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Федеральное агентство по образованию Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Сибирский федеральный университет»

Т.В. Федосеева, А.Г. Волкова, И.С. Добряева, Н.В. Климович, А.С. Сосна, О.С. Худякова

ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ ПЕРВОГО ИНОСТРАННОГО ЯЗЫКА (английский язык) Учебно-методическое обеспечение самостоятельной работы студентов

Красноярск 2007

Content Introduction 4

Module 1 Chapter 1. The language and culture of Great Britain and other English speaking countries 1.1. Theoretical questions: goals, methods etc. of linguistic countrystudying. The theory of the word as an important part of the linguistic education. Background knowledge, verbal and non-verbal methods of communication 1.2. The national view of the world and its connection with the language, the language peculiarities of different social groups 1.3. The national and cultural peculiarities of speech and behaviour, maxims of international communication, habits and national characters of people living in different parts of the United Kingdom and of different English speaking countries. The national character and language 1.4. Analysis of the language and its national and cultural semantics, methods of introduction, training and activation of elements, characteristic of the English language and texts in English Chapter 2. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, its geography, political life , economy, social life and symbols 2.1. The geography and the environment of different parts of Britain 2.2. The name of the country. The monarchy and the government, the electoral system, parties 2.3. Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, England. The languages spoken in the United Kingdom. The roots of the nationalism 2.4. The cities and towns of Great Britain 2.5. The economy of Great Britain. The industry and agriculture, service and banking. The City. The role of trade unions 2.6. Social and ethnic structure, classes. Migration and immigration. Ethnic minorities 2.7.The symbols of Great Britain and of its different parts Module 2 Chapter 3. History. The home and foreign policy 3.1. The history of the country. The formation of the United Kingdom 2


7 10



25 25

28 32 33 47 49 54

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3.2. The history of the monarchy. The role of the monarchy in the modern society 3.3. The history of the British Empire, the Commonwealth 3.4. The foreign policy of Great Britain. The relationships with Europe and Russia 3.5. Education. Schools and reforms of the 1980s. Higher education, universities 3.6. Social services, the national health service. The system of justice. The police and its role 3.7. Outstanding people in the history of the country 3.8. Religion. Faith and habits, values, stereotypes, humour in Great Britain and other English speaking countries Module 3 Chapter 4. Culture and art of Great Britain 4.1. Literature and its connection with the national view and national concepts 4.2. Architecture 4.3. Music and painting 4.4. Cinema and theatre Module 4 4.5. Sightseeing and tourists attractions 4.6. Outstanding people of modern Great Britain and other English speaking countries 4.7. Mass media Chapter 5. The USA (language, culture, geography, history, political life) and other English speaking countries Chapter 6. Keys to some of the tasks Additional questions and tests Bibliography Appendix 1. British chronology Appendix 2. British Prime Ministers and the governments Appendix 3. The Commonwealth of Nations Appendix 4. Presidents of the USA

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101 101 106 109 116

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138 144 183 186 188 191 194


The importance of the ability for-self study is steadily growing in recent years. Your education is not confined to the limits of the classroom. Students acquire skills that are thought necessary by the society they live in. physical. and assuming overall responsibility for their lifestyle. For effective self-study you need to be able to accept criticism and become self-critical. interests. There are many factors that influence the development of the ability: circumstances. will be achieved. If you can evaluate your own abilities rather than have to ask someone else to do so. not a hard and fast rule. One of the aims of this resource book is to provide information and activities that will meet the needs of students who want to improve the language and extent cultural awareness. emotional. textbooks and your teacher. it allows you to learn more independently. The key does not always give you simply one right answer. It sometimes also comments on the answer and will help you learn more about the topic studied in the unit. and social development. The ideas of this resource book should be taken as a guide. We also include some learning tips. students who are able to continue learning outside and beyond university will have no difficulty in finding their own learning style. being independent. the acquisition of another may be impeded. 4 . to provide students with the ideas and techniques that they can use when designing supplementary activities for themselves. Try to experiment with different learning styles. Self-evaluation Self-evaluation means being able to assess and give your own opinion about how good you are at something. to be aware of how you learn and where you go.Introduction To the student The years at university are extremely important in person‘s intellectual. The purpose of it is to help you to recognize your strong and less strong points. This is partly in response to the rapidly growing demand for it to provide students with a competitive educational advantage. These consist of suggestions which will help you to organise your self-study better and encourage you to think of your own strategies for learning new material. attitudes. We hope that there will be at least something for everyone and the second aim of the book. be open and interested in all that surround you. There is a key in this book at the end of each unit. For example. so you can know more clearly what you have to improve and what you can be pleased about. Many of the skills and abilities are interdependent. and if one has not been sufficiently developed. organizing their work.

It is a time when you can look back at. лишь небольшая часть которого находится на поверхности и доступна 5 .Paraphrase the relevant parts and make your answer as brief as possible. or at the end of a series of activities. Умение самостоятельно организовывать свою деятельность – учебную. and reflect on. для любого человека. . It allows you to develop insight into yourself and your learning and to build an overview of the language learning progress. . что некогда было привилегией немногих – интеллектуальный труд. average or poor at achieving the aims of the task . Self-evaluation can take place after you have done an activity.Highlight the relevant parts. инициативных. There are two kinds of self-evaluation which focus on: (1) the language you have been working on.Make sure you understand the question fully. умеющих брать на себя ответственность людей. Язык – это айсберг.give ideas on how you can help yourself improve. At the end of the book you can find additional questions and tests which will help you check whether you know the material well or it needs some more training.rank yourself as good. It is a quiet time before going on to the next activity or language area. профессиональную. Введение Уважаемые студенты! Процесс обучения в современном обществе направлен на подготовку самостоятельных. What is important is that self-evaluation is a regular feature of learning.give reasons for your ranking . связавшего свою профессиональную деятельность с лингвистикой. Умение самостоятельно находить и постигать новое особенно необходимо для переводчика. То. .Self-evaluation is an important and vital part of the language learning process. When self-evaluating . исследовательскую – востребовано на современном рынке труда и повышает шансы специалиста на успех. творческая исследовательская деятельность – становится будничной необходимостью. Answering detail questions When trying to answer detail questions. and (2) the way you achieved the task. or on a fixed day each week or fortnight – any time you feel it useful. what you have been doing. follow these steps.Scan the text to find the part where the answer is contained. .

Авторы пособия выражают уверенность. без знания которой невозможно полное взаимопонимание и эффективное международное сотрудничество. выполнение которых приведѐт к достижению цели. Что уж говорить о культуре. навыки и приѐмы в область изучения иностранного языка. перенеся имеющиеся у вас умения. что вы уже многое умеете и можете воспользоваться имеющимся у вас «багажом знаний». определяющие его путь. необходимых для решения задач. 6 . Подведение итогов (анализ. «температур» и многое другое.неискушѐнному наблюдателю. обобщение) и «чествование победителя» придаст вашей самостоятельной работе завершѐнность и даст стимул для постановки и достижения новых целей. важная роль среди которых принадлежит навыкам и умениям самостоятельной работы. рефлексия. Профессиональный лингвист изучает не только «айсберг» языка во всѐм его объѐме. Учебная деятельность. задач. Необходимыми этапами программы достижения цели являются контроль и корректировка (как самой программы. что предложенные приѐмы самостоятельной работы. специальных навыков и умений. как и любой другой вид деятельности. но и все «подводные течения». еѐ изменчивость требуют как от специалиста. требует выполнения последовательности шагов: определение цели. средств. так может быть и цели). влияние «ветров». так и от стоящего на подступах к профессии студента. Объѐмы информации. Помните. дополнительный учебный и справочный материал помогут вам в организации вашей успешной учебной и профессиональной деятельности.

Collocations Collocation is concerned with the way words occur together. The theory of the word as an important part of the linguistic education. Background knowledge. verbal and non-verbal methods of communication. 7 . verbs have typical adverbs that collocate with them.. the real the genuine thing thing the the real article genuine article Examples: I don't like recorded music.1. live music] These trainers are the genuine article.e. (Nor: in big detail) Some adjectives go with a restricted range of nouns. Here are some examples. [i. Let's move fast. I prefer the real thing. Nouns often have typical adjectives which go with them. methods etc. Other examples: You can give a broad summary of something. Compare article and thing: We say but not usually. (Nor: a wide summary) You can describe something in great detail. of linguistic countrystudying. Theoretical questions: goals. often in unpredictable ways. Those others are just cheap imported copies. 1.Module 1 Chapter 1. For example: a formidable task/opponent/amount/person Often. The language and culture of Great Britain and other English speaking countries. Examples: She always drives too fast. She always drives too quickly. real..

2 He just doesn't live in the real/genuine world. disgusting. Let's move swiftly on to the next point. Choose between real and genuine in these sentences. Verbs and their objects often form collocations. The majority of these adjectives have a negative connotation. 1. not: lift a family) You can visit / go to / check out a website on the Internet. ridiculous. 1. For example. (Not: I feel powerfully about) If I remember rightly. depressed.e. 1. dismal.Let's move quickly. distasteful. she went to the hospital to collect his personal ______. If she promises something. it happened at about six-thirty.1 After his death. Other examples: It's something I feel strongly about. chose them both.1 The Egyptian Pyramid hotel in Las Vegas is great. (Not: If I remember perfectly) It is useful to learn which adverbs most typically modify particular types of adjectives.3 This briefcase is made of real/genuine leather. bring up children. but I'd prefer to see the real/genuine thing. lost. naive. the adverb utterly. appalling. Typical examples are: alien. 1. If both are acceptable. 1. impossible. which means totally or completely. a) affairs 8 . 2.4 She is a very real/genuine person. 1. He lives in a fantasy world all the time. Try to notice this kind of regularity when learning words. (i. but it's not as good as the real/genuine article. fatuous. generally occurs before an adjective. In each case only one of them is the normal collocation for the underlined word.5 This home-made champagne is nice. she'll do it. (Not: lift your hand) You can raise a family. Choose one of the words below each sentence to fill the gaps. It is a very good idea when learning new words to learn any typical collocations that go with them! Exercises. ludicrous. You raise your hand to ask a question. false. blank. 2.

b) objects c) effects d) extras 2.2 He made a rather __________.attempt at an apology, but it didn't convince anyone. a) faint b) frail c) fragile d) feeble 2.3 George was a._____________opponent, and I respected him for that. a) formidable b) dreadful c) forbidding d) threatening 2.4 I was feeling.____________anxious when she didn't arrive. a) totally b) pretty c) utterly d) blatantly 2.5 She seemed to be____________.bewildered by the answer they gave her. a) vividly b) strongly c) utterly d) heavily 3. Choose the most suitable collocation in these sentences. The word you choose should have the approximate meaning given in brackets. 3.1 A brisk/brusque/brash (quick and energetic) walk before breakfast helps to enforce/sharpen/grow (increase, make stronger) the appetite. 3.2 The death tally/tale/toll in the earthquake has now risen to 20,000. (number or total) 3.3 Let's take a sluggish/plodding/leisurely stroll along the beach, shall we? (slow and not energetic) 3.4 If you want to stay at home tonight, that's utterly/perfectly/blatantly OK with me. (completely, 100%) 3.5 My aunt bequeathed/bequested/bereaved £20,000 in her will to cancer research, (gave after her death) 3.6 If I remember rightly/keenly/fairly she had two brothers, both older than her. (correctly) 3.7 If you want information about the publisher of this book, you can accede/call/visit their website at (consult, look at).


3.8 Eating all those peanuts has spoilt/attacked/lowered my appetite. I don't feel like dinner now. (destroyed, decreased) 4 Which collocation is more likely? Choose the correct answer. 4.1 a strong car / a powerful car 4.2 strong tea / powerful tea 4.3 auburn hair / auburn carpet 4.4 a doleful party / a doleful expression 4.5 a lengthy car / a lengthy meeting

1.2. The national view of the world and its connection with the language, the language peculiarities of different social groups TEXT 1 Pre-reading activities: 1) What can you tell about a person by the way (s)he speaks? Can you tell by the way people speak what class they belong to? 2) What is a class? 3) Do you have classes in Russia? What are they? Read the text about classes in British society and answer the questions. Class In England, the notion of the honour of the family name is almost nonexistent (though it exists to some degree in the upper classes, in the other three British nations and among ethnic minorities). In fact, it is very easy to change your family name - and you can choose any name you like. In the 1980s one person changed his surname to Oddsocks McWeirdo El Tutti Frutti Hello Hippopotamus Bum. There are no laws in Britain about what surname a wife or child must have. Because of this freedom, names can be useful pointers to social trends. The case of double-barrelled names is an example. These are surnames with two parts separated by a hyphen; for example, Barclay-Finch. For centuries they have been a symbol of upper-class status (originating in the desire to preserve an aristocratic name when there was no male heir). Until recently, most people in Britain have avoided giving themselves double-barrelled names - they would have been laughed at for their pretensions. In 1962, only one in every 300 surnames was doublebarrelled. By 1992, however, one person in fifty had such a name. Why the change? One reason is feminism. Although an increasing number of women now keep their 10

maiden name when they marry, it is still normal to take the husband's name. Independent-minded women are now finding a compromise by doing both at the same time - and then passing this new double-barrelled name onto their children. Another motive is the desire of parents from different cultural and racial backgrounds for their children to have a sense of both of their heritages. The same lack of rigid tradition applies with regard to the first names that can be given to children. This is usually simply a matter of taste. Moreover, the concept of celebrating name-days is virtually unknown. 1) What is a double-barrelled name? When is it given? Is it usual to take double-barrelled names in Russia? Can you remember famous people with doublebarrelled names? Historians say that the class system has survived in Britain because of its flexibility. It has always been possible to buy or marry or even work your way up, so that your children (and their children) belong to a higher social class than you do. As a result, the class system has never been swept away by a revolution and an awareness of class forms a major part of most people's sense of identity. People in modern Britain are very conscious of class differences. They regard it as difficult to become friends with somebody from a different class. This feeling has little to do with conscious loyalty, and nothing to do with a positive belief in the class system itself. Most people say they do not approve of class divisions. Nor does it have very much to do with political or religious affiliations. It results from the fact that the different classes have different sets of attitudes and daily habits. Typically, they tend to eat different food at different times of day (and call the meals by different names , they like to talk about different topics using different styles and accents of English, they enjoy different pastimes and sports, they have different values about what things in life are most important and different ideas about the correct way to behave. Stereotypically, they go to different kinds of school . 2) Why has the class system survived in Britain? 3) what are the class distinctions in Britain? An interesting feature of the class structure in Britain is that it is not just, or even mainly, relative wealth or the appearance of it which determines someone's class. Of course, wealth is part of it - if you become wealthy, you can provide the conditions to enable your children to belong to a higher class than you do. But it is not always possible to guess reliably the class to which a person belongs by looking at his or her clothes, car or bank balance. The most obvious and immediate sign comes when a person opens his or her mouth, giving the listener clues to the speaker's attitudes and interests, both of which are indicative of class. 11

Most people cannot change this convincingly to suit the situation. RP is not associated with any particular part of the country. Working-class people in particular are traditionally proud of their class membership and would not usually wish to be thought of as belonging to any other class. nobody wants to be thought of as snobbish. It is the combination of standard English spoken with an RP accent that is usually meant when people talk about 'BBC English' or 'Oxford English' (referring to the university.But even more indicative than what the speaker says is the way that he or she says it. a model for learners of English as a foreign language) is known as 'standard British English'. in these places. radio and television news broadcasts. however. that is. the situation is slightly different. Therefore. books and newspapers (and also . however. nearly everybody in the country is capable of using standard English (or something very close to it) when they judge that the situation demands it. The vast majority of people. people try to appear as if they belong to as high a class as possible. The word 'posh' illustrates this tendency. not the town) or 'the Queen's English'. some forms of regional accent are almost as prestigious as RP. To accuse someone of being posh is to accuse them of being pretentious. anyone who speaks with a strong regional accent is automatically assumed to be working class. as anywhere else where there are recognized social classes. In Britain. The English grammar and vocabulary which is used in public speaking. the clearest indication of a person's class is often his or her accent.) 5) What is RP? During the last quarter of the twentieth century. They are taught to do so at school. a survey conducted in the early 1990s showed that the proportion of people who describe themselves as working class is actually greater than the proportion whom sociologists would classify as such! This is one 12 . however. These days.unless the lessons are run by Americans . The most prestigious accent in Britain is known as 'Received Pronunciation' (RP). Interestingly. 4) What is the most reliable indication of class? Nevertheless. a certain amount of 'social climbing' goes on. the way that people wish to identify themselves seems to have changed. It is used by people from all classes to mean 'of a class higher than the one I (the speaker) belong to' and it is normally used with negative connotations. (In Scotland and Northern Ireland. use lots of words and grammatical forms in their everyday speech which are regarded as 'non-standard'. speak with an accent which is geographically limited. In England and Wales. anyone with an RP accent is assumed to be upper or upper-middle class. Most working-class people.

13 . In general. The lower and middle classes have drawn closer to each other in their attitudes. was systematically established through the public (in fact private) school system attended by the boys of wealthier families. For the way English is spoken gives away not only regional identity but to some extent class status too. It is now acceptable for radio and television presenters to speak with 'an accent' (i.manifestation of a phenomenon known as 'inverted snobbery'. the English of south east England has been considered the 'standard'. whereby middleclass people try to adopt working-class values and habits. in the words of a leading educationist. 6) What do you accuse a person of if you call him ‘posh’? 7) What is ‘inverted snobbery? 8) What does ‘egalitarian climate’ mean? TEXT 2 Read the text about accents and answer the questions. They do this in the belief that the working classes are in some way 'better' (for example. Since the days of Shakespeare. "The trouble with the British is that they accept and enjoy the nice distinctions of social class. Yet. They love hierarchy and see nothing wrong in the deferential attitude that it breeds. and in many respects the British have a deep sense of cultural cohesion and unity. It is also notable that. "the snobbery which brands the tongue of every British child". Nobody takes elocution lessons any more in order to sound more upper class.e. The fine distinctions of speech A picture of the British as both individualist and yet community-minded is a cosy one. the unofficial segregation of the classes in Britain has become less rigid than it was. while almost every previous Prime Minister in history did. more honest) than the middle classes. RP persists as the accepted dialect of the national elite. for no better reason than that the south east is the region of economic and political power." Nowhere is this clearer than in the question of speech. There has been a great increase in the number of people from working-class origins who are homeowners and who do traditionally middle-class jobs. not to use strict RP). In this egalitarian climate. 'received pronunciation' (RP). It is. at the time of writing. the different classes mix more readily and easily with each other than they used to. A person whose accent shows that he or she is working class is no longer prohibited from most high-status jobs for that reason alone. for one sociologist. only one of the last six British Prime Ministers went to an elitist school for upper-class children. The emergence of an upper and upper-middleclass mode of speech.

Through radio and television unmarked RP is becoming a more widely spoken accent. below RP. One is 'unmarked' RP. 14 . London. are socially divisive. Although spoken by less than 5 per cent of the population. Scottish. It is taken from a fantasy novel in which a republican government is elected in Britain and the royal family are sent to live on a working-class housing estate. Yorkshire and west country accents. and thus it has a kind of authority. But even they have a hierarchy. for example. in a road known to its inhabitants as 'Hell Close'. Glasgow and the West Midlands. which suggests no more than that the speaker is well-educated (although of course many equally well-educated people speak with a regional accent). Is there an implicit difference in the importance and status of news and weather? Do dialect (a matter of grammar and vocabulary) and accent enrich or impoverish? This is a continuing matter for debate among linguists. Some argue that regional accents enhance the sense of local community. At the time of the Falklands War. This is the dialect of the BBC. Liverpool. there are two kinds of RP. and at the bottom of the list come the least popular ones of the great conurbations. some job advertisements will demand 'well spokenness'. RP has immense influence. while the weather forecast following the news is often read by someone with a regional accent. and some ambitious politicians will hide their regional accents with RP. by many army officers who come from upper-class families. Significantly the television news is read by RP speakers.Broadly speaking. Regional accents exist. in class status terms. Welsh and Irish are generally the more popular regional accents. since it suggested leadership and authority at a time of national crisis. marked RP was very fashionable. and that to abandon them is to give way to the accents of the ruling class. Others argue that regional dialects. Then there is 'marked' RP. (from Britain) 9) How was RP established? 10) What is a regional accent? 11) What is the hierarchy of the regional accents? What are the most and the least popular accents? 12) What are the advantages and disadvantages of regional accents? TEXT 3 The extract below illustrates how people from different classes do not like to mix and how language is an important aspect of class. Dialect is unlikely to disappear and the debate is likely to continue. As long as RP remains suggestive of authority. Then come northern. Those who speak it enjoy a social authority that contradicts democratic ideals. given their class associations. which indicates high social class and is spoken.

an axe. the Queen addressed them. I mean. 'Christ.' The Queen came to their front gate.. 'I need an implement of some kind to gain access to my house. 'Excuse me. 'Yes. His hours talking to the Queen on the motorway had given him confidence. Tony and Beverly Threadgold.' Just then the Queen came down the garden path towards the Threadgolds and the light from their hall illuminated her face. Bev.Night has just fallen. 'I mean. Tone. really posh. 'It's out the back. as she and Tony lay in bed unable to sleep. 'An ix?' puzzled Beverly. her new neighbours were obviously morons. 'Tone.' The Queen was growing impatient. are standing at the front door of their house. I'll geddit. the Queen next door. peering into the gloom. just our lin'' luck to have poshos nex' door. but posh English. She was aware that educational standards had fallen. who would believe it?' she said later. 'Dunno. Beverly gasped. Beverly burst into tears.' 'One uses it for chopping wood. Their new neighbours. Threadgolds watched as a shadowy figure ordered a tall man out of the van. 'Yes.' 'Arse?' 'House!' The driver volunteered his services as translator.' 'Nor do I. Tony clutched the front-door frame for support before saying. Beverly went to sleep. It was a scandal.' Left alone. We'll put in for a transfer. eh?' Slightly comforted.. (from The Queen and I by Sue Townsend) 15 . but not to know what an axe was. Was she a foreigner? It wasn't English she was talking was it? As their ears became more accustomed they realized it was English.' A few minutes later. 'You don't know what an axe is?' 'No. but do you have an axe I could borrow?' 'An ix?' repeated Tony. The ex-queen and her husband arrive with a driver in a little van (with all their belongings in it). She had made a simple request.' Tony said. ready to move in to the house which they have been allotted. 'This lady wants to know if you've got an axe. 'I still don't believe it.' 'I dunno what an "ix" is. why they moved a posho in Hell Close?' asked Beverly.' replied Tony.

