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Management stuff to read
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Management stuff to read ............................................................................................................................................ 1 „The Essential Malik“ (German) ................................................................................................................................ 3 What effective General Managers really do! .............................................................................................................. 5 The CEO's Secret Handbook… ................................................................................................................................ 6 Dale Carnegie: „How to Win Friends and Influence People” ......................................................................................10 Seven surprises for new CEOs ................................................................................................................................11 The ways chief executive officers lead .....................................................................................................................12 What makes an effective executive? ........................................................................................................................13 What makes a leader?.............................................................................................................................................15 The Manager’s job: Folklore and fact ......................................................................................................................16 Why Should Anyone Be Led by You?.......................................................................................................................19
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„The Essential Malik“ (German)
Fredmund Malik: Führen, Leisten, Leben. Wirksames Management für eine neue Zeit Richtiges Management ist global, es ist weltweit überall gleich. Alle gut funktionierenden Organisationen werden nach denselben Prinzipien gemanagt. Management bedeutet Aktion, es heißt Tun, es heißt Vollbringen. Wissen für sich genommen hat wenig Bedeutung, solange es nicht genutzt wird, um Resultate zu produzieren. Kybernetik und richtiges Management sind Wissenschaft und Praxis des erfolgreichen Funktionierens hochkomplexer Systeme. Das Grundprinzip für richtiges und gutes, also kybernetisches Management heißt: Organisiere ein komplexes System so, dass es sich weitgehend selbst organisieren, selbst regulieren und evolvieren kann. Die einzige Gemeinsamkeit, die man bei wirksamen Menschen finden kann, sind ein paar Elemente ihre Arbeitsweise: ...Regeln, von denen sie sich... bewusst oder unbewusst leiten lassen... ...Aufgaben, die sie mit bestimmter Sorgfalt und Gründlichkeit erfüllen.... ...Werkzeuge, die sie kompetent, manchmal virtuos, einzusetzen verstehen... Gib Menschen die Möglichkeit, eine Leistung zu erbringen, und viele – nicht alle – werden ein bemerkenswertes Maß an Zufriedenheit erlangen. Management handelt von Menschen in Organisationen und umgekehrt von Organisationen mit Menschen. Was immer den Mensch tut, er tut es nicht als Individuum, sondern als Benutzer einer Organisation als deren Kunde oder als deren Mitarbeiter. Management ist eine Folge der Entstehung von Organisationen. Management ist ein Beruf des Resultate-Erzielens oder Resultate-Erwirkens. · Es kommt darauf an, einen Beitrag zum Ganzen zu leisten... den Mitarbeitern die Ganzheit vor Augen zu führen... Es kommt darauf an, sich auf Weniges, dafür Wesentliches zu konzentrieren... Konzentration ist der Schlüssel zum Erfolg... Geistige Arbeit braucht für ihre Wirksamkeit große Zeiteinheiten...ungestörten Arbeitens... „Wie viel ungestörte Zeit brauche ich mindestens, um diese Arbeit fertig zu stellen?“ Es kommt darauf an, bereits vorhandene Stärken zu nutzen... die Menschen dort einzusetzen, wo 3 / 19 · · · sie bereits etwas können... „Was fällt dir leicht?“ Wer Ergebnisse erzielen will, muss Stärken nutzen.... Schwächen bedeutungslos, irrelevant machen. · Es kommt auf gegenseitiges Vertrauen an... ein Minimum an elementaren Manieren... charakterliche Integrität... Man muss meinen was man sagt – und so handeln... Misstrauen ist eine der gefährlichsten Krebserkrankungen einer Organisation... Es kommt darauf an, positiv oder konstruktiv zu denken... „Was für eine Chance liegt selbst in diesem Problem?“... Dinge verändern wollen... „Tu, was du kannst, mit dem was du hast und dort wo du bist... Mach das beste aus dem was da ist...“ Es kommt darauf an, dafür zu sorgen, dass Ziele überhaupt da sind... wenige Ziele, dafür aber große – solche, die ins Gewicht fallen, die etwas bedeuten, wenn sie erreicht werden... Das Ziel soll die Quelle von Autorität, Direktion und Kontrolle sein, und nicht der Vorgesetzte... Etwas nicht mehr zu tun ist genau so ein Ziel, wie etwas zusätzlich zu tun... Ziele, wo immer möglich, quantifizieren... Ressourcen angeben... Es kommt darauf an, zu organisieren... für sich und ihre unmittelbare persönliche Aufgabe und für ihre Verantwortungsbereiche... wofür uns der Kunde bezahlt... wofür wir unsere Mitarbeiter bezahlen... wofür das Top-Management bezahlt wird... Es kommt darauf an, zu entscheiden... wenige Entscheidungen, aber diese mit Bedacht und wohlüberlegt... „Worum geht es hier wirklich?“... „Gibt es noch mehr Alternativen?“... Wirklich tragfähiger Konsens...entsteht...nur aus ausgetragenem Dissens... und zwar ersten offen, zweitens offen und drittens offen... Man muss jede Problemdefinition immer und immer wieder gegen alle verfügbaren Fakten testen... Wenn die zu treffenden Entscheidung nicht einmal das definierte Minimum erfüllt, dann treffen wir sie lieber gar nicht... „Beim Eintreten welcher Umstände wollen wir akzeptieren, dass wir uns getäuscht haben?“ Eine Entscheidung zu treffen mag schwierig sein, sie zu realisieren ist aber zehnmal so schwierig... kritische Maßnahmen sind festzulegen... eindeutige Verantwortlichkeiten sind festzulegen... auch die kritischen Termine gehören zur Entscheidung... „Was, wer bis wann?“... Es kommt darauf an, zu kontrollieren... Grundlage von Kontrolle muss Vertrauen sein...
