The techni6ue employed to translate the Cnglish version
to the targeted language is nown as the parallel3blind techni6ue. This
techni6ue was preferred because it represented the best compromise among the
different available alternatives. 1ccording to Authery and .owe *%??'-, it was
also preferred by many researchers due to its advantage that it has over time and
control. 1fter studying the meaning of the source te4t in detail by two
translators, each translator translated the instrument from Cnglish to the ;ahasa
Melayu individually. Then, they compared their individual wor on the
accuracy of their translations with the source te4t, estimated the e6uivalence or
similarities across translation, improved clarity and naturalness of the
translation and then collaborated on the final version of the instrument in
;ahasa Melayu.
+e4t, the bac translation techni6ue was used where the finali2ed ;ahasa
Melayu version of the instrument derived from the parallel3blind techni6ue
D'
above was translated bac into Cnglish by another team of translators. ;ac
translation was intended to improve the reliability and validity of research
instrument in different languages by re6uiring that the 6uality of the translation
be verified by a group of independent translators *1sia Maret Research, '(('-.
Then, the same parallel3blind techni6ue was used again.
!inally, the two groups of translators met again to compare and to collaborate
the original Cnglish version to the research instrument with the bac translated
Cnglish version before they reached a consensus on the final version of the
instrument for both languages. !urther refinement and modification was made
to the ;ahasa Melayu version until the translators were fully satisfied that the
translation has communicated the intended message accurately and clearly
before it was ready for pilot testing.
Results of the Reliability Test
This section discusses the process of validating and estimating the reliability of
the items used in the research instrument. 1lthough the suggested items used in
measuring the dependent and independent variables were originally developed
by past researchers and reported high rating on its validity and reliability, it was
still important to chec on its appropriateness, practicality and reliability for use
in the local Malaysian higher learning institution setting.
The finali2ed 6uestionnaire was administered to a group of %) respondents who
were randomly selected to tae part in this pilot test. The sub7ects selected were
D:
>iTM Melaa lecturers who held various post such as "oordinators, Head of
9rograms and Deputy Directors of >iTM campus. They were randomly
selected to represent the target population. The researcher provided a short
briefing on the ob7ectives of the study and the various components of the
research instrument to the respondents. ;eing familiar with the type of data
collected, they were able to provide the researcher with pertinent ideas and
suggestions to further refine the research instrument. Their main concern was
that the items to be included in the 6uestionnaire must measure what it was
intended to measure and relevant for use in the local conte4t. Therefore, by
including their concerns, it contributed further to establishing the validity of the
items in the research instrument.
Then, the data were analy2ed, and using the ,9,, reliability sub3program, the
cronbach0s alpha coefficient of reliability was derived. The Management Oiew
9ractices Puestionnaire for 7ob performance which was designed and developed
by Benneth M. +owac consisted of %(( items with response from Estrongly
disagreeF with a value of E%F to Estrongly agreeF with a value of E)F. The
reliability inde4 "ronbach0s alpha of the instrument was (.?@'. Meanwhile, the
9eopleInde4 which was conceptually based on the Aoleman organi2ational
model of emotional intelligence consisted of @= items with response from
Estrongly disagreeF with a value of E%F to Estrongly agreeF with a value of E)F.
@: items were taen after dropping one item *item ):- and reliability inde4
"ronbach0s alpha increased from (.&%D to (.?)=. 1nd finally, the data analysis
D=
showed that reliability inde4 "ronbach0s alpha for organi2ational commitment
6uestionnaire with %D3item scale and the )3point liert scale was (.D:&.
Population of the Study
The population in the study was the non academic administrative management
group of >iTM. There are fourteen >iTM branch campuses from all states in
Malaysia including the main campus at ,hah 1lam. The management group
was composed of the assistant registrars, librarians and treasury officers. They
were from the +=% category group and above that were e6uivalent to the
manager level.
Sampling
;ased on the list of administrators obtained from >iTM ,hah 1lam "ampus,
there were 'DD administrators serving in all >iTM campuses. The list included
the permanent, contract and temporary of the assistant registrars, librarians and
treasury officers. The main reason to sample was to save time and money.
1ccording to 1ry, et al. *%??&-, it is generally not necessary to study all
possible cases to understand the phenomenon under consideration. The most
important thing taen into consideration was that the sample drawn from the
population must be representative so that it allowed the researcher to mae
inferences or generali2ation from the sample statistics to the population
understudied *Malese, %??)-. Therefore, the power of a sample survey
actually lied in the ability to obtain the necessary information from a relatively
few respondents to describe the characteristics of the entire population. ,ince
D)
time and money did not permit the researcher to study the whole population of
administrators, a representative sample was drawn from the target population.
In this study, the A39ower statistical analysis program developed by Crdfelder,
!aul, and ;uchner, *%??&- and later updated in March 'D, '((% was used.
1ccording to "ohen *in Crdfelder, !aul, and ;uchner, %??&-, in order to
perform a statistical power analysis, three factors need to be taen into
considerationG
%. alpha level
'. effect si2e
:. desired power
1 priori power analysis which was considered the ideal type of power analysis
by most authors was selected. In a priori power analysis, researcher specified
the si2e of the effect to be detected *that is, a measure of the 8distance8 between
H( and H%-, the alpha level, and the desired power level *%3beta- of the test.
Aiven these specifications it is possible to compute the necessary sample si2e +.
In standard applications, the selection of the effect si2e and of the error
probabilities is based on conventions.
The statistical level of significance of the study was fi4ed at alpha S .(). 1lpha
is the probability of wrongly re7ecting the null hypothesis, thus committing
Type I error. Cffect si2e generally means the degree to which the phenomenon
is present in the population or the degree to which the null hypothesis is false
*"ohen, %?DD-. It essentially measures the distance or discrepancy between the
D&
null hypothesis and a specified value of the alternative hypothesis. It is
common to select effect si2es which are either 8small8, 8medium8, or 8large8 as
defined by "ohen *%??'-. +o uni6ue conventions have been established with
respect to the Type3' error probability beta.
"ohen *%?DD- suggested to use beta S .'( as a standard level while other
researchers prefer alpha and beta levels to be e6ual. However, power tables are
typically based on conventional alpha3levels *that is., p U .()- e4clusively and
therefore do not provide the information necessary to arrive at a reasonable
power value. 1 priori power analyses are ideal in that low error probabilities
alpha and beta can be achieved for any specification of the effect si2e.
>nfortunately, however, the calculated sample si2es are usually much larger
than what is considered manageable in behavioral research. Time constraints,
financial constraints, and methodological reasons *e.g., sample heterogeneity in
case of data aggregation across studies- prohibit the use of 8ideal8 sample si2es.
The result showed that the total sample si2e was %): *.ambda – ''.?)((L
"ritical ! *@.%=)- S '.(@::L and actual power – (.?)(:-. Then, the %):
respondents were selected using the systematic sampling techni6ue.
1ccording to 1ry, $acobs, and Ra2avieh *%??&-, using simple random sampling
will ensure every member of the target population has an e6ual chance and
independent chance of being represented in the sample. The selection of
respondents using simple random sampling techni6ue involved a number of
steps. !irstly, a letter of permission and a complete list of names of
D@
administrators in >iTM were obtained from the ,hah 1lam main campus.
Then, a distinct identification number to each and every entry in the list frame
was assigned and starting with one for the first name to 'DD. The distinct
identification number was useful for the researcher to eep tract of those who
have responded and those who failed to respond to the 6uestionnaires when they
were distributed.
!inally, the respondents were selected using the systematic random sampling
techni6ue where the first individual and every nth were selected. The selection
process was repeated in the same manner until the desired sample si2e of n S
%): were obtained. To obtain integrity of the selection process, in cases where
the selected respondents failed to respond to the 6uestionnaire distributed,
replacements were made by taing the following names in the list frame.
Data Collection Procedures
9rior to the data collection activities, the researcher sought the permission from
the Head of Departments, Deans and "ampus Directors to conduct the study.
;esides the letter of permission, calls were made to get the approval from the
authorities concerned. 1 research assistant was appointed to assist the
researcher to identify the targeted respondents as well as to distribute and
collect the 6uestionnaires for >iTM, ,hah 1lam "ampus. 1 boolet of the
research instrument that had been translated into ;ahasa Melayu accompanied
by a letter stating the purpose of the study 6uestionnaires were attached
together.
DD
Cach respondent from branch campuses was given an envelope containing a set
of 6uestionnaire which was systematically coded for the purpose of response
validity as well as to eep tract of non3respondents. 1 cover letter aimed to
e4plain the purpose of the study to the respondents, see their cooperation in
responding to the 6uestionnaire and to assure respondents that the
6uestionnaires were anonymous and complete confidentiality was attached to
each set of 6uestionnaires. The administrators were also informed that their
responses would be merely used for the purpose of this study.
The 6uestionnaires were posted to the respondents with the self3addressed,
stamped return envelopes. ,tructured self3administered 6uestionnaires were
used as the data gathering techni6ue in this study. The respondents were given
about a wee to complete the 6uestionnaire and return it to the researcher so
that they could complete the 6uestionnaire whenever they were free without
much interference to the performance of their daily duties. It also has the
advantage of guaranteeing confidentiality or anonymity *.eary, '((%-.
Therefore, respondents could e4press their answers freely, thus permitting more
truthful responses than would be obtained by other means. Reminders through
telephone were made to those who did not respond to mae help the researcher
obtain a high response rate from the survey.
1t the end of the data collection period, out of the total of %&( 6uestionnaires
administered in the survey, %)' were received. The returned 6uestionnaires
D?
were scrutini2ed for completeness and errors. Response validity was obtained
by reestablishing contacts with some of the respondents for answers that
appeared to be inconsistent or unusual as well as for missing items. This was
made possible by referring to the coded identification number on each
6uestionnaire and the contact numbers provided by the researcher. Cight
incomplete 6uestionnaires were classified as unusable and discarded. 1 total of
%)' 6uestionnaires were found to be usable.
Descriptive Statistic
1ccording to .eary *'((%-, descriptive statistics is a powerful tool to describe
and understand the data so that they can be easily comprehended by others. The
descriptive statistics employed in this study were as followedG *%- measures of
central tendencyL *'- measures of variabilityL and *:- fre6uency distribution.
These statistics were used to e4tract and summari2e 6uantitative information
from the sample.
Measures of central tendency helped to find a single inde4 that could represent
the whole set of measure. This study utili2ed the mean or average to describe
the data in terms of average values. Mean was chosen because the variables
investigated in this study such as the dependent variable *7ob performance- and
the independent variables *emotional intelligence and organi2ational
commitment- were all interval data. 1ry et al., *%??&- reported that mean could
give a more precise measure than all the different measures of centrality such as
the median or mode as it taes into account the value of every score. It is also
?(
more stable compared to other measures of central tendency especially when the
samples were randomly drawn from the target population.
This study also employed the most commonly used measure of variability and
standard deviation to find out the dispersion or variability of the data set. ,ince
it is also an interval statistic as the mean, it could be used to describe the degree
of dispersion of all the interval variables *dependent and the independent
variables-. !re6uency distribution was used to e4tract important features of the
6uantitative data of the study. The original data collected were grouped and
presented in a summari2ed form by constructing appropriate tables and charts.
Descriptive statistics were used in this study to answer the following research
6uestionsG
%. 5hat is the level of 7ob performance among administrators in >iTMM
'. 5hat is the level of total emotional intelligence and total
organi2ational commitment among administrators in >iTMM
:. 5hat is the level of emotional intelligence and organi2ational
commitment dimensions among administrators in >iTMM
Descriptive statistics were used to measure the level of 7ob performance of the
sample understudied. To measure the level of 7ob performance, the %(( items
were summed up to form a composite score. The composite score was used to
compute the average or mean score for 7ob performance by dividing the
composite score with the number of items *%((-. ,ubse6uently, the resulting
?%
average scores of all the respondents were classified into three arbitrary levelsG
low, moderate and high. "lassification was derived by first identifying the
lowest and the highest score values. Then, the lowest value was subtracted
from the highest values. The result obtained from this subtraction was then
divided by three to form the range value between the three categoriesG low,
moderate and high.
The three categories and their range values wereG
.ow %.( 3 '.::
Moderate '.:= 3 :.&&
High :.&@ 3 ).((
Oalues that fall within the same range were awarded to either low, moderate
and high. Cach range value has an arbitrary point to which to cut off any other
values that lied outside the range. >sing the different cut off points was
arbitrary as there were no established theoretical or empirical data in the
literature for any other criterion. In practice, researchers often assigned the
different cut off points according to past convention. The range values were
created to enable the researcher to mae meaningful presentation of data and
arbitrary comparisons between the different levels of 7ob performance
displayed. The range values were also used to determine the levels of total
emotional intelligence, total organi2ational commitment and their dimensions.
?'
;esides using the three categories to e4plain the levels of 7ob performance and
each dimensions of 7ob performance, statistics such as means, standard
deviations, range percentages were also used to summari2e and describe the
data. 1 combination of these statistics helped to provide a more comprehensive
description of the data presented. It was the aim of this study to identify the
level of 7ob performance before correlating with the independent variables of
the study.
,imilarly, the same procedure was applied to answer research 6uestions ', : and
= to find out the level of total emotional intelligence, total organi2ational
commitment and their dimensions. Descriptive statistics were also employed to
summari2e and describe the data pertaining to the demographic profiles of
respondents in the study.
Correlation Statistics
1ccording to 1ry, et al., *%??&-, correlation statistic is a statistical techni6ue
used to measure the strength of the association or co3variation that e4ists
between two 6uantitative variables. The strength of the relationship between
two variables is measured by the coefficient of correlation, r, whose values may
range from 3% to V%. If the direction of the relationship between two variables is
positive, it means that high scores of one variable are associated with high
scores of another variable and vice versa. 5hen there is a relationship,
correlation coefficient can also determine the strength of the relationship
whether the variables have a strong relationship or a wea relationship. The
?:
closeness of the correlation coefficient to one implies a strong relationship
between the two variables. 5hen the correlation coefficient is 2ero, there is no
correlation between the two variables. In this study, Clifson, Runyon, and Haber
*%??D- rule of the thumb was used to interpret the strength of the relationship
*Table @-.
Table 7: Criteria for Interpreting Strength of Relationship between Two
Variables
r value Strength of Relationship
(.(% – (.:( 5eaL 1lmost negligible relationship
(.:% – (.@( ModerateL substantial relationship
(.@% – (.?? ,trongL mared relationship
%.(( 9erfect relationship
( +o relationship
,ourceG Clifson, Runyon I Haber, %??D
This study used 9earson 9roduct Moment "oefficient of correlation *9earson r-
developed by Barl 9earson as the correlation inde4. This inde4 was chosen
because this inde4 can only be used when the scale of measurement for the
variables is interval or ratio *Runyon, Haber, 9ittenger, and "oleman '(((-.