Many of them come from the Gaelic language of Ireland. In this unit we look at some other varieties of English you may encounter. he's just an ignorant ocker. usually of traditional music Prime Minister В Australia Many people feel that Australian English has introduced a relaxed.3. mate [informal way of addressing a male]!' Be careful of the dingos [kind of wild dog] when you're out in the bush [the natural.1. [person who is not well educated and does not behave in a polite way] There was a young Australian in the shopping centre playing a didgeridoo. [large farm. Here are some examples.) 16 . quiet country lane festival. A Ireland Irish English has some words and phrases you may see or hear on a visit to Ireland which are different from British English. word crate /kraek/ guards or gardai /ga:r'di:/ boreen /bo:'ri:n/ fleadh /Лаг:/ Taoiseach /'tujbk/ meaning fun. uncultivated land away from towns]. enjoyment police narrow. Other Englishes: diversity and variety English is spoken in a wide range of countries outside of Great Britain and the USA. Australian slang is sometimes called 'strine'. habits and national characters of people living in different parts of the United Kingdom and of different English speaking countries. The national and cultural peculiarities of speech and behaviour. Here are some examples.ancient Australian wind instrument which produces long deep notes] They live on a sheep station north of here. also used in New Zealand] 'Struth! [gosh/wow] Look at that bloke [man] over there. maxims of international communication. The national character and language. (Bush is also used in this way in African varieties of English. informal tone to English vocabulary. [/dicrjan'du:/ . You'll have to forgive him.

car park payment g Kong office Scot They have three bairns. uncultivated land. 1) Will the 2002 Fleadh be held here? The city and environs could be in for a multi-million pound boost next year. Answer these questions: 1) What is the name for a kind of wild dog found in Australia? 2) Who or what is the Taoiseach? 3) When an Australian talks about the outback. Can The washroom is on the left public toilet adian Hon We have to pay at the shroff.Travelling across the outback [the wild. children tish Exercises: 1. unless you're a born money bags.Diamond fiesta Drooling at diamonds is probably not a healthy pastime. Look at these news extracts and decide whether they are likely to have appeared in an Australian newspaper or in an Irish newspaper. 2. Here's my moved house aysian new address. 2) BEAUT BANGLES . especially the desert] in Oz [slang name for Australia] can be dangerous. but there are some beaut [/bju:t/ beautiful] places to see. 3) OZ SNAPS UP S100m US GEAR American sports clothing has become a mega-business of the decade 4) He pointed out that all three men had apologised to the Gardai on the day following the incident. what are they referring to? 4) What is an Irish person referring to when they talk of 'the craic'? 5) Where would you find a boreen? 6) Where would you find a station without trains or buses? 7) What would you do with a didgeridoo? 17 . Some other English varieties vari example ety s meaning/comment Mal We shifted a month ago.

thrift/expenditure. bourgeois. British society is also deeply individualistic in a way which is inseparable from ideas of liberty and localism. 3. Match the words with the explanations: 1) shroff Scottish word for 'small' 2) joker Scottish word for a child 3) wee Malaysian word for 'university' 4) varsity Australian word for 'person' 5) bairn Caribbean word for a godmother 6) washroom Hong Kong word for a payment office at a car park 7) macommere Irish word for 'idiot/fool' 8) eejit South African word for flat. One writer. "At times it seems that the French and English national characters could be expressed in a series of antitheses: wit/humour. and they prefer practical common sense to pure logic. Reading Read more about the British. collectivist. logic/tradition. gallantry/courage. such as: ideology. According 18 . town/country. They are uncomfortable with terms which polarize. vanity/pride. liberation. read Chapter 7 on 'World English' of The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language by David Crystal. published by Cambridge University Press. This has a long history. someone described as an 'intellectual' usually feels embarrassed rather than flattered. moderation. capitalist. decency. Scottish and Welsh character. They like modesty and understatement. TEXT 1 Culture and style: national self-expression How do these aspects of British society express themselves? Like any other society. says." Unlike elsewhere in Europe. TEXT 2 Community and the individual In spite of having been a centralised state for longer than most European countries. contrasting England with neighbouring France. consensus and compromise. open countryside with few trees 9) veld Canadian word for a public toilet If you can. taste/comfort. The majority like to think the important national values are things like tolerance. the British like to create an agreeable picture of themselves.8) Is an ocker a person or thing? Explain. where you will find examples of English from different parts of the world.

The impulse to organize oneself and one's neighbours in some cause is a strong British tradition. Writing eighty years ago. of spontaneous organization". Choirs. Only a handful operate with more than £1 million. rambling clubs.000 yearly. which have strongly resisted the authority of central government. the wartime architect of Britain's welfare system." There is a feeling that it is the ordinary people. in contrast with France where in theory it is the state which upholds liberty.000 Charities officially registered with the government. The tradition continues. shelters for homeless people. including sports clubs. has a network across Britain of over 800 shops selling secondhand goods and Third World products. wrote at the time. into local work places and community organisations. protest groups and other societies which are not. are the distinguishing marks of a free society. Unlike in many other countries. associated with more traditionally-minded people." About seven million Britons are involved in some kind of voluntary activity. great or small. the Third World development agency Oxfam. depend upon the voluntary impulse. and another 200. "Vigour and abundance of Voluntary Action outside the home. There are 160. "Individualism is built into 'custom and practice'. staffed by unpaid volunteers. skill and money given voluntarily. "There is a fundamental liberty in Britain not easily found elsewhere. Elie Halevy. individually and in association with other citizens. local dramatic groups. For example. Locally. It is as true today. According to Ralf Dahrendorf. Some people have formed lobby organisations to persuade central government to recognize their right to return to the old county system. They have a strong civic sense and participate in public affairs as their birthright. the reorganisation of the old counties in 1974 still causes fury where much-loved identities have been removed. It is at the local level that British democracy is most meaningful.000 voluntary organizations. for bettering one's own life and that of one's fellows. This local response illustrates another longstanding characteristic of the British. These organizations. sometimes with the support of local councils. Most charities operate with less than £1. to local preservation societies. (from Britain in Close-Up) 19 . One of the largest of these. ranging from urban community action groups of the political left. many people refuse to recognise the reorganisation and deliberately use old county names. local government clings both to local identity and style. standing up for their rights in spite of government." In part this liberty stems from the growth of a variety of institutions in previous centuries. William one sociologist. who safeguard freedom. a French writer on Britain. spoke enthusiastically of Britain as "the country of voluntary obedience. and many other things besides. trade unions. the provision of the lifeboat service around Britain's shores. all depend upon time.

lungs and liver). or a Dundee cake2. Bonnie Prince Charlie. the English practically destroyed Highland Scotland. The normalizing of relations between the two countries was accomplished by a novelist. dance traditional dances (called 'reels') and eat haggis (made from sheep's heart. brave. a wasteland of dangerous beggarly savages became a nation of noble. The ceremonial cutting The realpolitik3 Scot doesn't see it like that. the whole country reinvented itself. the haggis. Sir Walter Scott. whose stories and legends intrigued and excited the English. His heart is in the Gorbals. wet.TEXT 3 What does it mean to be Scottish? On 25 January every year.and the fun. and the tearful. Under his direction. Many Scottish Scots hate the romantic. sing traditional songs. But I adore the fierce romantic. Here are two opposing views of this way of celebrating Scottishness. the romantic stories. not really liking either. under-populated. bullied country stuck on the edge of Europe. The Sunday Times. 1966 trade unionism and a supposed class system that puts Englishmen at the top of the heap and Scottish workers at the bottom. In a few months. (A A Gill. not the Highlands. That national pride that ties knots in your stomach when you see your country's flag somewhere unexpected is particularly strong among the Scots. sentimental Scotland. the pipes. this is a tourist view of Scotland invented by the English. the old songs. At these parties they read from the work of the eighteenth century poet Robert Burns (regarded as Scotland's national poet). and also the name for the traditional cap of highland dress 2 a rich fruit cake. In the eighteenth century. To them. But I feel moved by the pipes. On Burns' Night. exotic warriors. They do it because they feel allegiance to a small. makes them furious. the kilts. Scott did the best public relations job in history. sentimental view of their country. many Scottish people attend 'Burns' suppers'. 23 January 1994 (adapted)) the tide of a poem by Burns. people all over the world fight their way through haggis and Tam 0'Stumer1. sentimental nationalism of it all. tartan. Who do you think the author of this article is? What are his feelings about Scotland? 20 1 . Everyone who could get hold of a bit of tartan wore a kilt. the poems. The dour McStalin-ists are missing the point . wear kilts. supposedly originating from the town of Dundee 3 an approach to politics based on realities and material needs Answer the questions: 1. ancient ceremonies were invented. He only relates to heavy industry. The sight of a man in a skirt.

use of sexually neutral language has become a legal requirement.chairman. the language receives a lot of public support. becoming chair or chairperson (though not without controversy) or salesman becoming sales assistant. David Crystal in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language writes: Attention has been focused on the replacement of 'male' words with a generic meaning by neutral items . a feeling of loyalty to Wales is often similar in nature to the fairly weak loyalties to particular geographical areas found throughout England — it is regional rather than nationalistic. there are many local newspapers in Welsh. All children in Wales learn it at school.2. In certain cases. and today many English people still make their homes in Wales or have holiday houses there. Everybody in Wales can speak English. there is one single highly-important symbol of Welsh identity the Welsh language. there is a Welsh television channel and nearly all public notices and signs are written in both Welsh and English. training and activation of elements characteristic of the English language and texts in English Gender awareness and vocabulary A number of vocabulary changes are being introduced as a result of the feminist movement and heightened awareness of the sexist nature of some English vocabulary. Thanks to successive campaigns. However. For these people Welsh identity obviously means more than just living in the region known as Wales. in comparison to the other small minority languages of Europe.4. Analysis of the language and its national and cultural semantics. Irish and English people went to find work there. Moreover. a large minority of the people in Wales probably do not consider themselves to be especially Welsh at all. such as job descriptions. In the nineteenth century large numbers of Scottish. As a result. the mother-tongue is Welsh. but it is not everybody's first language. In addition. for example. methods of introduction. The organization of public life is similar to that in England.whether they should affect traditional idioms such as man in the street1 and Neanderthal Man2. TEXT 4 The Welsh character The people of Wales do not have as many reminders of their Welshness in everyday life. For about 20% of the population (that's more than half a million people). Welsh shows signs of continued vitality. (from Britain) 1. There is continuing debate between extremists and moderates as to how far such revisions should go . Write out the words that mean typical Scottish things. 21 . Nor are there as many well-known symbols of Welshness.

manly. negative) ate resembling a man (used of her mannish mannis women. mascul feminine charm ine. feminine typically male or female having positive qualities felt to manly strength.5 to 3 million years ago 3 handle roughly. The vocabulary of marital status has also been affected with the introduction of Ms as a neutral alternative to Miss or Mrs. biology bees female having qualities felt to be masculine pride. negative) haircut h a young girl who behaves and She's a real a 22 flight attendant cleaner to staff working hours firefighter nurse spokesperson current usage . 1 a typical person (could be replaced by person in the street) 2 primitive people who lived in Europe and Asia 2. using force Here are some examples of non-sexist variations of vocabulary: older usage spokesma n fireman male nurse to man manhours air hostess cleaning lady foreman supervisor manpower human resources mankind human race Words relating to gender words meaning/comment example used for gender classification in male and female male. be typically male or female womanly grace womanly manly (usually used in a sexual handsome and virile context) virile men resembling a woman (used of his effeminate walk effemin men.or apply to parts of words where the male meaning of man is no longer dominant such as manhandle* and woman.

10) This was a great step for mankind. 5) All our air hostesses are fluent in at least three languages. Choose the best of the underlined words to complete each sentence. Don't be such a tomboy/sissy! 3) Younger men are said to be more male/virile than older ones. 1) Why do you think there have been attempts to introduce non-sexist language of the kind described by David Crystal? 2) How would you explain this expression: male words with a generic meaning? 3) Why do you think there might have been controversy about attempts to change the word chairman} 4) What do more extreme advocates of making English sexually neutral want to do that is unacceptable to the moderates? 5) Why was Ms introduced and why is it useful? 2. 8) Brenda's husband is a male nurse. 6) Miss Jones is in charge of the Manpower Department of the company. 9) It took a great many man-hours to clean up the stadium after the concert. 7) Policemen today spend more time in cars than on the beat.dresses like a boy tomboy tomboy. nswer these questions about the text. 11) The man in the street has little time for such issues. 3) Cleaning lady wanted for house in Priory Street. How would this be done? 1) Three firemen helped put out a fire at a disused warehouse last night. butch stars of butch aggressively masculine in looks and cowboy films behaviour (informal) Exercises: 1. 12) They manhandled the hostage into the van. A modern editor would probably alter these sentences. 3. 4) The switchboard is continuously manned even during holiday periods. negative) used of men and women. 2) A spokesman for the Department of Education provided us with a statement. 23 . He's such a sissy! a sissy or a weak and cowardly person (informal. a boy who behaves like a girl. 1) That suit makes her look rather mannish/manly. jump. 2) Go on.

Mrs.) in your language indicate whether people are married? 6) Do you think it is better if terms of address indicate marital status or not? Why? 7) A grammatical problem in this area is the use of he/his to refer to a person of either sex. In the sentence 'A government minister may have to neglect his family.e. have there been attempts to change them to avoid sexual stereotyping? 3) Do you think that using sex-biased words does affect people's attitudes to men and women's roles in society? 4) How do you feel about imposing language changes of the different kinds that David Crystal describes? 5) Do terms of address (i. 5) The masculine/male cat is less aggressive than his sister.4) She always dresses in a very feminine/effeminate way. 1) Does your language ever use male words generically? 2) If so. 4. How could you rewrite this sentence to avoid this problem? 24 . You never see her in trousers. Answer these questions. perhaps wrongly. Mr. However the use of 'his' assumes.' the minister could be a man or a woman. etc. that it is a man.

built on a clifftop overlooking the sea. instead of seeing fifteen metres of hotel garden. Every year. Sometimes the land slips away slowly. (see picture 1) The Holbeck Hotel's role in the tourism industry was over.1. In 1993 a dramatic example of this process occurred near the town of Scarborough in Yorkshire. There was no time to collect their belongings. little bits of the east coast vanish into the North Sea. They had to leave the hotel immediately. The geography and the environment of different parts of Britain. During the day various rooms of the hotel started leaning at odd angles and then slipped down the cliff. had been the best hotel in town for 110 years. 25 . Picture 1. However. guests awoke to find cracks in the walls and the doors stuck. they saw nothing -except the sea. its geography. But at other times it slips away very suddenly. social life and symbols. economy.Chapter 2. it provided one last great sight for tourists. 2. The Holbeck Hotel falling into the sea. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. political life . by 'dying' so dramatically. But on the morning of 4 June. Hundreds of them watched the action throughout the day. TEXT 1 The vanishing coastline Britain is an island under constant attack from the surrounding sea. When they looked out of the window. The Holbeck Hotel.

Exmoor and the Yorkshire Moors are typical examples—and efforts are constantly being made to ensure that they are preserved. no glaciers or fields of eternal snow. the Industrial Revolution.TEXT 2 The north-south divide There are many aspects of life in Britain which illustrate the so-called 'northsouth divide'. the south has almost always been more prosperous than the north. partly to provide timber for ships. green fields with ancient oaks. There are no impressive mountain ranges (the highest point in England Scafell Pike in the Lake District. The word 'home' in this context highlights the importance attached to London and its domination of public life. of lakes and mountains and valleys.210 feet above sea-level). of whom William Wordsworth is probably the best known. famous as the home of the Lake Poets. and coal mines. owing to the criss-cross hedges that separate one field from another. slums. a perfect setting for the many lovely country houses that are one of England's finest features. valleys and uplands of their native land. 26 . mainly of oak. and this is so. although there is no actual geographical boundary. but gradually these were cut down. such as the New Forest. with lower rates of unemployment and more expensive houses. no vast forests or rivers of impressive length (the Thames is 210 miles from its source in the Cotswolds to its mouth). just as there are large expanses of fairly wild and desolate country — Dartmoor. This is especially true of the south-eastern area surrounding London. and may have forgotten that English poets and writers. Basically. country lanes and villages. TEXT 3 The English Countryside The visitor from abroad who comes to England for the first time is nearly always struck with the great beauty and variety of the English countryside. no fjords or majestic waterfalls. There is nothing grandiose about the English landscape. the Forest of Dean. He will have read a great deal about London. have found inspiration in the fields and rivers. from Chaucer and down to the present. is another area of great beauty. The Lake District in the north-west. Seen from the air the countryside of much of England appears like a patchwork quilt. woods and moors. This is a well-known fact of British life. This area is often referred to as the ' Home Counties'. is only 3. This suggests that the hand of man has done a great deal to shape the rural scene. At one time large areas of England were covered with thick forests. There are still quite large areas of woodland left. which is still relatively unspoilt. Maybe that is why so much of what is most pleasing to the eye is parkland.

and yet in a way this gives it a charm of its own—which you may not appreciate if you are caught in a shower of rain without a waterproof. nor is it ever so warm in summer that people have to take a siesta. judged by Continental standards. the very occasional fall of snow always seems to take the English by surprise. rattling sash windows and no thresholds strike the foreigner as draughty and cold. You will see that the country to the west and north of a line drawn very roughly from Exeter in the extreme southwest to Newcastle in the north-east. is mainly high ground. And perhaps it explains why the English are so fond of games and have invented so many different ways of amusing themselves in the open air.TEXT 4 The Climate Like the scenery. The result is that on practically every day of the year. Snow and frost are not the permanent feature of the winter scene to most Englishmen. Labrador? One reason is the Gulf Stream. and studded winter tyres are practically unheard of. Take a look at the map of the British Isles. in Italy and Spain. Very occasionally an easterly wind from the Continent brings a cold type of weather which may persist for several days or weeks. as they do. As a rule. The winters are mild and the summers not particularly warm. Foreigners are 27 . while most of the low ground lies to the south and east. tend to fool themselves a little about the prevailing mildness of the climate. or find yourself driving in a thick fog along the Ml. running rather like a spine or backbone down from the Scottish Border to somewhere in the middle of England. for example. A joker once said that the English climate was the best in the world. for instance. By the same token. English people have always been able to spend part of the time out of doors. Perhaps the most typically English season is spring. Why is the climate so mild. the climate is not remarkable for great extremes. the land to the west has a much higher rainfall than the land to the east of this line of hills. and another is the fact that Britain is an island (see picture 2 below). but the weather was terrible. when the country is putting on its gay coat of colours after the drabness of winter. English homes. It certainly explains why they build their houses the way they do. and the prevailing westerly winds (or south-westerly) from the Atlantic. with their open fires. however. The Britons do. we have a line of hills known as the Pennines. whereas the English wander about in their shirtsleeves and make their children wear knee-stockings all the year round. The weather is certainly rather unpredictable. This is when the water-pipes always freeze because of outside plumbing (a foreigner who timidly suggests that it would be more sensible to build houses with internal plumbing gets the maddening answer that it is much easier to have the water-pipes on the outside so that they are accessible when they do freeze). You will also see that. in every season. even though the British Isles are situated as far north as.

Elections The Rules The foundations of the electoral system were laid in the Middle Ages. from the Elizabethan "Sweet lovers love the spring" to Browning's "Oh to be in England now that April's there". but never in a systematic way. the greenness of the fields and soft colours that are part of this season. which is the theme of so much of England's best known poetry. The name of the country. 2. The monarchy and the government. with each 28 . Give your ideas on how the geographical position influences the climate of a country. The weather in November. Since then numerous Acts of Parliament have modified the system. Give a list of 10 most interesting facts about the geography and climate of Great Britain.2. the electoral system. Fundamentally the system still has its ancient form. Exercises: 1. parties. What are the differences of climate in Great Britain and Russia? 3. 2. Picture 2.astonished at the beauty of the parks. The North East of the country.

each representing one 'constituency'. up to five years after the last. but in the autumn of each year every householder is obliged by law to enter on the register of electors the name of every resident who is over seventeen and a UK citizen. so defined. with only three or four weeks' notice. People who are just too young to vote are included in the list. has to be changed from time to time so as to prevent gross inequalities of representation. At an election the people choose 'a Parliament' for five years and no more. Anyone who expects to be unable to vote there may apply in advance to be allowed to send the vote by post. hoping to change places after the next general election. formed 29 . a byelection is held to replace him. It is only possible to vote at the polling station appropriate to one's address. There is no need to live in the area or to have any personal connection with electing its (now) one representative to serve as its Member of Parliament until the next general election. The shortest. with each seat won by the candidate with most votes. then Conservatives and Labour. The maximum interval between 'redistributions' is set by law at fifteen years -each time subject to Parliament's approval. the other the Opposition. has lasted its full five years since 1945. There are usually more than two candidates for each seat. and in 1970 the minimum voting age was reduced to eighteen. Because some areas increase in population while others decline. The development of opinion polls gives the Prime Minister a good idea of his or her party's chances. was dissolved seven months later. or division of the whole country into constituencies. Voting is not compulsory. Any British subject can be nominated as a candidate for any seat on payment of a deposit of £500. so that they may vote at any election which may be held after their eighteenth birthdays. If an MP dies or resigns his seat. A large proportion are elected with less than half of the votes cast. Until 1918 the Conservatives (Tories) and Liberals (formerly Whigs) took turns at holding power. elected in February 1974. Women's suffrage came in two stages (1918 and 1928). but only one 'Parliament'. and each register is valid for one year beginning towards the end of February. has been to sustain the dominance of two main rival parties. The franchise (right to vote) became universal for men by stages in the nineteenth century. The Labour Party. though peers and Church of England clergymen are disqualified from sitting in the House of Commons. but the one who receives most votes is elected. Much work is done to ensure that the register is complete and accurate. and only two. How Elections Work The most important effect of the electoral system. at any time that seems favourable. and less than half of the candidates are in fact local residents. The Prime Minister can choose the date of an election. In 1974-83 there were 635 MPs for the UK. One forms the Government. month by month. in 1983 the number was increased to 650. hence the rise of the Labour Party. the electoral map.

In March 1979 he was obliged to do so.6. because his Government was defeated by one vote on a vote of confidence. the Alliance's candidates (Liberals and Social Democrats) received almost 50 per cent more votes than Labour. The Liberals had only eleven seats. the Alliance's dropped from 23 to 22. the Scottish Nationalists three. at a time which he had not chosen. the winning party's percentage of the votes varied from thirty-nine per cent to forty-nine per cent. Labour's support was concentrated in parts of London. Outside London and the few big towns most Alliance candidates won at least twice as many votes as Labour. the Social Democratic Party (SDP). in the hope of obtaining an overall majority. This was not a coalition. but won only seven seats to Labour's twenty-nine. Labour's seats increased from 209 to 229. With Labour winning 319 seats he just succeeded. with a few seats held by minor parties. The 1987 election produced results not greatly different from those of 1983. where it won some of its seats with big majorities. Labour. The election which followed gave Mrs Thatcher's Conservatives a majority of 45 over all other parties combined. The figures for the south of England were even more remarkable. replaced them as the second major party after 1918. Labour's biggest gains. 1983 and 1987 were dominated by a government faced by a big opposition party.4 to 22. This two-year period of minority rule was difficult for the Labour government. though Labour's share of the UK vote rose from 27. but twelve of the elections gave an overall majority of seats to Labour (5) or Conservative (7). Within two years Labour had lost five seats at by-elections. A minority Labour government took power. Although the Parliaments of 1979. This alliance won almost as many votes as Labour. In this area. Between 1945 and 1987 there were thirteen general elections. The two-party system seemed restored to its normal form. but the only period since 1931 in which a governing party relied on the support of another to remain in power. had only 301 seats out of 635. could see from the opinion polls and occasional by-elections that Labour would probably lose any new general election if he used his right to dissolve Parliament. No party ever received as many as half of the votes cast. but stayed in office as a minority government through an agreement with the Liberals. By then the Liberals had formed an alliance with a new centre party. and the Alliance's share fell from 25. The electoral system caused dramatic distortions. but Mr Callaghan. who had by then succeeded Mr Wilson as Prime Minister. were in the 30 . though Labour had less than two-fifths of the votes. at least in terms of seats in the House of Commons. but Labour won almost ten times as many seats. Labour's success was made possible by divisions among the Liberals. in terms of votes.6 to 1900 in alliance with the Liberals. After only seven months Prime Minister Wilson called a second election. covering nearly half of England's population. and won them both easily. Mrs Thatcher called the next elections at four-yearly intervals. most particularly in 1983.8 per cent. the Welsh one. The exception was in February 1974 when the biggest party in the House of Commons. a study of the figures shows how this pattern did not at all reflect the people's votes.