Vertrauen über jene Grenze hinaus, sie einem gefühlsmäßig leicht fällt... man muss sicherstellen, dass die Leute wissen, dass man dahinter kommen wird...wenn das Vertrauen missbraucht wird...und dass das schwerwiegende und nicht verhandelbare Folgen hat... Man muss sich auf die kleinstmögliche Zahl an Kontrollgrößen beschränken... Wo immer man messen kann, soll man messen... Wo man nicht messen kann, muss beurteilt werden – und dafür eben braucht es Manager, solche mit Erfahrung und solche, die ihre Aufgaben gewissenhaft und sorgfältig erfüllen... · Es kommt darauf an, Menschen zu entwickeln und zu fördern... individuell. Menschen entwickeln sich an ihren Aufgaben... bereit sein vorhandene Stärken weiterzuentwickeln... selbst ein Vorbild sein... Erbrachte Leistung...und Ergebnisse...ist das Einzige, was wirklich real und konkret ist... das Einzige, was zählen darf. Es kommt darauf an, Sitzungen produktiv zu machen... die Vermehrung von Sitzungen zu unterbinden... Es kommt darauf an, empfängerorientierte Berichte zu verfassen. Klarheit, Prägnanz und Genauigkeit der Sprache sind unabdingbar... Es kommt darauf an, den Job – die Stelle – zu organisieren und gestallten... die wirksame Steuerung des Einsatzes der Menschen... Es kommt darauf an, die persönliche Arbeitsmethodik zu kennen... sie ist der Kern von Selbstmanagement... Systematisches und methodisches Arbeiten ist der Schlüssel für die
Nutzung von Talenten... Arbeitsmethodik ist etwas sehr individuelles... „don’t work harder, work smarter“... „do less and in order to achieve more“... „Was sollte ich in Zukunft nicht mehr tun ... Was muss ich selbst erledigen ... Was muss oder will ich erledigen lassen ... Was muss sofort erledig werden ... Was hat oder braucht Zeit...?“ Routine ist wichtig für Produktivität und für Funktionalität. ...Das wichtige Instrument...die Checkliste. · Es kommt aufs Budget an... das beste Instrument für den produktiven Einsatz von Schlüsselressourcen, insbesondere Menschen... wichtige Grundlage für wirksame und gute Kommunikation... Es kommt darauf an, Leistungen zu beurteilen... „Was braucht man auf dieser ganz speziellen, konkreten Position in diesem konkreten Unternehmen und in dieser konkreten Situation?“ ...herausfinden, wer in der Organisation welche besondern Stärken hat. Es kommt auf eine systematische Müllabfuhr an. „Trenne dich von Abfall und unnötigen Ballast!“ „Was von dem, was wir heute tun, würden wir nicht mehr neu beginnen, wenn wir es nicht schon täten?“ „Stop doing the wrong things!“ „Warum tun wir etwas überhaupt?“
Freisetzung von Leistungsreserven heißt nicht mehr, sondern wirksamer arbeiten, heißt, sich selbst und andere besser und vor allem richtig zu managen. Man nimmt sich etwas vor oder es stellt sich einem eine Aufgabe – und dann löst man sie, weil man es kann.
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What effective General Managers really do!
By John P. Kotter (HBR Classic) …they chat about hobbies, hold spur-of-the moment meetings, and seek out people far from their chain of command… all to combat the uncertainty and resistance inherent in their work. …this behaviour is hard to reconcile, on the surface at least, with traditional notions of what top managers do… or should do… … effective general managers rely on agenda settings and network building. …excellent performers ask questions, encourage, cajole, praise, reward, demand, manipulate, and generally motivate other with great skill in face-toface situations. Patterns: GMs… · · · · · spend most of their time with other (pattern 1)… with many others besides a boss and direct subordinates (pattern 2)… the breadth of topics covered in daily conversations will be very wide (pattern 3)… ask a lot of questions (pattern 4)… create largely unwritten agendas… major agenda settings, decisions are often invisible, they are made in the GMs mind (pattern 5)… A good planning system should help the general manager create an intelligent agenda and a strong network. It should encourage the GM to think strategically, to consider both the long and the short term and, regardless of the time frame, to take into account financial, product, market, and organizational issues. Note: keep in mind that this article is from 1999 and original appeared for the first time in 1982!!!!!! · humor and non-work discussions can be used as effective tools for building relationships and maintaining them under stressful conditions (pattern 6)… spend time on issues that seem unimportant to them (pattern 7)… implement their agendas by using a wide variety of direct and indirect influence methods… find them rarely ordering others (pattern 8)… but spending a lot of time trying to influence people (pattern 9)… do not plan their day in much detail but instead react (pattern 10)… conversations are short and disjointed (pattern 11).
On the surface at least, such behaviour seems particularly un-managerial. Yet these patterns are possibly the most important efficient of all.
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The CEO's Secret Handbook…
"It started decades ago as flashes of insight scribbled on loose scraps of paper. Then it morphed into a PowerPoint presentation that distilled years of business wisdom into a handful of easy-to-remember aphorisms. In 2004 it became a 76-page spiral-bound booklet clad in a plain gray cover…" The rules are a compilation of writing down advice and thoughts over years… the rules are not original… about half of Swanson's rules can be found word for word or nearly so in the 1944 book "The Unwritten Laws of Engineering" by W.J. (William Julian) King, a one-time General Electric engineer who retired as a UCLA engineering professor in 1969 and died in 1983. Swanson became Raytheon CEO in 2003.