!urthermore, 9earson "orrelation "oefficient is also an appropriate measure of
relationship between two variables when the 6uantitative variables are normally
distributed. It can also provide a meaningful inde4 for indicating relationship,
with the sign of the coefficient indicating the direction of the relationship, and
the differences between the coefficient and 2ero indicating the degree of the
relationship.
?=
9earson 9roduct Moment "oefficient of correlation *9earson r- was used in this
study to answer research 6uestions = and )G
=. Is there a significant relationship between total emotional
intelligence, and total organi2ational commitment with 7ob
performanceM
). Is there a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment dimensions with 7ob performanceM
!irstly, all the four components of 7ob performanceG communication, tas3
management, interpersonal and problem3solving sills were combined to obtain
an aggregate or overall measure of 7ob performance. Then, this overall 7ob
performance was correlated with all the independent variablesG emotional
intelligence dimensions *self3management, relationship3management and
communication- and organi2ational commitment dimensions *affective
commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment- to find out
the associations between them. The correlation statistic was used to measure
the strength and direction of the relationship between the independent variables
and the dependent variable.
Multiple Regression Analysis
Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the contributions of
each of the significant predictors or independent variables towards the variance
?)
in the criterion or dependent variable. The contributions of independent
variables to the variance in the dependent variable could be interpreted using the
coefficient of multiple regression of determination R
'
value. ,ince the R
'
value
was capable of maing estimate of true population value, it was used in the
study to e4plain the contributions of the significant independent variables that
accounted for the variations in the dependent variable. This contribution was
reported using the R
'
value.
It is also important to use multiple linear regression analysis in this study to find
out the contributions of each of the independent variables that contributed
significantly in predicting the value of the dependent variables in the regression
model. The method of determining the contributions of each of the independent
variables to the model re6uired the use of linear multiple regression
coefficients. It involved in determining the contribution made by each
independent variable after all other variables were included in the regression
model.
This study used stepwise regression method to determine those independent
variables that contributed most significantly to the prediction of the criterion
variable. ;efore the ne4t independent variable was included, the variable must
significantly improve the regression model or it would be dropped from the
model. 1ccording to ;erenson and .evine *%??'-, variables in stepwise
regression could be Eadded toF or Edeleted fromF the regression model at each
step. The stepwise procedure would come to a halt when these variables did not
?&
satisfy the entry statistical criterion. Thus, the end result of the analysis was a
best fitting regression model.
The multiple linear regression analysis was used to answer the following
research 6uestionsG
Level of Significance
Cmpirical researcher would need to establish the e4tent of error before the
research was conducted in order to determine the statistical significance of the
findings. It is important in order to calculate the probability of maing errors in
drawing conclusions from the study. 1ccording to .owenberg and "onrad
*%??D-, establishing the statistical significance would help the researcher to
decide the e4tent to which the results might be due to chance or systematic
effect and it could assist in determining the e4tent to which findings from the
sample could be generali2ed to the targeted population.
In this study, a ninety3five percent confidence level *p U (.()- was set as the
criterion level for determining statistical significance. This level has been fi4ed
based on the arguments provided by established statisticians. !or instance,
according to "ramer *%??@-, the level of p U (.() is the conventional probability
for decision that the result is not due to chance. In other words, the estimated
probability of getting the wrong result or for the observed relationship to occur
by chance would be five out of %(( random samples. This significance level
?@
was also chosen after taing into consideration the seriousness of committing
Type % and Type II errors in the process of maing a decision that a relationship
e4isted between two variables.
Summary
This study employed a 6uantitative research methodology to assess 7ob
performance. 1 descriptive correlational approach was used to determine the
relationship between the selected independent variables and 7ob performance,
the dependent variable. Data were collected using a validated and reliable
research instrument as its appropriateness, practicality and reliability for use in
the local setting were assessed before it was administered. This research
instrument was finally administered to a representative sample drawn from the
larger population of the study to enable the researcher to mae inferences or
generali2ation from the sample statistics to the population understudied. The
si2e of the sample where data collection were based, was determined using A3
9ower ,tatistical 1nalysis which could provide more meaningful results in
e4plaining the phenomenon understudied by considering the population alpha
level, effect si2e and the statistical power. 1fter the data were collected, it was
analy2ed using a combination of statistical analyses such as descriptive
statistics, correlation statistics and multiple regression analysis to answer the
research 6uestions.
?D
CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
??
Introduction
This chapter aims to present and discuss the research findings. Data generated
from this research has to be interpreted to be meaningful and this chapter serves
this purpose via results and interpretations. The main purpose of this research
was to investigate the level of 7ob performance, emotional intelligence,
organi2ational commitment and specific dimensions of emotional intelligence
and organi2ational commitment. In addition, it also e4amined the relationship
between both emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment, and their
dimensions with 7ob performance. !urther, the most contributing dimensions of
emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment which influence 7ob
performance were investigated.
The analysis begins with description of 6uestionnaire response rate, type of data
obtained and profile of respondents. These are followed by discussions ofG *%-
level of 7ob performance, total emotional intelligence and total organi2ational
commitment, *'- level of specific dimensions of 7ob performance, emotional
intelligence and organi2ational commitment, *:- relationship betweenG a- the
independent variables *total emotional intelligence and total organi2ational
commitment-, and 7ob performanceL and b- specific dimensions of emotional
intelligence *self3management, relationship3management and communication-,
and 7ob performanceL *c- specific dimensions of organi2ational commitment
*affective, continuance and normative- and 7ob performanceL and *=- the most
contributing dimensions of emotional intelligence and organi2ational
commitment that influence 7ob performance.
%((
Profile of Respondents
The profile is intended to provide bacground information as to the type of
respondents under study with respect to personal characteristics. They are
discussed under demographic data with aspects on gender, age, post status,
educational attainment, and under professional profile with respect to years of
woring e4perience and amount of tass or worloads given.
Demographic Profile of Respondents
The demographic profile provides an overall view of the characteristics of the
administrators. 1s depicted in Table D, there were =:.=H males as compared to
)&.&H females in the overall sample. The gender bias in this study is noted to
be 6uite common in which females were more heavily represented. In >iTM,
many of the management administrators comprised females as compared to
males.
The distribution of respondents by their age group shows that nearly half of the
respondents were distributed in the age group of =(3=? years *==.@H- as
compared to %?.@H for the age group of :(3:? years and %?.'H for '(3'? years,
and %&.=H for those above =? until )& years of age. The average age is =(.''
years *,DS D.D&- with the youngest '= years old and the oldest among the
respondents being )) years old. This sample seemed to indicate that the
administrators in their =(s thriving in >iTM with nearly half of the respondents.
%(%
Table 8: Distribution of Respondents by Demographic Variables
Demographic Variables Frequency
*nS%)'-
Percent
Gender
Male
!emale

Age (years)
'( – '?
:( – :?
=( – =?
W =?
&&
D&
=:.=
)&.&
'?
:(
&D
')
%?.'
%?.@
==.@
%&.=

Professional Profile of Respondents
1s indicated in Table ?, the finding of this study reveals the professional profile
of the administrators that include 7ob title, post status, academic attainment,
years of employment, and worload.
5ith regards to 7ob title, 1ssistant Registrars constituted :D.DH, followed by
:(.:H from the Treasury Department, and :(.?H are librarians. Ma7ority of the
administrators *?).=H- were permanent staff and the remaining :.?H were
contract and (.@H temporary. In terms of educational attainment, almost all the
sub7ects in this study were professionally trained, either locally or overseas.
Ma7ority of them were graduates with ):.:H possessing bachelor0s degrees,
:%.&H holding MastersN9hD0s degrees and %:.%H were Diploma holders. The
remaining 'H although did not hold a bachelor0s degree, completed with at
least a minimum of a ,T9M certificate, which served as a minimum
%('
re6uirement to enable them to hold the administrators level positions in their
organi2ations.
Table ? also indicates the total years of woring e4perience of the respondents.
Respondents had wored an average of %).%' years *,DS?.&D- in their career
with a minimum of % year and a ma4imum of :: years with the current
employer. More than one 6uarter of the administrators had less than %( years
woring e4perience which is :=.?H, followed by :'.?H in the '(3'? years of
employment, whilst '%.@H in the %(3%? years of woring e4perience. The
lowest, %(.)H falls in the last category of more than :( woring years. !inally,
)@.'H of the administrators claimed that their worload were high, '?.&H
moderate and only %:.'H very high.
Table 9: Professional Profile of Respondents
Professional Profile Frequency
*nS%)'-
Percent
1ob Title
%(:
1ssist Registrar
Treasurer
.ibrarian
Post Status
9ermanent
"ontract
Temporary
Educational Attainment
,T9M
Diploma
;achelor
MasterN9hD
Work Experience (years)
% – ?
%( – %?
'( – '?
:( – :?
Workload
Oery low
.ow
Moderate
High
Oery high
)?
=&
=@
:D.D
:(.:
:(.?
%=)
&
%
?).=
:.?
.@
:
'(
D%
=D
'.(
%:.%
):.:
:%.&
):
::
)(
%&
:=.?
'%.@
:'.?
%(.)
3
3
=)
D@
'(
3
3
'?.&
)@.'
%:.'

Characteristics of Dependent Variables
This section presents the characteristics of 7ob performance, the dependent
variable. This discussion was intended with the purpose of addressing the first
two of the research 6uestion of the study.
%(=
%. 5hat is the level of 7ob performance among administrators in
>iTMM
'. 5hat is the level of each of the component of 7ob performance
among administrators in >iTMM
The first ob7ective of this study was to measure the level of 7ob performance,
total emotional intelligence and total organi2ational commitment among
administrators in >iTM. This is elaborated through the levels of dependent
variables and independent variables for the overall sample *n S %)'-. The
standard deviation is a measure of how representative the mean was of the
observed data. ,mall standard deviations relative to the value of the mean itself
indicate that data points are close to the mean. The standard error is the
standard deviation of sample means. 1s such, it is a measure of how
representative a sample is liely to be of the population. 1 small standard error
indicates that most sample means are similar to the population mean and so the
sample in this study is liely to be an accurate reflection of the population.
Level of 1ob Performance
In accordance with the ratings of % – '.:: is low, '.:= – :.&& is moderate, :.&@ –
).(( is good as the indication of self3assessment, the administrators appeared to
have been rather satisfied with their level of 7ob performance. The
administrators felt that their level of 7ob performance was good *??.:H-, as
shown in Table %(. The mean 7ob performance rating was =.:% implying that
%()
the overall level of 7ob performance was good. The minimum 7ob performance
rating was :.(D and a ma4imum of ).(( and this gives a range of %.?'.
Table 10: Frequency Distribution of 1ob Performance
Levels Frequency
*n S %)'-
Percent Mean SD
.ow *% 3 '.::- 3 3
=.:% .=(
Moderate *'.:: – :.&&- %

(.@
High *:.&@ – ).((- %)% ??.:

Level of the 1ob Performance Dimensions
The study used %(( statements to measure four dimensions of 7ob performance.
The response options ranged from *%- strongly disagree to *)- strongly agree
with higher scores indicating higher level of 7ob performance. ;ased on Table
%%, the study showed that ?DH of the respondents reported high level of
interpersonal dimension while the remaining '.:H reported moderate level. The
mean score of interpersonal sill was =.:( with a standard deviation of .='.
Table 11: Frequency Distribution of 1ob Performance Dimensions
Dimensions/Level Frequency
*n S %)'-
Percent Mean SD
%(&
Communication
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
3
=
%=D
3
'.&
?@.=
=.'? .=%
Task-management
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
3
=
%=D
3
'.&
?@.=
=.'? .=%
Interpersonal
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
3
:
%=?
3
'.:
?D
=.:( .='
Problem-solving
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
3
=
%=D
3
'.&
?@.=
=.:( .=)


This was followed by other dimensions when the respondents again reported
high level of communication, tas3management and problem3solving
dimensions with a similar level of ?@.=H. This clearly indicated that the level
of 7ob performance among administrators of >iTM were high. The mean score
of communication and tas3management were both =.'? while problem3solving
was =.:(.
;ased on these findings, it can be concluded that the respondents understudied
possessed high level of 7ob performance. 1s indicated in the preceding chapter,
organi2ations that were trying to achieve a targeted goal such as >iTM need
highly performing individuals in order to meet their goals and to achieve
competitive advantage.
%(@
It was also found that organi2ations with specific vision and mission were
increasingly implementing teamwor and other group wor arrangements.
However, because teams are composed of individuals, team processes and team
performance cannot be completely understood and improved without taing
individual performance into account. !urthermore, communication, tas3
management, interpersonal and problem3solving sills were essential for
performing well in both individual and teamwor setting. This was because
tas3related sills and nowledge were not sufficient when accomplishing tass
in both individual and a teamwor setting. Therefore, individual tas and
conte4tual performance are necessary for high team performance and
accomplishing tass. 1nd it was reported in past research that performing at a
high level can be a source of satisfaction for employees as well as the
administrators in >iTM.
Characteristics of Independent Variables
This section aims to provide a brief outline of respondents0 perceptions of
emotional intelligence *self3management, relationship3management and
communication- and organi2ational commitment *affective commitment,
continuance commitment and normative commitment-, the independent
variables of the study. The main purpose of this section was to attend to the
third and forth research 6uestion of this study.
%(D
:. 5hat is the level of total emotional intelligence and total
organi2ational commitment among administrators in >iTMM
=. 5hat is the level of emotional intelligence and organi2ational
commitment dimensions among administrators in >iTMM
,imilar to the above procedures applied in describing the characteristics of the
dependent variable, three arbitrary levels were developed based on the average
scores of each of these variablesG low, moderate and high. Indices such as
means, standard deviations, fre6uency distribution and percentages were also
presented to provide a more comprehensive description of the variable
concerned. The results were reported in Table %', %:, %= and %).
Level of Total Emotional Intelligence
1ccordingly, with the same ratings as used with 7ob performance, this criterion
is also applied with the independent variables of 7ob performance. 5ith the
categori2ation of /good0 on the rating of :.((, depicting the indication of self3
assessment, the respondents appeared to have been rather satisfied in respect of
emotional intelligence *?DH-. The minimum total emotional intelligence rating
was :.'& and a ma4imum of ).(( and this gives a range of %.@=. The mean total
emotional intelligence rating was =.'& implying that the level of total emotional
intelligence is good.

Table 12: Frequency Distribution of Total Emotional Intelligence
%(?