But overall the pattern established in 1983 survived. in seats which they had already won in 1983. Fourth. 31 . mainly in areas where the Conservatives were stronger. Although Labour's small gain in votes between 1983 and 1987 was about equal to the Alliance's loss.and a government knows that within five years of taking power it must again face the judgment of the voters. Second. First. once well founded. that of voting. in terms of votes. over many years. Third. The two-party system which is the essential feature of modern British government is a product of the electoral system. in areas where the Conservatives are sure to win in any case. Therefore. Ministers of both parties. fifth.big towns of Scotland and the north. Compare and contrast the elections and how they work in Great Britain and in Russia. The allied centre parties may have become the main alternative to the Conservatives in the south in the 1980s. with almost a two-party parliament. the system gives the people a clear choice between two alternative sets of leaders and policies. and a government party holding a hundred more seats than all the rest lordlier on the basis of a minority of votes. it does Labour no harm if it is the third party instead of being second. But both Conservatives and Labour claim that the existing electoral system is better than any other. each party's programme. The shifts were in fact very complex. The claims about moderation. have developed a habit of claiming that at the last election the people voted to approve of every item in the winning party's election manifesto . in a system which would give fair representation. is likely to avoid extremes . have become less convincing in the past twenty years or so. and have produced objective arguments for it and the two-party dominance which it sustains. Exercises: 1. in places with above average unemployment. Many opinion polls. rather than a reflection of the wishes of the people. with big variations between constituencies. and many of these were more against the losers than for the winners. have indicated that most of the British people would prefer to use their most fundamental right. so t hey won few seats. 2. once in office. On the other hand it is pointed out that two-party choice at an election may be no better than a choice between two evils. Labour‘s support is concentrated in areas where the party can win seats.although the truth is that only about two-fifths voted for the party. Their supporters were too widely spread. Make a report in class. it was not accounted for simply by people changing votes from Alliance to Labour. because any person with realistic political ambitions must join one of the two main parties. each party includes a wide range of attitudes. being a compromise. it gives stable government for up to five years at a time. but their achievement was made useless by the electoral system. Make notes on the main facts referring to the election system in the UK. all the people of each constituency have one MP to represent them and their interests.

and anything Scottish as though it were a deviation from it. Highlanders were forbidden to wear the kilt.. The languages spoken in the United Kingdom. It showed only England and Wales. A map appeared in the Observer newspaper in May 1989 under the heading 'Britain's Dirty Rivers'. for Scots to receive mail from elsewhere in the UK addressed Scotland. there is 'domination by omission'. as was the clan system of government. Edinburgh was not proclaimed "the Athens of the North" merely on the strength of 32 . TEXT 1 The invisible Scot Here are some brief extracts from an article written by a Scotswoman. Northern Ireland. the Scots avenged themselves through intellect. the teaching of Gaelic was officially proscribed. Conquered by force of arms.3. most of the English were happy to record their nationality on their embarkation cards as English. works of art from the Soviet Union intended for display at the Edinburgh International Festival were sent to the City Art Gallery addressed Edinburgh. England. Janet Swinney. Scotland became the scene of brilliant literary and social activity. which expresses anger at how the dominance of England over Scotland is reflected in the way things are described. Scotland. she points out the common use of England/English to mean Britain/British: 'When I went to Turkey a few years ago with an assorted group of Britons. Last year. England'. A third aspect of domination can be seen in the names given to publications and organizations: 'The practice is to label anything that pertains to England and (usually) Wales as though it were the norm. either. TEXT 2 Stands Scotland Where It Did? 1745 was a disastrous year for the Highlands. the "Trades Union Congress" and the "Scottish Trades Union Congress"? In a society of equals. the "National Trust" and the "National Trust for Scotland". The roots of the nationalism. First. It's not unusual. and during the latter part of the 18th century. England .2. Wales. and saw nothing offensive about it. The traditional customs were declared illegal.. Janet Swinney says: 'What is the meaning of this illustration? Does Scotland have no rivers or no dirty rivers. far from being a humiliated province of England. Why else do we have The Times Educational Supplement and The Times Educational Supplement (Scotland). or has someone simply used the word Britain to mean England and Wales?' Second. all these names would carry their geographical markers: The Times Educational Supplement (England and Wales) etc'.

If you like music. but the city is now expanding as a commercial and administrative centre. have more readers today than his "Life of Johnson". James Boswell. 2. when these industries began to decline. with good communications. wits and gourmets from all over Europe. The cities and towns of Great Britain Pre-reading activities: 1. plenty of parks and a varied population which includes nearly 10. but it began to grow quickly and to become prosperous during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. However. It is an attractive and interesting place to live in. but because it attracted students. Make a list of 5 facts you know about Wales without referring to any source books. 3. Cardiff suffered too. writers. a gem of their kind. Reading Read about the capitals of Wales and Northern Ireland. the age of David Hume the philosopher. Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns (the latter soon grew tired of Edinburgh society). As a tourist. There has been a community here for hundreds of years. iron and steel industries were developing in South Wales. Raeburn the painter. Make similar lists of facts you know about Northern Ireland and Scotland. there is the famous national concert 33 .its buildings in the great Greek classic style. Decide what the main points of each of the texts are.000 university and college students. But it was Walter Scott at the beginning of the 19th century who by his poems and historical novels reawakened a sense of national pride and of belonging to a great national tradition. Compare your lists in groups. the docks are much smaller. whose private journals. Refer to any encyclopedia to add 3 more facts about all the parts of the UK mentioned above. TEXT 1 Cardiff Cardiff has been the official capital of Wales since 1955. artists. This was the period when the coal.4. you might want to visit the castle and Llandaff cathedral. or the National Museum of Wales. Adam Smith the economist. 2. It was Edinburgh's golden age. Today. Comment on the texts. and Cardiff became a major industrial town and an important port.

) in area.. was built and sent out on her fatal maiden voyage. Seath J. Many areas of Northern Ireland are beautiful and peaceful. The city is well-known for shipbuilding – it was here that the 'Titanic'.500 square miles (14. 2. Exercises 1. Seath J. and they can and do go out and enjoy themselves. The opposite is true. probably imagine that the country is one big battlefield. engineering.. What is the difference between the usage of the adjectives ―Scots‖ and ―Scottish‖? Give examples of collocations with these words. Exercises: 1.hall. St David's Hall. from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S. Some of the Belfast streets have often been the scenes of violence .).. ropemaking.000. during the 19th century. you can see most of the main attractions in a week without travelling more than 500 miles (800 km. 34 . Then.) TEXT 2 Belfast People reading about the troubles in Northern Ireland or seeing the damage caused by bombs on television. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S. White G. which is the home of the Welsh National Opera Company. tobacco and the sea-trade doubled the town's size every ten years. Belfast is one of the youngest capital cities in the world and it has grown incredibly fast. there are many cultural and leisure facilities.. Today the city has a population of 400. In spite of the years of trouble. White G. Make a report on the capital of Scotland Edinburgh (see pictures 3-7) 2. nearly a third of the entire population of Northern Ireland. but in the 17th century it was only a village. the development of industries like linen. or the New Theatre.250 sq. Prepare a speech on both capitals and the countries using the texts above and the information you have learned before. Write a detailed outline of the texts. Edinburgh.streetnames such as the Falls Road and Shankill Road are well known throughout Britain because they have been heard so often on the news -but people still live in Belfast. Because the country is only 5. km.

Edinburgh is distinguished by its spacious layout and attractive buildings 35 . atop steep basalt cliffs that rise above the city.Picture 3. stands the castle: Edinburgh Castle Picture 4. In the old town.

36 . Picture 6. The Royal Mile.Picture 5. The view of Edinburgh.

Cambridge. Colchester. Stratford-upon-Avon. York. Look at the map of the UK and find the following: Norwich. What other cities and towns of the UK do you know? What are they famous for? 2. TEXT 3 Norwich Norwich is the most important city of East Anglia and of course it has a large shopping centre for the rural area surrounding it. It also has to cater for the tourists who are attracted to the city by such features as the cathedral.Picture 7. Birmingham. Compare the pictures in groups and let your group mates guess what you meant by the pictures. Canterbury. The Royal Mile extends Fast from the castle rock to the Palace of Holyrood House Other cities and towns Pre-reading activities: 1. Oxford. museums and castle. Reading Read the texts about different towns and ciyies of the UK and draw pictures symbolizing each of the towns. 37 .

four of Henry's knights entered Canterbury Cathedral and murdered the Archbishop on the steps of the altar. he was not popular with other powerful men in England. One of the most unusual must be the Mustard Shop. Although the King himself liked Thomas. It has a mustard museum. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S. Three years later in 1173. His name was Thomas Becket.Unlike many cities. White G. It is the religious capital of England because its cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury who is head of the Church of England.soon afterwards. Becket was made a saint. It was said that miracles happened there. which describes the history of Colman's mustard.. the bishops and the Pope were causing the King problems because they all wanted Thomas to continue as Archbishop of Canterbury. 38 . They were jealous of his friendship with the King. Murder in the Cathedral During the 12th century. The people.000. After a while. From the 12th to the 15th centuries. where small specialist shops have gradually been replaced by large department stores and supermarkets. The King was amazed when Thomas began to defend the position of the Church against the King. Thousands of people came to pray at the shrine of a former Archbishop of Canterbury who was murdered in the Cathedral in 1170. with its multi-coloured stall-covers. As its name suggests. it was a place of pilgrimage. thinking that his friend would help him to weaken the position of the Church. As Thomas was not even a priest. and they also disliked him because he was not a nobleman. He lived in exile for five years until the King asked him to come back. and there are as many different kinds as it is possible to imagine. The Colmans were a famous Norwich family who started a mustardmaking business over 150 years ago. In 1162. Seath J. King Henry II decided that the Church had too much power. many people were very angry that he had been made Archbishop. Then there is the outdoor market. When Thomas returned. Norwich still has a wide variety of shops. and many sick people went there in the hope of finding a cure. it sells nothing but mustard. he made Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury. and Thomas was afraid that he might be killed. and his tomb became the destination of thousands of pilgrims for three centuries. he brought authorization from the Pope to excommunicate the priests and noblemen who had acted against him. where you can buy everything from books to bananas. Thomas had to leave England because relations between him and the King had become very bad. The King was furious when he learned this . in 1170.) TEXT 4 Canterbury Canterbury is a town in Kent with a population of about 120..

which is part of a long-distance footpath called the North Downs Way. Murder in the Cathedral by T. The Pilgrim's Way is the name of an old path starting at Winchester which. The Archbishop of Canterbury. The Canterbury Tales. Seath J. White G. on postcards and souvenirs in every other shop! A twentieth-century visitor The most famous modern 'pilgrim' is without doubt Pope John Paul 11. you will find that although there is no tomb. when King Henry VIII separated from the Roman Catholic Church and established the Church of England. White G) 39 .. when the pilgrimage had become a rather pleasant holiday for the groups of people who travelled together for protection and companionship. It is protected by law. His face and name are still there. However.In the 16th century. a miller.S.) Exercise: Find a word or words in the text which are similar in meaning to the following: a hundred years liked by a lot of people envious very surprised return very angry TEXT 5 Chaucer's pilgrims The best-known Canterbury pilgrims are probably those who appear in the book by Geoffrey Chaucer. Eliot and Becket by Jean Anouilh.. Becket is not forgotten. Through the stories we get a vivid picture not only of the narrators themselves but also of the religious and social life of the 14th century. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S. it is traditionally thought. he said that Becket was no longer a saint. There were twenty-nine pilgrims altogether. Seath J. The story of Thomas Becket is the subject of two modern plays. Archbishop Runcie.. You can still walk along some of the route. a middle-aged widow and numerous members of religious orders of one kind or another. a doctor. and his tomb was destroyed.. His visit to Canterbury in 1982 was an important historical event because it showed the spirit of understanding that exists now between the Roman Catholic and the Anglican Churches. so it cannot be ploughed by farmers or made into a motorway! If you have the energy to follow the route as far as Canterbury. including a knight. there is no real evidence of this.just 817 years after his death. and the Pope knelt in silence on Becket's steps . Тhe Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories told by the members of a group of pilgrims. was taken by pilgrims travelling to Canterbury. It was written in the 14th century. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S.

and by 1300 there were already 1. They are very fast runners. and there are twenty volumes. the publishing house which produces the Oxford English Dictionary. At this time. The Rover Group factory at Cowley. defines more than half a million words. Seath J. Oxford words The Oxford English Dictionary is well-known to students of English everywhere. there are about 12.TEXT 6 Oxford Town and gown There has been a town where Oxford now stands for many centuries . The townspeople were punished for this in two ways: they had to walk through the town to attend a special service on every St Scholastica's day until 1825.) 40 . for example. the festival of St Scholastica.500 students. it was poorer. is an important part of Britain's motor industry. Sixty-two students were killed. and there was often fighting in the streets. which killed many people in England. Oxford University Press. On 10th February 1355. the first written record of its existence. 'bulldog' in Oxford is the name given to University policemen who wear bowler hats and sometimes patrol the streets at night. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S. but by the middle of the 14th century. It is also an important centre in the world of medicine. the 19th century poet. In the 20th century. However. and the University and the town live happily side by side! City of dreaming spires The best-known description of Oxford is by Matthew Arnold. and the staff there will help you. the charity which raises millions of pounds to help poor people all over the world. a battle began which lasted two days. Relations between the students and the townspeople were very unfriendly. Worse than this. Nowadays. because of a decline in trade and because of the terrible plague.even before 912.. it is the home of Oxfam.. who wrote about 'that sweet city with her dreaming spires'. The new edition. and its airport contains Europe's leading air-training school. published in 1989. Oxford is not only famous for its architecture. For example. White G. 'Punt' is a word often used in both Oxford and Cambridge. If you have a question about the meaning of a word or its origin. Oxford was a wealthy town. the University was given control of the town for nearly 600 years. it has developed quickly as an industrial and commercial centre. you can write or telephone. It refers to a flat-bottomed boat with sloping ends which is moved by pushing a long pole in the water. has a special department called the Oxford Word and Language Service (OWLS for short). Some of the words are special Oxford words.000 students in Oxford. The University began to establish itself in the middle of the 12th century.

which has developed in response to the need for universities to increase their contact with high technology industry. There are pictures to show you the locations of the buildings which are described. park-like environment in which to work. you will be able to see evidence of its long history (and indeed the history of England) almost everywhere you look. which was founded in 1284. until today there are more than twenty colleges. and can be found on most tourists' lists of places to visit. As you read. which was opened in 1977. which started during the 13th century and grew steadily.TEXT 7 Cambridge Cambridge must be one of the best-known towns in the world. because of its magnificent chapel. The planners thought that it was important for people to have a pleasant. Almost all the colleges are now mixed.) TEXT 8 Colchester If you go for a walk through the streets of Colchester.. and the most recent is Robinson College. In the 1970s.the Cambridge Science Park. 41 . he University was exclusively for men until 1871 when the first women's college was opened. Seath J. The oldest college is Peterhouse. The principal reason for its fame is its University. This town trail will take you past the most famous buildings and give you some information about their importance in the development of the town. It was established in 1970 by Trinity College. Most of them allow visitors to enter the grounds and courtyards. Another was opened two years later and a third in 1954. most colleges opened their doors to both men and women. which has a long scientific tradition going back to Sir Isaac Newton. White G. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is also very well known. but the whole area is in fact very attractively designed. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S. The most famous is probably King's.. The most popular place from which to view them is from the Backs. follow the route on the map. The ideas of 'science' and 'parks' may not seem to go together naturally. Cambridge Science Park To the North of this ancient city is the modern face of the University . where the college grounds go down to the River Cam. with a lot of space between each building. It is now home to more than sixty companies and research institutes. but it will be many years before there are equal numbers of both sexes.

Walk down to Northgate Street and back up East Stockwell Street and you will see some fine mediaeval and Georgian houses. 4 Turn left along St Helen's Lane. This area is known as the Dutch Quarter because it is where Flemish weavers lived when they fled from the Netherlands in the 16th century. Bullet-holes made during the siege can still be seen clearly in the walls. which dates from the 11th century. the year of the tower's construction. 5 Next on the itinerary are the Castle and Museum. to the gates of Castle Park. where you will find a wonderful collection of Roman antiquities and a lot of information about Roman Colchester. ( from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S.. The season starts in October. Near St Helen's Chapel. Well-known people. Of course there are many other interesting places to visit in this historic town. Seath J. 6 Leaving the Castle. and Colchester became a town for retired Roman soldiers. was built on the site of a Roman temple. White G. In the evening. which used to be the West Gate of the town in Roman times.. The Romans invaded Britain in AD 43. the town's most famous landmark. are the remains of one of the walls of a Roman Theatre. turn left down East Hill to look at the Siege House. During the Civil War. but no doubt by now you will be ready to return to the Town Centre in search of tea and cakes! Do you like oysters? Colchester has been famous for its oysters from the River Colne since the time of the Romans. and every year the Mayor of Colchester goes out in a boat with a party of guests to fish the first oysters. the Oyster Feast is held in the Town Hall. and turn left into West Stockwell Street. usually television personalities. The road beyond the gateway is a modern by-pass. Colchester was defended by a Royalist Army and was besieged for eleven weeks before finally surrendering. one of the main streets during Roman times. They helped to improve the Colchester cloth industry.Colchester town trail 1 The trail starts at Balkerne Gate. 2 Walk towards the town centre along Balkerne Passage and you cannot miss 'Jumbo'.) 42 . on the corner. and is one of the best-preserved Roman gateways in Britain. so our route takes us back to the High Street and left a short way. past the Town Hall. It is a Victorian water-tower which took its name from a famous elephant sold to a circus in 1882. Now there is a museum inside. 3 Go up the hill into the High Street. The Castle. are invited as well as local people. but beside it you can see the original Roman walls. most of which have been restored.

. Seath J. which includes the famous miracle plays.TEXT 9 York Yorvik was the capital of a Viking kingdom. The National Railway Museum's collection of steam trains and Royal Carriages is world-famous. In the newest museum visitors travel in a special electric car (like a time machine) through an original Viking street with the sights. is a lively museum showing how the city of York grew during 1900 years. but all over the world! We don't know how he earned his living during these early years. even the ghost stories! As well as being an example of living history. was going to be such an important figure in English poetry and drama. ancient narrow streets. ( from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S. and 20th century York is. of course. In today's York there is a festival of music and the arts every summer. These are the religious plays which were performed in the streets in mediaeval York and which are still enjoyed in York today. the city knows well how to show its history to visitors. York was the second city of the land.not only in England. farmhouses and homes. York Story. an important farmer in Warwickshire. Most splendid of all.) TEXT 10 Stratford-upon-Avon In April 1564 a son was born to John and Mary Shakespeare at Henley Street. You can climb to the top of the tower. His father was a rich citizen whose business was making and selling leather gloves. Feeling energetic? Nothing could be better than a walk along the top of the three-mile city walls. His mother was the daughter of Robert Arden. It is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and the most important church in the North of England.. Georgian York was the social centre of the North. He may have helped his father in the family business or he may have been a country 43 . and that his plays would still be acted four hundred years later . In mediaeval times. Victorian York was an important railway centre. the home of world-famous chocolate and one of the most beautiful cities in the world. In the Castle Museum one can imagine oneself in a 19th century world of Victorian streets. where you can see the Roman remains. White G. Think of York and then think of historic things: battlements. Then visit York and find these impressions true. It is famous for its mediaeval stained glass windows. old houses and welcoming pubs where stories of ghosts are told around the fire. You can see the huge Minster for miles. shops. sounds and smells which a Viking in York would have experienced. glorious churches. and the interior is full of colour and light. The parents did not guess that their son. in Castlegate. Stratford-upon-Avon. is the magnificent Minster. go on a guided tour or take a trip into history below ground. among other things. William.

but in 1613 he finally stopped writing and went to live in Stratford where he died in 1616.schoolmaster for a time. who lived from 1572 to 1637. He is buried in Holy Trinity Church.. Hamnet (not Hamlet!). Shakespeare soon began to act and to write plays. and in 1599 the famous Globe Theatre was built on the south bank of the river Thames. and that he had to run away from the law. Seath J. It was in this theatre that most of his plays were performed and. He continued to write for the next ten years. and another girl. In 1587 Shakespeare went to work in London. leaving Anne and the children at home. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S. there was no performance. together with the atmosphere of a traditional street market. but now it is one of the biggest open-air markets and shopping centres in the United Kingdom. and who was also a famous writer of plays. then twins .. White G. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S. Shakespeare has been known as the 'Swan of Avon' ever since. Seath J. the year when Queen Elizabeth I died. One story says this is because he killed some deer which belonged to a rich landowner nearby. By 1603. If it rained. Shakespeare was already the leading poet and dramatist of his time. Years ago farmers used to sell their animals at the Bull Ring. In fact men used to sell their wives there as recently as the 18th century! (In 1733 Samuel Whitehouse sold his wife to Thomas Griffiths in the market place for a little more than one pound!) Although neither husbands nor wives are for sale nowadays. like all Elizabethan theatres. Judith.. Stratford-upon-Avon.) TEXT 11 Birmingham Buying and selling has been an important part of life in Birmingham for more than eight hundred years. By 1592 he was an important member of a well-known acting company. During these years his three children were born: Susannah.a son. Friday and Saturday. the colourful rag market can be found. Each Tuesday. the eldest. White G. People enjoy shopping there because it has modern shops..) 44 . Birmingham's markets offer a large choice of other goods. called Shakespeare 'Sweet swan of Avon'. Ben Jonson. People used to come to buy and sell old clothes (rags) but now there is a wide selection of modern fashions for everybody. it was a round building with the stage in the centre open to the sky. the actors got wet! If the weather was too bad.

in spite of the fact that it has stood against several sieges.TEXT 12 Londonderry The city of Derry has a long history going back fourteen hundred years. the administrative center of Co Durham on the River Wear. White G. Picture 8.000 people out of a population of 30.dur.. 7. but today both the long and the short names are used. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S.the Great Siege which started in December 1688 and lasted until July the following year. At the time of the plantation the City of London in England sent over builders and money to rebuild Derry was renamed Londonderry. The best way to see the city of Derry is to walk along the famous city wall built by the planters in 1614.. The wall is about 1 mile (1.) thick. It is still unbroken . One siege in particular is famous . Seath J.the only complete city wall in Britain or Ireland .5 km. Search the internet and find information about Durham (see pictures 8-10)– a city in the North East of England. This historical event is still very much alive in people's memories and every year there is a ceremonial closing of the city gates to commemorate the siege.5 m.000 died of starvation before the siege was finally ended. 45 .) around and 21 feet (6.) Exercise. During this time the city was surrounded by James IPs army. Durham is a city in the North East of England on the River Wear. As a result.

46 . now part of Durham University.Picture 9. The Norman cathedral in Durham. Picture 10. Durham has a Norman cathedral and an 11-th century castle.