Swanson's Unwritten Rules of Management (compendium)
1. Learn to say "I don't know." If used when appropriate, it will be used often. If you are asked to contribute and don't know what to say -- or don't have the answer - then simply say "I don't know". It is my belief that if you behave in this way, you will be respected for your honesty and candor. You are not expected to know the answer to everything... 2. It is easier to get into something, than to get out of it. One should not be timid about committing, but one should commit only when one has a clear sense of goals and means. Invariably, it is more complicated and potentially more costly to undo an action already under way that to change a decision before it is acted upon... 3. If you are not criticized, you may not be doing much. No one enjoys criticism - either having to justify one's decision or, on occasion, acknowledge error. But there is also a risk in avoiding decisions. Small problems now can fester and grow into big problems later. Opportunities today can disappear tomorrow. Remember: problems are not like whine and cheese; they do not get better with age... By all means, don't be rash, but do make decisions. Calculated risks may be appropriate. However, be thoughtful: do not make the same mistake twice... 4. Look for what is missing. Many know how to improve what's there; few can see what isn't there. Always think about what's missing; It's amazing what you'll find... 5. Presentation Rule: when something appears on a slide presentation, assume the world already knows about it and deal with it accordingly. Don't think that what shows up in a presentation is private. In fact, assume it will be published in the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times or The Washington Post. And always maintain an atmosphere of total integrity... 6. Work for a boss to whom you can tell it like it is. Remember, you can't pick your family, but you can pick your boss. The point here is the in the workplace, unlike in your family, you have a choice. You have a choice, more than you may realize. Be proactive... 7. Constantly review developments to make sure that the actual benefits are what they are supposed to be. Avoid Newton's Law. Follow-through is just as important as good decisionmaking in the first place. When deciding on a course of action, set measurable objectives than can be monitored over time to make sure the decision is yielding the intended benefits. By "avoid Newton's Law," I mean that "for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction." Monitor the progress of the actions you set in motion to make sure these effects are not counter-productive, and if they are, that they are addressed early. It is essential that the manager use the disciplines to gain insight into his or her program and its progress, and not simply as a way to "check the box"... 8. However menial and trivial your early assignments may appears, give them your best efforts. It is important to set high standards for your career and to be demanding of yourself -- to want to perform challenging tasks well. However, you are more likely to be given the opportunity to take on complicated, difficult assignments if you first demonstrate that you are willing and able to perform simpler tasks well. Everything you do, no matter how menial or trivial it may seem, has your name associated with it. For that reason alone it is worth doing well... 9. Persistence or tenacity is the disposition to persevere in spite of difficulties, discouragement, or indifference. Don't be knows as a good starter but a poor finisher! There is often a wonderful excitement when starting something new. It is important to maintain that passion throughout the course of an assignment, especially when difficulties arise or the project encounters negative thinking of those who lack the commitment to persevere.
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Don't say you'll "never" be able to overcome the obstacles -- unless you have truly analyzed each obstacle and demonstrated in a fact-base way that they are truly insurmountable... 10. In doing your project, don't wait for others; go after them and make sure it gets done. Don't be passive, don't just react, and don't assume. Decide and act. Make sure everybody is one the same page and moving out with you. Ask for help if you need it. Understand what it will take to keep the project moving. Follow-up is essential and will help ensure success of the project. When done, be sure to share the credit... 11. Confirm the instructions you give others, and their commitments in writing. Don't assume it will get done. The point here is that we often believe we have communicated clearly when we have only transmitted clearly. It is just as important to make sure that the message has been properly received and that you and your team agree on what everybody is committing to. Confirming instructions and commitments in writing helps to give structure to the communication process and to ensure that everybody knows what needs to be done, and who will do it. Keep the confirmation of instructions and commitments clear and crisp so as not to bureaucratize the process... 12. Don't be timid: speak up, express yourself and promote your ideas. If you evaluate yourself from the perspective of your manager, you will see that you are valued most for your contributions. It is not bragging to express yourself and your ideas vigorously - so long as you are prepared to support your ideas with logic and facts... 13. Practice shows that those who speak the most knowingly and confidently often end up with the assignment to get the job done. If you speak up when you are knowledgeable on a particular subject, you will inspire the confidence of your management and you will get assignments that will allow you to demonstrate your worth. However, if you speak up when you are not knowledgeable, you may well sign on for an assignment you can't handle... 14. Strive for brevity and clarity in oral and written reports. It takes longer to write cleanly and crisply. It shows respect for the time of others when you do. As you grow in position and assume roles of increasing responsibility and complexity, you truly appreciate those who communicate with brevity and clarity. Their emails, notes and reports will get read! Conversely, and sadly, good ideas in hard-to-open packages wrapped with complicated bows may be overlooked...
15. Be extremely careful in the accuracy of your statements. You should be passionate and inspiring, but what you say must be true. People are counting on your words for information and may act on what you tell them. When you say something, you want people to be able to "take it to the bank". 16. Don't overlook the fact that you are working for a boss. Keep him or her informed. Whatever the boss wants, within the bounds of integrity, takes top priority. The intent here is not to encourage fawning behavior or narrowness of scope, but only to suggest that for the organization to achieve its goals, everyone must be on the same page. On the other hand, if you believe that your boss is not seeing the big picture or is header in the wrong direction, you should speak up and be straightforward about your concerns. When your boss gives you an assignment, make it a priority, even though you may want to work on something else... 17. Promises, schedules and estimates are important instruments in a well-run business. You must make promises - don't lean on the often-used phrase: "I can't estimate it because it depends on many uncertain factors. Do you want to be known as someone who offers excuses, reasons or results? I will take results any day. Be fact-based. We all need to be disciplined and accountable in the way we perform. Our customers respect us more when we establish metrics for various milestones so that actual performance can be tracked, evaluated, and, if need be, improved... 18. Never direct a complaint to the top; a serious offense is to "cc" a person's boss on a copy of a complaint before the person has a chance to response to the complaint. If you have complaint, first take it directly to the individual in a straightforward manner and give him or her a chance to know about it and work it. To send a complaint to an individual and at the same time to "cc" that individual's boss can be counter-productive. I have found that most times the problem may not get solved and you've ended up alienating someone you will need to work with later. On the positive side, if you have something wonderful to say about a peer, then by all means copy the boss. As it is said, "Praise in public, admonish in private"... 19. When interacting with people outside the company, remember that you are always representing the company. Be especially careful of your commitments. No matter how much you may believe that you are just speaking for yourself, you may well be perceived by
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customers, suppliers and others to represent the company's point of view. Do not ever make commitments that are beyond your scope of responsibility... 20. Cultivate the habit of boiling matters down to the simplest terms: the proverbial "elevator speech" is the best way. Time is the discipline of the elevator speech. Space is the discipline of having to pull out all your key points on one 3-by-5-inch card. Both disciplines require you to get the point and focus on what action you're asking for. Always ask yourself: Have I made the business case? What action do I seek?... 21. Don't get excited in engineering emergencies: keep your feet on the ground. It is precisely when things go wrong that your leadership skills will be most tested. If you help the team solve the problem in a calm, professional manner, you will inspire confidence. You may want to use the "24-Hour Rule." That is, think about the problem and, when possible, don't make a final decision for 24 hours... 22. Cultivate the habit of making quick, clean-cut decisions. This does not mean one should act impulsively. Quick, clean-cut decisions are the product of a mind that trains itself to eliminate waste - to focus on value-added thinking. Stand by your decisions unless you find out something new - or you discover that you were wrong. Then, quickly and cleanly, make it right... 23. When making decisions, the "pros" are much easier to deal with than the "cons". Your boss wants to see both. There is nothing more valuable than a review process that surfaces all the potential consequences of an action rather than just the best-case scenario.There is no way to effectively weigh the risks and benefits of an action if one is ignorant of the risks. By presenting both the pros and the cons, you show others that you have thought the problem through. You will have more credibility... 24. Don't ever lose your sense of humor. This Rule and rule no. 25 are very important for balance, and for connecting with others on a more personal level. Good-natured humor acknowledges the humanity of others and is a wonderful way to reduce tension on the team... 25. Have fun at what you do. It will be reflected in your work. No one likes a grump except another grump! We all spend many hours doing what we do. It is much more pleasant to spend those hours with people who have a bounce in their step and a smile on their face than with those who mistakenly associate professionalism with being sour and dour.