Levels Frequency
*n S %)'-
Percent Mean SD
.ow *% 3 '.::-
3
3
=.'& .:)
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&- : '.(
High *:.&@ – ).((- %=? ?D.(
Level of the Emotional Intelligence Dimensions
The study used @: statements to measure three dimensions of emotional
intelligence. The response options ranged from *%- strongly disagree to *)-
strongly agree with higher scores indicating higher level of emotional
intelligence.
1s depicted in Table %:, the level of emotional intelligence dimensions among
the administrators was very high. The relationship3management dimension is
perceived to be high with ?@.=H and followed by both self3management and
communication dimensions with ?&.@H. This clearly indicated that
administrators of >iTM have high level of emotional intelligence in their
worplace.
Table 13: Frequency Distribution of Emotional Intelligence Dimensions
%%(
Levels Frequency
*n S %)'-
Percent Mean SD
Self-management
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
3
)
%=@
3
:.:
?&.@
=.': .:@
Relationship-management
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
3
=
%=D
3
'.&
?@.=
=.') .:&
Communication
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
3
)
%=@
3
:.:
?&.@
=.:% .:?

;y observing the mean values of each of the emotional intelligence dimensions,
the respondents received higher communication *=.:%-, followed by
relationship3management *=.')- and self3management with *=.':-. In terms of
variability of data, the standard deviation showed that they were more or less
e6ually dispersed.
;ased on these findings, it can be concluded that the respondents understudied
possessed high level of emotional intelligence. 1s indicated in the preceding
chapter, emotions do e4ist in the worplace and that they have a great impact in
the worplace and on the employees. It is believed that emotions and their
regulation may be an important factor in e4plaining many aspects of
organi2ational life and the employees who wor within the organi2ation.
Cmotional intelligence can help administrators of >iTM to be more competent
%%%
at their own wor as well as in their relationships with others, especially in
woring more productively with others and influencing others to wor more
productively with them.
5hile emotional intelligence is a new era of investigation for 7ob performance
in >iTM, it is proving to be an area of significant important. 9eople with high
emotional intelligence are more liely than less emotionally intelligence people
to /gain success0 in the worplace because it can improve performance both
personal and organi2ational levels.
Level of Total Organizational Commitment
However, result in !igure %= shows that ma7ority of them e4press the moderate
level of commitment towards their organi2ation *D(.:H-. The minimum total
organi2ational commitment rating was '.:: and a ma4imum of ).(( and this
gives a range of '.&@. The mean total organi2ational commitment rating was
:.:& implying that the level of organi2ational commitment is moderate. This is
in line with the literature standpoint where some studies show high level of
commitment while some do not. The results show that the total emotional
intelligence level of the respondents is high but not in terms of total
organi2ational commitment.
Table 14: Frequency Distribution of Total Organizational
Commitment
%%'
Levels Frequency
*n S %)'-
Percent Mean SD
.ow *% 3 '.::-
3
3
:.:& .='
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&- %'' D(.:
High *:.&@ – ).((- :( %?.@
1s mentioned, the first ob7ective of the study was to e4amine the level of 7ob
performance, and the level of the independent variables, total emotional
intelligence and total organi2ational commitment. Aenerally, the level of 7ob
performance was e4cellent *??.:H-.
The level of total emotional intelligence among the administrators was high
with ?DH perceived to be good and the remaining with a moderate level of 'H.
The ratings of sub7ective evaluations in this study were obtained from self3
rating, rather than supervisors, peers, sub3ordinates, customers or supervisors.
This rating is an interesting point to note as it may be an overestimate of self3
rating. However, contrary to e4pectations, there is no definite conclusions
regarding the frame3of3reference effects and the findings of many research is
probably an overestimate of the reliability of supervisory ratings of overall 7ob
performance *#nes and Oiswesvaran,, %??@-. !urther, the use of self3rating as a
performance information source is an established practice even though self3
appraisals of performance tend to be more lenient than either supervisory or
%%:
peer appraisals and most people are unable to evaluate themselves ob7ectively
or reliably enough to give accurate information.
#n the contrary, !arl and 5erbel *%?D&- found that in a self3appraisal based
performance evaluation system, self3ratings were highly congruent with
supervisory ratings. ,elf3ratings were found to be as stringent and disperse as
supervisory ratings for all performance dimensions and in areas of performance,
emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment evaluation.
Meanwhile, D(.:H of the respondents were at the moderate level of their
commitment towards the organi2ation and only %?.@H were high. This data
illustrates the challenges for the organi2ation as organi2ations restructure and
shrin in response to global competitive pressures while still e4pecting a
worforce of committed survivors. Cmployees that have different levels of
organi2ational commitment may re6uire different management style and
motivational strategies for optimum organi2ational effectiveness.
Level of Organizational Commitment Dimensions
The study used %D statements to measure three dimensions of organi2ational
commitment. The response options also ranged from *%- strongly disagree to
*)- strongly agree with higher scores indicating higher level of organi2ational
commitment.
%%=
1n overview of the results in Table %) shows that there was a variation in the
level of organi2ational commitment dimensions of administrators in >iTM.
Aenerally, about D(.:H of the respondents reported high level of the affective
commitment and %?.@H appeared to be moderate. The mean score of affective
commitment was =.%) with a standard deviation of .)'.
Those who reported high level of affective commitment revealed that they were
very emotionally attached to >iTM. They related their commitment in terms of
values and goal congruency where they strongly associated with their
organi2ation. 5hen the administrators are affectively committed, they would
be willing to e4ert more effort and spend e4tra time in doing their wor.
9rior research has also indicated that employees who e4hibited higher affective
commitment tend to develop more positive wor outcomes such as higher 7ob
6uality, higher 7ob satisfaction and lower intention to leave the organi2ation.
These findings should provide enough empirical support as to the benefits in
increasing the levels of affective commitment held by administrators in >iTM.
1s for the continuance commitment dimension, it was found to be in the
moderate level *):.:H-. There were less respondents reported they have high
continuance commitment *==.@H- and only 'H reported low continuance
commitment compared to affective commitment. The mean score of
continuance commitment was :.&% with a standard deviation of .)(.
%%)
Aenerally, it can be concluded that the administrators were aware of the cost
associated of leaving the organi2ation such as cost of relocating a family from
another city, cost of changing lifestyles, cost of spending time and effort in
ac6uiring specific sills and so forth.
The e4istence of continuance commitment among administrators in this study
was not surprising since the government has been giving out a lot of incentives
such as increased salary and annual bonuses for the public sectors. The benefits
of this nature would mae it more costly to depart from the organi2ation.
Table 15: Frequency Distribution of Organizational Commitment
Dimensions
Dimensions/Level Frequency
*n S %)'-
Percent Mean SD
Affective Commitment
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
3
:(
%''
3
%?.@
D(.:
=.%) .)'
Continuance Commitment
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
:
D%
&D
'
):.:
==.@
:.&% .)(
Normative Commitment
.ow *% 3 '.::-
Moderate *'.:= – :.&&-
High *:.&@ – ).((-
@@
@%
=
)(.@
=&.@
'.&
'.:: .)?
%%&
However, the finding revealed that half of the respondents *)(.@H- reported low
level of normative commitment while =&.@H were moderate and only '.&H
were high. This component of commitment has a mean value of '.::, the
lowest mean value among the components with a standard deviation of .)?.
;ased on the result, it can be concluded that ma7ority of the administrators in
the survey displayed slightly strong normative commitment to >iTM. They felt
that they ought to remain by virtue of their belief that it was the right thing to do
and morally not right to leave the organi2ation. This data illustrates that the
administrators were highly emotional intelligent and affectively committed to
their organi2ation.
The Relationship between Independent Variables and 1ob Performance
This section covers the findings and discussion pertaining to the relationship
between the independent variables and 7ob performance, the dependent variable
of this study. The main purpose was to address research 6uestion ) and &.
). Is there a significant relationship between total emotional
intelligence and total organi2ational commitment with 7ob
performanceM
&. Is there a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment dimensions with 7ob performanceM
%%@
This study employed the 9earson product moment coefficient of correlation
statistics which commonly used to measure the strength and direction of the
relationship between two variables. The reports are divided into three sub3
sectionsG *a- the correlation results of total emotional intelligence and total
organi2ational commitment with 7ob performanceL *b- the correlation results of
emotional intelligence dimensions and 7ob performanceL and *c- the correlation
results of organi2ational commitment dimensions and 7ob performance.
1. Relationship between Total Emotional Intelligence and Total
Organizational Commitment with 1ob Performance
The first part of the third ob7ective was to determine the relationship between
total emotional intelligence, and total organi2ational commitment total with 7ob
performance. In achieving this, 9earson r correlation coefficients between each
pair of variables were employed. In relation to this, the following hypotheses
were put forwardG
H%G Total emotional intelligence is positively related to 7ob performance.
H'G Total organi2ational commitment is positively related to 7ob performance.
1s depicted in Table %&, total emotional intelligence *r S .@&, p U (.()- and total
organi2ational commitment *r S .:@, p U (.()- were positively related to 7ob
performance and they were statistically significant. The magnitude of
correlation between total emotional intelligence and 7ob performance was .@&,
which according to Clifson, et al. *%??D- was a strong or mared relationship.
%%D
However, the magnitude of correlation between total organi2ational
commitment and 7ob performance was a moderate or substantial relationship.
Thus, hypotheses % and ' were supported. The strongest relationship was found
to e4ist between total emotional intelligence and 7ob performance, followed by
total organi2ational commitment. The positive correlation coefficient of total
emotional intelligence and total organi2ational commitment indicated that as
these variables increased, so did 7ob performance.
Table 16: Descriptive Statistics, Zero-Order Correlations of 1ob
Performance and the Predictor Variables
Variables r p
Y
2
1ob Performance
(100)
- -
X
1
Total Emotional Intelligence
(73)
.@&XX .(((
X
2
Total Organizational Commitment
(18)
.:@XX .(((
Notes: !igures in parentheses are the number of items measuring each
constructL 2ero3order coefficients, p U (.().
The 2ero3order correlations are the simple 9earson0s correlation coefficients that
showed total emotional intelligence had a large positive correlation with 7ob
performance. The correlation was significant *p U (.()-. This means that as
level of total emotional intelligence increased, so did the level of 7ob
performance and the same thing happened to total organi2ational commitment.
%%?
However, the linear relationship of total organi2ational commitment and 7ob
performance was not strong as compared with total emotional intelligence. This
study has empirically demonstrated that 7ob performance increased when the
employees were emotionally intelligent. These findings are as e4pected given
that prior research has demonstrated similar relationships, even though not 7ob
performance per se. Hence the support of the hypotheses stated in H% and H' is
demonstrated.
2. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence Dimensions and 1ob
Performance
The second part of the third ob7ective was to determine the relationship between
the specific dimensions of emotional intelligence *self3management,
relationship3management and communication- and dependent variable, 7ob
performance. In achieving this, the 9earson r correlation coefficient between
each pair of variables was employed. In relation to the above ob7ective, the
following hypotheses were put forwardG
H:G ,elf3management is positively related to 7ob performance.
H=G Relationship3management is positively related to 7ob performance.
H)G "ommunication is positively related to 7ob performance.
1s depicted in Table %@, emotional intelligence dimensionsG self3management *r
S .@=, p U (.()-, relationship3management *r S .@), p U (.()- and
communication *r S .@@, p U (.()- were positively related to 7ob performance.
%'(
They were all statistically significant. The magnitude of correlations between
dimensions of emotional intelligence and 7ob performance was a strong or
mared relationship *Clifson, et al., %??D-. The strongest relationship was
found to e4ist between communication and 7ob performance. Therefore, given
the data, hypotheses :, = and ) were accepted.
Table 17: Pearson Correlation Coefficient between Emotional
Intelligence Dimensions and 1ob Performance

Variables r p
Y
1
1ob Performance
(100)
3 -
X
1
Self-management
(26)
.@=XX .(((
X
2
Relationship-management
(29)
.@)XX .(((
X
3
Communication
(18)
.@@XX .(((
Total Emotional Intelligence .@&XX .(((
Notes: !igures in parentheses are the number of items measuring each
constructL nS%)'. "orrelation is significant at the (.() level *%3
tailed-
The 2ero3order correlations are the simple 9earson0s correlation coefficients that
show communication had the largest positive correlation with 7ob performance,
followed by relationship3management, and self3management. 1ll the
%'%
correlations were significant *p U (.()-. This means that as level of
communication increased, so did the level of 7ob performance and the same
happened to relationship3management and self3management. 1nd, to test the
three hypotheses simultaneously, multiple regression was conducted where 7ob
performance was the dependent variable. The three hypotheses H:, H= and H)
were well supported.
The results of the study revealed that all the emotional intelligence dimensions
were positively related to 7ob performance with the highest correlation of (.@@
for communication, followed by (.@) with relationship3management and self3
management *(.@=-. This was consistent with past findings that suggested there
was an association between emotional intelligence and human behavior that can
influence the employees0 positive wor attitudes behavior, and performance
*"armeli, '((:-. Cmotional intelligence plays an important role in determining
success at worplace and is a very important element for administrators. The
findings provide evidence that emotional intelligence does e4ist in the
worplace and has a great impact on 7ob performance.
3. Relationship between Organizational Commitment Dimensions and 1ob
Performance
The third part of the third ob7ective was to determine the relationship between
the specific dimensions of organi2ational commitment *affective, continuance
and normative- and the dependent variable, 7ob performance. In achieving this,
the 9earson r correlation coefficient between each pair of variables was
%''
employed. In relation to the above ob7ective, the following hypotheses were put
forwardG
H&G 1ffective is positively related to 7ob performance.
H@G "ontinuance is negatively related to 7ob performance.
HDG +ormative is negatively related to 7ob performance.
#rgani2ational commitment dimensionsG affective *r S .)D, p U (.()- was also
positively related to 7ob performance which was considered as a moderate or
substantial relationship.. In contrary, hypothesis that stated continuance was
negatively related to 7ob performance was re7ected *Table %D- as the relationship
was positive even though the relationship was wea *r S .'@, p S (.()-. In other
words, affective and continuance dimensions were statistically significant.
5hile, normative dimension was negatively related to 7ob performance *r S
3.(@, p W .(()-. 1nd to test the three hypotheses simultaneously, multiple
regression was conducted where 7ob performance was the dependent variable.
#nly two hypotheses H& and HD were well supported.
%':
Table 18: Pearson Correlation Coefficient between Organizational
Commitment Dimensions and 1ob Performance
Variables r p
Y
1
1ob Performance
(100)
3 3
X
1
Affective
(6)
.)DXX .(((
X
2
Continuance
(6)
.'@XX .(((
X
3
Normative
(6)
3.(@ *.'%%-
Total Organizational Commitment
(18)
.:@XX .(((

nS%)'.