Many belong to the Labour party to which their members pay a 'political levy'. Most British unions are connected with particular occupations. But a large section of the public became disillusioned with the power of the unions and the government then passed laws to restrict this power. Immediately before then. To the increasing numbers of female and part-time workers in the workforce. reflecting a historical link with nonconformism. although they have the right to 'contract out' of this arrangement if they want to. Union membership has been declining since 1979 ( The decline of the unions). there is usually only one union for each group of employees rather than a separate one for each political party within that group. The City. being made up mostly of agricultural employers and independent farmers. At that time the members of unions belonging to the TUC made up more than half of all employed people in the country. service and banking. Most employers belong to it and so the advice which it gives to trade unions and the government is quite influential. it has a remarkably large influence. Unions have local branches. the TUC declared in 1994 that it was loosening its contacts with the Labour party and was going to forge closer contacts with other parties. There are more than a hundred of these. a small part of their union membership subscription is passed on to the party. who negotiates with the on-site management. The economy of Great Britain. At the work site. That is. In an effort to halt the decline. Considering the small number of people involved in agriculture in Britain (the smallest proportion in the whole of the EU). One other work organization needs special mention. some of which are called 'chapels'.5. became part of twentieth century folklore. the unions themselves are not usually formed along party lines. It does not belong to the TUC. representing employees in all types of business. the traditional structure of British unionism has seemed less relevant. This is the National Union of Farmers (NUF). The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a voluntary association of the country's trade unions. a union is represented by a shop steward. His (very rarely is it 'her') struggles with the foreman. However. The role of trade unions. Perhaps the decline in union membership is inevitable in view of the history of British unions as organizations for full-time male industrial workers. The industry and agriculture. This is perhaps because of the special 47 . TEXT 1 Work organizations The organization which represents employers in private industry is called the Confederation of British Industry (CBI). the leader of the TUC (its General Secretary) was one of the most powerful people in the country and was regularly consulted by the Prime Minister and other important government figures. the management-appointed overseer. that is.2.

More unions merged during the 1980s. but also to adapt to the increased power of employers to insist on making arrangements with a single union at the workplace rather than several.fascination that 'the land' holds for most British people. 48 . 3) affiliation to and support of the Labour Party. In 1868 the Trades Union Congress (TUC) was established as a coordinating body to represent the collective interests of workers with industrialists and with government. negotiations by one or more unions with an employer to achieve satisfactory rates of pay for the employees. and also because many of its members are wealthy. In 1974 a miners' strike brought down the Conservative government and five years later strike action brought down the Labour government. i. but by 1980 there were 438 unions with over 12 million members. the organised labour of Britain. By the mid 1970s over 25 per cent of the workforce were employed in firms of over 10. Its main characteristics are 1) the belief in collective bargaining with employers to protect the interests of its members. making it relatively easy for the NUF to make its demands heard. 'Beer and sandwich' lunches at which trade unionists and Prime Ministers discussed industrial strategy became a well-known feature of life at 10 Downing Street. During the 1960s and 1970s the unions became politically so powerful that no government could operate without closely consulting them. From 1945-79 the number of unions in the TUC decreased while the number of members increased.8 million members. partly because of falling membership. In 1960 there were 650 unions with 9. This centralisation was an inevitable response to the growing concentration of capital power. thus leading to a smaller number of more powerful unions. especially where a particular skill was involved.000 employees in the private sector alone. What do you know about work organizations in Russia? TEXT 2 The trade unions The other central actor in industry is the trade union movement. the Transport and General Workers (TGWU) had 2 million members in 1979. 2) a willingness to be militant. The largest union. using any form of industrial action to be effective. Originally many of the unions were organised to protect their members not only against employers but often against other workers. but both had been unsuccessful and decided that voluntary agreements were the only fruitful solution. Answer the question. as had traditionally happened. Throughout the period both Labour and Conservative governments had tried to introduce laws to limit union power.e.

1984 and 1988. in response to labour 49 . Ethnic minorities.7 per cent of the total population but are likely to rise to about 7 per cent in the early years of the 21st century. Union power was also weakened by the exclusion of the TUC from consultation with government . These laws had two main aims. and by the shift in the national economy.The Conservative government elected in 1979. and required that the members of each union should vote on whether they should have a political fund (a clear attempt to destroy the financing of the Labour Party).2 million (53 per cent of the employed workforce) in 1979 to 8. brought great stress to the union movement. Finally. and the second was to shift the balance of power within each union. particularly to those most resistant to economic and technological change. The ethnic dimension The ethnic minority communities in Britain are about 5. Social and ethnic structure. so the loss in manufacturing was not made up in those more beer and sandwiches at Downing Street.7 million by 1989. What is the role of the trade unions in your country? 2. Answer the question. not only in Britain but in the industrialised world generally. Most of the shrinkage was explained by growing unemployment. The first was to restrict and regulate the power of unions in industry. however. on account of their higher birth rate. threatened union funds for any violation of the new laws. insisted that all union leaders should be subject to periodic elections by secret ballot. 1982. in the belief that ordinary members of unions would moderate the behaviour of their officials. changing economic circumstances. weakened the right of unions to insist that all workers at a particular workplace belonged to a union.6. made union leaders liable to legal prosecution if they organised a strike without a secret ballot of membership. Union membership was far lower in the new and growing service industries. Reading Read the text about ethnic minority communities in Britain and say what is done in the country to avoid tension between ethnic groups and discrimination of minorities. was determined to limit union power by law and introduced a series of laws in 1980. Union power was further weakened by a fall in membership. Black immigrants first started coming to Britain in substantial numbers from 1948 onwards. classes. The laws reduced picketing rights (assembling outside workplace entrances to discourage anyone from entering) and the right to secondary action (sympathy strikes or other action at workplaces not directly involved in the dispute). from 12. Migration and immigration.

and ended the automatic right of anyone born in Britain to British citizenship. Black people have generally had the worst paid jobs. There were already several thousand non-white Britons.000 more people left Britain permanently than entered to settle. Integration is difficult in a hostile climate. mainly in ports like Liverpool. however. Although these laws were not specific. it was difficult to avoid the conclusion that they were particularly aimed at coloured or black immigrants. But immigration has been dropping steadily since its peak year in 1967 and. There is anger too. In the mid 1960s the government introduced the first of three Race Relations Acts in order to eliminate racial discrimination.shortages. During the 1980s her government restricted immigration further. in the thirty years up to 1982 750. Before she came to power. for she had touched upon a widespread but ill-informed view of immigration. but during the 1960s and 1970s a large number came from India. which has been persistently echoed in the press. lived in the worst housing and encountered hostility from white neighbours. Over the years the situation for the ethnic minorities has not improved. although this is not widely known.5 million people of ethnic minority origin and contributed to the level of hostility many of them felt in Britain. Bristol and Cardiff. and to prevent the publication of any material likely to stir up racial hatred. At the same time. that the problem is one of immigration into an already overcrowded island. The other charge frequently levelled against the ethnic minority communities is their "failure to integrate". Margaret Thatcher promised that a Conservative government would "finally see an end to immigration". The immigrants arriving in waves in the 1950s and after soon discovered that they were the target of discrimination in class and status. At first almost all came from the West Indies. The ethnic minority communities feel that they face hostility not only from the white people amongst whom they live but also from the authorities. because the processing of applications for immigrants and for those seeking political asylum can take years because of bureaucratic inefficiency. Some families dated back to the eighteenth century and slave trading. Mrs Thatcher's provocative remarks angered the country's 2. for she also spoke sympathetically of the fears of white Britons that they might be "swamped by people with a different culture". The initial view that black immigrants would assimilate into the host community was quickly proved wrong. In 50 . Implicit in these words was the aim of bringing to an end the arrival of coloured or black immigrants. there is understandable resentment at the idea of immigrants competing for a scarce resource. laws were introduced to restrict immigration. housing and other areas. Pakistan and Bangladesh. For people either living in areas of poor housing or in need of their own home. They were used to discrimination. Since then immigrants and emigrants have nearly balanced. The 1977 Race Discrimination Act sought to prevent discrimination in employment.

compared with 32 per cent of AfroCaribbeans and 43 per cent of Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Blacks. recruitment is very low. In 1982 unemployment among whites was 13 per cent. that any attempt was made to recruit members of the ethnic minority communities. Like women. The unemployment figures confirm this. Even in the provision of housing. were born in Britain. using two actors. ethnic minority workers tend to be concentrated in particular areas of work. or at least a failure to involve the ethnic minority groups adequately. which performs most of London's ceremonial and royal parades. By 1988 two black guardsmen had been recruited. is apparent in many institutions. which has made many statements on racial equality. In 1988 the Transport and General Workers' Union had only one out of 500 fulltime officials who was black. one white. Because the police force is perceived as hostile to the ethnic minority communities. A black is likely to find it harder to obtain credit from At a popular level Afro-Caribbeans and Asians experience disadvantage. blacks made up 20 per cent of those held in custody in England and Wales. non-manual black workers on average earn only about three quarters of the wages of white colleagues. A government survey in 1986 found that among white youths aged 16-24. Other cases of racial bullying and abuse in the army and the police force were periodically reported in the press. and because of the racial abuse experienced by the few who have joined.9 per cent of the police in England and Wales. One controlled experiment. and 38 per cent of those held in custody in London. Moreover. A study in 1989 showed that although only 6 per cent of the population. one of whom complained of "intolerable racial abuse and bullying". There is also clear evidence that the police more readily arrest blacks than whites. Even in the trade union movement.1989 the Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants claimed that each month hundreds of black people were stopped at random by the police to check whether they were illegal immigrants. It may merely be that they find greater a bank or a loan to purchase a house.6 per cent of applicants were black. Black people feel harassed by such treatment. Discrimination. By 1989 coloured police officers made up only 0. blacks are under-represented. particularly since a growing number of black youths. the main target of the police. Immigrants may have difficulty getting a job. it was only after Prince Charles had drawn attention to the absence of black recruits in the Brigade of Guards. in declining industries or in unpopular night-shift work. there is widespread 51 . A Home Office survey of two police stations indicated that in some areas a young black man was ten times more likely to be stopped in the street by police than the average white citizen. and 25 per cent among Afro-Caribbeans. The army is a good example. 17 per cent were out of work. it seems are both twice as likely to be held in custody before trial and twice as likely to be acquitted once their case is heard by a magistrate. the other black. and only one out of 881 people recruited as officers was black. Like women. demonstrated that a white is ten times more likely to obtain a job than a black. too. In 1988 only 1. These cases were not unique.

harassment or even attack. They discover prejudice at school and on the streets. are often resented when they surpass whites. poor education. In 1981 there were serious riots in two deprived inner city areas: Brixton in south London and Toxteth in Liverpool. for example by not letting their children play outside. a survey in 1988 showed that 45 per cent of victims of racial harassment had been forced to alter their pattern of life. Two London borough councils during the 1980s were warned by the Commission for Racial Equality (a monitoring organisation) to stop discrimination in housing allocation. In all these cases . A government report in 1981 estimated that Asians were fifty times. or look the other way. One in four Asian households has direct experience of harassment. Mr Meah had been in London since 1963 but brought his family to Britain in 1981. Within weeks. create most of the trouble. and when they leave school they find it is far harder for them to find work than it is for whites. for example. swear and jostle Mrs Meah and her daughters whenever they left their flat. 52 . sometimes in specifically right wing groups like the National Front.the result of poor housing. Most members of the ethnic minorities live in deprived inner city areas where the quality of the schools is worse than elsewhere and where teachers may have lower expectations. It is hardly surprising that those aged between fifteen and twenty-five feel the greatest anger. Low expectations from their teachers and a sense of alienation from the majority white community are serious disadvantages. But elsewhere many Asian people go on suffering harassment. poor employment expectations and finally of insensitive policing . gangs of white youths began to spit. Four years later there was another outbreak of rioting in a number of poor urban areas across Britain. and Afro-Caribbeans thirty-six times more likely to be victims of a racially motivated incident than whites. Volunteers stayed with the Meah family to give them support and to call for help. Their car windscreen was repeatedly smashed. A relatively small number of activists.there was a major ethnic element. with a tendency for councils to allocate their better housing to whites. and obtained a council flat. Asians. The experience of the Meah family from Bangladesh is a good example. At a more serious level Afro-Caribbeans and Asians are frequent targets for verbal abuse. But a far greater number of whites will either sympathise with such activists.discrimination. who do better in formal education than Afro-Caribbeans and many white children. In Leeds. Difficulties for ethnic minority children begin when they go to school. Afro-Caribbeans are expected to remain at the bottom of the economic scale. Eventually the ringleaders were taken to court and the Meahs were left alone. Sometimes they were hit or had their hair pulled.

When the Afro-Caribbean footballer. Some remain firmly committed to the Labour Party. In 1984 the Lord Mayor of Bradford. But the suspicion remains. Others enter local government where. began to play for Liverpool Football Club. and half of those in the middle class. like women. (from Britain in Close-up byDavid McDowell) 53 . voted Conservative. Barnes refused to react. At the end of the 1970s nine out of ten Asians were Labour voters. who was elected to represent Leicester East in 1987. Barnes "has not so much been accepted as being black as forgiven for it". a number of successful Asians and Afro-Caribbeans continue to challenge the situation for the ethnic minority communities through support of the Labour Party. he was met with racist abuse from spectators. like Keith Vaz. By 1987 one in four Asians. In some places the barriers have begun to be broken down In some places the barriers have begun to be broken down. When play took him to the edge of the pitch he was spat upon and showered with bananas. Economic success has helped a number of Asians move into a more secure position in the middle class. but it has required determination (see picture 11 above). for example. John Barnes. But an increasing number of successful Asians have begun to vote Conservative. More black players have become a frequent sight in football matches. like other black players. traditionally more sympathetic to the position of the ethnic minority communities than the Conservatives. they have stronger representation. in the words of one newspaper that. Nevertheless. was an Asian.Picture 11. A few enter Parliament. and slowly won the respect of the crowds.

and the Yorkists. To avoid having the red cross touch the blue background. The symbols of Great Britain and of its different parts. 1801. TEXT 2 The Union Jack The earliest form of the flag of Great Britain developed in 1606 and used during the reigns of James I (1603–25) and Charles I (1625–49). with the red appearing below the white on the hoist half of the flag and above it on the fly half.Exercises: 1. They ended when Henry VII defeated and killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field and were followed by an era of stability and strong government which was welcomed by those weakened and impoverished by decades of war. who had their own private armies. The power of the greatest nobles. the red cross had to be bordered with white. a fimbriation (narrow border) of white was added to the red cross. the effective date of the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland. which would be contrary to heraldic law. Patrick from the red cross of St. The existing white Cross of St. whose symbol was a white rose. Find more facts about the present situation with the ethnic minority communities. In the centre. but the flag resumed its original form on the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. whose symbol was a red rose. 2. Patrick (a red diagonal cross on white) while preserving the individual entities of the three crosses the heraldic advisers to the sovereign found an elegant solution. In order to incorporate the Cross of St. 54 .7. Because in heraldry a red on blue is not considered permissible.‖ continue in use until January 1. The struggle for power led to the 'Wars of the Roses' between 145c and 148 c.‖ or ―Great Union. its own correct field. supported the descendants of the Duke of York. supported the descendants of the Duke of Lancaster. TEXT 1 The Wars of the Roses During the fifteenth century the throne of England was claimed by representatives of two rival groups. During the Commonwealth and Protectorate period (1649–60). Thus did the ―Union Flag. with the blue field of the latter. the Irish harp was incorporated in the Union Jack. a white fimbriation also separated the Cross of St. displayed the red cross of England superimposed on the white cross of Scotland. The Lancastrians. Andrew was divided diagonally. meant that constant challenges to the position of the monarch were possible. George. 2. Read the text again and write out the key ideas of it.

Burns' Night 25th January is celebrated all over the world by Scotsmen wherever they are. and it even has a special name. There are more than 100 malt whisky distilleries in the Highlands and it is not surprising that the word ―Scotch‖ (Scottish is used to describe someone or something from Scotland) is used to mean whisky throughout the world. Whisky was first produced in Scotland in 1494 and for many years there was a lot of smuggling to avoid paying taxes. For auld lang syne. New Year's Eve is a more important festival in Scotland than it is in England. as it is the birthday of Robert Burns. It is also thought lucky if this person brings a piece of coal and some white bread! Most Scots take part in a ceilidh (Gaelic for 'dance') on New Year's Eve and there is much dancing and singing until the early hours of the morning.TEXT 3 Scottish festivals Hogmanay At midnight on 31st December throughout Great Britain people celebrate the coming of the new year. potatoes and turnip is eaten. washed down by lots of whisky! The haggis is carried into the dining room behind a piper wearing traditional dress. For auld lang syne We'll take a cup of kindness yet. by holding hands in a large circle and singing this song: Should auld acquaintance be forgot And never brought to mind Should auld acquaintance be forgot For the sake of auld lang syne. my dear. Robert Burns. For the sake of auld lang syne. No two malt whiskies are the same. He wrote much of his poetry in the Scots dialect. many people believe that you will have good luck for the coming year if the first person to enter your house after midnight is a 'tall dark stranger'. 55 . but it is connected with the provision of food and drink for all visitors to your home on 31st December. and the taste can not be copied anywhere else in the world. As at hogmanay. 'For auld lang syne' means 'in memory of past times' and the words were written by Scotland's most famous poet. In addition. a special meal of haggis. It is not clear where the word 'hogmanay' comes from. as the water comes from the local hills. He then reads a poem written especially for the haggis! TEXT 4 Scotch Whisky A typical sight in many Highland valleys or glance are the white buildings of the malt whisky distilleries.

What Scottish festivals do you know? Do people in your country celebrate the same festivals? Are they exactly the same? 2. was founded a century ago on the rising nostalgia for a lost rural paradise.000 in the late 1970s to 2. 56 . would say their dream home was a country cottage with roses growing over the door. Broadly speaking there is a divide between the cultures of the controlling majority and those of the protesting minority. Answer the following questions: 1. Many people. whether they live in a suburban house or in a flat in a high-rise block. In 1996 there were well over 11 million visits to National Trust properties. illustrates its success in encouraging a love of the country and of the past. The National Trust.1. cottages and great country houses. Its rapid growth in membership from 315. Write down as many different drinks as you can think of. The nostalgia stems partly from a sense of loss which has lingered since the Industrial Revolution two centuries ago. the British have made a mental retreat from the urban environment. people who feel comparatively weak. One of the most striking aspects of popular mainstream culture in Britain is the love of the countryside (see picture 12).4 million in 1997. The National Trust can easily become an exercise in national nostalgia. it can also pander to a sense of deference to the great landed families. ethnicity and social outlook. How are they made? TEXT 5 The rural ideal There are many sub-cultures within Britain which reflect age. What colour combination on the Union Jack would be contrary to heraldic law? 3. class. They have a deep nostalgia for an idealised world of neat hedgerows. As a nation. How did the Wars of the Roses influence on establishing the national symbol of England? 2. and because so many properties are great houses. surrounded by parkland and eighteenth-century style gardens that looked harmonious and natural. and from a romantic love of nature which has been such a powerful theme in English literature. gender. which owns or manages hundreds of country estates and great country houses.

many suburban houses imitate a cottage style. are informal. such as St James's.000 people marched through central London in protest at what they saw as the government's neglect of the countryside. 14). Even in the heart of London.Picture 12. some with conflicting agendas. on average 300 people every day move to a dwelling in the country. The significance of the protest lay in the sheer number who attended. Yet most reject the urban industrial culture. In March 1998 about 250. many of whom were actually town dwellers. Many upper-middle-class people own a country cottage to which they retreat at weekends. 57 . but that was not the point. recreating a rural ideal. its great parks. In order to realise their rural dream. The majority of British may understand little of the real countryside. Britain is a country where over 80 per cent of the population live in towns of 50. One of the most striking aspects of popular mainstream culture in Britain is the love of the countryside A basic reason many town dwellers wish to live in the suburbs is to have a garden in which to grow flowers (see pictures 13.000 inhabitants or more. but it remains sufficiently important to their sense of identity for them to take to the streets if they think it is endangered. In fact the Countryside March was composed of different lobby groups. Indeed. viewing life in the city as an 'unnatural' economic necessity. Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens.

In order to realise their rural dream.Picture 13. on average 300 people every day move to a dwelling in the country 58 . Many upper-middle-class people own a country cottage to which they retreat at weekends Picture 14.

Cornhill Insurance began to sponsor English 'test' cricket in 1980 at a cost of £4. The initial purpose behind organised sport was to provide an outlet for youthful energies at public schools. the character of football (and other national sports) began to change. while by 1985 20 per cent had done so. Not until 1 968 were tennis professionals allowed to compete at Wimbledon. These days. like Stanley Matthews. until 1962. with no involvement in their club. Beforehand only 2 per cent of the population had heard of Cornhill. A process of alienation occurred between supporters and clubs. rugby football. lawn tennis. From the 1960s.a leisure-time activity which nobody was paid for taking part in. In many other sports there has been resistance to professionalism. many football stars moved into expensive suburbs and displayed their newly acquired wealth. and the lack of participation in the control of clubs. In the 1980s this alienation led some supporters to 59 . The decline in spectators forced club managers to make their sporting events less occasions for local support and more displays of spectacular skill. Supporters became primarily consumers. clubs sought external help from sponsorship and advertising. and Cornhill had almost doubled its turnover. In the second half of the nineteenth century it organised and exported a number of games. Football clubs quickly sprang up in towns and cities all over Britain. As match attendances dropped. notably football. From the 1960s. People thought it would spoil the sporting spirit. even when the two played together in the same team. hockey. remained in their local communities. one of the first teams to win the FA (Football Association) Cup was a team of amateur players (the Corinthians). golf and cricket. For example. however. In the 1950s football heroes. In cricket there was. undermined the traditional involvement and loyalty of supporters. the glamorous lives of some players. It was generally believed to have character-building qualities for future leaders. High transfer fees. Britain was the first country to organise sport as a national activity. supporting their local team. Commercial companies found this profitable. and football was rapidly taken into working-class culture. a rigid distinction between 'gentlemen' (amateurs) and 'players' (professionals). But it was not long before local businessmen began to organise football and other sports as recreational activity for their workforces.TEXT 6 The culture of sport Gentlemen and players The middle-class origins of much British sport means that it began as an amateur pastime . which has been played on a professional basis since 188 c.5 million. Football clubs started buying and selling players. A fundamental reason was financial. all 'first class' cricketers are professionals. The Saturday afternoon match was an occasion which working-class men would attend. Even in football. Few members of the teams they supported were genuinely local people who lived in the same community as their supporters.

were collectively set to eclipse ticket sales. They look forward to handsome returns on their investment.6 million British were playing it as recreation. Traditionally the clubs were run by committees usually composed of local people who treated the club as a prestigious hobby. the novelist Anthony Trollope listed the sports 'essentially dear to the English nature'. However. at the end of the twentieth century 1. Royal Ascot. of course. the sale of goods with the club logo. Tension now exists between the great magnates who own football clubs and the fans. as one journalist notes. which through the public school system established football. referring to the 'gentleman class'. In 1996. even though football has become such a spectator sport. A class dimension to sport persists. There is a price to be paid. By 1995 sponsorship. rowing and horse racing. All that changed with the creation of the Premier League in 1992. Thus the game has radically changed. they might lose television spectators but enjoy greater local participation. more than ever before. As a journalist says of one club which is a good business but a mediocre club. for example. rowing and horse racing. with the advent of major sponsorship. The Henley Regatta.' If football (and other sports) were not run as business enterprises. The club has misplaced its soul. 60 . launched with a lucrative five-year television deal with the BBC and BSkyB. Manchester United increased the annual value of its merchandising from £2 million to £23. As in football. Football had become big business. the finance has been revolutionised. It remains a truly national game. Hunting. In 1985 ticket sales were the most important source of revenue.demonstrate loyalty through their own action. Players are not only bought and sold for huge sums. In 1982 only 12 out of 92 football league clubs in Britain made a profit from spectators. shooting. because of the expense involved. But what will it do for the game? Over a century ago. By the year 2000 15 clubs will be listed on the stock market for public investment. Leeds United was acquired for over £20 million by a leisure company. the high point of the rowing season. and immediately began to attract private investors. 'something crucial has been sacrificed to make the books balance. Suddenly there was 15 times as much money. 'see rugby as part of the changing sociological face of the country as we move deeper into a leisure orientated world'.5 million. and polo at Windsor remain pinnacles of the upper-class summer season. 1992-95. These included hunting. He was. In 1996 the Rugby Football Union abandoned its amateur status and went professional. have remained primarily upper-class pastimes. Multimillionaires and commercial enterprises soon took an interest and several bought control of particular clubs. Meanwhile the football clubs have shifted their priority from simply playing the game to becoming profitable businesses. for horse racing. television coverage and 'merchandising'. In the space of three years. Investors. backers. inevitably leading to violence. rugby and cricket as national games. but receive enormous payment for their performance. and the marketing of merchandise. by invading football pitches and controlling the surrounding streets.