I know our customers appreciate a team that enjoys what it does... 26. Treat the name of the company as if it were your own. A company's reputation is built on a foundation of integrity. The actions of each employee reflect on the company. As a manager, you must help your employees to see this - and to feel the responsibility. I can't emphasize enough this idea of "ownership". Good managers are looking to promote people who feel a sense of stewardship for the company, a sense of responsibility to always behave like an "owner" of the company, like a member of the family... 27. Beg for the bad news. "Begging for the bad news" means creating a climate in which everyone on your team understands that the boss wants to hear the bad as well as the good. The leader must create a climate in which it is understood reflexively that bad news, while never pleasant, must be shared. And the sooner the bad new is aired, the better... 28. You remember 1/2 of what you read, 1/2 of what people tell you, but 100% of what you feel. By all means, be clear and crisp, be brief, get to the point, be respectful of the time of other - but do not withdraw from those you are trying to engage. Reach out to make the connection. Show your humanity. Tell a story. Relate it to a real situation. There is nothing more powerful than sincerely engaging others and revealing aspects of yourself. One must be secure to do this. It is this security which inspires the confidence of others... 29. You can't polish a sneaker. In other words, don't waste effort putting the finishing touches on something that has little substance to begin with. If you polish a hollow shell, it's still a hollow shell, albeit a shiny one. Polishing a sneaker can inadvertently convince others that the sneaker has a value that it doesn't possess. This can distract an organization from important pursuits or lead an organization down a dead end... 30. When facing issues or problems that are becoming drawn-out, "short them to ground". If you sense that your organization is spending more time on the bureaucracy of solving a problem that on the actual solution, you need to simplify the problem-solving process. "Shorting issues to the ground" means finding the quickest path from problem to solution - avoiding nonvalue-added procedures and delays... 31. When faced with decisions, try to look at them as if you were one level up in the organization. Your perspective will change quickly. It is incredibly illuminating to step out of one's own role and to look at the world from the perspective of one's manager or one's manager's manager. As you see the 8 / 19
world from a higher perch, you take in more of the landscape. From this vantage point, your role becomes clearer. You see how you can contribute more effectively to the goals of your organization... 32. A person who is nice to you but rude to the waiter - or to others - is not a nice person (This never fails!). Watch out for people who have situational value systems - who can turn the charm on and off depending on the status of the person they are interacting with. Be especially wary of those who are rude to people perceived to be in subordinate roles. This kind of behavior is not the mark of a leader... 33. Never be afraid to try something new. Remember, an amateur built an ark that survived a flood while a large group of professionals built the Titanic! Obviously, you need to think before you try something new, and you need to know when to ask for help and expert guidance, but don't talk yourself out of trying something that your heart tells you is within your power to accomplish. Often those less immersed in a field or discipline have the unique perspective that produces the answer...
People sometimes ask me what I believe are the essential qualities of leadership. To me the qualities of leadership boil down to: Confidence, Dedication, Integrity, and Love. By "Confidence" I mean not only believing in yourself, which is great, but also being comfortable with yourself - with who you are. That enables you to honestly access yourself and acknowledge your weaknesses as well as your strengths. "Dedication" is the desire to work hard to be the best you can be at any task - small as well as large (remember Rule no. 8). The members of your team will feel this commitment and share it. "Integrity" to me is having the fortitude to do what is right when no one is watching. "Love" isn't used often in corporate position papers. I don't mean it in the "mushy" sense. What I mean by "love" is a willingness to sacrifice for the benefit of others and the organization. It inspires the dedication of those around you. I believe we all have some of these qualities throughout the various stages of our lives. But true leaders don't just have these traits - they apply them and instill them in others.
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Dale Carnegie: „How to Win Friends and Influence People”
Fundamental Techniques in Handling People
· · · Don't criticize, condemn or complain. Give honest and sincere appreciation. Arouse in the other person an eager want. · · · · · ·
Let the other person feel that the idea is his or hers. Try honestly to see things from the other person's point of view. Be sympathetic with the other person's ideas and desires. Appeal to the nobler motives. Dramatize your ideas. Throw down a challenge.
Six ways to make people like you
· · · Become genuinely interested in other people. Smile! Remember that a person's name is to that person the sweetest and most important sound in any language. Be a good listener. Encourage others to talk about themselves. Talk in terms of the other person's interests. Make the other person feel important and do it sincerely.
Be a Leader: How to Change People Without Giving Offence or Arousing Resentment
· · · · · · Begin with praise and honest appreciation. Call attention to people's mistakes indirectly. Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing the other person. Ask questions instead of giving direct orders. Let the other person save face. Praise the slightest improvement and praise every improvement. Be "hearty in your approbation and lavish in your praise." Give the other person a fine reputation to live up to. Use encouragement. Make the fault seem easy to correct. Make the other person happy about doing the thing you suggest.
· · ·
Twelve ways to win people to your way of thinking
· · · · · · The only way to get the best of an argument is to avoid it. Show respect for the other person's opinions. Never say, "You're wrong." If you are wrong, admit it quickly and emphatically. Begin in a friendly way. Get the other person saying "yes, yes" immediately. Let the other person do a great deal of the talking.