X
"orrelation is significant at the (.() level *%3tailed-
The linear relationship between affective commitment and continuance
commitment with 7ob performance were strong as the correlation was
significant *p U (.()- but not normative commitment. This study has
empirically demonstrated that 7ob performance increased when the employees
were affectively committed to their organi2ation and there was a need to stay
with the organi2ation *continuance commitment-.
These findings are as e4pected given that prior research has demonstrated
similar relationships, even though not 7ob performance per se. Hence, the
%'=
support of the hypotheses stated in H& and HD is demonstrated but H@ is
re7ected.
The output shows that affective commitment and continuance commitment were
positively related to 7ob performance, but normative commitment was
negatively related to 7ob performance. This was also consistent with past
findings that suggested not all forms of commitment can be associated with
high 7ob performance but it was the nature of commitment that counts in the
commitment3performance relationship *Meyer et al., %?D?-. ,ome researchers
have established a positive relationship between the two *Kerthaml et al., %??(L
;oshoff and Tait, %??&L ;enhoff, %??@L ,ergeant and !renel, '(((-, some see
no relationship at all *Mathhieu and Ka7ac, %??(L Aanster and Dwyer, %??)-,
while some have surprisingly even established a negative relationship *Hartline
and !errell, %??:-. ,ome studies on the continuance and normative
commitment of employees towards 7ob performance have established a positive
relationship, while some see a negative relationship and similarly some see no
relationship at all.
Summary
The findings of this chapter tested the propositions of the research hypotheses.
The hypotheses were all statistically supported e4cept for Hypothesis @. The
association between total emotional intelligence, total organi2ational
%')
commitment and 7ob performance was demonstrated through hypothesis % and
'. The hypotheses denote the positive and significant relationship between total
emotional intelligence and total organi2ational commitment with 7ob
performance thus showing the relevance of the predictor variables. Thus,
emotional intelligence was found highly related to 7ob performance but
organi2ational commitment was moderately related to 7ob performance.
Hypotheses :, =, ), & and @ denote the positive and significant relationship
between the three dimensions of emotional intelligence *self3management,
relationship3management and communication- and two dimensions of
organi2ational commitment *affective and continuance- with 7ob performance.
It can be concluded from the data given that there is a strong relationship e4ists
between emotional intelligence dimensions and 7ob performance and indicates
that as emotional intelligence dimensions increases, so does 7ob performance.
There is also a linear relationship between affective commitment and 7ob
performance as it demonstrated that 7ob performance increased when the
employees were affectively committed to their organi2ation.
;ased on the result from the regression analysis, three predictor variables were
found to be of significance in e4plaining 7ob performance. There were
communication, affective commitment and relationship3management.
Meanwhile, self3management, continuance commitment and normative
commitment did not contribute to the variation of the dependent variable *7ob
performance-. In sum, the results of this survey support the theory that
%'&
emotional intelligence is the best predictor for 7ob performance and
organi2ational commitment can also influence wor outcomes.
%'@
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction
This final chapter deals with the overview of the study and the basis that led to
the development of the conceptual framewor. This chapter concludes the
findings with some ensuing deliberations, discusses the implications for human
resource practice and policy decisions, and finally some suggestions for future
research. This is manifested into three main sections – *%- ,ummary, *'-
"onclusion, *:- Implications, and *=- Recommendations.
Summary
This study had sought to increase the nowledge of perception of 7ob
performance from the administrators0 perspectives. Its primary aim was to
e4plore the relationship between 7ob performance and the si4 variables
identified. More specifically, the study focused on the level of 7ob performance
which refers to the level of communication, tas3management, interpersonal and
problem3solving. The three emotional intelligence dimensions and three
organi2ational commitment dimensions were evaluated through this study to see
whether the employees0 performance is influenced by those variables. ,uch 7ob
performance initiatives are pursued through this survey in a higher learning
institution *>iTM-. This study on 7ob performance is concerned with human
behaviors at wor and commitment at wor that is meaningful. Individual
%'D
performance is something organi2ations want to enhance and optimi2e. 1fter
all, meaningful wor is part of what is needed for organi2ations to maintain a
high performance worforce, loyalty and to remain competitive in the future.
9rimarily, the purpose of this study was to determine, describe, and to a limited
e4tent, e4plain the levels and patterns of relationships between 7ob performance
and the selected variables arising from the emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment aspects. This study posed four ob7ectives and eight
hypotheses. The review of literature conducted as a bacground for this study
revealed that 7ob performance is increasingly important lately. Therefore, this
study was to gain an improved understanding of the variables and factors that
affect 7ob performance. This is especially important and an initiative for
additional theoretical contribution that includes and integrates concepts such as
emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment. #n this basis of
conceptuali2ation, the present study was structured.
$ob performance has often been lined to technical proficiency or tas
performance for 7ob success *getting ahead-, emphasi2es conte4tual
performance, organi2ational citi2enship and pro3social behavior *getting along
at wor-, and a psychological attachment that tae the following three formsG
affective, normative and continuance types of commitment. However, the
conceptuali2ation of 7ob performance has not been pursued as vastly since its
evolution as compared to other management concepts. This study is an attempt
to measure the level of 7ob performance, emotional intelligence and
%'?
organi2ational commitment, and the relationship between dependent variable
and the independent variables.
9revious models in 7ob performance have not yet incorporated emotional
intelligence and organi2ational commitment simultaneously. In this study, 7ob
performance encompasses a set of critical supervisory and managerial
dimensions or competencies such as communication, tas3management,
interpersonal and problem3solving.
The main concept of 7ob performance was derived from "ampbell, *%??(- and
"ampbell et al., *%??:- that provided one of the first large scale attempts to
integrate the numerous dimensions of performance into a comprehensive model
using the following eight general factorsG *%- 7ob3specific tas proficiencyL *'-
non37ob tas proficiencyL *:- written and oral communicationL *=- demonstrating
effortL *)- maintaining personal disciplineL *&- facilitating peer and team
performanceL *@- supervisionNleadershipL and *D- managementN administration.
These eight factors represent the highest3order factors that can be useful for
describing performance in every 7ob in the occupational domain, although some
factors may not be relevant for all 7obs.
The conceptual framewor is further enhanced through other scholars wor
such as +owac *%??@- that 7ob performance dimensions were based on an
e4tensive 7ob analysis of supervisory and managerial positions in several large
service, manufacturing and aerospace companies. 1 set of critical supervisory
%:(
and managerial dimensions or competencies were derived in four specific areasG
%- communicationL '- tas3managementL :- interpersonalL and =- problem3
solving. To satisfy the ob7ectives and to answer the research 6uestions posed in
this study, a conceptual framewor was developed and discussed.
In terms of methodology, this is a descriptive3correlational research study that
has its main aim in e4ploring of the phenomenon of 7ob performance. Reasons
for choosing this type of study were based on the literature reviewed, which
argued that, generally, relationships between 7ob performance and the
independent variables in this study were relatively une4plored. The variables
postulated in this study have not been reviewed by past studies and past studies
have concentrated on industrial relations, 7ob security, motivation, and
satisfaction. In addition, the researcher did not manipulate any of the variables
or the conte4t where they naturally occurred.
The data collection instruments used included the Management Oiew 9ractices
Puestionnaire that measures 7ob performance, the 9eopleInde4 for emotional
intelligence and #rgani2ational "ommitment Puestionnaire for organi2ational
commitment. The reliability of the study instrument was considered acceptable
and was liely to give reliable data. The results collected also assured the
researcher that the predictor variables are applicable for the study of 7ob
performance. This study was conducted in Mara >niversiti of Technology
*>iTM-. The %)' administrators of >iTM were determined using the A39ower
%:%
statistical analysis program. Then, the %)' respondents were selected from the
name list using the systematic sampling techni6ue.
;oth descriptive and inferential statistical analysis procedures were employed to
derive answers to hypotheses posed in the study. The descriptive statistics were
used to describe the patterns of the data sets and general relationships between
the variables of interest. 1ll inferential statistics used in the study were
evaluated using the one3tailed .() level of significant or probability level, pU .()
as the standard acceptable level.
#verall, the study revealed that >iTM administrators0 7ob performance and its
dimensions were high. They were also reported relatively high levels of the
total emotional intelligence and its dimensionsG self3management, relationship3
management and communication. Their level of total organi2ation commitment
was moderate. However, they were reported high level of affective
commitment, moderate level of continuance commitment but low level of
normative commitment.
Meanwhile, hypotheses :, =, ), & and @ denoted the positive and significant
relationships between the three dimensions of emotional intelligence *self3
management, relationship3management and communication- and two
dimensions of organi2ational commitment *affective and continuance- with 7ob
performance. It can be concluded from the data given that there was a strong
relationship e4ists between emotional intelligence dimensions and 7ob
%:'
performance and indicated that as emotional intelligence dimensions increased,
7ob performance increased. There was also moderate relationship between
affective commitment and 7ob performance. This demonstrated that 7ob
performance increased when the employees were affectively committed to their
organi2ation.
The conceptual framewor for 7ob performance demonstrated a good model.
This is because a high proportion of variance is evidenced in 7ob performance.
The regression model revealed that &=H of 7ob performance was e4plained by
the predictor variablesG communication, affective commitment and relationship3
management. The strongest predictors for 7ob performance were
communication and followed by affective commitment and relationship3
management. The regression model contributes empirical evidence regarding
factors associated with 7ob performance of the administrators in >iTM. Hence,
the model of the study shows that it is a reasonably good model. These results0
inputs serve as potential for various purposes in future research on 7ob
performance.
Dependent Model for 1ob Performance of the Conceptual Framework
In particular, this study involved the adoption of conceptuali2ation of 7ob
performance advocated by "ampbell *%??(- and "ampbell et al., *%??:-. The
literature can be construed as optimistic concerning the potential of emotional
intelligence practices to enhance the performance of employees and
organi2ations. It is also e4pected to have a chain effect leading to employees0
%::
growth and that emotional intelligence is a significant factor in determining 7ob
performance *Aoleman, %??)-. 1nother assumption is that committed
employees are believed to wor harder for an organi2ation than those who are
not committed *Kerthaml et al. as cited in Malhotra and Muher7ee, '((=-.
!rom the magnitude of the t statistics and the significant p3value, the strongest
predictor of 7ob performance is communication *t S =.)', p U (.()-, followed by
affective commitment *t S :.(&, p U (.()- and relationship3management *t S
'.@', p U (.()-. However, this is in contrast with 7ob performance conceptual
model where self3management is significant. It is also argued that affectively
committed employee would be more liely to e4ert effort on behalf of the
organi2ation as heNshe has a EdesireF to maintain employment in the
organi2ation as compared to an EobligationF *normative commitment- or a
Eneed to continueF *continuance commitment-, *Meyer and 1llen, %??%L Meyer
et al., %??:L Hacett et al., %??=-.
Conclusions
This study was intended to investigate the 7ob performance of administrators in
>iTM. The primary concern was to loo into the relationships between a
selected list of independent variablesG emotional intelligence *self3management,
relationship3management and communication- and organi2ational commitment
*affective, continuance and normative-, which have not been dealt with in prior
studies, particularly in >iTM. The secondary ob7ective was to investigate the
%:=
e4tent to which these independent variables could predict 7ob performance of
these administrators.
The performance model represented the real life concerns of the university,
which has been constantly striving to ensure that administrators performed well
in their worplace. This pursuit was in line with their efforts in trying to
achieve the goal of becoming a world class university. The following section
aims to highlight the conclusions drawn from the findings of the study.
However, the limitation pertaining to the generalisability of the research
findings to the larger population should be noted. The sub7ects of this study
were selected from a probability sample of administrators in >iTM. Hence, the
conclusions were limited to these administrators in >iTM and therefore could
not be generali2ed to other universities in Malaysia.
$ob performance evaluation is the principal lin in helping both the employee
and the employer fully understand their responsibility. The result of this study
shows that the 7ob performance level of the administrators in >iTM was very
high. In this study, individual performance was described as an individual0s
measurable behavior which is relevant for organi2ational goals. 9erformance
was characteri2ed as multi3dimensional and dynamic in nature. The integration
of the three ma7or perspectives within performance3related research, namely an
individual differences perspective, a situational perspective and a performance
regulation perspective as mentioned in the preceding chapter is necessary for
%:)
understanding why specific individual characteristics and situational factors
result in high individual performance.
9rior research has indicated that individuals who were emotionally intelligent
e4hibited the most positive outcomes. The present study provides additional
support for this proposition. The high levels of emotional intelligence
dimensions *self3management, relationship3management and communication-
as shown in the findings are consistent with prior research. Aoleman *%??Da-
argued that by itself emotional intelligence probably was not a strong predictor
of 7ob performance. Rather, it was the emotional competencies such as self3
management, relationship3management and communication that predict 7ob
performance. Cmotional competence in this study which refers to the personal
and social sills that lead to superior performance in the world of wor are
lined to and based on emotional intelligence. This is because certain level of
emotional intelligence is necessary to learn the emotional competencies. !or
instance, the ability to recogni2e accurately what another person is feeling
enables one to develop a specific competency such as influence. >ltimately, it
is these social and emotional competencies that we need to identify and measure
if we want to be able to predict performance.
;esides that, it was also found that the three dimensions of emotional
intelligence were significantly and positively correlated to 7ob performance.
These findings are in line with Aoleman *%??Da- who claimed that the abilities
associated with emotional intelligence are important for success in many areas
%:&
in life especially performance in the worplace. !urthermore, Aoleman also
claimed that there was a considerable body of research who suggested that a
person0s ability to perceive, identify, and manage emotion provided the basis
for the inds of social and emotional competencies that are important for
success in almost any 7ob. 1nd, as the pace of change increases and the world
of wor mae ever greater demands on a person0s cognitive, emotional and
physical resources, this particular set of abilities will become increasingly
important in the future.
#n the basis of previous literature, Aoulet and !ran *'(('- revealed that
employees from the public sector have the lowest level of organi2ational
commitment compared to non3profit and for3profit sectors. This study did not
compare the level of organi2ational commitment among the three sectors.
However, the results of this study revealed that organi2ational commitment was
moderately high for administrators of >iTM, one of the public universities in
Malaysia. It is suggested that this findings can be e4plained by the high rate of
unemployment due to the economic conditions which may be accompanied by a
change in worer patterns of organi2ational commitment.
1s predicted, the direction of the relationship between commitment and
performance varied as a function of the nature of the commitment. The
correlations between affective and continuance commitment and the
performance measures were positive and affective commitment was significant
for performance even though the overall level of total commitment was
%:@
moderately high. In contrast, the correlation between normative commitment
and performance was negative. The results of this study generally supported the
previous research findings where affective commitment of administrators of
>iTM was significantly positive related to their measured 7ob performance.