cricket and soccer. has captained the English football team and the black sprinter. sport remains one of the areas in which members of ethnic minorities have demonstrated their ability in a white-dominated society. Is there an equivalent nostalgia in your own country? 2. with a very high proportion of expublic school players. In what ways has the character of football as a national sport of Britain changed in the last 40 years? 61 . On the other hand. The black footballer. was the captain of the British men's Olympic team in both 1992 and 1996. Despite these areas of exclusivity. particularly in athletics. in England it has always been more socially exclusive. but with a growing middle-class following. Linford Christie. In 1996 the Professional Footballers Association could not name a single ex-public schoolboy playing in any of the football leagues. Paul Ince. Answer the following questions: 1. Is Britain‘s nostalgia for life in the countryside beneficial or damaging? State your opinion and support it with evidence from the text. Having gone professional. Football remains essentially lower class. while in Wales rugby has always been a mass game. What is the difference between ―gentlemen‖ and ―players‖? 3. rugby is bound to become more socially mixed.Golf is still to some extent financially segregated between exclusive private clubs and municipal facilities.

to deal with lawless nobles. He therefore avoided quarrels either with Scotland in the north. Henry VII made an important trade agreement with the Netherlands which allowed English trade to grow again. 3. TEXT 1 Henry VII Henry VII is less well known than either Henry VIII or Elizabeth 1. The authority of the law had been almost completely destroyed by the lawless behaviour of nobles and their armed men. Trade with Italy and France had also been reduced after England's defeat in France in the mid-fifteenth century.1. History. Henry also raised taxes for wars which he then did not fight. He had the same ideas and opinions as the growing classes of merchants and gentleman farmers. Like him they wanted peace and prosperity. England's trading position had been badly damaged. The strong German Hanseatic League. He created a new nobility from among them. During the fifteenth century. The Low Countries (the Netherlands and Belgium) alone offered a way in for trade in Europe. The history of the country. The home and foreign policy.Module 2 Chapter 3. but he was careful to keep the friendship of the merchant and lesser gentry classes. This meant that Henry had more power and more money than earlier kings. a closed trading society. In order to establish his authority beyond question. One might expect Henry to have been unpopular. hut particularly during the Wars of the Roses. except himself. and their lands had gone to the king. Henry VII (see picture 14) firmly believed that war and glory were bad for business. or France in the south. Local justice that had broken down during the wars slowly began to operate again. He never spent money unless he had to. The formation of the United Kingdom. and he based royal power on good business sense. and men unknown 62 . traditionally the king's council chamber. Henry's aim was to make the Crown financially independent. Henry encouraged the use of heavy fines as punishment because this gave the Crown money. and that business was good for the state. to keep armed men. Many of the old nobility had died or been defeated in the recent wars. Henry was fortunate. But he was far more important in establishing the new monarchy than either of them. he forbade anyone. and the lands and the fines he took from the old nobility helped him do this. had destroyed English trade with the Baltic and northern Europe. Henry used the "Court of Star Chamber". Only a year after his victory at Bosworth in 1485.

63 . When Henry died in 1509 he left behind the huge total of £2 million. The only thing on which he was happy to spend money freely was the building of ships for a merchant fleet. They were keen Protestant reformers because they had benefited from the sale of monastery lands. But they all knew that their rise to importance was completely dependent on the Crown. all the new landowners knew that they could only be sure of keeping their new lands if they made England truly Protestant. Henry VII. All the members of this council were from the new nobility created by the Tudors. Henry realised that England must have its own fleet of merchant ships. was only a child when he became king. about fifteen years' worth of income. Picture 14. Indeed. And in order to trade. Henry VIII's son.before now became Henry's statesmen. Why did Henry thing England must have the fleet? TEXT 2 The Protestant — Catholic struggle Edward VL. Why was Henry VII more powerfull than earlier kings? 2.. so the country was ruled by a council. Tudor (from An Illustrated History of Britain) Answer the questions: 1. Henry understood earlier than most people that England's future wealth would depend on international trade. What was the ‗Court of Star Chamber?‘ 3.

and the burnings began to sicken people. Only the knowledge that Mary herself was dying prevented a popular rebellion. was lucky to become queen when Mary died in 1558. Mary. Mary's half sister. Most people were not very happy with the new religion. for political. a Protestant. The marriage of a queen was therefore a difficult matter. Mary was unwise and unbending in her policy and her beliefs. If Mary married an Englishman she would be under the control of a man of lesser importance. They had been glad to see the end of some of the Church's bad practices like the selling of "pardons" for the forgiveness of sins. the Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon. but she took the unusual step of asking Parliament for its opinion about her marriage plan. She was the first queen of England since Matilda. Mary's marriage to Philip was the first mistake of her unfortunate reign. the thought of becoming a junior ally of Spain was very unpopular. Less than half the English were Protestant by belief. But Mary succeeded in entering London and took control of the kingdom. religious and family reasons. but these people were allowed to take a lead in religious matters. 400 years earlier. And she wanted to make England prosperous. do nothing. Parliament unwillingly agreed to Mary's marriage. Three hundred people died in this way during her five-year reign. She was supported by the ordinary people. A group of nobles tried to put Lady Jane Grey. Elizabeth had been wise enough to say nothing. In 1552 a new prayer book was introduced to make sure that all churches followed the new Protestant religion. became queen when Edward. Mary had considered killing her. She then began burning Protestants. Mary. as Philip's Spanish friends in England were quick to notice. and it only accepted Philip as king of England for Mary's lifetime. When she became queen in 1558. and to express neither Catholic nor Protestant views while Mary lived. Elizabeth. died in 1553. But they did not like the changes in belief. aged sixteen. Popular feeling was so strong that a rebellion in Kent actually reached London before ending in failure. However. on the throne. Elizabeth I wanted to find a peaceful answer to the problems of the English Reformation. She wanted to bring together again those parts of English society which were in religious disagreement. In some ways the kind of Protestantism finally agreed in 1559 remained closer to the Catholic religion than to other Protestant groups. and in some places there was trouble. And Philip persuaded Mary to leave Elizabeth unharmed. At the same time. chose to marry King Philip of Spain. But Elizabeth made sure that the Church was still under her 64 .Most English people still believed in the old Catholic religion. because she was an obvious leader for Protestant revolt. Mary dealt cruelly with the rebel leader. At that time women were considered to be inferior to men. It was an unfortunate choice. Wyatt. The ordinary people disliked the marriage. If she married a foreigner it might place England under foreign control. who were angered by the greed of the Protestant nobles.

and because Elizabeth had not married. and because with this claim Philip of Spain had decided to invade England. the Scottish queen. who was a Catholic. By 1585 most English people believed that to be a Catholic was to be an enemy of England. It was difficult for Elizabeth to decide what to do with Mary. was a discouragement to Philip. Mary soon made enemies of some of her nobles. He would not wish to defeat Elizabeth only to put Mary on the throne. The "parish". she made the Church part of the state machine. however. This meant that the parish priest. Both France and Spain were Catholic. The Catholic plots and the dangers of a foreign Catholic invasion had changed people's feelings. This 65 . Although most of the sermons consisted of Bible teaching. usually called "Queen of Scots". was the heir to the English throne because she was Elizabeth's closest living relative. usually the same size as a village. Mary's close connection with France. During that time Elizabeth discovered several secret Catholic plots. In a way. Mary's mother had been French. and to avoid them she finally escaped to the safety of England. Elizabeth.authority. some of which clearly aimed at making Mary queen of England. Elizabeth also arranged for a book of sermons to be used in church. Both the French and Spanish kings wanted to marry Elizabeth and so join England to their own country. But she was afraid that Spain might do so. When Elizabeth finally agreed to Mary's execution in 1587. unlike politically dangerous forms of Protestantism in Europe. This hatred of everything Catholic became an important political force. At the same time. the "parson" or "vicar". It would be giving England to the French. When she returned to rule Scotland as queen. there was a danger from those Catholic nobles still in England who wished to remove Elizabeth and replace her with the queen of Scotland. Finally. however. this book also taught the people that rebellion against the Crown was a sin against God. there was a danger that the pope would persuade Catholic countries to attack England. So for a long time Elizabeth just kept Mary as a prisoner. and Mary had spent her childhood in France. it was partly because Mary had named Philip as her heir to the throne of England. The struggle between Catholics and Protestants continued to endanger Elizabeth's position for the next thirty years. the area served by one church. however. Elizabeth and her advisers knew how much damage Mary had done and that it was important that she should avoid such a marriage. People had to go to church on Sundays by law and they were fined if they stayed away. and was a strong Catholic. In England Mary's execution was popular. Mary. Elizabeth and her advisers wanted to avoid open quarrels with both of them. kept Mary as a prisoner for almost twenty years. She knew that France was unlikely to attack England in support of Mary. Elizabeth no longer had a reason to keep Mary alive. became the unit of state administration. became almost as powerful as the village squire.

however. The yearly income of the Church in Scotland had been twice that of the monarch. the East India Company did begin to operate in India. TEXT 3 Mary Queen of Scots and the Scottish Reformation Mary was troubled by bad luck and wrong decisions (see picture 15). She returned to Scotland as both queen and widow in 1561. Before the end of the seventeenth century jading competition with the Dutch had led to three wars.was particularly to Bristol in southwest England. It took until the end of the eighteenth century for this trade to be ended. She was Catholic. Mary. but were unsuccessful. The East India Company was established mainly because the Dutch controlled the entire spice trade with the East Indies (Indonesia). and the East India Company to trade with India in 1600. The English were determined to have a share in this rich trade. as the Church in Scotland was called. The new Kirk was a far more democratic organisation than the English Church. However. During Elizabeth's reign more "chartered" companies. the Scottish monarch could take over the great wealth of the Church in Scotland and this would almost certainly mean awards of land to the nobles. Financially. in 1588. This growth of trade abroad was not entirely new. The Merchant Adventurers Company had already been established with royal support before the end of the fifteenth century. The new religion brought Scotland closer to England than France. and unable to interfere. but during her time in France Scotland had become officially and popularly Protestant. as they were known. where it bad a trading station from 1613-23. The quarrel over spices was England's first difficulty with the Church. was not in Scotland. Unlike the English. because it had no bishops and was governed by a General Assembly. the Levant Company to trade with the Ottoman Empire in 1581. Persia and even in Japan. the Scots were careful not to give the monarch authority over the new Protestant Scottish "Kirk". and this led quickly to the idea that education was important for everyone in Scotland. In return for this important advantage the chartered company gave some of its profits to the Crown. the Africa Company to trade in slaves. were established. Spices were extremely important for making the winter salted meat tastier. The Kirk taught the importance of personal belief and the study of the Bible. The Scottish nobles who supported friendship with England had welcomed Protestantism for both political and economic reasons. A "charter" gave a company the right to all the business in its particular trade or region. As a result most Scots remained better 66 . This was possible because the Reformation took place while the queen. A number of these companies were established during Elizabeth's reign: the Eastland Company to trade with Scandinavia and the Baltic in 1579.

By her behaviour Mary probably destroyed her chance of inheriting the English throne. In addition to her Catholicism and her strong French culture. Mary Queen of Scots TEXT 4 A Scottish king for England Mary's son. James VI. where she was held by Elizabeth for nineteen years before she was finally executed. But when she tired of him. until the end of the nineteenth century. in spite of its lawlessness. in 1568 she escaped to England. She made it clear she would not try to bring back Catholicism. she had shown very poor judgement. She found herself at war with her Scottish opponents. as he was her 67 . including the English. which were closely connected to those in Germany and Scandinavia. (from An Illustrated History of Britain) Picture 15. Protestantism had spread quickly through the Scottish universities. Mary was careful not to give the Kirk any reason for actually opposing her. Mary was soon married again. to Lord Darnley. she allowed herself to agree to his murder and married the murderer. a 'Scottish Catholic'.educated than other Europeans. and was soon captured and imprisoned. Bothwell. The new Kirk in Scotland disliked Mary and her French Catholicism. Scottish society. started to rule at the age of twelve in 1578. However. The English government did not look forward to the possibility of Mary succeeding Elizabeth as queen. He knew that if he behaved correctly he could expect to inherit the English throne after Elizabeth's death. was shocked. He showed great skill from an early age.

Mary Queen of Scots had poor judgement. they would probably have tried to find another successor to Elizabeth. James VI's greatest success was in gaining the English throne when Elizabeth died in 1603 at the unusually old age of 70 (see picture 16). Like the Tudors. and like them he worked with small councils. He brought the Catholic and Protestant nobles and also the Kirk more or less under royal control. their wild northern neighbour. Neither oF these qualities helped her in her relations with her cousin Elizabeth I. and an act of foolishness finally lost her head. in the last years of the sixteenth century. he was a firm believer in the authority of the Crown. Early in his reign. Few in England could have liked the idea of a new king coming from Scotland. (from An Illustrated History of Britain) 68 . But he did not have the money or military power of the Tudors. while remaining publicly the Protestant ally of England. but she was a beauty.closest relative. Picture 16. of ministers. he rebuilt the authority of the Scottish Crown after the disasters which had happened to his mother. The fact that England accepted him suggests that its leading statesmen had confidence in James's skills. But this was not true while he was king only in Scotland. These were the successes of an extremely clever diplomat. grandfather and great-grandfather. James VI is remembered as a weak man and a bad decision-maker. He managed to "face both ways". He also knew that a Catholic alliance between Spain and France might lead to an invasion of England so he knew he had to remain friendly with them too. rather than Parliament. Elizabeth I (1558-1603) If Elizabeth's advisers had had serious doubts about James as a suitable Protestant ruler.

became the most loved people of Britain. George VI and his consort. acquires sanctity and may be put on view for people to see. almost religious attitude to the sovereign. Comic as this may be.3. and by tours of the most badly bombed parts of I London. The idea of the Queen 69 . Almost 80 per cent of the population are strongly in favour of the monarchy. for example cutlery used on a royal visit somewhere. Never before has the Royal Family been the subject of such national and international interest. TEXT 1 The Royal Family Having refused to leave London during air attacks on the capital during the Second World War and remaining in Buckingham Palace after it was itself hit. that on the one hand it is important because it embodies national identity. Popular fascination means not only that approximately twenty books are published in Britain each year on the Royal Family. Fascination and reverence go further. but popular magazines all over Europe feature British royalty frequently. There is j a widely-held but contradictory attitude towards the monarchy. Otherwise she may not be touched . a fascination with royalty that hardly existed in previous centuries. Elizabeth (the I Queen Mother). Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and US President Reagan were on such good terms that they embraced when they met. that many British. or that she comes to tea. and probably fewer than 10 per cent are opposed to it. The British expect both the sovereign and heir apparent to marry someone worthy of the honour. Even ordinary items used by the Queen. but on the other hand that it is merely a harmless but colourful part of our heritage. according to one book on the subject up to one third of the nation. it reveals a popular state of mind. The role of the monarchy in the modern society. Since then the monarchy has gone from strength to strength.2 The history of the monarchy. In a country that prides itself on championing democracy. a member of foreign royalty or of the British nobility another curious contradiction with the idea of democracy. it can only be described as irrational… There is a reverential. The sanctity of the sovereign is such that she will shake hands but it is she who shakes the hand.for example. Indeed the monarchy has penetrated so deeply into national consciousness.since it implies disrespect to the royal personage. or that the dreamer rescues some member of the Royal Family from some danger and enjoys the latter's undying gratitude. that the Queen is their mother. the Royal Family has remained immensely popular. Despite the obvious contradiction between democracy and monarchy. at some stage in their lives dream about the Royal Family . This reverential attitude is partly to do with that "magical feeling" but it is also to do with a British love of hierarchy.

like the Queen. is also essential for the British monarchy. polo. yet undoubtedly are. however friendly she might be. No one outside the Palace knows for sure the size of the Royal Family's private fortunes. ones which are careful to avoid the accusation of interference in political life. Royal dignity is expressed formally through the ceremonies invented at the end of the last century. but some press estimates put it at about £5 billion in 1988. The Royal Family find the adulation of the nation a major and constant challenge. for example. even without power. Their position remains dependent on being seen. In practice. football-playing. many people resented her regal manner. prince with a regional dialect to command the same respect. She even wears a hat in public. But their style goes with the view Prince Charles expressed in 1981: "Monarchy is. for example. Prince Philip. but otherwise her clothes are staid. The Queen's wealth is free of all taxes. for a state school-educated. as it was thought. Their style of education and their sporting image (horse riding. It is impossible that the Queen should always be in sympathy with her Prime Minister. Prince Charles and his father. I do believe. The Queen wears colourful clothes which meet the need to be visible in public (at home she almost always wears quiet colours). for example from their clothes and also from their speech. Authority.embracing anyone apart from blood relatives or other royalty is unthinkable. Should the nation pay for an undemocratic institution? The Queen is reputed to be the wealthiest person in Britain. as she has been doing since 1952." It is a message about the preservation of the existing order of things and about the powerful influence royalty must have on national life. When Margaret Thatcher began to dress. the system mankind has so far evolved which comes nearest to ensuring stable government. but some wonder whether this is desirable. Every week the Queen receives the Prime Minister to discuss the matters of state. another expression of stability increasingly out of tune with changes in popular fashion. and on being seen to be a worthy symbol of the nation. but it is unlikely he will be seen wearing them. and skiing) lend weight to their authority. The Palace will not disclose what it considers a private matter. and talked of 'We' (as royalty traditionally do) rather than 'I'. which means that she is not subject 70 . The clothes Prince Charles wears must be seen to affirm this view of royalty. but at a day-to-day level even clothing is chosen to ensure dignity. but also because it is unthinkable that she or anyone in her immediate family should appear in court as a defendant. partly because judges are 'Her Majesty's Judges' and it is her law they exercise. It is rumoured that Prince Charles owns a pair of jeans. It would be difficult. This experience gives her immense authority. a substitute crown. the Queen is above the law. Their authority derives from many sources apart from constitutional ones. always dress correctly for the occasion. a reminder that she stands for stability and continuity. Royal authority is expressed in other ways.

It is not a salary.. which by 1991 was costing the taxpayer £9. In addition there are some conspicuously expensive items which are paid for by the taxpayer. Yet the Queen and other members of the Royal Family also receive a large sum from the any of the taxes used to limit wealth acquisition among the richest people in the country. And have one which pays for itself. even though her predicted expenditure for 1991 was only £5. too. but it has never been used in this role in spite of the wars in the Falklands (1982) and the Gulf (1991). This. Do you know why is it called this way? 71 . What is Civil List? TEXT 2 Read the text about the Wars of the Roses. have a frugal one . Is the monarchy popular in Britain.3 million to maintain and was also paid for by the taxpayer. As a result. How is the royal authority expressed? 5. for example the Royal Yacht Britannia. in 1991. The government has agreed on this ten-yearly payment because it agreed with the Palace that an annual request from the Queen for funds was undignified. But have a quiet one away from the tabloid headlines. What does queen‘s hat symbolize? 4.9 million. is too popular. known as the 'Civil List'. and is provided specifically to cover the expenses of the Royal Family in the discharge of its public duties.. at the beginning of the decade. the Queen was allocated an annual income of £7. The yacht has been justified through its dual role as a hospital ship.2 million yearly. 2. What made the royal family popular during the war? 3. "Have a royal family if you must. One irritated journalist wrote in 1988. and is provided for a ten-year period on an assumed rate of inflation for the period. But a government funding one of its own ministries in this way would be considered financially reckless. whether it is a rational institution for late twentieth-century Britain or not. is free of tax. (from Britain in Close-Up) Answer the questions: 1." The debate about the role and cost of the monarchy will continue. have a democratic one to whom nobody curtsies.9 million. Give the examples from the text. The monarchy. In 1990 the Royal Train cost £2. but it is doubtful whether mud will change before the end of the century.

But he was a civilised and gentle man. were put in the Tower by Richard of Gloucester. Richard of Gloucester. After his death in battle. He founded two places of learning that still exist. Like the Lancastrians. and King's College in Cambridge. the twelve-year-old Edward V and his younger brother.The Wars of the Roses Henry VI. This was because the Yorkists had strongly encouraged profitable trade. but his guilt has never been proved. In 1485 a challenger with a very distant claim to royal blood through John of Gaunt 72 . Edward had the advantage of his popularity with the merchants of London and the southeast of England. The war between York and Lancaster would probably have stopped then if Edward's son had been old enough to rule. Edward returned to England in 1471 and defeated the Lancastrians. his son Edward took up the struggle and won the throne in 1461. The discontented nobility were divided between those who remained loyal to Henry VI.000 men in his private army. England had lost a war and was ruled by a mentally ill king who was bad at choosing advisers. grew up to be simple-minded and book-loving. For example. the "Yorkists". Some of the nobles were extremely powerful. Edward was able to raise another army. But Henry's simple-mindedness gave way to periods of mental illness. But when Edward IV died in 1483. He hated the warlike nobles. The duke of York was the heir of the earl of March. Many of them continued to keep their own private armies after returning from the war in France. A month later the two princes were murdered. They remembered that Henry's grandfather Henry of Lancaster had taken the throne when Richard II was deposed. and was an unsuitable king for such a violent society. his own two sons. had not been so ambitious. who had become king as a baby. He could happily have spent his life in such places of learning. Eton College not far from London. and those who supported the duke of York. At last Edward IV was safe on the throne. It was perhaps natural that the nobles began to ask questions about who should be ruling the country. and used them to frighten local people into obeying them. and if Edward's brother. William Shakespeare's play Richard 111. Henry VI died in the Tower of London soon after. the "Lancastrians". Most of them were related to each other through marriage. particularly with Burgundy. Richard III had a better reason than most to wish his two nephews dead. by 1450 the duke of Buckingham had 2. There were not more than sixty noble families controlling England at this time. accuses Richard of murder and almost everyone believed it. In 1460 the duke of York claimed the throne for himself. almost certainly murdered. Richard took the Crown and became King Richard III. Some of these armies were large. Edward IV put Henry into the Tower of London. written a century later. Richard III was not popular. Lancastrians and Yorkists both disliked him. who had lost the competition for the throne when Richard II was deposed in 1399. but nine years later a new Lancastrian army rescued Henry and chased Edward out of the country.