· · ·
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Seven surprises for new CEOs
by Michael E. Porter, Jay W. Lorsch and Nitin Nohria (HBR)
Even the best-prepared new CEOs can be blindsided by the realities – and limitations – of the job ...so much to do in complex new areas, with imperfect information and never enough time …the more power you have, the harder it is to use.
Implications for CEO Leadership
The CEO must learn: …to manage organizational context rather than focus on daily operations …how to act in indirect ways to create the conditions that will help others make the right choices …to set the tone and define the organization’s culture and values through his words and actions …to recognize that his position does not confer the right to lead, nor does it guarantee the organization’s loyalty ...that success ultimately depends on his ability to enlist the voluntary commitment rather than the forced obedience of others …that the conventional tools of management alone will not keep him in his job …to not get totally absorbed in his role.
Surprise One: You can’t run the company! …the CEO can’t monitor everyone. Surprise Two: Giving orders is costly! …usually power is best used indirectly. Surprise Three: It’s hard to know what’s really going on! …all information coming to the top is filtered. Surprise Four: You’re always sending a message! …the CEO’s microphone is always on. Surprise Five: You’re not the boss! …the board hired him and can also fire him. Surprise Six: Pleasing shareholders is not the goal! …ultimately, it’s only long-term profitability that matters, not today’s growth expectations or even the stock price. Surprise Seven: You’re still only human! …stay humble, revisit decisions and actions, continue to listen to others, and find people who will be honest and forthright.
Only by maintaining a personal balance and staying grounded can the CEO achieve the perspective required to make decisions in the interest of the company and its long-term prosperity.
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The ways chief executive officers lead
By Charles M. Farkas and Suzy Wetlaufer (HBR classic) Where is the school for the person in charge of getting the best results from all members of the organization? There is no school for CEOs – except the school of experience. CEOs must learn… while every stakeholder is watching… they are allowed few mistakes. What makes a CEO decide to take on the expertise approach? …a well-conceived, carefully developed area of competence is the surest way to gain and sustain a competitive advantage. 4. The Box Approach CEOs who use this approach believe that they can add the most value in their organizations by creating, communicating, and monitoring an explicit set of controls – financial, cultural, or both – that ensure uniform, predictable behaviors and experiences for customers and employees …they say that building frameworks and drawing boundaries are their primary responsibilities… they believe that this approach is the best way to deliver what customer wants most: no surprises… they apply the pressure of orthodoxy to the corporation… What makes a CEO decide to take on the box approach? …in highly regulated industries, such as banking, or industries in which safety is a paramount concern, such as airlines. 5. The Change Approach CEOs who use this approach believe that the CEOs’ most critical role is to create an environment of continual reinvention, even if such an environment produces anxiety and confusion, leads to some strategic mistakes, and temporarily hurts financial performance… they cultivate an environment of constant questioning and risk taking… they believe that passion, energy and an openness to a new, reinvented tomorrow matters… one of change agents most important techniques: consensus building… What makes a CEO decide to take on the role of chief strategist? …change is the best way to deliver consistently extraordinary results. In most effectively run organizations, CEOs select a dominant approach, using it as the compass and rudder that all corporate decisions and actions… sometimes the approach fits the CEOs personality, sometimes not… CEO’s approach can and should change over the course of his or her tenure… a business is a living organism… there will always be a point where the environment changes, the competition changes, something critical changes, and you must realize this and take the leading role in meeting change…
There are five leadership approaches:
1. The Strategy Approach CEOs who use this approach believe that their most important job is to create, test, and design the implementation of long-term strategy, extending in some cases into the distant future… they believe his position give them the best vantage point for making decisions about capital allocations, resource management, investment in technologies, new products, and locations for doing business… What makes a CEO decide to take on the strategy approach? …the level of complexity in the company or industry, in terms of technology, geography, or organizational structure …he or she must frequently make decisions that have enormous consequences. 2. The Human-Asset Approach CEOs who use this approach believe that strategy formulations belongs close to the markets, in the business units… they believe that their imperative is hire and cultivate a kind of individuals who will act intelligently, swiftly, and appropriately without direct or constant supervision… their primary job is to impart to their organizations certain values, behaviors, and attitudes by closely managing growth and development of individuals... What makes a CEO decide to take on the human-assets approach? …the success of the organization depends on superior execution – the way members of the company makes decisions, interact with customers, roll our new products, or design programs to deflect or defeat the competition. 3. The Expertise Approach CEOs who use this approach believe that their most important responsibility is selecting and disseminating within the corporation an area of expertise that will be a source of competitive advantage… they reward people who acquire the expertise and share it across the borders of business units and functions…
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What makes an effective executive?
By Peter Drucker (HBR classic) An effective executive does not need to be a leader in the sense that the term is now most commonly used… Effective executives …were all over the map in terms of their personalities, attitudes, values, strength, and weaknesses …ranged from extroverted to nearly reclusive, from easygoing to controlling, from generous to parsimonious. What made them all effective is that they followed the same eight… (plus one) …practices: To get the knowledge they… Ask what needs to be done. Ask what is right for the enterprise. To convert the knowledge into action they … Develop action plans. Take responsibility for decisions. Take responsibility for communicating. Focus on opportunities rather than problems. To ensure that the whole organization feels responsible and accountable, they… Run productive meetings. Think and say “we” rather than “I”. Plus one final practice... … ;-)))
The third practice is to develop action plans.
Executives are doers, they execute… knowledge is useless to executives until it has been translated into deeds… but before springing into action, the executive needs to plan his course… needs to think about desired results, probable restraints, future revisions, check-in points, and implications for how well he’ll spend this time… The action plan is a statement of intentions rather than commitment… must not become a straitjacket… should be revised often, because every success creates new opportunities – so does the failure… A written plan should anticipate the need for flexibility… needs to create a system for checking the results against the expectations… has to become the basis for the executive’s time management… Without action plan, the executive becomes a prisoner of events… without checkins to reexamine the plan as events unfold, the executive has no way of knowing which events really matter and which are only noise…
The fourth practice is to take responsibility for decisions.