The value of commitment to the organi2ation, therefore, may depend on the
nature of that commitment, that is, when the commitment reflects an
identification with and involvement in the company as conceptuali2ed by 9orter
and his associates *e.g., 9orter et al., %?@=-, the organi2ation may benefit both in
terms of reduced turnover and superior performance.
The results of the regression analyses in the study were also consistent with the
previous correlation analyses. Two emotional intelligence dimensionsG
relationship3management and communication were found to be among the best
predictors for 7ob performance. The findings of this study also support a
positive effect of emotional intelligence on the success of the administrators at
wor. This is of particularly important to the belief that management sills lie
at the heart of leadership and specifically recogni2e the need to develop and
ac6uire sills for managing people and that emotional intelligence may have a
critical role in the creation of effective leadership *5hetton, '((%-.
This study also suggests that overall 7ob performance of the administrators
could be significantly enhanced by improving the communication sills,
relationship3management sills and strengthening their affective commitment
towards >iTM. This finding was found to be consistent to the reports made by
%:D
past researchers. !or instance, Aoleman *'(((- found that relationship3
management was a vital sill for effective leadership at high levels. 1mong the
relationship3management competencies were building strategic relationship,
conflict3management, influence, empathy, interpersonal and collaboration. He
also added that creating an atmosphere of openness with clear lines of
communication is a ey factor in organi2ational success.
1 previous study by Aeorge *'(((- also showed how the aspects of emotional
intelligence – appraisal and e4pression of emotions, use of emotion to enhance
cognitive processing and decision maing, nowledge about emotions and
management of emotions contribute to effective leadership. Therefore, this
study advances the literature pertaining to emotional intelligence by empirically
demonstrating the importance of emotional intelligence for developing high 7ob
performance and having administrators with high emotional intelligence is a
necessity for attaining sustainable results.
The results of the regression analyses in the study also found that affective
commitment contributed significantly to the prediction of 7ob performance. The
findings of the study suggest that it is important for organi2ations lie >iTM to
e4amine the policies they implement to increase commitment. ,ome
organi2ations e4plicitly attempt to bind employees to the organi2ation through
rapid promotion, non3vested pension plans, organi2ation3specific sills training,
and so on. 1lthough this undoubtedly maes it difficult for employees to
decide to leave, it may not instill in them the desire to contribute to
%:?
organi2ational effectiveness. Instead, some employees may find themselves in
the position in which they have little desire to remain with the organi2ations but
simply cannot afford to do otherwise. ,uch employees may be motivated to do
little more than perform at the minimum level re6uired to maintain the 7obs on
which they have become dependent. It may be more prudent, although more
difficult perhaps, for organi2ations to foster affective commitment in their
employees than to develop continuance commitment. Cmployees who
intrinsically value their association with the organi2ation are more liely not
only to remain with the company but to wor toward its success.
1lthough the results of this study were based on a relatively small sample, the
consistency in the pattern of correlations and the fact that the commitment and
performance data were obtained from independent sources increase our
confidence in their reliability. The findings underscore the need for more
research e4amining relations between commitment and wor3related behavior
other than turnover and, furthermore, emphasi2e the need to distinguish clearly
the nature of the commitment construct being considered, both in empirical
research and in practical applications.
To conclude, this study investigating into the relationships of the
multidimensional aspects of 7ob performance and selected independent
variables of the study appeared to provide significant results. ,tudies of this
nature have not been heavily dealt with in prior studies especially in a non3
western environment lie universities in Malaysia. This study reported seemed
%=(
to demonstrate that western management and western organi2ational behavioral
framewors, models and theories that have been used in this research were also
valid for use in a non3western setting lie Malaysia. The study should be
e4tended to include a larger population of administrators from other universities
in Malaysia so that it would be able to provide stronger evidence on the
applicability of western findings in the developing conte4t.
Implications
C4aminations on the relationship between emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment with 7ob performance have a long history in
organi2ational studies, mostly at the individual level of analysis and mostly in
cross3sectional studies, yet the debate concerning the highly emotional
intelligent and committed worer continues to this day. It is interesting to note
that when we move from the individual to the organi2ational level of analysis,
the same 6uestions ariseG 1re employees with better 7ob performance more
productive employeesM In this study, the findings support the relationship
between emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment with 7ob
performance.
This suggests that, as emotional intelligence being a new measurement of
success *Aoleman, %??Db- could result in developing the potential of
individuals in a holistic and integrated manner and producing individuals who
are not only intellectually but emotionally balanced in accomplishing their tass
as an administrator especially in the process of maing decision.
%=%
In reviewing the overall results the study, it would appear to provide tentative
evidence which suggests that administrators of >iTM may achieve improved
performance if the emotional intelligence elements of relationship3management
and communication are included in their selection criteria. This is based on the
growing recognition of the increasing importance of 8managing people issuesF,
such a development may prove beneficial. Researchers such as Aoleman
*%??)-, Martine2 *%??@-, "herniss *'(((- and 1lder *'(((- recogni2ed the
importance of emotional intelligences for gaining success. It seems that
researchers attribute to emotional intelligence as a significant power of
e4planation of variance in performance.
In addition, a growing body of research has been concerned with the degree to
which emotional intelligence can mae the difference between good and poor
leaders. This stream of research is also of great interest to many organi2ations
that see to better understand the variance in employeesR performance. This
study advances the literature pertaining to emotional intelligence by empirically
demonstrating the importance of emotional intelligence for developing positive
wor3related attitudes and 7ob performance.
These findings are especially of importance for organi2ations which recogni2e
the critical role the administrators play in their success. The effectiveness of the
administrators is a function of the management sills possessed by the
administrators from which it is comprised *5hetten '((%-. ,ills of managing
people are of uni6ue importance for the creation of effective management and
%='
leadership, and emotional intelligence as 8the subset of social intelligence8
*,alovey and Mayer, %?D?3%??(- may be the most critical component of this
class of sills. Hence, having administrators with high emotional intelligence is
a necessity for attaining sustainable results.
1lthough the self3management component did not contribute to 7ob
performance in the multiple regression analysis, this may not be the case in
other conte4ts. ,elf3management is crucial as supported by Aoleman *%??)- as
one of the factors that can predict future 7ob performance. It is e4pected in the
future research that self3management can promote effective 7ob performance
and the importance of self3management as predictors of 7ob performance would
be maintained.
Meanwhile, the findings suggest that not all forms of commitment can be
associated with high 7ob performance but it is the nature of commitment that
counts in the commitment3performance relationship *Meyer et al., %?D?-. This
is in line with the previous research where some researchers have established a
positive relationship between the two *Kerthaml et al., %??(L ;oshoff and Tart,
%??&L ;enhoff, %??@L ,ergeant and !renel, '(((-, some see no relationship at
all *Mathhieu and Ka7ac, %??(L Aanster and Dwyes, %??)-, while some have
surprisingly even established a negative relationship *Hartline and !errell,
%??:-. The levels of either the overall or dimensional components of emotional
intelligence and organi2ational commitment indicated that the administrators in
%=:
>iTM are generally emotionally competent and committed to their
organi2ation.
The results show that of the three components, only affective commitment has a
significant and moderate relationship with 7ob performance. 1ffective
commitment refers to the emotional attachment of the employee towards hisNher
organisation, and reflects the willingness of employees to accept and support
organisational goals. Thus, employees who identify with the organisation and
support organisational goals generally perform well. This result is in line with
the findings of previous research using the three3component model of
commitment such as Meyer and 1llen *%??%- and Meyer et al . *%??:-.
Cmployees wish to remain in and are willing to e4ert effort on behalf of the
organisation because of the positive wor e4periences and benefits they derive
from their relationship with the organisation. Thus, having established the
positive influence of affective commitment on 7ob performance, it becomes
important for organisations to find out what they can do to maintain and
enhance the commitment of these employees as part of their internal mareting
strategy.
1 higher learning institution should strive towards developing the affective
component of commitment in employees, as this component has the most
significant relationship with 7ob performance. ,ince affective commitment is
found to be even more important in terms of relative influence on 7ob
%==
performance, research is re6uired to e4plore the variables that develop this
particular component of commitment.
1lthough the continuance or normative commitment did not contribute to 7ob
performance in the multiple regression analysis, this may not be the case in
other conte4ts. This could be a feature of the particular sample chosen, as
previous research has established a lin between this dimension of commitment
and performance *Meyer and 1llen, %??%-. Hence, this dimension of
commitment cannot be ignored, and there is a need for future research to
e4plore the relationship of normative and continuance commitment with 7ob
performance in other universities and other wor settings.
This study showed that 7ob performance is very much related to the emotional
intelligence and organi2ational commitment factors that contributed
meaningfully to the variance as indicated by the standardi2ed beta value and
other factors both overall and dimensionally. In other words, emotional
intelligence and organi2ational commitment factors have important bearing on
the level of 7ob performance. #rgani2ations can play important roles in
determining a better level of 7ob performance. This research pinpoints the
importance of emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment factors
thus suggest underlying ways to improve the 7ob performance in the
organi2ation. This study can help organi2ations to tae tactical actions to
improve emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment to achieve
particular desired woring behavior.
%=)
It would also be reasonable to simultaneously study counterproductive behavior
that is intentional and contrary to the organi2ation0s interests such as theft,
destruction of property, misuse of information, misuse of time and resources,
unsafe behavior, poor attendance, and poor wor 6uality in organi2ations as part
of 7ob performance0s dimensions and 7ob performance can also be better
measured using other measurements.
Aiven the modest degree to which the variables predicted the 7ob performance,
clearly further wor is needed, particularly in the area of 7ob performance. This
study is only a start in the 7ob performance direction, at least in the Malaysian
conte4t with its focus on the si4 constructs. !urther research is encouraged on
this issue and other related issues.
In terms of policy implications, >iTM can actually provide and shape their
future activities that are consistent with promoting emotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment. Cmotional intelligence and organi2ational
commitment are management style that adheres to the belief that the employees0
performance improves as employees become highly emotional intelligent and
committed worer and therefore, the management ought to create structures to
provide opportunities for employee to improve their level of emotional
intelligence and organi2ational commitment. Cmotional intelligence and
organi2ational commitment respond to both organi2ational needs and individual
%=&
needs for improved wor and woring conditions. These dual and sometimes
apparently conflicting needs are interdependent.
This study has also shown that there is a need for a growing emphasis on
especially human resources better today than we did yesterday and even better
tomorrow. It can mean developing among all the members of an organi2ation,
the awareness and understanding of the concerns and needs of others and a
willingness to be more responsive to those concerns and needs. $ob
performance can include improving what will be done and who will do it to
assure the long3term effectiveness and success of the organi2ations.
Despite this, the significance of this study is that this nowledge will be
valuable to the top management attempting to attain a career fit between the
needs of the employee and the needs of the organi2ation. It is possible to
enhance the overall level of emotional intelligence by planning and sustaining
personal development. Much of this development will result from reflecting on
the individual0s behaviors which tend to be e4hibited in differing situations,
consciously practicing different behaviors and actively seeing feedbac on the
way in which others interpret and respond to these behaviors. The appropriate
way in which to use the overall feedbac is to e4amine each of the emotional
intelligence scales and identifyG %- those where individuals have strengths which
may be developed and generali2edL '- those where they are specific
opportunities for improvement. !urthermore, understanding the influence of
organi2ational commitment is also important as organi2ations restructure and
%=@
shrin in response to global competitive pressures while still e4pecting a
worforce of committed survivors. 1s employees develop emotional
attachment to >iTM, they also feel more obligated to stay with the organi2ation.
!urthermore, a study by Aoulet and !ran *'(('- on the organi2ational
commitment across three sectors found that the public sector employees were
observed to have the lowest average organi2ational commitment score as
compared to non3profit and for3profit employees. It has been suggested by
those researchers that private sector employees are generally more committed to
their organi2ation. This hypothesis relies on the assumption that employees
perceived limited 7ob security in the private sector than in the public sector.
Therefore, the employees from the public sector that have different levels of
organi2ational commitment may re6uire different management style and
motivational strategies for optimum organi2ational effectiveness.
Recommendations
,ome of the recommendations emanating from this study are outlined below
together with suggestions. These recommendations were considered after
deliberating on the limitations enveloping the study be it theoretical,
methodological, or generali2ation.
These findings should be viewed with a few limitations in mind. !irstly, the
constructs were assessed using self3report measures, which may cause common
method variance challenges. The ne4t limitation is that the researcher only
sampled one public university *>iTM-. Therefore, the findings may not be
%=D
generali2able to other public universities. The %?' items for the three variablesG
7ob performance *%(( items-, emotional intelligence *@= items- and
organi2ational commitment *%D items- in the 6uestionnaire could have made it
difficult to apply the response consistently. This feedbac was relayed to the
respondents in the letter attached to the boolet. However, internal consistency
and stability indicators of the data revealed acceptable measurement properties,
and provide conservative estimates of the relationships between 7ob
performance and emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment. Hence
for future studies, it is recommended that other instruments for 7ob performance
and emotional intelligence be used to ensure consistent response.
Recommendation for Organization
Results of this study show that emotional intelligence and organi2ational
commitment are positively related to 7ob performance and to increase 7ob
performance of administrators may greatly enhance their emotional intelligence
and organi2ational commitment. Auest *%?D@- suggested measures lie good
communication, employee assistance program, re3design of wor, good support
system and the development of team approaches to increase 7ob satifaction that
leads to better 7ob performance.
Auest *%?D@- also specified employee commitment as one the liely positive
outcomes if a range of the positive organi2ational outcomes such as high 6uality
problem solving, successful change, lower turnover, reduced absenteeism and
%=?
7ob performance. That is why organi2ations are now demanding employee
growth, development and updated sills in return for continued commitment.
!ostering friendship, unity, coorperation, mutual understanding among
administrators and their subordinates and super3ordinates would certainly
enhance emotional intelligence and organi2ational commitment. The
collaboration and teamwor, for e4ample, has taen on increased importance in
the last decade with the trend toward team3based wor in many organi2ations.
This is because teamwor itself depends on the collective emotional intelligence
of its membersL the most productive teams are those that e4hibit emotional
intelligence competencies at the team level. "ollaboration is also particularly
crucial to the success of managersL a deficit in the ability to wor cooperatively
with peers was, in one survey, the most common reason managers were fired
*,weeney, %???-. This implies that a good relationship with colleagues is
beneficial for both personal and organi2ation.