By 1990 there were fifty member countries of the Commonwealth. (from An Illustrated History of Britain) Answer the questions: 1. It is true. both Lancastrians and Yorkists. the old nobility had nearly destroyed itself. because no one was interested in payment of ransom. Read the text about the Commonwealth and write out the key facts about the association of independent nations. the Commonwealth. The Wars of the Roses nearly destroyed the English idea of kingship for ever. What royal dynasties took part in the war and what dynasty came to rule the country after the war? 3. Henry Tudor was crowned king immediately. What are the years of this war? 3. Almost half the lords of the sixty noble families had died in the wars. His name was Henry Tudor. This was not true.landed in England with Breton soldiers to claim the throne. because York's symbol was a white rose. The Commonwealth Beyond its immediate foreign policy priorities. Many discontented lords. and Lancaster's a red one. for international issues to be discussed. Those captured in battle were usually killed immediately. on the battlefield. It was this fact which made it possible for the Tudors to build a new nation state.3 The history of the British Empire. The war had finally ended. Who and why called this war the Wars of the Roses? 2. with 73 . He met Richard III at Bosworth. Britain has important relations across the rest of the world. Fighting took place for only a total of fifteen months out of the whole twenty-five year period. and the battle quickly ended in his defeat and death. its ties with Europe and the United States. and he was half Welsh. Much later. Everyone was interested in destroying the opposing nobility. the novelist Walter Scott named these wars the "Wars of the Roses". unlike the formality of the United Nations. The Commonwealth of countries previously governed by Britain provides an informal forum. After 1460 there had been little respect for anything except the power to take the Crown. in the nineteenth century. that the wars were a disaster for the nobility. duke of Richmond. though this could not have been clear at the time. however. For the first time there had been no purpose in taking prisoners. Tudor historians made much of these wars and made it seem as if much of England had been destroyed. Only the nobles and their armies were involved. By the time of the battle of Bosworth in 1485. Half of Richard's army changed sides. joined him.

Some members feel that Britain's position on South Africa during the 1980s violated the Declaration's intent. enshrining agreed ideals or principles. ( from Britain in Close-up by David McDowell) Exercises: 1. In 1979 the Lusaka Declaration urged the eradication of racism as a priority for the Commonwealth. 74 . In 1971 the Singapore Declaration stated. the long-term future of the Commonwealth must be in doubt. Today that intimacy has been largely lost. and membership has more than doubled since then. have both weakened Britain's Commonwealth ties. it is most unlikely that Britain would withdraw except in an extreme situation. creed or political belief. twenty-one by 1965. Today there is no longer the strong sense of Commonwealth purpose that there was thirty years ago. and an ardent supporter of the Commonwealth idea. The disagreement in the 1980s over South Africa prompted some Conservative MPs to call for Britain's withdrawal from the international organisation it had created.the re-admission of Pakistan (which had left in 1972) and the entry of Namibia. it is unlikely Britain will do very much to revive it. and in their inalienable right to participate by means of free and democratic political processes in framing the society in which they live. The larger the Commonwealth becomes." As with the United Nations. the less effective it is as a place for the uninhibited exchange of views. The dramatic reduction of Britain's overseas aid during the 1980s. the growth of the Commonwealth is not necessarily a sign of its success. and point to the absence of democratic values of some members. Unless member countries feel there is some reason for perpetuating an organisation which represents historical accident rather than common purpose. colour. For Britain this is partly because the Commonwealth is now much less important economically than the European Community. many members fall short of their undertaking. But if the Commonwealth gently weakens. in equal rights for all citizens regardless of race. and sometimes issue a Declaration of Intent. The greatest strength of the Commonwealth in the 1960s and early 1970s was the intimacy of this varied club. The Queen is titular head of the Commonwealth. Despite ambivalent attitudes to the Commonwealth. However. Look at the map and find all the countries of the Commonwealth. actual head of eighteen countries. much of which went to Commonwealth countries. "We believe in the liberty of the individual. The heads of government of all Commonwealth countries meet every two years. There were only eleven members in 1960. On the other hand British critics of the Commonwealth suggest that Britain no longer has any relationship of value with many members. and the raising of education fees for overseas students in Britain.

of concealing the spying activities of his colleagues and of having Soviet agents as personal friends (1971). The air of mystery fascinates the public. In spite of government silence it has been common knowledge that two main organisations. knows best. whose identity we cannot be sure of. In 1968. His Prime Minister. MI5 and MI6. since it implies that neither Parliament nor people are sovereign. which was officially acknowledged in 1989. But for many years. Make sure you know the pronunciation of the countries in English and their names in Russian. MI6 (also known as the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS)). MI6 and the identity of its director has been well known to other governments. The question of security Secrecy is a very British obsession. British diplomats are coy. They refer to MI6 simply as 'the Friends'. 3. but Britain has pretended it does not. The relationships with Europe and Russia TEXT 1 Read the following text and make a short report about the secrecy as it is understood in the UK. he left politics and Britain with his Russian-born wife to live in Geneva. Virtually every other country admits it has a secret service of some kind. was repeatedly and falsely accused of being a KGB agent (1963). a Labour minister was falsely accused by MI5 (see below) of marrying a 'Soviet agent'. Harold Wilson. which the government only officially acknowledged in 1992. without the knowledge or consent of Parliament. is responsible for Britain's own security and the detection and arrest of foreign spies. on the grounds that some parliamentarians would be a security risk. Britain is possibly the most secretive country in the West. Secrecy may be romantic but there are serious implications in a democracy. It also gives the secret services a powerful hold on the country. and that someone else. Parliament is unable to know what is undertaken by Britain's security services. 75 . It is a strange argument for a parliamentary democracy to use.4 The foreign policy of Great Britain.000 individual lines each year. both in Britain and elsewhere. During the years 1965-80 a leading trade an investigation by The Observer newspaper suggested that official phone tapping rose to a level of 30. Secrecy provides a protection against public accountability. MI5. exist. runs Britain's spy network abroad. With his career destroyed.2. The success of Ian Fleming's hero James Bond and the novels of Len Deighton and John Le Carre owes much to this fascination.

MI6. On the other hand the authority required in. Whether Britain needed a nuclear deterrent for security rather than to increase its political influence has always been a matter for debate. In order to secure "the right to sit at the top of the table". many of which are over 250 years old. They felt he had acted in the public interest. as one Prime Minister put it. There is pride in their abilities and bravery. During the 1980s several important incidents occurred which demonstrate the British obsession with secrecy. and justified his disclosure. and imposed by. the government introduced a new Official Secrets Act which specifically stated that the disclosure of secrets "in the public interest" was no defence. There is also pride in the history and traditions of the Royal Navy. it is said. Afterwards. In 1984 Clive Ponting. After 1945 it was clear that Britain was no longer the foremost power it had been previously. at meetings of the JIC. Britain invested in the development and deployment of nuclear weapons. an army is deeply disliked by a nation of individualistic and antiauthoritarian people. the armed forces are the object of both pride and mockery. demonstrated in the 1982 recapture of the Falkland Islands/Las Malvinas and in the Gulf War. and the regiments of the Army. Any use of the armed forces in mainland Britain to maintain order would provoke a major popular protest. and from the Parliamentary Select Committee for Foreign Affairs. 76 .MI5. the police Special Branch and Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) are all coordinated by the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC). The jury found Ponting not guilty. The rivalry between these different intelligence networks is most in evidence. Ponting decided to send crucial evidence to this MP showing that he and Parliament were being misled. not on the grounds of secrecy but because it would reveal that the government had been deliberately misleading Parliament for the preceding two years. It soon found it could not afford production costs and became dependent on US-supplied weapons. From 1962 it purchased US Polaris missiles for its submarines. As a result of these two distinct attitudes. (from Britain in Close-up byDavid McDowell) TEXT 2 Read the text and explain why the British have mixed feelings about their armed forces. It concerned the sinking of the Argentinian warship the Belgrano in 1982. Ponting was prosecuted for violating the Official Secrets Act. a senior civil servant. the Royal Air Force. The armed forces The British have mixed feelings about their armed forces. which is composed of senior civil servants and intelligence chiefs responsible to the Cabinet Secretary and the Prime Minister. believed his ministers were deliberately concealing information from an interested MP.

The final maintenance bill might well be two or three times the initial purchase price." Such a view can hardly have a place in modern Europe. Britain in 1990 was less willing than its allies to reduce its military expenditure. the Falklands.000 million. For the rest of the time the ship was in port. although both countries were spending roughly the same amount of money. an almost threefold increase in destructive capability. "no other in NATO has such a high proportion of its aircraft gathering dust. but it would probably have been prudent to withdraw ten years earlier. Britain has adjusted militarily too slowly to its changing circumstances." The pressure to significantly reduce both the size and cost of Britain's armed forces cannot be ignored. or with its crew on leave. But in 1990 it also had many aircraft sitting unused: "While all air forces like to have reserves. It still has difficulty in giving up its nostalgic self-image of a great military power. it remains over-extended. However. Britain has maintained a nuclear deterrent and substantial armed forces in spite of its declining economic power. sailors and airmen (and 175. partly in response to the momentous changes in but also because it cannot afford to invest so much in the non-productive sector of a struggling economy. Take. He privately described NATO's purpose: "To keep the Russians out. Cyprus. 77 . Brunei.3 per cent of its gross domestic product on defence compared with West Germany's 3 per cent. Nevertheless Britain will have to review and reduce its military capability during the 1990s. compared with 48 warheads in the Polaris system. In fact Trident gives Britain a nuclear capacity greatly in excess of its true deterrent requirement. with each missile capable of carrying fourteen independent warheads. Britain and Israel both have about 550 combat aircraft. Although the bulk of British forces in 1990 were stationed in Germany as part of the NATO defence. Britain uses three times as many people to keep them in service." as one defence correspondent noted. mainly because it deploys them on more airstrips. A report in 1990 showed that out of the twenty-year life expected of the average naval vessel. In spite of the progressive contraction of its commitments. Each submarine will carry a potential total of 128 warheads.As in the political sphere. Are such costs worth it? The first Secretary General of NATO forty years ago was British. This provided Britain with a nuclear deterrent and a force of 300. the cost of its fleet. Each of four submarines will carry eight missiles. These are scheduled to come into service in the 1990s and last until about 2020.000 soldiers. there were also smaller forces in Belize. at a cost estimated in the late 1980s at £10. only five years were spent at sea. for example. being repaired or refitted. During the 1980s Britain also decided to replace the Polaris system with US Trident missiles. Gibraltar and Hong In line with its view of itself as the most important member of NATO after the US. the Americans in and the Germans down. In the 1970s it withdrew from its military 'east of Suez' role.000 civilians providing services for them) at an annual cost in 1990 of £20 billion. In 1990 Britain was spending 4. Or look at air force costs.

78 . regard themselves as families. It was established during the Second World War to work behind enemy lines. distinctly upper class in a way seldom found outside the Army. though it was seven years before the government admitted to this. With the likely decline in orders from the British armed forces several major companies face the choice of increasing arms sales to the Third World or diversifying into the much more competitive civil sector. It was this image of a tough. secret elite that stimulated such interest. During the 1980s the SAS was repeatedly in the news. It is also. Tanks. particularly in the smarter regiments. They sometimes operated in other countries to support regimes considered friendly to Britain. with 200 or more years of history. Britain has encouraged the development of a strong arms industry to supply the armed forces and also to make profitable sales internationally. It captured the imagination of many for its daring. skill and secrecy. 2. There is a commercial aspect to the strategic changes in Europe. The officer culture tends to be old-fashioned and conservative in its values and political outlook. until they inherit the family estate.The armed forces are likely to become a smaller more flexible force during the 1990s. Discuss the facts with your group mates and decide what else you would like to know about the British army. In 1980 the SAS became highly visible when some of its men stormed the Iranian Embassy in London to release embassy staff taken hostage. heavy artillery and the equipment suitable for a major European war are likely to be reduced. Infantry regiments. The sons of great landowners sometimes pursue an army career. After the war it continued to exist. but the Special Air Service (SAS) represents the tough operational elite. One further point needs to be made about the Army in particular. for example in a Guards regiment. It almost goes without saying that most officers in such regiments were educated at public schools. Men could only join the SAS from other army units after the most rigorous selection procedure for physical and mental ability. Many officers are the sons or grandsons of men who also served in the same regiment. 'go anywhere'. in favour of more helicopters and transport planes to produce a highly versatile rapid deployment force which can be used anywhere in the world. During the 1980s Britain became the largest international arms trader after the United States. like the Guards. Read the text again and write out the main facts about the armed forces of the UK. They also operated in Northern Ireland from 1969 onwards. cavalry. It is a deeply 'tribal' institution. Exercises: 1. The Guards may represent the upper-class elite in the Army. but was deliberately hidden from publicity. This need for greater flexibility was confirmed by the Gulf War in 1991. highland and rifle regiments.

How many of these do you know? Find the words you don‘t know in an English-English dictionary. WORD-PROCESSOR HARDWARE HANDS ON LAP-TOP COMPUTER GRAPHICS ELECTRONIC MAIL 512K LOADING MONITOR DISC DRIVE 79 . such as drama or sport. Pre-reading activities: 1. Do you think that some people play computer games too much and too often? 2. universities. In fact some people say that as computers become better at understanding and speaking we will prefer them to our friends! Computer words The arrival of computers has brought many new words into the English language. As well as using them for school exercises. What are the advantages and disadvantages of computers? How will they affect your life in the future? TEXT 1 Computers Computers have also started to play an important part in education. Schools and reforms of the 1980s. Find information on the topic you are interested in and make a 5-minute report to present in class. Most schools in the United Kingdom now have their own computer. They say that some young people use computers only for games and don't really learn anything. Education. Although a large number of teachers and parents see the advantages of computers. many young people are now able to write their own games as well. others are not so keen. Do you think that computers could replace teachers in schools? Why? 3. This will interfere with reading development or traditional hobbies. Higher education.5.3. 3.

Public schools in the UK are very famous private schools. What age do children start school at? What's the school-leaving age? Are there evening classes for adults? Do you have state and private universities? Do students get grants for further education? 80 . Comprehensive schools in the UK are open to all and are for all abilities. B+.g. University and college teachers are usually called lecturers or tutors. You can only get into a grammar school by competitive entry (an exam). for essays and projects during the term. instead of tests and exams there is continuous assessment with marks. [informal. If you pass your university exams. e. Colleges include teachertraining colleges.TEXT 2 Read the text about education on Britain. there are usually lectures (large classes listening to the teacher and taking notes). these are called GCSEs (age 16) and A-levels (age 18).) and tutorials (one student or a small group. you graduate (get a degree). A professor is a senior university academic who is a well-known specialist in his/her subject. Exams and qualifications take/do/sit an exam resit an exam (take it again because you did badly first time) pass (get the minimum grade or more) / do well in (get a high grade) an exam fail (you do not get the minimum grade) / do badly in (you fail. or grades. you'll probably do badly in the exam. or don't do as well as expected /as well as you wanted) an exam Before an exam it's a good idea to revise for it. In England. If you skip classes/lectures. working closely with a teacher). miss deliberately] Some schools give pupils tests regularly to check their progress. Find Russian equivalents of the words in the bold type. Talking about education In colleges and universities. technical colleges and general colleges of further education. 65%. Asking somebody about their country's education system. colleges and universities.g. seminars (10-20 students actively taking part in discussion etc. then you're a graduate and you may want to go on to a post-graduate course. The schoolleaving exams are held in May/June. A. e. In some schools.

I'm studying. but most of the time they just play. 4. she passed an exam and so got into her local_____(3) school. I've been revising/studying for an exam. 5. no other reason. She got a degree in personnel management from a private college. it's just that one gets money from the government and the courses are free. the other depends on fee-paying students. 3. 3. She would like to take up her education again more seriously. Congratulations! I hear you succeeded your examination! 3. Nelly Dawes went straight to___. How does it compare with the UK system and with the system in other countries represented in your class or that you know of? Is it possible to find satisfactory English translations for all the different aspects of education in your country? Follow-up activity: The education system in the USA is a bit different from in the UK. since most children go to a _______(4) school. No. but she works during the day. I didn't miss it deliberately. they have to finance their own studies. 7. C. Because I wanted to be a teacher. 81 . ours are given in grades. She's a professor in a primary school. 4. 2. Make a table for the various stages and types of education in your country.Do the exersises using the wolds in bold type. if she could get a______(7) or scholarship from the government. Her ambition is to go to a_________(8) and become a school-teacher. Nowadays her own children don't do that exam. like recognising a few numbers. that sort of thing.(1) school because there were very few _______(2) schools for younger children in those days. No. 7. She left school at 16 and did not go on to_______(5) education. 2. 5. they learn one or two things. B+. 2. When she was ready to go on to secondary school. 6. You can study a lot of different careers at this university. Find out what the following terms mean in the US education system. then goes to________(6) at the local school once a week to learn French. A. but a lot of kids stay on until eighteen. Correct the mis-collocations in these sentences. I got some good notes in my continuous assessment this term. I can't come out. It's sixteen. There isn't much difference. 4. What questions could you ask to get these answers? 1. 1. I'm passing an examination tomorrow. No. Fill the gaps in this life story of a British woman. Well. I was ill. you know. 6. 1. At 5. 8. He gave an interesting 45-minute conference on Goethe.

Oxbridge This name denotes the universities of Oxford and Cambridge.high-school TEXT 3 college sophomore graduate school Read about different types of universities in the United Kingdom. Oxbridge has the lowest student/staff ratio in Britain. known as 'Fellows'. The Fellows teach the college students. library and chapel and contain enough accommodation for at least half of their students. 18). both founded in the medieval period (see pictures 17. But it is possible to discern a few broad categories. both of which are legally entitled to a free copy of every book published in Britain. University College. Before 1 970 all Oxbridge colleges were single-sex (mostly for men). Picture 17. either one-to-one or in very small groups (known as 'tutorials' in Oxford and 'supervisions' in Cambridge). As well as the college libraries. Types of university There are no important official or legal distinctions between the various types of university in the country. each college having its own staff. 82 . Oxford They are federations of semi-independent colleges. Now. Most colleges have their own dining hall. the majority admit both sexes. Lectures and laboratory work are organized at university level. there are the two university libraries.

they prepared students for London University degrees. Their buildings were of local material. Edinburgh. scattered widely around the city. King’s College. 'redbrick'). At first. The last of these resembles Oxbridge in many ways. They catered only for local people. They have accommodation for most of their students on site and from their beginning. Many more have joined since. so that each college (most are nonresidential) is almost a separate university. They were Glasgow.) 83 .Picture 18. Its collegiate living arrangements are similar to Oxbridge. The University of London started in 1836 with just two colleges. Manchester and Leeds. but academic matters are organized at university level. often brick. but later they were given the right to award their own degrees. attracted students from all over the country. At all of them the pattern of study is closer to the continental tradition than to the English one . The campus universities These are purpose-built institutions located in the countryside but close to towns. while the other three are more like civic universities (see below) in that most of the students live at home or find their own rooms in town.there is less specialization than at Oxbridge. Cambridge seen from 'the Backs' The old Scottish universities By 1600 Scotland boasted four universities. The early nineteenth-century English universities Durham University was founded in 1832. The older civic ('redbrick') universities During the nineteenth century various institutes of higher education. usually with a technical bias. Sussex and Warwick (see picture 19). The central organization is responsible for little more than exams and the awarding of degrees. in contrast to the stone of older universities (hence the name. mostly in the early 1960s. Examples are East Anglia. and so became universities themselves. Lancaster. In the mid twentieth century they started to accept students from all over the country. sprang up in the new industrial towns and cities such as Birmingham. (Many were known as centres of student protest in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Aberdeen and St Andrews.

Answer the questions: 1. . They are now all financed by central government. often known as 'seminars'.They tend to emphasize relatively 'new' academic disciplines such as social sciences and to make greater use than other universities of teaching in small groups. Then. Salford near Manchester and Strathclyde in Glasgow) were promoted in this way.g. in the early 1970s. How can you explain the name ‗Redbrick universities‘? Give the examples of these universities. Picture 19. Sussex University Campus University The newer civic universities These were originally technical colleges set up by local authorities in the first half of the twentieth century. when ten of them (e. What are the newer civic universities. 4. which meant that as well as continuing with their former courses. What are campus universities? Do you like the idea of a campus university? Why (not)? 5. Who are the Fellows? 2. The first wave occurred in the mid 1960s. Check yourself. How many people are present at tutorials? 3. they were allowed to teach degree courses (the degrees being awarded by a national body). Their most notable feature is flexibility with regard to studying arrangements. including 'sandwich' courses (i. In the early 1990s most of these (and also some other colleges) became universities.e. studies interrupted periods of time outside education). What were they initially? What is a ‗sandwich course‘? Do you have ‗sandwich courses‘? What are their advantages? 84 . Their upgrading to university status took place in two waves. Aston in Birmingham. another thirty became 'polytechnics'.

Cambridge Cambridge must be one of the best-known towns in the world. because of its magnificent chapel. In the 1970s. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is also very well known. until today there are more than twenty colleges. It is now home to more than sixty companies and research institutes. Almost all the colleges are now mixed. which started during the 13th century and grew steadily. with a lot of space between each building. King's College Chapel The University was exclusively for men until 1871 when the first women's college was opened. Give examples of each. but it will be many years before there are equal numbers of both sexes. The oldest college is Peterhouse. which has developed in response to the need for universities to increase their contact with high technology industry. The most popular place from which to view them is from the Backs. The most famous is probably King's. which has a long scientific tradition going back to Sir Isaac Newton. which was opened in 1977.the Cambridge Science Park.Name the main types of British universities. but the whole area is in fact very attractively designed. Another was opened two years later and a third in 1954. The planners thought that it was important for people to have a pleasant. TEXT 4 Read the information about one of the oldest British universities. Most of them allow visitors to enter the grounds and courtyards. which was founded in 1284. The ideas of 'science' and 'parks' may not seem to go together naturally. Cambridge Science Park To the North of this ancient city is the modern face of the University . It was established in 1970 by Trinity College. The principal reason for its fame is its University. where the college grounds go down to the River Cam. park-like environment in which to work. Talking points: • What is the purpose of a science park? • What are the advantages to the University and to industry? 85 . and can be found on most tourists' lists of places to visit. and the most recent is Robinson College. most colleges opened their doors to both men and women.

They are learning how difficult it is to change from a school community to one of many thousands. there are regular seminars. Once or twice a term. Anyway. all the clubs and societies hold a 'freshers' fair' during which they try to persuade the new students to join their society.TEXT 5 Life at college British universities There are 46 universities in Britain. although they may move out into a rented room in their second or third year. For all British citizens a place at university brings with it a grant from their Local Education authority. Free at last! Most 18 and 19 year-olds in Britain are fairly independent people. and see it as a necessary part of becoming an adult. and competition for places at university is fierce. Freshers When they first arrive at college. and when the time comes to pick a college they usually choose one as far away from home as possible! So. Often freshers will live in a Hall of Residence on or near the college campus. Good 'A' Level results in at least two subjects are necessary to get a place at one. However. or share a house with friends. The grants cover tuition fees and some of the living expenses. students will have a tutorial. the three university terms are only ten weeks each. their children will receive a full grant which will cover all their expenses. but living in hall soon helps them to make new friends. This means that they see a tutor alone to discuss their work and their progress. and during vacation times families are reunited. groups of freshers are often seen walking around huge campuses. The freshers are told that it is important for them to come into contact with many opinions and activities during their time at university. at which one of a small group of students (probably not more than ten) reads a paper he or she has written. maps in hand and a worried look on their faces. Many freshers will feel very homesick for the first week or so. A fresher's life can be exciting but terrifying for the first week. Although parents may be a little sad to see this happen. good exam passes alone are not enough. The amount depends on the parents' income. If the parents do not earn much money. It is very unusual for university students to live at home. they usually approve of the move. The paper is then discussed by the tutor and the rest of the group. As well as lectures. but the choice can be a bit overwhelming! On the day that lectures start. Universities choose their students after interviews. During the first week. first year university students are called 'freshers'. In 86 . many students in northern and Scottish universities come from the south of England and vice versa. They also learn a new way of studying.