A decision has not been made until people know …the name of the person accountable for carrying it out …the deadline …the names of the people who will be affected by the decision …the names of the people who have to be informed even if they are not directly affected. It’s important to review decisions periodically… poor decisions can be corrected before it does real damage… Decision review also shows executives their own weakness… areas in which they are simply incompetent… in this area smart executives don’t make decisions or take actions – they delegate…
The first practice is to ask what needs to be done.
Failure to ask this question will render even the ablest executive ineffectual… the answer to the question “What needs to be done?” almost always contains more than one urgent task... effective executives do not splitter themselves… concentrate on one task if at all possible… set priorities and stick to them… after completing the original top-priority task, the executive resets priorities rather than moving on to number two from the original list… asks, “What must be done now?”… he asks himself, which of the two or three tasks at the top of the list he himself is best suited to undertake… than he concentrates on that task, the others he delegates…
The fifth practice is to take responsibility for communicating.
Effective executives make sure that both their action plan and their information needs are understood… they share their plans… ask for comments… let each people know what information they’ll need to get the job done… Organizations are held together by information rather than by ownership or command... the executives has to identify the information he needs, ask for it, and keep pushing until he gets it…
The second practice is to ask what is right for the enterprise.
They do not ask if it’s right for the owner, the stock price, the employees, or the executives… they know that a decision that isn’t right for the enterprise will ultimately not be right for any of the stakeholders…
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The sixth practice is to focus on opportunities rather than problems.
Problem solving, however necessary, does not produce results… it prevents damage… exploiting opportunities produces results… effective executives treat change as an opportunity rather than a threat… they systematically look at changes, inside and outside the corporation… staffing is an other important aspect of being opportunity focuses… effective executives put their best people on opportunities rather than problems…
The eights practice is to think and say “we” rather than “I”.
Effective executives know they have the authority only because they have the trust of the organization… they think of the needs and the opportunities of the organization before they think of their own needs and opportunities…
The final practice is…
This one is so important that Peter Drucker elevates it to the level of a rule: Listen first, speak last! Effective executives differ widely in their personalities, strengths, weaknesses, values, and beliefs… all they have in common is that they get the right things done… effectiveness is a discipline… effectiveness can be learned and must be learned.
The seventh practice is to run productive meetings.
Executives must make meetings productive… must make sure that meetings are work sessions rather than bull session… must decide in advance what kind of meeting it will be... making a meeting productive takes a good deal of self-discipline… good executives don’t raise another matter for discussion – they sum up and adjourn… good follow-up is just as important as the meeting itself…
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What makes a leader?
by Daniel Goleman (HBR Classic) IQ and technical skills… are the entry-level requirements for executive positions …Emotional intelligence is the sine qua non of leadership. There are five components of emotional intelligence: selfawareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill…
Self-awareness means having a deep understanding of one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and drives…as well as their effect on others… honest with themselves and with others… extends to one persons understanding of his or her values or goals… know where one is headed and why… show itself as candor and… assess oneself realistically… speak accurately and openly, also not necessarily effusively or confessionally, about ones emotions and the impact they have on their work… know ones limitations and strengths… demonstrate a thirst for constructive criticism… knowing when to ask for help…
Empathy means thoughtfully considering others’ feelings, along with other factors, in a process of making intelligent decisions… knowing intuitively what other people are feeling… hearing the message beneath the words being spoken… understanding the emotional makeup of other people… treating people according to their emotional reactions…
Social skill is friendliness with a purpose… moving people in the direction one desire… having a circle of acquaintance… a knack for finding common ground with people of all kinds… a knack of building rapport… having a network in place when the time for action comes… the culmination of the other dimensions of emotional intelligence: people tend to be very effective at managing relationship when they can understand and control their own emotions and can empathize with the feeling of others… even motivation contributes to social skill… social skilled people… are adept at managing teams…are expert persuades… know when to make an emotional plea… are excellent collaborators… build bonds widely because they know in this fluid times, they may need help someday from people they are just getting to know today… Social intelligence allows leaders to put their emotional intelligence to work: manage relationship… express his or her empathy… communicate his or her passion… no leader is an island… after all, the leader’s task is to get work done through other people, and social skill makes that possible…
Self-regulation, which is like an ongoing inner conversation, is the component of emotional intelligence that frees us from being prisoners of our feelings… biological impulses drive our emotions... we cannot do away with them… but we can do much to manage them… finding ways to control… bad moods and emotional impulses… channel them in useful ways… being in control of ones feelings and impulses… step back and consider the reasons… create an environment of trust and fairness… don’t panic… suspend judgment, seek out information, and listen… a propensity for reflection and thoughtfulness, comfort with ambiguity and change, integrity, and an ability to say no to impulsive urges… think before acting…
Motivation means driven to achieve beyond expectations, ones own and everyone else’s… motivated by deeply embedded desire to achieve for the sake of achievement… rather than external rewards… a passion for work itself… love to learn… displaying an unflagging energy to do things better… restless with the status quo… forever raising the performance bar… like to keep score… tracking progress… remain optimistic… seeing opportunities… loving ones job for the job itself… feeling committed to the organization that makes the work possible…
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The Manager’s job: Folklore and fact
By Henry Mintzberg (hrb classics) If you ask managers what they do, they will most likely tell you that they plan, organise, co-ordinate, and control… watch what they do... don't be surprised if you can't relate what you see to these words… it is time to strip away the folklore about managerial work and study it realistically so that we can begin the difficult task of making significant improvements in its performance.
strategic data bank of the organisation is not in the memory of its computers but in the minds of its managers… they are damned by their own information system to a "dilemma of delegation"… to do too much or to delegate to subordinates with inadequate briefing. Folklore: Management is, or at least is quickly becoming, a science and a profession… Fact: By almost any definition of science and profession, this statement is false… science involves the usage of systematic, analytically determined procedures or programs… if we do not even know what procedures managers use, how can we prescribe them by scientific analysis?… how can we call management a profession if we cannot specify what managers are to learn?… the managers' programs-to schedule time, process information, make decisions, and so on-remain locked deep inside their brains… to describe these programs, we rely on words like judgement and intuition… seldom stopping to realize that they are merely labels for our ignorance.