#rgani2ations should also provide the proper training on emotional intelligence
and organi2ational commitment to administrators to enable them to perform
their 7ob better. Aaither *%???- reiterated that if professionals are not learning,
growing, and increasing their competence, they can become bored, frustrated
and complacent. Hence, administrators should be encouraged to grow
professionally through professional development programs, training programs
and professional meetings.
%)(
The >iTM authority should try to have more interactions with administrators as
well as create opportunities for communication among members of
administrators. "ommunication is the foundation of teamwor and employees
attitude. This can be done by organi2ing seminars and conference or informal
social gathering for administrators with the aim to promote mutual
understanding and concern among administrators.
REFERENCES
1lder, H. *'(((-. Boost your intelligence. +ew DelhiG Bogan 9age.
1ry, D., $acobs, .. "., I Ra2avieh, 1. *%??&-. Introduction to research in
education. #rlando !loridaG Harcourt ;race "ollege 9ublishers.
APPENDIX A
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
%)%
SOAL SELIDIK
BAHAGIAN A: MAKLUMAT DEMOGRAFI
;ahagian ini meminta anda memberian malumat umum tentang diri anda.
,ila beri 7awapan dengan mengisi tempat osong atau menanda *4- pada tempat
yang disediaan.
a. >murGYYYYYYYYYYYtahun
b. $awatanGYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
c. Beduduan $awatanG Tetap Bontra ,ementara
d. $antina. .elai 5anita
e. Belulusan aademi
9MR atau ,9M ,T9M Diploma
I7a2ah ,ar7ana Muda ,ar7ana atau 9hD
f. 9engalaman berer7a di organisasi iniGYYYYYYY tahun
g. g. ;eban tugas yang diberian
,angat ,ediit ,ediit Memadai
;anya Terlalu banya
%)'
BAHAGIAN B: PRESTASI KER1A
;eriut disenaraian satu siri pernyataan yang menggambaran perasaan yang
mungin dirasai oleh anda sebagai pentadbir mengenai prestasi er7a. !iiran
perasaan anda terhadap prestasi er7a anda dan nyataan tahap persetu7uan bagi
tiap3tiap satu pernyataan dengan membulatan nombor dari % hingga ).
%Ssangat tida setu7u, ' S tida setu7u, : S neutral,
= Ssetu7u atau ) S sangat setu7u.
Prestasi Kerja (1 - 100 sahaja)
%. Tulis dengan cara yang logi I sistemati. % ' : = )
'. 5u7ud ativiti er7a I tugasan secara tersusun I logi % ' : = )
:. ;eri tumpuan epada euatan prestasi I yang perlu
dibangunan semasa mesyuarat beraitan prestasi
% ' : = )
=. ;uat eputusan dengan tepat berdasaran data I
malumat yang cuup
% ' : = )
). 9astian peer7a dapat malumat terini tentang
malumat peer7aan yang beraitan I isu3isu penting
organisasi dengan tepat
% ' : = )
&. Auna nahu I bahasa sesuai bila berhubung secara
bertulis
% ' : = )
@. ;ina rancangan 7anga pende I pan7ang dengan
ambil ira 7adual os yang sesuai I malumat sumber
% ' : = )
D. 1gih tugasan epada peer7a berdasaran eperluan
individu I organisasi.
% ' : = )
?. ,entiasa emasini butiran I tindaan susulan e atas
tugas, pro7e I tugasan
% ' : = )
%(. ,iap I ealan doumentasi bertulis tentang prestasi
peer7a sepan7ang tempoh penilaian prestasi
% ' : = )
%%. ;entu er7asama I rangaian strategi dengan orang
yang berpengaruhNpenting
% ' : = )
%):
%'. Dapatan input dari peer7a tentang eputusan
organisasi, perancangan I masalah
% ' : = )
%:. ;uat eputusan dengan yain I pantas apabila
diperluan
% ' : = )
%=. Malum epada peer7a dengan segera I tepat tentang
perembangan yang boleh beri esan epada er7a,
tanggung7awab I tugasan merea
% ' : = )
%). Auna omuniasi secara bertulis dengan sesuai I
beresan
% ' : = )
%&. ,usun ativiti er7a I tugas dengan beresan % ' : = )
%@. Bumpul cuup malumat data I input sebelum buat
eputusan
% ' : = )
%D. Tulis secara 7elas, terus I padat % ' : = )
%?. ,ampai I minta malumat secara 7elas daripada orang
lain
% ' : = )
'(. Bendali omen, aduan I percanggahan pendapat
dengan beresan semasa mesyuarat I pembentangan
% ' : = )
'%. ,edia I sampaian perara eutamaan dengan 7elas
epada individu I raan umpulan
% ' : = )
''. 1tur, guna I urus masa secara yang bai % ' : = )
':. 5u7ud meanisme beresan untu pastian er7a dapat
dilauan pada masanya I berualiti
% ' : = )
'=. 1mbilira pilihan lain I sedia rancangan onti7ensi
bila buat eputusan
% ' : = )
'). ;ertahan epada eputusan N tindaan melainan ia
7elas tida betul
% ' : = )
'&. ,ampaian malumat yang perlu oleh raan umpulan
dengan segera I di dalam masa ditetapan
% ' : = )
'@. Tulis malumat tenial yang mudah difahami
% ' : = )
'D. Beal malumat dengan tersusun * cth. doumen, data,
reod, fail-
% ' : = )
'?. Tarif I nyataan dengan 7elas tugas, pro7e I
tugasan yang diamanahan epada merea
% ' : = )
:(. ;ina sistem untu pantau belan7awan, os I
perbelan7aan
% ' : = )
:%. 1mbilira sebab I aibat membuat eputusan % ' : = )
:'. ;uat esimpulan tentang enyataan yang telah dibuat
oleh peer7a supaya ada persefahaman
% ' : = )
::. Beal hubungan rapat I omuniasi secara bai
dengan peer7a * pastian yang lain- mendapat
malumat secuupnya
% ' : = )
:=. Tampil I perataan tentang matlamat organisasi,
7abatan I pasuan I piawaian prestasi
% ' : = )
:). 9indah uasa yang perlu epada peer7a untu pastian
tanggung7awab, tugasan I pro7e yang diamanahan
dapat disempurnaan
% ' : = )
%)=
:&. 5u7ud meanisma beresan untu pantau I pastian
er7a dapat dilauan dalam masa ditentuan serta
berualiti
% ' : = )
:@. ;ina ata sepaat dialangan pasuan ,matlamat
organisasi I beri dorongan serta semangat epada
yang lain untu er7a eras I produtif
% ' : = )
:D. ,edia malumbalas positif yang pantas epada merea
yang ber7aya menyiapan tugasan I pro7e dengan
cemerlang
% ' : = )
:?. ;eri tumpuan epada tingahlau tertentu I tida
epada pesonaliti apabila perluan perbincangan
tentang prestasi peer7a.
% ' : = )
=(. ,edia soongan moral I latihan yang cuup untu
peer7a
% ' : = )
=%. ;eromuniasi serta sampaian pendapat yang boleh
meyainan secara positif I dapat pengaruhi orang
lain
% ' : = )
='. ;ersedia I rancang sebelum mesyuarat I
pembentangan
% ' : = )
=:. ;entu er7asama I buan persaingan dialangan
peer7a, umpulan I pasuan
% ' : = )
==. ,ediaan insentif I gan7aran positif untu penyiapan
tanggung7awab pro7e I tugasan yang cemerlang
% ' : = )
=). 5u7ud peluang supaya lebih inovatif dengan idea I
onsep baru
% ' : = )
=&. +yataan malumat I pemiiran omples secara
mudah I 7elas
% ' : = )
=@. Bendali soalan3soalan semasa mesyuarat I
pembentangan secara responsif I diplomati
% ' : = )
=D. ,ampai I beri dorongan epada peer7a tentang misi I
visi organisasi pada masa depan
% ' : = )
=?. ,ediaan sumber malumat I latihan yang cuup
supaya peer7a dapat lasanaan tugas yang
diamanahan
% ' : = )
)(. ;uat tindaan susulan terhadap peer7a untu pantau
ualiti I prestasi yang beresan
% ' : = )
)%. ,edia malumbalas berterusan tentang prestasi I
perembangan er7a epada peer7a
% ' : = )
)'. 9u7i peer7a bila merea lauan er7a dengan bai % ' : = )
):. >saha dapatan omitmen daripada peer7a untu baii
perancangan prestasi
% ' : = )
)=. ;eri soongan epada rancangan pembangunan peer7a
seperti latihan peer7aan, tugasan berterusan dan lain3
lain
% ' : = )
)). .ibatan peer7a dalam perbincangan berenaan isu I
masalah organisasi
% ' : = )
)&. Auna emahiran, pengalaman I eupayaan orang lain
untu siapan er7a tugasan dengan beresan
% ' : = )
%))
)@. Aala peer7a bersedia I ambil bahagian semasa
mesyuarat a7ian semula penilaian prestasi
% ' : = )
)D. ;entu semangat berpasuan , epaduan I moral yang
tinggi
% ' : = )
)?. ;eri gan7aran epada individu yang laya di atas daya
usaha I ber7aya menyempurnaan tugas
% ' : = )
&(. ;eri perhatian I soongan epada rancangan
pembangunan er7aya peer7a
% ' : = )
&%. <ain I pu7u orang lain untu melihat idea3idea I
pandangan saya
% ' : = )
&'. 5u7udan peluang epada peer7a untu libatan diri
di dalam men7alanan tugas, pro7e I tugasan
organisasi yang mencabar
% ' : = )
&:. ,edia 7awapan 7elas , padat I logi epada soalan yang
diberi oleh orang lain
% ' : = )
&=. +yataan semula I terangan dengan 7elas isi3isi
penting I soalan3soalan yang diemuaan oleh orang
lain
% ' : = )
&). Maluman epada peer7a bagaimana er7a merea
ada aitan dengan matlamat pasuan I organisasi
% ' : = )
&&. Aalaan perbincangan prestasi secara berterusan
dengan peer7a sepan7ang tempoh penilaian prestasi
tersebut
% ' : = )
&@. ,oong pasuan er7a I nyataan secara atif
eperluan individu I raan sepasuan
% ' : = )
&D. 5u7ud I nyataan matlamat I piawaian prestasi
secara 7elas dengan peer7a
% ' : = )
&?. Tun7u eyainan terhadap emahiran I ebolehan
yang ditun7uan oleh peer7a
% ' : = )
@(. +yataan masa depan visi organisasi , ilhaman
omitmen serta soong visi orang lain
% ' : = )
@%. Bealan pandangan mata bila beromuniasi dengan
orang lain
% ' : = )
@'. ;uat pembentangan lisan secara 7elas, tersusun I
meyainan
% ' : = )
@:. Mudah cara epada peer7a untu ceritaan tentang
cabaran er7a I permasalahannya
% ' : = )
@=. 1ui bahawa perbe2aan pandangan dialangan peer7a
mesti digalaan, diaui I diterima
% ' : = )
@). .ibatan peer7a dalam proses buat eputusan oleh
organisasi, perancangan I penyelesaian masalah
% ' : = )
@&. ;uat 7angaan masalah yang berpotensi pada masa
aan datang
% ' : = )
@@. Beal pandangan mata I pergeraan badan yang
menari bila dengar seseorang bercaap
% ' : = )
@D. Tutur I sebut perataan dengan 7elas semasa berucap
I berinterasi
% ' : = )
%)&
@?. ;eromuniasi tentang visi terancang, nilai3nilai murni
I epercayaan yang beresan.
% ' : = )
D(. 9amer eprihatinan terhadap epelbagaian ciri
dialangan peer7a *7antina,aum,etni,umur- I layan
merea dengan adil I onsisten
% ' : = )
D%. ;incang penyelesaian masalah secara wa7ar I cari
persefahaman e atas tindaan tertentu bila onfli
berlau
% ' : = )
D'. ;eritahu dengan 7elas masalah prestasi peer7a secara
adil I onsisten
% ' : = )
D:. Betepi halangan yang mungin aan membantutan
prestasi peer7a
% ' : = )
D=. ,edia luangan masa untu fahami I dengar masalah
daripada peer7a.
% ' : = )
D). Aala suasana menaruh epercayaan, e7u7uran I
siap terbua dengan orang lain
% ' : = )
D&. 5u7ud I ealan siap beri soongan mesra I
hubungan sensitif antara individu dengan orang lain
% ' : = )
D@. ;eri ruang epada suasana percanggahan I bincang
secara terbua
% ' : = )
DD. ;erupaya sesuaian cara antara peer7a I pemimpin
untu dorong I pengaruhi peer7a
% ' : = )
D?. Bumpul I guna malumat yang ada untu selesai isu3
isu I masalah organisasi
% ' : = )
?(. 9erlihat efahaman bila mendengar apa orang lain ata % ' : = )
?%. Aala suasana dimana peer7a merasa bebas untu
berongsi pendapat I perasaan secara terbua
% ' : = )
?'. Tun7u minat I bertimbangrasa e atas eperluan
orang lain
% ' : = )
?:. ,elesaian masalah dialangan peer7a % ' : = )
?=. Tin7au I bincang tentang punca masalah prestasi
peer7a I masalah disiplin
% ' : = )
?). Diaman diri sambil dengar dengan sabar dengan tida
mengganggu orang lain
% ' : = )
?&. Bongsi e7ayaan I bincang berenaan prestasi yang
beresan dengan orang lain.
% ' : = )
?@. >saha untu fahami perasaan peer7a % ' : = )
?D. Tahan diri daripada siap mempertahanan diri I terus
bersiap terbua apabila orang lain tida sehaluan
dengan saya
% ' : = )
??. 1mbil tahu I nilai pemiiran, pendapat, I idea
peer7a
% ' : = )
%((.;ina I ambil ira beberapa bentu
penyelesaian untu setiap masalah
% ' : = )
%)@
BAHAGIAN C: KECERDASAN EMOSI
;eriut disenaraian satu siri pernyataan yang menggambaran perasaan yang mungin
dirasai oleh anda sebagai pentadbir mengenai ecerdasan emosi. !iiran perasaan anda
terhadap ecerdasan emosi anda dan nyataan tahap persetu7uan bagi tiap3tiap satu
pernyataan dengan membulatan nombor dari % hingga ).
%Ssangat tida setu7u, ' S tida setu7u, : S neutral,
= Ssetu7u atau ) S sangat setu7u.