Nevertheless. Oxford University Press) 3. however. In the early 1990s private security firms were one of the fastest-growing businesses in the country. The system of justice. you will have wasted a great opportunity. There has also been some impatience with the rules of criminal procedure under which the police and courts have to operate. the study system is based entirely around such tutorials which take place once a week. What do they mean and do you agree? • How do British universities differ from universities in your country? What do you like and dislike about the British system? (from Spotlight on Britain. In 1994 the government was even considering helping members of these schemes to organize patrols. second or third class degree and be able to put BA (Bachelor of Arts) or BSc (Bachelor of Science) after their name. Most of them (over 90 per cent) will get a first. The police are not. But these figures may represent an increase in the number of victims willing to report rape rather than a real increase in cases of rape. They attempt to educate people in crime prevention and to encourage the people of a particular neighbourhood to look out for anything suspicious. Social services. TEXT 1 Crime and criminal procedure There is a widespread feeling among the British public that crime is increasing. it is generally accepted that in the last quarter of the twentieth century. One reason for this is that not all actual crimes are necessarily reported. the national health service. It will have been well earned! Talking points: • Is it a good thing to leave home at the age of 18? What are the advantages and disadvantages? • Many British people believe that if you do nothing more than study hard at university. of course. and some other universities.6. Figures on this matter are notoriously difficult to evaluate. above the law. This has gone together with a lack of confidence in the ability of the police to catch criminals. Another response to the perceived situation has been the growth of Neighbourhood Watch schemes. When they arrest somebody on suspicion of having committed a 87 . Official figures suggest that the crime of rape increased by more than 50% between 1988 and 1992.Oxford and Cambridge. Attending lectures is optional for 'Oxbridge' students! After three or four years (depending on the type of course and the university) these students will take their finals. And the fear of crime seems to have increased a lot. The police and its role. the number of crimes went up.

Examples are the building and running of old people's homes and the provision of 'home helps' for people who are disabled. Most of them are charities only in the legal sense (they are non-profit-making and 88 . In 1994 public concern about criminals ' getting away with it' led the government to make one very controversial change in the law. the government also takes a more active role in looking after people's welfare. on the other hand. unless they obtain special permission.e. What do you know about the British charity organizations? TEXT 2 Social services and charities As well as giving financial help. there is the traditional respect for privacy and the importance placed by successive governments on 'family values'. they have to follow certain procedures. For example. they are not allowed to detain a person for more than twentyfour hours without formally charging that person with having committed a crime. Even after they have charged somebody. there is the modern expectation that public agencies will intervene in people's private lives and their legal ability to do so. What are the most effective ways to bring down the level of crime? Pre-reading activity. These include the old.000 registered charities in the country today. What is the role of private security firms in Britain? 2. There seems to be a conflict of values in modern Britain. Social workers do a great deal of valuable work. Professional social workers have the task of identifying and helping members of the community in need. But they are also sometimes blamed for exactly the opposite — for taking children away from their families unnecessarily. But their task is often a thankless one. Taken together. especially women. the mentally handicapped and children suffering from neglect or from maltreatment. Answer the questions: 1. they need permission to remand that person in custody (i. Before the welfare state was established and the concept of 'social services' came into being. These organizations were (and still are) staffed mostly by unpaid volunteers. the poor and needy in Britain turned to the many charitable organizations for help.crime. For example. they are often blamed for not acting to protect children from violent parents. they have an income of more than £ 1 billion. On the one hand. There are more than 50. Services are run either directly or indirectly (through 'contracting out' to private companies) by local government. and relied (and still do rely) on voluntary contributions from the public. to keep him or her in prison) until the case is heard in court.

so do not pay income tax) and have never had any relevance to the poor and needy. Charities and the social services departments of local authorities sometimes co-operate.7. there are still today a large number which offer help to large sections of the public in various ways ( some well-known charities). Have you seen any films about King Arthur? Can you retell the plot? 2. The CAB is funded by local authorities and the Department of Trade and Industry. What else do you know about King Arthur? TEXT 2 Robin Hood Robin Hood is a legendary' folk hero.the very people who became 'the English'! Exercise 1. He was constantly hunted by the local sheriff (the royal representative) but was never captured. but the offices are staffed by volunteers. he lived long before medieval times and was a Romanized Celt trying to hold back the advances of the Anglo-Saxons . which has a network of offices throughout the country offering free information and advice. 89 . While Richard was away. One example is the 'meals-on-wheels' system. In folklore and myth he is a great English hero. Task. Outstanding people in the history of the country TEXT 1 King Arthur King Arthur provides a wonderful example of the distortions of popular history. Another example is the Citizens Advice Bureau (CAB). Answer the following questions. and he and his knights of the round table are regarded as the perfect example of medieval nobility and chivalry. 1. England was governed by his brother John. However. Surf the NET and make a report about the British Legion. 3. whereby food is cooked by local government staff and then distributed by volunteers to the homes of people who cannot cook for themselves. According to legend. stealing from the rich and giving to the poor. King Richard I (1189-99) spent most of his reign fighting in the crusades (the wars between Christians and Muslims in the Middle East). In fact. Robin Hood lived with his band of 'merry men' in Sherwood Forest outside Nottingham. who was unpopular because of all the taxes he imposed.

… castle was on … small hill. Fill in A. Mary was a Catholic and nobles. 2 …King Richard‘s brother is … Prince John. But Mary succeeded in entering London and took control of the kingdom. visible from the outside. Only rich people could afford to buy … meat. TEXT 3 Read the entry from the tionary. her health was weak. 3 … Nottingham was … county town in … England. architecture popular throughout the Tudor period characterized by timber frameworks. AN or THE where necessary. 5 … poor people liked eating ―humble pies‖ for … lunch or … dinner. and Edward VI. Which members of Tudor family do you know? Tu·dor [‗tju: dər / ‗tu: dər] adjective 1 of English royal family or reign: relating to or belonging to the English . She was short and thin. During the reign of Edward VI most people got used to Protestantism. royal family that ruled between 1485 and 1603. The period is spanned by the reigns of Kings Henry VII. Mary was thirty-seven when she became queen. filled in with plaster or brick noun (plural Tu·dors) member of Tudor family: a member of the Tudor royal family TEXT 4 Bloody Mary (1553-1558) Queen Mary I ruled in England and Ireland from 1553 to 1558. besides Matilda who had ruled 400 years before Mary. She was not beautiful. There were … lot of counties. … Prince John loved to go hunting there. Besides. and Queens Mary I and Elizabeth I. on the throne. … John became king. she was unwise and unbending in her decisions. and Lady Jane Grey who had been the queen only for nine days. or to this period of English history. being afraid of religious persecutions tried to put Lady Jane Grey. 2 relating to Tudor architectural style: relating to or being a style of . Each county had … sheriff. 4 … sheriff of … Nottingham lived in … castle. When … King left … England. She was nicknamed Bloody Mary because of a large number of 90 . 1 … Sherwood Forest was …royal forest in …England. She was the first queen in Britain. Henry VIII. a Protestant.Exercise 1. Later Lady Jane Grey was executed.

What mistakes did Mary make during her reign? 6. Since women were considered to be inferior to men. Philip was in anger. Answer the following questions. her marriage would mean that she would be under Philip's control. but the news that Mary was dying stopped them. Historians say that people were dancing.religious persecutions that took place during her reign. He wanted at least to have a son. his dreams never came true. Why was she nicknamed Bloody? 4. an heir. That's why people disliked the marriage. Elizabeth I Henry VIII‘s second daughter. and he loved power. 1533 March 23. Numerous executions of Protestants began to sicken the people. Whose daughter was Mary I? 3. She dealt cruelly with the rebels and with those who did not want to accept Catholic teaching. Where is the borderline between monarch's cruelty and the wish to maintain order in the country? What do you think about Mary's methods of ruling over her subjects? TEXT 5 Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland Birth Death Royal Family Reign Signif icant Acts 91 September 7. They were greeting another queen. though it was defeated before it had reached London. They were about to rebel. Parliament agreed. not to let Mary's half-sister Elizabeth succeed to the throne. Mary made mistakes and the most serious one was her marriage to Philip. laughing in the streets of London when Bloody Mary died. together with the whole country. Exercise 1. in the South of England. A strong rebellion started in Kent. 1603 Tudor 1558-1603 . so his aim was the English throne. So. At last Mary took an unusual step of asking Parliament for its opinion about the marriage. Very soon he realized that Mary was not able to produce children. 1. Mary was unfortunate both in her reign and her private life. She loved him. but only accepted Philip as king of England for Mary's lifetime. King of Spain. What was her attitude towards Protestants? 5. What do you know about Lady Jane Grey? 2.

Queen of Scots 1586 Increased the persecution of Catholics after learning of a plot involving Anthony Babington. which created an independent and uniform English litany for religious worship Enacted the Act of the Thirty-nine Articles in 1563. after establishing Mary's involvement in the Babington Plot 1588 Enjoyed increased popularity after English ships defeated the Spanish Armada's attempt to attack England and restore Catholic leadership 1600 Granted the East India Company a monopoly on trade with overseas colonies in Asia 1601 Ordered the execution of her former close associate. which she later solidified with the Act of Uniformity (1559) and the Thirty-nine Articles (1563) 1569 Suppressed a Catholic rebellion in northern England 1571 Uncovered a Catholic conspiracy involving her cousin Mary. Mary I. a page to Mary. Robert Devereux. 92 . after his attempt to overthrow her English forces were assisted in their defeat of the Armada by Did the "Protestant Wind. Queen of Scots 1587 Agreed to the execution of Mary. culminating in the Poor Law Act of 1601. Earl of Essex." a huge storm that ravaged the Spanish ship You Know formation. which made local government responsible for its own impoverished citizens Milest ones 1536 Was exiled from the court following the execution of her mother. Anne Boleyn 1554 Was imprisoned in the Tower of London by her halfsister.Enacted the Act of Uniformity in 1559. who as a Catholic regarded the Protestant Elizabeth as a threat 1558 Ascended the throne following the death of Mary I 1558 Established Protestantism as the official religion. Queen of Scots. a compromise which formally separated the Anglican church from the Roman Catholic church Enacted various so-called "poor laws" during the 1590s.

thrift c) lacking strength or force. Do you know that. so she could not marry him. or overthrow. Match the words and their definitions. DO YOU KNOW THAT. during Elizabeth I's reign the question of religion was very important. as they were called. She ordered to change the Protestant Prayer Book to make it easier for Catholics to accept. 3.. she remembered her father's wives. 1. frail.. Elizabeth I was Queen for 44 years. It was Robert Dudley.. She began to restore the Church of England. The great drama and poetry of William Shakespeare. though a failure. . the founder of the first British colony in America was Walter Raleigh. Elizabeth apologized to Philip. or murder. "Virgin Queen". They used to attack Spanish ships as they returned from America with gold and silver. the King of Spain. but when she met him he had a wife. but at the same time did not refuse from her share of what had been taken from Spanish ships. because it endangered the position of England as an independent empire. to plot b) to admit defeat. They say that dying she whispered his name. She could not choose anyone from the English nobles. Thirdly. gold and other valuable things for sale. unlike all her predecessors. to agree to obey. and as a wife had to submit to her husband. feeble a) a person who held a position before someone else. and other English writers established the Elizabethan era as one of the most important in the history of English literature. the first English colony in America. Francis Drake and Martin Frobisher. it meant that the Queen of England had to submit to her "inferior" husband. 93 . Elizabeth I encouraged English seamen to go to America and bring silver. Secondly. The most famous of them were John Hawkins. Firstly. there is a version that she loved one man all her life. because all of them were inferior to her high position. were traders as well as pirates and adventurers.England emerged as a world economic and military power during Elizabeth's reign. whose terms had been much shorter owing to various factors like disease. Christopher Marlowe. Elizabeth did not want to persecute Catholics. Elizabeth I was called "Virgin Queen" because she never married. Spain and England were trade rivals and hence enemies.. The "sea dogs". Elizabeth could not choose the French or Spanish kings to marry. 2. was called Virginia in honour of Elizabeth I. her marriage could not be a matter of love. Exercise 1. two of whom had been executed. but only politics.

overthrow e) the part belonging to. TEXT 6 Isaac Newton The Reflecting Telescope In October 1667. Most scholars agree that Newton was the first to invent calculus. Mirrors reflect all colors of light by the same amount. 8.4. Thus he turned his attention to building a reflecting telescope. share h) wise and careful use of money and goods. 10. Newton was elected to a minor fellowship at Trinity College. adventurer g) a person who enjoys journeys. This controversy embittered Newton‘s last years and harmed relations between the scientific communities in Britain and on the European continent. esp. He used the foundations of 94 . soon after his return to Cambridge. It also slowed the progress of mathematical science in Britain. 5. The argues between two scientists Newton was entangled in a lengthy and bitter controversy with Leibniz over which of the two scientists had invented calculus. such as to be the rightful king. although Leibniz was the first to publish his findings. new experiences. His earlier experiments with the prism convinced him that a telescope‘s resolution is limited not s o much by the difficulty of building flawless lenses as by the general refraction differences of differently colored rays. or a telescope that uses mirrors instead of lenses. He believed that these differences would make it impossible to bring a beam of white light (which includes all the different colors of light) to a single focus. as a practical solution. 9. During this period he devoted much of his time to practical work in optics. often dangerous. or bend. 7. predecessor d) to give up officially (an official position. 6. which have survived to the present day with few changes. Mathematicians later adopted Leibniz‘s mathematical symbols. different colors of light by a slightly different amount. avoidance of waste. or done by a particular person. Newton observed that lenses refract. Six months later he received a major fellowship and shortly thereafter was named Master of Arts. that of king or queen). Newton’s impact on science Newton‘s place in scientific history rests on his application of mathematics to the study of nature and his explanation of a wide range of natural phenomena with one general principle—the law of gravitation. to abdicate j) removal from power. to submit f) a person who makes a claim (which is doubtful or not proved) to some high position. pretender i) (of a group of people) to make a secret plan for something harmful.

1727 ath Pla ce of Woolsthorpe. 1642 th De March 20. or the laws of nature governing motion and its effects on bodies. This reassessment of Newton‘s ideas about the universe led to the modern theory of relativity and to quantum theory.dynamics. chronology. the branch of mathematics now known as own for calculus Formulating the three laws of motion. Newton‘s work greatly influenced the development of physical sciences. Much of this expansion arose as a consequence of the Principia. alchemy. University of Cambridge reer 95 . scientists and philosophers found many new areas in which they applied Newton‘s methods of inquiry and analysis. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. 1727. Newton left substantial writings on theology. England Birth Kn Inventing. For systems of ordinary dimensions. involving velocities that do not approach the speed of light. the first scientist to be so honored. respectively. During the two centuries following publication of the Principia. as the basis of a mechanical picture of the universe. Sir Isaac Newton English mathematician and physicist Bir December 25. His achievements in the use of calculus went so far beyond previous discoveries that scientists and scholars regard him as the chief pioneer in this field of mathematics. In 1725 Newton moved from London to Kensington (then a village outside London) for health reasons. Scientists did not see the need for revision of some of Newton‘s conclusions until the early 20th century. which explains that all bodies are affected by the force called gravity Ca 1661 Entered Trinity College. in part. which describe classical mechanics Proposing the theory of universal gravitation. which deal with the special cases of physics involving high speeds and physics of very small dimensions. Besides his scientific work. the principles that Newton formulated nearly three centuries ago are still valid. He died there on March 20. and chemistry.

French writer Voltaire first recorded the story that a falling apple gave Newton the inspiration for his theory of gravitation. who had published the method first. and theology. England Birth Kn Proposing the theory of natural selection own for Ca 1831 Graduated from the University of Cambridge with a degree reer in theology 96 . Charles Robert Darwin British naturalist Bir February 12. 1882 ath Pla ce of Shrewsbury. Newton showed an interest in alchemy. Know Newton instigated a Royal Society investigation to prove that he invented calculus before German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. describing his theory that white light is a blend of different colors Di Newton was reluctant to share his research with other scientists d You for fear they would take credit for his discoveries.1665-1666 Developed what he called the fluxional method (now known as calculus) while living in seclusion to avoid the plague 1669-1701 Served as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge 1687 Published his seminal work. an organization that promotes the natural sciences 1704 Published Opticks (Optics). 1809 th De April 19. which contained his three laws of motion and the theory of gravitation 1703-1727 Acted as president of the Royal Society. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Voltaire cited Newton's niece as his source for the story. In addition to science. mysticism.

What university did Charles Darwin enter to become an unenthusiastic student of theology? 3. concurrently with a similar paper by British naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace 1859 Published On the Origin of Species. the paper was presented to the Linnaean Society. Darwin dropped out and entered the University of Cambridge.8. humour in Great Britain and other English speaking countries. values.1831-1836 Sailed around the world as a naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle 1839 Published notebooks containing meticulous observations of animal and plant species and geology made during the Beagle voyage 1858 Published a paper introducing his ideas on natural selection. British naturalist Alfred Wallace independently conceived a theory of natural selection identical to Darwin's. Exercise 1. Where was he buried? 4. Who and why did Newton argue with? 3. Initially a medical student at Edinburgh University. which explicitly stated that humans are descended from apes 1872 Published The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Di Prior to the publication of Darwin's ideas. most people believed d You that species were eternally unchanging. where he became an unenthusiastic student of theology. When did Charles Darwin publish complete theory of natural selection? 5. both Darwin's and Wallace's theories were presented on the same day in 1858 to the Linnean Society of London. stereotypes. 1. Darwin's father almost prohibited him from joining the Beagle voyage in 1831. a scientific organization in London. Know By implying that humans had evolved just like other species. his complete theory of natural selection 1871 Published The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. What is Isaak Newton famous for? 2. Faith and habits. Answer the following questions. 97 . Religion. for fear that it might lead him away from a future in the clergy. On the Origin of Species directly contradicted orthodox theological opinion.

Despite being very much a minority religion in most places in the country. for example. the Catholic Church. In modern times it is possible to detect opposing beliefs within it (there are conservative and radical/liberal wings). Surf the NET to find more information about British Catholic church Catholic schools in Britain TEXT 2 98 . For example. Only in the twentieth century did it become fully open about its activities. there is the matter of attendance at church. Many people who hardly ever step inside a church still feel entitled to describe themselves as 'Anglican'. as many British Catholics regularly go to church as do Anglicans. religious instruction is taken more seriously in Catholic schools than it is in Anglican ones. Not until 1850 was a British Catholic hierarchy reestablished. although Catholics comprise more than 10% of the population. the Catholic Church in Britain takes doctrine and practice (for example. a friar or a nun. First. They qualify this label with 'brought up as' or 'lapsed'. has maintained a greater cohesiveness and uniformity than the Anglican Church. more centralized control over practices of worship. Although Catholics can now be found in all ranks of society and in all occupations.TEXT 1 Catholicism After the establishment of Protestantism in Britain. A large proportion of Catholics in modern Britain are those whose family roots are in Italy. British people who were brought up as Catholics but who no longer attend mass regularly or receive the sacraments do not normally describe themselves as 'Catholic'. but there is. Partly because of its comparatively marginal status. Task. they comprise only around 5% of MPs.and a lot more seriously than the Anglican Church in general does. Ireland or elsewhere in Europe. official role to play in society. In contrast. weekly attendance at mass) a bit more seriously than it is taken in countries where Catholicism is the majority religion . Not having had a recognized. Second. This comparative dedication can be seen in two aspects of Catholic life. in the interests of self-preservation. The Irish connection is evident in the large proportion of priests in England who come from Ireland (they are sometimes said to be Ireland's biggest export!). the comparatively recent integration of Catholicism means that they are still under-represented at the top levels. Catholicism was for a time an illegal religion and then a barely tolerated religion. and Catholic schools in Britain usually have a head who is either a monk.

'Jokes are not just a bit of fun. professor of sociology and anthropology at the Open University. 'It was a profoundly depressing discovery. 'The most upsetting thing about this is that humour is the best way of spreading love and binding us all together. Yes.' Henry remembers watching as a joke at the expense of a colleague was emailed around an office he was visiting. advises caution in being offended by other people's humour. Gateshead. is in a joke? To get under the skin of the British sense of humour. they play with the taboo and the forbidden. in short. It was not all. They were joyless. eventually arriving on the screen of that person. but although we all tell funny stories and jokes. 'I talked to my daughter about this sort of thing. good.' Gillespie. Henry admits. of joke tellers. Gillespie's research has been used as the basis for a four-part television series hosted by Lenny Henry. racist or otherwise. clean fun. 'But instead I found that in some environments. and she confirmed that this is how humour is used when computers are involved.' said Dr Marie affairs correspondent Sunday June 10. I might as well have been back in Seventies Britain. British comedy is as robust as it has ever been. such as offices. the Open University has carried out a unique survey of the jokes people tell. humour was used to isolate others as a form of bullying. 2007 The Observer From The Office to Little Britain and Peep Show.So how funny is our sense of humour? After hearing jokes across Britain.' As part of an ongoing survey by the OU into jokes and their relationship with society. The one characteristic most of the jokes shared was that they were mean. 'The humour was predominantly racist.' he said. visiting family homes and workplaces to find out what humour means to people in different environments. with the rules of language and logic. They reveal a great deal about social conventions and expose established pieties. I was really shocked by the jokes a lot of people told. But are Cockneys really funnier than Scousers? What about the Welsh? The British take their humour seriously. I have been left wondering if that is what we've all become as a nation: mean and hateful. Gillespie has spent six months analysing the jokes of over 420 people as told over the past year to a travelling 'joke booth' in such unlikely outposts as the Bluewater shopping centre in Kent and the Metrocentre. but do the one-liners people tell really reveal something about society. Lenny Henry's verdict offers little cheer Amelia Hill. 'We have to be careful not to speculate about the intentions. Lenny's Britain tracks his experiences as he tours Britain with the joke booth.' he added. homophobic. and it's important to distinguish between a joke and the 99 . about who people are and how people have changed? What. however. 'I have to admit. not all of us get a laugh from them.' he said. mother-in-law and cannibal-fixated. most of the time. but jokes are also a barometer of the social and political climate. 'The defining trait of Britishness is our sense of humour.

or taken that way. Read the extract of the poem and say what heroes of Russian literature you can compare Beowulf with. said: 'Many jokes had a religious theme. priests and nuns who swear or drink or are associated with sauciness or sex.' 'Our humour has melded and bulged into that of the rest of the world.' she said. and later 100 . And if we lose our sense of humour. revealing the increasingly pervasive influence of TV. and the Danes. it is absolutely unmistakeable. The scene is set among the Jutes who lived on the Scandinavian peninsula at the time.1. emails and texting. in London.' Module 3 Chapter 4. or Geats.' said Gillespie. Read the introduction and say when the poem about Beowulf was written and where the events took place.. but it needn't be meant that way. There is no mention of England. author of Jokes and their Relation to Society and The Mirth of Nations.' So can the British congratulate themselves on their culturally superior sense of humour? Henry thinks not. The poem was compiled in the 10th century by an unknown scribe. But I fear it is being lost.' Perhaps the most unexpected finding was that not a single joke about class was told by the 212 men and 208 women who entered the booth in locations all round the UK and Ireland. 'A joke can easily be turned into an insult. Professor Christie Davies. their feasts and amusements.' he said. their love for the sea and for adventure. who also worked on the study. Literature and its connection with the national view and national concepts.uses of that joke. it makes me incredibly sad to think what other unique aspects of our cultural identity go with it. Pre-reading activity: 1. The poem shows us these warriors in battle and at peace. 'It seems like everyone is telling the same joke. The manuscript is in the British Museum. The Danes and the Jutes were great sailors. in the country of the Danes. It is sharp. Beowulf is a young knight of the Jutes. as the Jutes were called. their neighbours across the strait. Culture and art of Great Britain 4. so the text is in the English translation. featuring vicars. His adventures with a sea-monster abroad. ironic and powerful. 2. It is impossible for a non-specialist to read it in the original. 'It's a tragic shame: where the original British sense of humour still exists. Beowulf The beautiful Saxon poem called "Beowulf tells us of the times long before the Anglo-Saxons came to Britain. 'I found that amazing.