Folklore and Facts About Managerial Work
Folklore: The manager is a reflective, systematic planner. Fact: Managers work at an unrelenting pace… their activities are characterized by brevity, variety, and discontinuity… they are strongly oriented to action and dislike reflective activities… chief executives met a steady stream of callers and mails… coffee breaks and lunches were inevitably work related… the manager is simply responding to the pressures of the job… terminating many of their own activities.. leaving meetings before the end… interrupting their desk work to call in subordinates… they seemed to be conditioned by their own work loads… when managers must plan, they seem to do so implicitly in the context of daily actions… the plans only in their heads… as flexible, but often specific, intentions. Folklore: The effective manager has no regular duties to perform… managers are constantly being told to spend more time planning and delegating and less time seeing customers and engaging in negotiations. Fact: The managerial work involves performing a number of regular duties, including ritual and ceremony, negotiations, and processing of soft information that links the organisation with its environment… managers play a key role in securing soft external information and in passing it along to their subordinates. Folklore: The senior manager needs aggregated information, which a formal management information system best provides… the literature’s manager was to receive all important information from a giant, comprehensive MIS (management information system). Fact: These giant MIS systems are not working… managers are simply not using them… managers strongly favour verbal media, telephone calls and meetings, over documents… managers seem to cherish “soft” information, especially gossip, hearsay, and speculation… why?... today’s gossip may be tomorrow’s fact… the manager identifies decision situations and builds models not with the aggregated abstractions an MIS provides but with specific tidbits of data… the odds and ends of tangible detail that pieced together in his mind illuminate the underside the issues put before him… verbal information is stored in the brains of people… the
The Managers Roles
I defined the manager as that person in charge of an organization or sub-unit… all these managers are vested with formal authority over an organizational unit… from formal authority comes status, which leads to various interpersonal relations… from these comes access to information… information enables the manager to make decisions and strategies for the unit. The manager’s roles comprises ten roles…three interpersonal roles… three informational roles… four decisional roles:
Interpersonal Roles… arise directly from formal
authority and involve basic interpersonal relationships. Figurehead role... every manager must perform some ceremonial duties.. Duties that involve interpersonal roles may sometimes be routine, involving little serious communication and no important decision making… they are important to the smooth functioning of an organization and cannot be ignored. Leader role… managers are responsible for the work of the people of their unit... every manager must motivate and encourage employees… reconciling their individual needs with the goals of the organization…the influence of managers is most clearly seen in the leader role... literature of management has always recognized the leader role. Liaison role… the manager makes contacts outside the vertical chain of command… managers spend as much time with peers and other people outside their units as they do with their own subordinates…and spend very little time with their own superiors.
Informational Roles… the manager emerges as the
nerve center of the organizational unit… the manager may not know everything but typically knows more than subordinates do… processing information is a key part of the manager’s job
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Monitor role… the manager is perpetually scanning the environment for information… interrogating liaison contacts and subordinates… a good part of the information the manager collects in the monitor role arrives in verbal form, often as gossip, hearsay, and speculation. Disseminator role… the manager passes some privileged information directly to subordinates. Spokesperson role… the manager sends some information to people outside the unit.
be introspective about their work are likely to be effective at their jobs. The manager is challenged to find systematic ways to share privileged information… share the database centralised in his or her brain… deal consciously with the pressures of superficiality (take on took much work, encourage interruption, respond quickly to every stimulus, seek the tangible and avoid the abstract)… supplement their own models with those of specialists (describe the functioning of markets, simulate financial flow processes, explain the needs and goals of people… the best of these models can be searched out and learned)… gain from a close relationship with the organsation’s own management scientists / analysts (managers have the information and the authority; analysts have the time and the technology)… gain control of his or her own time by turning obligations into advantages and by turning those things he or she wishes to do into obligations (unsuccessful managers blame failure on the obligations… effective managers turn obligations to advantages)… frees some time to do the things that he or she thinks important by turning them into obligations (free time is made, not found). Managers who …want to innovate initiate projects and obligate others to report back to them …need certain environmental information establish channels that will automatically keep them informed …have to tour facilities commit themselves publicly.
Decisional Roles… information is not an end in
itself… it is the basic input to decision making… the manager plays the major role in the unit's decisionmaking system. Entrepreneur role… the manager seeks to improve the unit, to adapt it to changing conditions in the environment… initiates a development project that he may supervise himself or delegate to an employee. Disturbance handler role… the managers involuntarily responding to pressures... change is beyond the manager’s control... the pressures of a situation are too severe to be ignored… the manager must act… every manager must spend a considerable amount of time responding to high-pressure disturbances. Resource allocator role… the manager is responsible for deciding who will get what… the most important resource the manager allocates is his or her own time... the manager authorises the important decisions of the unit before they are implemented… executives made a great many authorisation decisions on an ad hoc basis... faced incredibly complex choices…they had to ensure that the decisions would be acceptable… that resources would not be overextended… the delay could lose time… quick approval could be ill-considered… quick rejection might discourage the subordinates… one common solution to approving projects is to pick the person instead of the proposal… people whose judgement he or she trusts. Negotiator role... managers spend considerable time in negotiations… an integral part of the manager’s job…only he or she has the authority to commit organisational resources in "real time" and the nerve-center information that important negotiations require.
Retrospective Commentary by Henry Mintzberg
In practice, management has to be two-faced… there has to be a balance between the insightful face and the cerebral face… one stresses commitment, the other calculation… one sees the world with integrated perspective, the other figures it as the components of portfolio… the insightful face is rooted in the images and feel of a manager’s integrity… the cerebral face operates with the words and numbers of rationality… managerial communication was largely oral… the advent of the computer had not changed anything fundamental… the greatest threat the personal computer poses is that managers will take it seriously and come to believe that they can manage by remaining in their offices and looking at displays of digital characters… managers need more ways to convey the images and impressions they carry inside of them… managing insightfully depends on the direct experience and personal knowledge that come from intimate contact… organisations grown larger and more diversified… so managers turn increasingly to the cerebral face, and the delicate balance between the two faces is lost. No job is more vital to our society than that of the manager. The manager determines whether our social institutions will serve us well or whether they will squander our talents and resources.