Kecerdasan Emosi (1 - 74 sahaja)
%. "ari I dapatan malumbalas serta ritian membina
daripada orang lain
% ' : = )
'. Beal optimis I buat eadaan terawal samada dalam
suasana bai ataupun tida
% ' : = )
:. Bendali situasi tegang tanpa bertindabalas, beremosi atau
siap mempertahanan diri yang melampau
% ' : = )
=. 9amer I amal siap telus secara peribadi I profesional
yang tinggi
% ' : = )
). ;uat eputusan dengan yain I pantas apabila diperluan % ' : = )
&. Ber7a eras untu capai I lasana tugas, pro7e, tugasan I
matlamat
% ' : = )
@. Mulaan I pupu er7asama dalaman yang strategi
dengan pegawai anan utama I yang lain secara beresan
di dalam organisasi
% ' : = )
D. Aala orang lain untu nyataan perbe2aan pandangan,
idea I cadangan
% ' : = )
?. ;eromuniasi serta sampaian pendapat yang boleh
meyainan secara positif I dapat mempengaruhi orang
lain.
% ' : = )
%(. Mudah cara bagi orang lain untu bercerita secara terbua
tentang idea,perhatian I permasalahannya
% ' : = )
%%. >saha I tawar bantuan, latihan I bimbingan secara
formal I informal epada orang lain
% ' : = )
%'. 1mbil tahu I nilai pemiiran, pendapat I idea orang lain % ' : = )
%:. Tulis secara 7elas,tersusun I tepat % ' : = )
%=. Beal hubungan rapat I omuniasi secara bai dengan
orang lain
% ' : = )
%). Beal pandangan mata apabila beromuniasi dengan
orang lain
% ' : = )
%&. ;uat pembentangan lisan dengan yain, 7elas I logi
secara tersusun
% ' : = )
%@. ;uat esimpulan I 7elasan tentang enyataan yang telah
dibuat oleh peer7a untu mudah difahami
% ' : = )
%D. Terusan pembela7aran berterusan I pembangunan endiri
tentang pengetahuan, pengalaman I emahiran
% ' : = )
%)D
%?. Bealan siap positif I membina biarpun pelan atau
eputusan tida tercapai
% ' : = )
'(. Tun7u perasaan marah I ecewa yang sediit terhadap
orang lain apabila perasaan terganggu
% ' : = )
'%. Bealan siap eterbuaan, 7u7ur I eihlasan dalam
hubungan antara individu
% ' : = )
''. ,elidi dan guna paai malumat yang ada supaya dapat
memahami I menyelesaian isu serta masalah yang timbul
% ' : = )
':. 9amer ebolehan untu selesai tugas, pro7e I tugasan
dengan tepat I bermutu
% ' : = )
'=. ;ina hubungan I er7asama dengan orang lain di luar
organisasi secara beresan
% ' : = )
'). ;incang penyelesaian masalah secara wa7ar I cari
persefahaman e atas tindaan tertentu bila onfli berlau
% ' : = )
'&. >bahsuai cara epimpinan saya untu pu7u, beri motivasi
I pengaruhi orang lain
% ' : = )
'@. 9amer eprihatinan terhadap epelbagaian ciri dalam
peer7aan *7antina,aum,etni,umur- I layan merea
dengan adil I cara yang onsisten
% ' : = )
'D. ,edia malumbalas yang berterusan I tepat epada orang
lain beraitan hubungan er7a I prestasi er7a
% ' : = )
'?. ;entu er7asama I hubungan er7a dengan orang lain
tanpa bersaing
% ' : = )
:(. Auna nahu I bahasa yang sesuai apabila berhubung secara
bertulis
% ' : = )
:%. Malum pada orang lain tentang aspe tugas, pro7e I
tugasan yang relevan dalam masa yang sesuai
% ' : = )
:'. Tutur I sebut perataan dengan 7elas semasa berucap I
berinterasi
% ' : = )
::. ;ersedia I rancang sebelum mesyuarat, perbincangan I
pembentangan
% ' : = )
:=. Beal pandangan mata I geraan badan yang menari
apabila mendengar seseorang bercaap
% ' : = )
:). ,an7ung euatan I bidang pembangunan diri sendiri
secara realisti
% ' : = )
:&. Bendali teanan I desaan dengan bai % ' : = )
:@. ;ersiap tenang, tenteram I awal tingahlau semasa
berlau ancaman I cabaran dalaman
% ' : = )
:D. 9amer onsistensi di antara tindaan I tutur ata % ' : = )
:?. Hasil I ambil ira beberapa bentu penyelesaian untu
setiap masalah
% ' : = )
=(. Tunai sebarang omitmen yang dibuat % ' : = )
=%. ;ina, pupu I eal soongan padu di alangan individu
penting di dalam I luar organisasi *pengurus, peer7a,
pelanggan-
% ' : = )
%)?
='. ;eri ruang epada suasana percanggahan pendapat I
bincang secara terbua
% ' : = )
=:. <ain I pu7u orang lain untu melihat idea I pandangan % ' : = )
==. ;ina I eal hubungan mesra, ramah I prihatin dengan
orang lain
% ' : = )
=). 1ui I itiraf sumbangan I pencapaian orang lain % ' : = )
=&. .ibatan orang lain dalam proses membuat eputusan,
perancangan I penyelesaian masalah dengan atif bila
perlu
% ' : = )
=@. Auna omuniasi secara bertulis dengan sesuai I
beresan*cthGe3mai-
% ' : = )
=D. ,ampaian malumat yang perlu oleh orang lain dengan
segera I di dalam masa yang ditetapan
% ' : = )
=?. ,ampaian I minta malumat secara 7elas daripada orang
lain
% ' : = )
)(. Bendali soalan semasa mesyuarat I pembentangan secara
responsif I diplomati
% ' : = )
)%. 1mbil masa untu fahami I dengar daripada orang lain % ' : = )
)'. >rus masa secara ceap I beresan % ' : = )
):. Beal eseimbangan yang bai di antara er7a, eluarga I
ehidupan peribadi
% ' : = )
)=. Cla daripada ambil risio yang tida perlu atau buat
eputusan mendada tanpa malumat yang relevan I
mencuupi
% ' : = )
)). 5u7ud hubungan yang meyainan untu mudahan
perbincangan I berongsi malumat peribadi
% ' : = )
)&. ;ertahan dengan eputusan N tindaan melainan ia 7elas
tida betul
% ' : = )
)@. Ber7a dengan cermat I boleh dipercayai % ' : = )
)D. ;erusaha untu ambil tahu I selesaian onfli antara
individu dengan orang lain
% ' : = )
)?. Interasi untu ransang omitmen I soongan idea serta
cadangan saya
% ' : = )
&(. ;eri perhatian I pamer siap tola ansur terhadap
perasaan I eperluan orang lain
% ' : = )
&%. Aala er7asama I er7a berpasuan di alangan peer7a
yang bergantung di antara satu sama lain untu selesaian
er7a
% ' : = )
&'. Ber7a secara bersama3sama I tida bersaing dengan orang
lain
% ' : = )
&:. +yataan semula I terangan dengan 7elas isi3isi penting
I soalan3soalan yang diemuaan oleh orang lain semasa
pembentangan
% ' : = )
&=. Diaman diri sambil mendengar dengan sabar dengan tida
mengganggu orang lain
% ' : = )
%&(
&). 9amer penyesuaian I etahanan diri dalam eadaan suar
I mencabar
% ' : = )
&&. Menahan diri daripada berata3ata atau bertinda bila ia
tida membantu apa3apa epada situasi berenaan
% ' : = )
&@. ;uat eputusan yang logi I bermutu berdasaran
malumat I data yang mencuupi
% ' : = )
&D. Tahan diri daripada siap mempertahanan diri I terus
bersiap terbua apabila orang lain tida sehaluan dengan
saya
% ' : = )
&?. 9amer esediaan untu bertegas dengan idea I cadangan
sendiri tatala adanya penentangan dan cabaran
% ' : = )
@(. >saha fahami I beri perhatian terhadap perasaan orang
lain
% ' : = )
@%. Tun7u eyainan terhadap emahiran I ebolehan yang
ditun7uan oleh peer7a
% ' : = )
@'. ;ina suasana er7a yang menggalaan, tolong3menolong I
mesra dengan orang lain
% ' : = )
@:. Hormati idea, ebolehan I sumbangan orang lain I
tun7uan minat yang ihlas terhadap cadangan I
eprihatinan merea
% ' : = )
@=. ,ediaan 7awapan logi, 7elas, ringas I terang epada
soalan daripada orang lain
% ' : = )
BAHAGIAN D: KOMITMEN TERHADAP ORGANISASI
;eriut disenaraian satu siri pernyataan yang menggambaran perasaan yang mungin
dirasai oleh anda tentang organisasi anda. !iiran perasaan anda terhadap organisasi
anda dan nyataan tahap persetu7uan bagi tiap3tiap satu pernyataan dengan membulatan
nombor dari % hingga ).
%Ssangat tida setu7u, ' S tida setu7u, : S neutral,
= Ssetu7u atau ) S sangat setu7u.
%&%
Komitmen Terhadap Organisasi (1 - 18 sahaja)
%. ,aya aan merasa gembira untu menghabisan arier
saya dengan organisasi ini
% ' : = )
'. ,aya rasa seolah3olah masalah yang dihadapi oleh
organisasi ini seperti masalah saya 7uga
% ' : = )
:. ,aya merasa semangat eitaan yang uat epada
organisasi saya
% ' : = )
=. ,aya merasa perasaan teriat epada organisasi ini % ' : = )
). ,aya merasa seperti sebahagian daripada eluarga
organisasi ini
% ' : = )
&. #rganisasi ini mempunyai sesuatu perara yang bermana
secara peribadi epada saya
% ' : = )
@. ;eer7a di organisasi ini searang adalah semata3mata satu
eperluan dan ehenda
% ' : = )
D. 1dalah terlalu suar untu saya meninggallan organisasi
ini searang walaupun 7ia saya mahu
% ' : = )
?. ;anya perara dalam ehidupan saya yang aan
terganggu 7ia saya membuat eputusan untu
meninggalan organisasi ini searang
% ' : = )
%(. ,aya rasa bahawa saya ada pilihan yang sediit untu
bercadang meninggalan organisasi ini
% ' : = )
%%. $ia tida erana banya sumbangan yang telah saya
berian epada organisasi ini, saya memang bercadang
untu beer7a di tempat lain
% ' : = )
%'. ,alah satu esan negatif meninggalan organisasi ini
adalah sediit pilihan yang ada
% ' : = )
%:. ,aya tida merasa perlu untu berhidmat dengan
organisasi ini
% ' : = )
%=. ,aya tida wa7ar meninggalan organisasi ini searang
walaupun ia menguntungan saya
% ' : = )
%). ,aya aan berasa bersalah 7ia saya meninggalan
organisasi ini searang
% ' : = )
%&. #rganisasi ini wa7ar mendapat esetiaan daripada saya % ' : = )
%@. ,aya tida aan meninggalan organisasi ini searang
erana saya ada sifat perlu epada orang yang berada di
dalamnya
% ' : = )
%D. Rasa bertanggung7awab terhadap organisasi ini % ' : = )
%&'
APPENDIX B
ORIGINAL MEASUREMENT SCALES
%&:
SECTION B: MANAGEMENT VIEW/PRACTICES QUESTIONNAIRE
(1OB PERFORMANCE)
9lease read each statement and decide whether or not you agree with it. Tic a number in
the line ne4t to each statement based on the following scaleG
) S strongly agree
= S agree
: S neutral
' S disagree
% S strongly disagree
%. 5rites in a logical I organi2ed manner. % ' : = )
%&=
'. Cstablishes a logical se6uence of wor activities I
assignments.
% ' : = )
: . !ocuses on both performance strengths I areas to be
developed during employee appraisal meetings.
% ' : = )
=. Maes timely decisions based on ade6uate data I
information.
% ' : = )
). Beeps employees informed with relevant 7ob
information I important organi2ational issues in a
timely manner.
% ' : = )
&. >ses appropriate grammer, tense I language in written
communications.
% ' : = )
@. Develops both short I long –range plans that consider
relevent cost schedule I resorce information
% ' : = )
D. Delegates assignments to employees according to both
individual I organi2ational needs
% ' : = )
?. Beeps trac of details and follows up on tass, pro7ects
I assignments.
% ' : = )
%(. "ompletes I maintains written documentation on
employee performance throughout an appraisal period.
% ' : = )
%%. ;uilds strategic alliances I networs with ey people. % ' : = )
%'. ,ees input from employees about organi2ational
decisions,plan I problems
% ' : = )
%:. Maes decisions confidently and 6uicly when
necessary.
% ' : = )
%=. >pdates employees in a promt I timely manner on
development that affect their 7ob, tass I assignments.
% ' : = )
%). >ses written communiccations effectively I
appropriately.
% ' : = )
%&. Cffectively schedules wor activities I tass. % ' : = )
%@. Aathers enough information ,data I input before
maing a decision.
% ' : = )
%D. 5rites in a clear, direct I concise manner. % ' : = )
%?. "learly e4presses I re6uests information from others. % ' : = )
'(. Cffectively handles comments, complaints I
disagreements in meetings I presentations.
% ' : = )
'%. ,ets I communicates clear priorities for individuals I
wor teams.
% ' : = )
''. #rgani2es,utili2es I manages time productively. % ' : = )
':. Cstablishes effective mechanisms to ensure that wor is
done on time I with high 6uality.
% ' : = )
'=. "onsiders alternatives I generates contingency plans
when maing decisions I solving problems
% ' : = )
'). ,tics with a decision or course of action unless it is
obvious that is incorrect.
% ' : = )
'&. "ommunicates information needed by team members in
a prompt and timely manner.
% ' : = )
%&)
'@. 5rites technical information in an easily understood
manner.
% ' : = )
'D. Maintains information * e.g., documents, data, record,
files- in a well3 organi2ed manner.
% ' : = )
'?. "learly defines I communicates tass,pro7ects I
assignments when delegating to others.
% ' : = )
:(. Develops systems to monitor bud7ets,cost I e4penses. % ' : = )
:%. "onsiders the conse6uences of decisions. % ' : = )
:'. ,ummari2es what employess have said in order to
clarify understanding*e.g. uses statementa lie, <ou
seem to be saying..0-.
% ' : = )
::. Maintains close contact I communication with
emplyees *eeps others well informed-.
% ' : = )
:=. Cstablishes I communicates organi2ational,
departmental and team goalsI perfomance standards.
% ' : = )
:). Transfers the necessary authority to emplyees to ensure
completion of delegated tass, assignments and
pro7ects.
% ' : = )
:&. Cstablishes effective mechanisms to monitor I ensure
that wor is done on time I with 6uality.
% ' : = )
:@. "reates consensus around team I organi2ational goals
I inspires I motivates other to wor hard I be
productive.
% ' : = )
:D. 9rovides immediate positive feedbac to others when
their assignments I pro7ects are completed
successsfully.