The Integrated Job Toward More Effective Management
It should be clear that these ten roles are not easily separable… they form a gestalt… an integrated whole… managers give different attention to each role.. in all cases the interpersonal, information, and decisional roles remain inseparable. The managers' effectiveness is significantly influenced by their insight into their own work… performance depends on how well a manager understands and responds to the pressures and dilemmas of the job… managers who can
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Self-Study Questions for Managers
From “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact”, by Henry Mintzberg, hbr classics 1. Where do I get my information, and how? Can I make greater use of my contacts? Can other people do some of my scanning? In what areas is my knowledge weakest, and how can I get others to provide me with the information I need? Do I have sufficiently powerful mental models of those things I must understand within the organisation and in its environment? 2. What information do I disseminate? How important is that information to my subordinates? Do I keep too much information to myself because disseminating it is time consuming or inconvenient? How can I get more information to others so they can make better decisions? 3. Do I tend to act before information is in? Or do I wait so long for all the information that opportunities pass me by? 4. What pace of change am I asking my organisation to tolerate? Is this change balanced so that our operations are neither excessively static nor overly disrupted? Have we sufficiently analysed the impact of this change on the future of our organisation? 5. Am I sufficiently well-informed to pass judgement on subordinates’ proposals? Can I leave final authorisation for more of the proposals with subordinates? Do we have problems of coordination because subordinates already make too many decisions independently? 6. What is my vision for this organisation? Are these plans primarily in my own mind in loose form? Should I make them explicit to guide the decisions of others better? Or do I need flexibility to change them at will? 7. How do my subordinates react to my managerial style? Am I sufficiently sensitive to the powerful influence of my actions? Do I fully understand their reactions to my actions? Do I find an appropriate balance between encouragement and pressure? Do I stifle their initiative? 8. What kind of external relationships do I maintain, and how? Do I spend too much of my time maintaining them? Are there certain people who I should get to know better? 9. Is there any system to my time scheduling, or an I just reacting to the pressures of the moment? Do I find the appropriate mix of activities or concentrate on one particular function or problem just because I find it interesting? Am I more efficient with particular kinds of work, at special times of the day or week? Does my schedule reflect this? Can someone else schedule my time (besides my secretary)? 10. Do I overwork? What effect does my work load have on my efficiency? Should I force myself to take breaks or to reduce the pace of my activity? 11. Am I too superficial in what I do? Can I really shift moods as quickly and frequently as my work requires? Should I decrease the amount of fragmentation and interruption in my work? 12. Do I spend too much time on current, tangible activities? Am I a slave to the action and excitement of my work, so that I am no longer able to concentrate on issues? Do key problems receive the attention they deserve? Should I spend more time reading and probing deeply into certain issues? Could I be more reflective? Should I be? 13. Do I use the different media appropriately? Do I know how to make the most of written communication? Do I rely excessively on face-to-face communication, thereby putting all but a few of my subordinates at an informational disadvantage? Do I schedule enough of my meetings on a regular basis? Do I spend enough time observing activities first-hand, or am I detached from the heart of my organisation’s activities. 14. How do I blend my personal rights and duties? Do my obligations consume all my time? How can I free myself from obligations to ensure that I am taking this organisation where I want it to go? How can I turn my obligations to my advantages?
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Why Should Anyone Be Led by You?
by Robert Goffee and Gareth Jones, HBR You can’t do anything in business without followers, and followers in these empowered times are hard to find.. executives must find ways to engage people and rouse their commitment to company goals… leaders need vision, energy, authority, and strategic direction but to be inspirational, leaders need four other qualities:
Practice Tough Empathy
Inspirational leaders empathize passionately and realistically with people, and they care intensely about the work employees do… real leaders don’t need a training program to convince their employees that they care… empathy of inspirational leaders is not the soft kind described in so much of the management literature… real leaders manage trough tough empathy… means giving people what they need, not what they want… “if I have to do, I can be ruthless, … but while they are with me, I promise my people that they’ll learn”… tough empathy balances respect for the individual and for the task at hand… caring leaders have to give selflessly to the people around them and know when to pull back… caring with detachment is not easy… it is harder to you than on your employees… you have to do things you don’t want to do… those more apt to use it are people who really care about something… people want executives who care passionately about the people and the work…
By exposing some vulnerability, they reveal their approachability and humanity… they show us who they are… people need to see leaders own up to some flaw before they participate willingly in an endeavour… if executives try to communicate that they are perfect at everything, there will be no need for anyone to help them with anything… exposing weakness established trust… builds solidarity… underscores a human being’s authenticity… offers a leader valuable protection – if you don’t show some weakness, then observers may invent one for you… the golden rule is never to expose a weakness that will be seen as a fatal flaw that jeopardizes central aspects of your professional role… leaders should reveal only a tangential flow, perhaps even several of them… this admission will help divert attention away from major weaknesses… if the leader’s vulnerability is not perceived to be genuine, he won’t gain anyone’s support…
Dare to Be Different
They capitalize on what's unique about themselves… effective leaders deliberately use differences to keep a social distance... by having a different dress style, physical appearance, qualities like imagination, loyalty expertise or even handshaking… anything can be a difference, but it is important to communicate it… most leaders start off not knowing what their differences are but eventually come to know and use them more effectively over time… inspirational leaders use separateness to motivate others to perform better… it is not that they are being Machiavellian but that they recognize instinctively that followers will push themselves if their leaders is just al little aloof… one danger, of course, is that executives can overdifferentiate themselves and lose contact with their followers…
Become a Sensor
They rely heavily on intuition to gauge the appropriate timing and course of their actions… their ability to collect and interpret soft data helps them know just when and how to act… when to reveal a weakness or a difference… they can sniff out the signals in the environment and sense what’s going on without having anything spelt out for them… read the silence and pick up on nonverbal cues in the organization… sensing can create problems… in making fine judgments about how far they can go, leaders risk losing their followers… sensing capability must always be framed by reality testing… validate the perception with a trusted adviser or a member of the inner team…
Leadership in action
Make yourself increasingly aware of the four leadership qualities and manipulate these qualities to come up with a personal style that works for you… be yourself – more with skill…
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