% ' : = )
:?. !ocuses on specific bahaviors, instead of personality
when employee performance discussions are re6uired.
% ' : = )
=(. 9rovides ade6uate support I training to employees. % ' : = )
=%. "ommunicates and e4presses ideas in a manner that
positively persuades and influences others.
% ' : = )
='. Is prepared I organi2ed for meetings I presentations. % ' : = )
=:. Develops cooperation rather than competition among
employees, groups I wor teams.
% ' : = )
==. 9rovides positive incentive I rewards for the successful
completion of tass, pro7ects I assignments.
% ' : = )
=). "reates opportunities to be innovative I create new
ideas I concepts.
% ' : = )
=&. ,tates comple4 information I thoughts simply and
clearly.
% ' : = )
=@. Handles 6uestions in meetings I presantations in a
responsive I diplomatic manner
% ' : = )
=D. "ommunicates I motivates others about the
organi2ational mission I vision of the future.
% ' : = )
=?. 9rovides ade6uate resources,information I training so
that employees can perform delegated tass.
% ' : = )
%&&
)(. !ollows3up with employees to monitor 6uality I
effective performance.
% ' : = )
)%. 9rovides employees with on3going feedbac about wor
performance I progress
% ' : = )
)'. "ompliments employees when they perform well. % ' : = )
):. 1ttempts to get commitment from employees to
improve performance plans.
% ' : = )
)=. ,upports employees development plans such as on3the3
7ob training,stretch assignments,etc..
% ' : = )
)). Involves employees in discussions reggarding
organi2ational issues I problems.
% ' : = )
)&. Cffectively utili2es the sills, e4perience I capabilities
of others to complete wor assignments.
% ' : = )
)@. Cncourages employees to prepare for I participate
during performance appraisal review meetings.
% ' : = )
)D. Develops team spirit, cohesion I high morale. % ' : = )
)?. Rewards individuals for their efforts I
accomplishments when deserved.
% ' : = )
&(. Taes an interest in I supports the career development
plants of employees.
% ' : = )
&%. "onvinces I persuades others to see his or her
perspective I ideas.
% ' : = )
&'. 9rovides opportunities for employees to get involved in
challenging organi2ational tass, pro7ects I assignment.
% ' : = )
&:. 9rovides clear,concise I logical answers to 6uestions
from others.
% ' : = )
&=. Restates I clarifies important points I 6uestaions from
other.
% ' : = )
&). Informs employees how their wor is lined to both the
team and organi2ational business goals.
% ' : = )
&&. Cncourages continuous performance discussions with
employees throughout the appraisal period.
% ' : = )
&@. ,upports the team and actively e4presses the needs of
both individuals and.team members to upper
management.
% ' : = )
&D. "learly establishes I communicates performance goals
I standards with employees.
% ' : = )
&?. "onveys confidence in the sills I abilities of
employees.
% ' : = )
@(. "ommunicates a vision of the organi2ation future I
inspires commitment I support towards the vision from
others.
% ' : = )
@%. Maintains eye contact when speaing to others. % ' : = )
@'. Delivers oral presentations that are persuasive, clear and
logically organi2ed.
% ' : = )
@:. Maes it easy for employees to tal about their 7ob % ' : = )
%&@
challenges I problems.
@=. Recogni2es that diverse point of view of others must be
encouraged acnowledged I accepted.
% ' : = )
@). Involves employees in organi2ational decision–maing ,
planning I problem3solving processes.
% ' : = )
@&. 1nticipates potential I future problems % ' : = )
@@. Maintains eye contact and attentive non3verbal behavior
when being spoen to.
% ' : = )
@D. 1rticulates I enunciates clearly when speaing I
communicating
% ' : = )
@?. "ommunicates organi2ed vision ,values and beliefs
effectively.
% ' : = )
D(. Demonstrates sensitivity towards diversity in the
worforce *e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, age - I treats
all employees in a fair I consistent manner.
% ' : = )
D%. Discusses possible Ewin3winF solutions and sees
agreement on specific actions when conflicts arise.
% ' : = )
D'. "learly communicates employee performance problems
in a fair and consistent manner.
% ' : = )
D:. Removes obstacles which may be hindering employees
performance.
% ' : = )
D=. Is willing to tae the time to understand I listen to
employees.
% ' : = )
D). Cncourages a climate of trust,honesty I openness with
others.
% ' : = )
D&. Develops I maintains supportive,friendly I sensitive
interpersonal relationships with others.
% ' : = )
D@. 1llows for desagreements to emerge I to be discussed
openly.
% ' : = )
DD. "apable of ad7usting hisNher interpersonal I leadership
style to motivate I influence employees.
% ' : = )
D?. Aathers I utili2es available information in order to
understand and solve organi2ational issues I problems.
% ' : = )
?(. .istens to what people say in a way that shows
understanding * e.g., uses ,tatment lie, /<ou feel...
/or0<ou seem to be saying...0-.
% ' : = )
?%. Cncourages a climate in which employees feel free to
openly share throughts I feelings.
% ' : = )
?'. ,hows interest in I is considerate of the needs of
others.
% ' : = )
?:. Resolves interpersonal conflicts among employees. % ' : = )
?=. C4plores I discusses the couses of employee
performance I dicipline problems.
% ' : = )
?). 5aits out silences and listens patiently without
interrupting others.
% ' : = )
?&. ,hares successes I discusses effective performance % ' : = )
%&D
with others.
?@. Maes an effort to understand how employees are
feeling.
% ' : = )
?D. Resists acting defensively I eeps an open mind when
others disagree with employees.
% ' : = )
??. ,olicits I values the thoughts, opinions I ideas of
employees.
% ' : = )
%((. Aenerates I considers multiple solutions to a problem. % ' : = )
SECTION C: PEOPLEINDEX QUESTIONNAIRE
(EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE)
9lease read each statement and decide whether or not you agree with it. Tic a number in
the line ne4t to each statement based on the following scaleG
) S strongly agree
= S agree
: S neutral
' S disagree
% S strongly disagree
The Extent to Which I % ' : = )
%&?
%. ,ee and apply feedbac and constructive criticism from
others
% ' : = )
'. Maintain optimism and mae the most out of situations
whether good or bad
% ' : = )
:. Handle tense situations without overreacting, becoming
overly emotional or defensive
% ' : = )
=. Demonstrate and practice high standards of personal and
professional integrity
% ' : = )
). Mae decisions confidently and 6uicly when necessary % ' : = )
&. 5or hard to achieve and accomplish tass, pro7ects,
assignments and goals
% ' : = )
@. Cffectively initiate and cultivate strategic internal
alliances with ey senior managers and others within the
organi2ation
% ' : = )
D. Cncourage others to e4press contrary views, ideas and
opinions
% ' : = )
?. "ommunicate and e4press ideas in a manner that
persuades and influences others
% ' : = )
%(. Mae it easy for others to disclose, share and openly tal
about their ideas, concerns and problems
% ' : = )
%%. Tae initiative and offer formal and informal assistance,
training and coaching to others
% ' : = )
%'. ,olicit and value the thoughts, opinions, feedbac, and
ideas of others
% ' : = )
%:. 5rite in a logical, organi2ed and clear manner % ' : = )
%=. Maintain close contact and communications with others
*i.e., eep others well informed-
% ' : = )
%). Maintain eye contact when communicating with others % ' : = )
%&. "onfidently deliver oral presentations that are
persuasive, clear, and logically organi2ed
% ' : = )
%@. ,ummari2e and paraphrase what others have said in
order to clarify understanding
% ' : = )
%D. 9ursue continuous learning and self3development of
nowledge, e4periences and sills
% ' : = )
%?. Maintain a positive and constructive outloo even when
plans or decisions are thwarted
% ' : = )
'(. C4press little anger or frustration towards others when
upset *e.g., do not raise my voice or get impatient with
others-
% ' : = )
'%. Maintain openness, honesty and candor in interpersonal
relationships
% ' : = )
''. Research and utili2e available information in order to
understand and solve issues and problems
% ' : = )
':. Demonstrate the ability to complete tass, pro7ects and
assignments on time and with 6uality
% ' : = )
'=. Cffectively build relationships and partnerships with % ' : = )
%@(
others outside the organi2ation
'). Discuss possible 8win3win8 solutions and see
agreement on specific actions when conflicts arise with
others
% ' : = )
'&. Modify my leadership style to persuade, motivate and
influence others
% ' : = )
'@. Demonstrate sensitivity towards diversity in the
worforce *e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, se4ual
orientation, etc.- and treat others in a fair and consistent
manner
% ' : = )
'D. 9rovide timely and ongoing feedbac to others regarding
woring relationships and 7ob performance
% ' : = )
'?. Develop cooperative, rather than competitive, woring
relationships with others
% ' : = )
:(. >se appropriate grammar, tense, and language in all
written communications
% ' : = )
:%. Inform others about relevant aspects of tass, pro7ects
and assignments in a timely manner
% ' : = )
:'. 1rticulate and enunciate clearly when speaing and
communicating
% ' : = )
::. "ome prepared and organi2ed for meetings, discussions
and presentations
% ' : = )
:=. Maintain eye contact and attentive non3verbal behavior
when being spoen to
% ' : = )
:). Realistically appraise my own strengths and development
areas
% ' : = )
:&. Handle pressure and stress well *e.g., maintain poise,
stay calm under pressure, avoid losing control of my
emotions or behavior-
% ' : = )
:@. Maintain poise, composure and control of behaviors in
the face of interpersonal challenge or threat
% ' : = )
:D. Demonstrate consistency between actions and words
*i.e., say and do things that are congruent and consistent
with each other-
% ' : = )
:?. Aenerate and consider multiple options before maing a
decision
% ' : = )
=(. !ollow through on stated commitments and promises % ' : = )
=%. Develop, cultivate and maintain a broad base of support
among ey internal and e4ternal staeholders *e.g.,
managers, employees, customers-
% ' : = )
='. 1llow for disagreements to emerge and to be discussed
openly
% ' : = )
=:. "onvince and persuade others to see my perspective and
ideas
% ' : = )
==. Develop and maintain warm, friendly, and sensitive
relationships with others
% ' : = )
%@%
=). 1cnowledge and recogni2e the contributions and
accomplishments of others
% ' : = )
=&. 1ctively involve others in my decision3maing,
planning, and problem3solving tass when appropriate
% ' : = )
=@. >se written communications effectively and
appropriately *e.g., email-
% ' : = )
=D. "ommunicate information needed by others in a prompt
and timely manner
% ' : = )
=?. "learly e4press and re6uest information from others % ' : = )
)(. Handle 6uestions in meetings and presentations in a
responsive and diplomatic manner
% ' : = )
)%. Tae the time to understand and listen to others % ' : = )
)'. Manage time effectively and efficiently % ' : = )
):. Maintain an effective balance between wor, family and
personal life
% ' : = )
)=. 1void taing unnecessary riss or maing impulsive
decisions without ade6uate and relevant information
% ' : = )
)). "reate a trusting relationship maing it easy to discuss
and share personal information *e.g., maintain
confidences, do not disclose personal information to
others-
% ' : = )
)&. ,tic with a decision or course of action unless it is
obvious that it is incorrect
% ' : = )
)@. 9erform wor in a conscientious and dependable manner % ' : = )
)D. Mae an effort to acnowledge and resolve interpersonal
conflicts with others
% ' : = )
)?. "ommunicate in a manner that inspires commitment and
support towards my ideas, suggestions and opinions
% ' : = )
&(. ,how an interest in and demonstrate consideration for the
feelings and needs of others
% ' : = )
&%. Cncourage cooperation and teamwor among people who
depend on each other to get wor done
% ' : = )
&'. 5or collaboratively and non3competitively with others % ' : = )
&:. Restate and clarify important points and ideas e4pressed
by others during presentations
% ' : = )
&=. 5ait out silences and listen patiently without interrupting
others
% ' : = )
&). Demonstrate fle4ibility and resilience in response to
adversity and challenge
% ' : = )
&&. Resist the desire to spea or act when it will not be
helpful to the situation
% ' : = )
&@. Mae high 6uality and logical decisions based on
ade6uate data and information
% ' : = )
&D. Resist reacting defensively and eep an open mind when
others disagree with me
% ' : = )
&?. Demonstrate a willingness to assert my ideas and % ' : = )
%@'
opinions in the face of opposition and challenge
@(. Mae an effort to understand and tae an interest in how
others are feeling
% ' : = )
@%. C4press confidence in the sills and abilities of others % ' : = )
@'. Develop supportive, helpful, and friendly woring
relationships with others
% ' : = )
@:. Respect the ideas, abilities and contributions of others
and tae a genuine interest in their suggestions and
concerns
% ' : = )
@=. 9rovide clear, succinct and logical answers to 6uestions
from others
% ' : = )
SECTION D: ORGANIZATIONAL COMITMENT QUESTIONNAIRE
9lease read each statement and decide whether or not you agree with it. Tic a number in
the line ne4t to each statement based on the following scaleG
) S strongly agree
= S agree
: S neutral
' S disagree
% S strongly disagree
%@:
%. I would be happy to spend the rest of my career with this
organi2ation
% ' : = )
'. I really feel as if this organisationRs problems are my own. % ' : = )
:. I feel a strong sense of 8belonging8 to my
organisation
% ' : = )
=. I feel 8emotionally attached8 to this organisation % ' : = )
). I feel lie 8part of the family8 at my organisation % ' : = )
&. This organisation has a great deal of personal meaning for
me
% ' : = )
@. Right now, staying with my organisation is a matter of
necessity as much as desire.
% ' : = )
D. It would be very hard for me to leave my organisation
right now, even if I wanted to.
% ' : = )
?. Too much in my life would be disrupted if I decided I
wanted to leave my organisation now.
% ' : = )
%(. I feel that I have too few options to consider leaving this
organisation.
% ' : = )
%%. If I had not already put so much of myself into this
organisation, I might consider woring elsewhere.
% ' : = )
%'. #ne of the few negative conse6uences of leaving this
organisation would be the scarcity of available
alternatives.
% ' : = )
%:. I do not feel any obligation to remain with my current
employer
% ' : = )
%=. Cven if it were to my advantage, I do not feel it would be
right to leave my organisation now.
% ' : = )
%). I would feel guilty if I left my organisation now % ' : = )
%&. This organisation deserves my loyalty. % ' : = )
%@. I would not leave my organisation right now because I
have a sense of obligation to the people in it.
% ' : = )
%D. I owe a great deal to my organisation % ' : = )
APPENDIX C
%@=
AUTHORISATION LETTERS FROM RESEARCHERS FOR THE USAGE OF
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
%@)
APPENDIX D
COVER LETTER TO RESPONDENTS AND AUTHORITIES
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