He was stronger than thirty men. He got more and more angry every day. Not far from the palace there was a large lake." answered Beowulf. That night the monster killed thirty warriors and drank their blood. He was lonely in his lake and he was very angry with the warriors because they were making merry. winter after winter the terrible monster came to the palace and killed men. Grendel heard the singing and laughing in Hrothgar's palace every evening and did not like it. they saw a man on horseback. and they ate and drank. The bravest and strongest warriors could do nothing against him. but they were all asleep. Then he took the bodies of the dead men and went back to his lake. Then he killed another warrior and drank his blood.with a fire-dragon at home. Soon he came near it. "Who are you and what are you doing here?" he asked them. Night after night. Their spears. Though fierce and cruel in war. arrows and swords could not kill Grendel. Beowulf fights for the benefit of his people. When they got off the ship. The next night Grendel came to the palace again. and his people loved him. II On the other side of the sea was the country of Geats. Grendel killed one of the warriors and drank his blood. We want to help you to fight the monster. just and kind. Again he killed thirty warriors. he respected men and women. Beowulf wanted to help King Hrothgar. His name was Grendel. It was still and dark inside. Men came from all parts of the country to look at the fine palace. There was a young man among the Geats whose name was Beowulf. and in battle he strives to be fair to the end." 101 . "We are warriors from the country of the Geats. He is ready to sacrifice his life for them. and in the morning they came to Denmark. They sailed the whole night. One day he heard about the terrible monster Grendel who killed thirty warriors every night in Denmark. form two parts in this heroic epic. danced and laughed. too. He was brave. I A long. got on a ship with them and sailed off across the sea. Every evening many people gathered in the palace. not for his own glory. "We know about Grendel. A great monster lived in that lake. long time ago the king of Denmark was Hrothgar. This went on for twelve years. Late one night Grendel got out of his lake and went to Hrothgar's palace. told stories and sang songs. He was the strongest man in the whole country. There were many warriors in the palace. drank their blood and carried their dead bodies into the lake. He found fourteen strong and brave warriors from among his friends. He was very brave and strong. He built a large and beautiful palace for himself and his warriors. month after month. There was no laughing and singing now. and Grendel went in. He was one of King Hrothgar's warriors.

Grendel appeared in the middle of the night." said Beowulf. The water of the lake was red with Grendel's blood. He quickly took it and killed the witch with it. 102 . But at that moment he saw Beowulf and a terrible fight began. They tried to kill the monster but they are all dead now. as he always did. The warriors did not know what to do. They fought for a long time." They got on their horses and rode to the lake. caught one of the warriors. killed him and carried him to the lake. And I shall fight without sword or spear or arrows. He ran back to his lake and died there. They looked with great surprise at Grendel's arm which was hanging from the ceiling in the middle of the palace." he said. Everybody was very glad. Beowulf told his fourteen friends to lie down and sleep. And here he was very surprised. "Let us go to the lake at once. This monster howled and ran out of the palace. the witch jumped on him and tried to kill him. Till late at night they talked. She was Grendel's mother. "I ask you to help me once more. "I am glad to see you and your friends brave Beowulf. King Hrothgar." Night came. killed one of the sleeping warriors and began to drink his blood. He caught Grendel by the arm and tore it off. At night everybody went to sleep. When his feet touched the bottom. because they won't help against him." answered Beowulf. Then Beowulf got off his horse and jumped into the lake. but she could not. In the morning King Hrothgar and his men came to the palace. "I shall stay in the palace for the night and meet Grendel. In the middle of the floor there was a bright fire. King Hrothgar smiled when he saw the Geats. "but I must tell you that your task will not be easy. "I shall gladly help you. The witch did not appear. sang and laughed in the palace as before. An ugly witch came out of the lake and quickly ran to the palace. When they reached it. You must know that many warriors spent a night in the palace. They waited." said Hrothgar. He quickly entered the palace. He himself waited for Grendel in the dark. People from all parts of the country came to look at Beowulf and thank him. Then they went to the lake. I shall kill this witch. But the troubles of Hrothgar and his men were not over. to Hrothgar's palace.The warrior took Beowulf and his friends. they saw that the lake was not quiet and its water was black. Everybody left the palace." I am not afraid. Only Beowulf and his friends remained. She ran into the palace. There was no water in the cave. brave Beowulf. Grendel was very strong. Then Beowulf saw the witch's cave and ran into it. It became cold and dark. but Beowulf was stronger. In the light of the fire Beowulf saw a magic sword on the wall.

Discuss in groups why you think people wrote "The Song of Beowulf". Some of our men were killed. when I was eighteen years old. 3. A ship which was passing by sent a boat and saved us. Our voyage to Africa was lucky. and the others were taken prisoner. I still wanted to be a sailor. Our ship struggled with the waves for a long time. but the pirates were stronger. and he saw the dead body of Grendel in a corner of the cave. That boy said to me. and I had to go on my second voyage to Africa without my friend. There I met the captain of a ship which was going to Africa. I was very young then and soon forgot the terrible storm. There I met a boy whom I knew. Extract 1. His friends were happy to see him alive. "[…]. In the open sea we were caught in a terrible storm. I agreed with pleasure. We liked each other and soon became friends. and agreed at once. The boy's father was the captain of a ship. Our sailors fought bravely. Beowulf took the magic sword and came out of the lake. (from Guide to English and American Literature) Exercises 1. of course. The captain was a very nice gentleman. In the morning we reached the shore. When 103 . King Hrothgar thanked Beowulf many times and gave him and his men many rich presents. many people came to say good-bye to him and to thank him again and again. It was a pirate ship and the pirates attacked us. I went to Hull." I was very glad. the captain died. The weather was fine and the sea was calm. One day. I always wanted to go to sea.At that moment the sun appeared over his head. But when we came back to England. When Beowulf and his friends were going home. Answer the questions: What does the poem tell us about? Why was Grendel angry with the warriors? What can prove that Beowulf was very strong? How did Beowulf kill Grendel? 2. My name is […] and I was born in the City of York. Of course. But not far from the shores of Africa we met a ship with a black flag. At first everything went well. do you want to sail on our ship? We start for London today. Speak about the fight of Beowulf and the witch. In the palace Beowulf told King Hrothgar and his warriors about his fight with the witch. I went to London. The captain invited me to sail to Africa with him. Finally it went to the bottom and we were all thrown into the sea. Read some extracts from books of famous British writers and decide where each extract is taken from.

the King and Queen. before one of the salt-cellars. he observed how contemptible a thing was human grandeur. "If only I could get near the window. so contemptuously treated. the captain took me to his house and made me his slave. noble Knight. laws. of our trade and wars by sea and land. the pride and envy of the world. after a hearty fit of laughing. the arbitress of Europe. that he made very wise reflections and observations upon all I said. as I have before observed. who waited behind him with a white staff near as tall as the mainmast of the "Royal Sovereign". to whom I was now become a great favourite. and stroking me gently with the other. and parties in the state. inquiring into the manners. She went on: 104 . they make a figure and dress in equipage. the prejudices of his education prevailed so far. and all these times my little chair and table were placed at his left hand. the seat of virtue. asked me whether I were a Whig or Tory? Then turning to his first minister. and see this brave game. But.the pirate ship came to the port. which could be mimicked by such diminutive insects as I: "and yet. [… ] was suffering from his inactivity. honour and truth. The heavy yet hasty step of the men-at-arms was heard on the battlements and in the narrow passages and stairs leading to different points of defence. was their Sabbath). ( from Guide to English and American Literature) Extract 3. This prince took a pleasure in conversing with me." said he I dare engage these creatures have their titles and distinctions of honour. "You will only injure yourself. (from Guide to English and American Literature) Extract 2. they betray." And thus he continued on while my colour came and went several times. I spent two years in the pirate captain's house. I confess. and his judgement so exact. that he could not forbear taking me up in his right hand. The voices of the Knights were heard commanding their followers and directing means of defence." he said. the noise of defensive preparations within the castle increased tenfold. they fight. government and learning of Europe. that they call houses and cities. piety. Meanwhile. of our schisms in religion. they cheat. with the royal issue of both sexes. wherein I gave him the best account I was able. His apprehension was so clear. they contrive little nests and burrows. It is the custom that every Wednesday (which. with indignation to hear our noble country." said Rebecca. they dispute. dine together in the apartment of his Majesty. they love. the mistress of arts and arms. religion. the scourge of France. that after I had been a little too copious in talking of my own beloved country.

What other British writers do you know? Make a 10-minute report about one of them. Refer to resource books on literature and make short notes on each of the writers. 2." "You must not—you shall not. Look at the list of American writers. 4." exclaimed […] ."I myself will stand at the window and describe to you as best I can what passes out. Look at the list of British writers. Chaucer (1340-1400) William Shakespeare (15641616) Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) Walter Scott (1771-1832) Robert Burns (1759-1796) Percy Bysshe Shelley (17921822) John Keats (1795-1821) George Gordon Byron (17881824) Charles Dickens (1812-1870) William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863) Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) 1950) Herbert George Wells (18661946) William Somerset Maugham (1874-1966) Graham Greene (1904-1991) Charles Percy Snow (19051980) Archibald Joseph Cronin (1896-1981) James Aldridge (born 1918) John Boynton Priestley (18941984) John Galsworthy (1867-1933) George Bernard Shaw (1856- 3. Make sure you know how to interpret their names into Russian." (from Guide to English and American Literature) Follow-up activities: 1. Make sure you know how to interpret their names into Russian. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Washington Irving (1783-1859) James Fenimore Cooper (17891851) Edgar Allan Рое (1809-1849) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) Walt Whitman (1819-1892) Mark Twain (1835-1910) 105 O. Henry (1862-1910) Jack London (1876-1916) Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896-1940) Ernest Hemingway (18991961) William Faulkner (1897-1962) . "Each opening will soon be a mark for the archers. Compare your notes in groups.

many of which still survive. The state rooms form the nucleus of the working Palace and are currently used regularly by Queen Elizabeth II and members of the royal family for official and state entertaining. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle epoque cream and gold colour scheme. and a major tourist attraction. The original early 19th-century interior designs. originally landscaped by Capability Brown. It has been a rallying point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and crisis. forming three wings around a central courtyard. on the advice of Sir Charles Long. the building forming the core of today's palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 and acquired by King George III in 1762 as a private residence. Picture19. included widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis. Architecture. It was enlarged over the next 75 years.Jerome David Salinger (born 1919) Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953) Lillian Hellman (1906-1984) 4. Buckingham Palace Originally known as Buckingham House (and often colloquially referred to as "Buck House"). The palace is a setting for state occasions and royal entertaining. principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore. Buckingham Palace is one of the world's most familiar 106 . but redesigned by William Townsend Aiton of Kew Gardens and John Nash.2. The Buckingham Palace Garden is the largest private garden in London. Buckingham Palace finally became the official royal palace of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House following the death of King George IV. Buckingham Palace (see picture 19) is the official London residence of the British monarch. The artificial lake was completed in 1828 and is supplied with water from the Serpentine. including the present-day public face of Buckingham Palace. known as "The Queen's House". a lake in Hyde Park. The last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th century.

and sometimes their prison. lunches. is the largest inhabited castle in the world and. Windsor Castle Most of the Kings and Queens of England have had a direct influence on the construction and evolution of the castle. This pattern has continued to the present day. The castle's floor area is approximately 45. are the Royal Family's private homes Picture 20. is the oldest in continuous occupation.000 square metres (about 484. receptions and the royal garden parties. official palace. however. Windsor Castle. The castle's history and that of the British monarchy are inextricably linked. a thousand-year-old fortress transformed into a royal palace. it is one of the principal official residences of the British monarch. in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. when the country has been at war. Windsor Castle Windsor Castle. the castle has been more heavily fortified.000 square feet). Together with Buckingham Palace in London and Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh. When the country has been at peace. This well-known silhouette of a seemingly medieval castle was not created. until the 1820s by Jeffry Wyatville (see picture 20). home. which has been their garrison fortress. Her other two residences. Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle. dinners. the castle has been expanded by the additions of large and grand apartments.buildings and more than 50. using it for both state and private entertaining. Royal Pavilion in Brighton 107 . Chronologically the history of the castle can be traced through the reigns of the monarchs who have occupied it. dating back to the time of William the Conqueror. Queen Elizabeth II spends many weekends of the year at the castle.000 people visit the palace each year as guests to banquets.

the fanciful interior design. is heavily influenced by both Chinese and Indian fashion (with Moghul and Islamic architectural elements). The Prince had wished to marry her. Royal Pavilion in Brighton. to designs by William Porden. Music and painting 108 . Picture 21. Mrs Fitzherbert. Being remote from the Royal Court in London.The Prince Regent. In 1786 he rented a farmhouse in the Old Steine area of Brighton. and may have done so secretly. and it is the work of Nash which can be seen today. It is a prime example of the exoticism that was an alternative to more classicising mainstream taste in the Regency style. the Pavilion (see picture 4) was also a discreet location for the Prince to enjoy liaisons with his long-time companion. Make a presentation. due to his physician advising him that the seawater would be beneficial to his gout. who later became King George IV. The palace looks rather striking in the middle of Brighton. however this was illegal due to her Catholic religion. on which was built in 1803 a grand riding school and stables in an Indian style. However.3. having a very Indian appearance on the outside (see picture 21). Henry Holland was soon employed to enlarge the building. 4. Find some information and photos about interesting buildings of your city. Task. The Prince also purchased land surrounding the property. first visited Brighton in the year of 1783. Between 1815 and 1822 the designer John Nash redesigned the palace. primarily by Frederick Crace and Robert Jones firm.

Pre-reading activity: What music do you listen to? Why do you like it? Reading More than 30 years of Rock Music The text discusses seven major groups and the music they like: Teddy Boys. shows which singles have sold the most copies during the previous week. What do you know about each of these groups? Top of the Pops Top of the Pops is a programme that has been shown every week on BBC TV for many years. The new chart. and especially on the kind of clothes they wear. Usually it will be those moving up the charts. was here to stay. Punks. or the new releases which the disc-jockeys (usually called DJs) think will be 'hits'. Rock-'n'-Roll. With this information. Each week computers in a number of record-shops throughout the United Kingdom show how many copies of a record have been sold that week. Over the last thirty years it has had an enormous effect on people's lives. When the American rock-and-roll singer Chuck Berry (see picture22. Mods. Chuck Berry 109 . Hippies. These videos have become so important in the last few years that they can help to make a record a hit. Skinheads and Bikers. Picture 22. Bands either appear live in the studio.) first sang 'Roll over Beethoven and tell Tchaikowsky the news!' in the 1950s. the show's producers decide which songs will be played. issued each Sunday afternoon. he was telling the world that the new music. each week the show finishes with the number one single. or in a video recording made especially to sell the record. Rockers. Of course.

The first group to be seen in the newspapers in the late 50s were the Teddy Boys (see picture23). Rockers listened mainly to rock-and-roll and had no time for Mod bands such as The Who or the Small Faces. had long untidy hair. The Teddy Boys Picture 24. called parkas. the rockers mainly drank alcohol. such as 110 . (so called because of their 'modern' style of dressing) became the new leaders of teenage fashion. drainpipe trousers (so tight they looked like drainpipes!) and brightly-coloured socks. But perhaps the Mods' most important possessions were their scooters. Short hair and smart suits were popular again. Whereas the Mods used purple-hearts (a stimulant or amphetamine. on public holidays during the summer. The Mods' greatest enemies were the Rockers who despised the Mods' scooters and smart clothes. Now they wore what they liked. to protect their clothes. In the mid-60s the Mods. so called because of its colour and shape) 'to get their kicks'. The Hippies. Before the arrival of the Teddy Boys young people had usually worn what their parents wore. Throughout the 60s. They rode powerful motor-bikes. groups of Mods and Rockers used to travel to the sea-side resorts of south-eastern England. They wore long green anoraks. Their shoes had very thick rubber soles and their hair was swept upwards and backwards. Picture 23. and wore thick leather jackets. Like the Teds. usually decorated with large numbers of lights and mirrors. Their clothes were supposed to be similar to those worn in Edwardian England (Ted and Teddy are abbreviations of Edward): long jackets with velvet collars.

Music. Hippies wore simple clothes. they wore their hair extremely short or even shaved it all off. England record label that featured bands such as The Specials. the dreams of peace and love disappeared in the early 70s as the mood of society changed. Skinheads were racist. 111 . Slade and Mott the Hoople. Symarip and The Pioneers. rocksteady and early reggae. some Suedeheads also listened to British glam rock bands such as The Sweet. which was a musical fusion of ska. rocksteady. pop and punk rock. As unemployment grew throughout the 70s. and get involved in battles with the police and with each other. Towards the end of the 60s a new group appeared. Derrick Morgan. The Hippies (see picture24) preached a philosophy of peace and love. The skinhead subculture was originally associated with music genres such as soul. a political party that wants Britain to be for white people only. in the USA. The 'uniform' worn by most of them consisted of trousers that were too short. who were attacked on the streets and in their homes. Many are members of the National Front. Unfortunately the mass unemployment of the 80s has caused an increase in the number of skinheads. The most popular music style for late-1970s skinheads was 2 Tone (also called Two Tone). People's attention turned to life's more basic problems as the world price of oil increased. causing a fall in living standards and rising inflation. enormous boots. ska. wore necklaces of coloured beads. began to include strange sounds and images in an attempt to recreate the 'psychedelic' or dream-like experience of drugs. reggae. Madness and The Selecter.The link between skinheads and Jamaican music led to the development of the skinhead reggae genre. violent. especially under the influence of the Beatles. sharing their possessions. blue jeans and open sandals. and braces. They often lived together in large communities. In the early 1970s. The record label scored many top 20 hits. Laurel Aitken. performed by artists such as Desmond Dekker.The 2 Tone genre was named after a Coventry. whose ideas started in California. As their name suggests. and grew their hair very long. groups of skinheads began to take their revenge on immigrants. It attracted thousands of tourists every year.Brighton and Margate. and proud of the fact. This was their protest against the materialism of the 60s and also against the increasing military involvement of the United States in Vietnam. and gave flowers to surprised strangers on the street. and eventually a number one. However. Nevertheless at that time 'swinging London' was everybody's idea of heaven! Young people were very clothes-conscious and London's Carnaby Street became the fashion centre of Europe and the world.

Like the Rockers. a new interest in discotheques and dancing has appeared. From America. who are still famous for their strange names. Black music has become increasingly important with international stars like Michael Jackson combining the best of modern music with spectacular live performances. They feel that the music of the 70s had become too complicated. The bestknown punk band of the 70s and early 80s were trie 'Sex Pistols'. Computerized drum machines. Bikers still enjoy 'heavy metal music' which is easily recognized by its high volume and use of electric guitars. Their music is loud. synthesizers and other electronic instruments are now just as popular as the electric guitar.Picture 25. and anti-racism concerts have been organized (known as Rock against Racism). It had lost touch with the feelings of'ordinary kids'. ( from Spotlight on Britain) Answer the questions: 112 . Many of the new bands of the 80s have been able to use the changes in technology to develop their music. Many of the bands contain both black and white musicians. The word Punk (see picture25) derives from American English and is often used to describe someone who is immoral or worthless. fast and tuneless. In the 1980s many new bands have emerged. and also old ones have reappeared. Punks' clothes show a rejection of conventional styles of dress. including Johnny Rotten and Sid Vicious. They sang songs about anarchy and destruction and upset many people by using bad language on television and by insulting the Queen. The punks. 'Dancing' is simply shaking your head violently to the rhythm of the music and so has become known as 'head banging'. 'Hip Hop' music has combined fast speaking in rhyme (called 'rapping') with the excitement of the rock beat. Towards the end of the 70s another style of music and dress appeared and is still very popular. Many new British bands combine raditional rock music with an infectious reggae beat. Out of punk has come New Wave music which totally rejects the ideas of the skinheads. West Indian music has also played a large part in forming people's musical tastes.

Are these movements popular in your country? Can you give the examples of the groups representing these movements. Tell about one of these movements in class.1. Which of the groups mentioned do you know? 2. 3. 113 . Write the review of one of the group‘s albums. 4. Writing task.

Exercise. William Hogarth Shrimp Girl Picture 27. Find information about the following pictures and the painters (see pictures 26-32). John Constable TheCorn field Picture 28. Gainsborough The Market Cart Thomas 114 . Gainsborough Mrs Sarah Siddons Thomas Picture 29. Picture 26.

Thomas Gainsborough The Kornard Forest Picture 31.Picture 30. William Hogarth Marriage a la mode 115 .

In England. The Art of Acting From the fall of the Roman Empire until the 10th century. acting hardly existed as an art in Western Europe. All the women's parts were played by boys. William Hogarth Marriage a la mode 4. Cinema and theatre Read and make the plan of the text TEXT 1 . It was very difficult for most actors to earn a living on the stage. the first real actors were amateurs who performed Miracle and Morality plays1 which were religious in character. even in a London company.4. Shakespeare himself joined the Earl2 of Leicester's company. At the time of Shakespeare there were at least six companies of actors. only the wandering minstrels gave entertainments in castles and at fairs. which under James I3 became known as the 'King's Men'. the first professional theatres were opened. In the Elizabethan age.Picture 32. and many of them fell into debt. There were also companies of boy actors. 116 .

others are making use of the audience in helping to interpret the play. в 1566 г. Why do the British people are so proud of W. References 1. One of the most famous actors of that time was Henry Irving.When Shakespeare arrived in London in 1586. the acting was very crude and conventional.) 4. олицетворяющими различные добродетели и пороки) 2. He was the first actor to be knighted. ниже маркиза и выше виконта) 3. it was the golden age of the theatre in England. Miracle and Morality plays ['mirakbndma'raeliti] — миракль и моралите (религиозно-нравоучительные представления в средневековом западноевропейском театре. There was almost no scenery. род. In the first half of the 17th century the influence of the Puritans4 was bad for the popular theatre. But. Like in Shakespeare's time. By the beginning of the 18th century the most popular type of play was the sentimental comedy. the best actors understood the importance of the team work of the company. The first part played by an actress was that of Desdemona. Peter Brook and others are trying out new styles of acting. театр. The most popular plays were comedies. But even at his time acting was not very popular. в частности. Nell Gwynn was the first English actress. Some go back to Greek methods. and it was not before the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 that theatre-going again became a popular habit. He hardly appeared to be acting at all. Designers make the settings as realistic as possible. нравоучительные пьесы с персонажами. During the 19th century acting became more and more naturalistic. with a revival of the chorus. An actor whose acting had offended the audience had to ask pardon on his knees before a full house before he could continue in his profession. Earl [э:1] — граф (титул. later. The acting was artificial probably due to the influence of French actors. не признававших. Shakespeare? 117 . степень сословия пэров. But when 'The Globe' was opened to the public in 1599. and the actors were dressed in the costumes of their day. Modern producers and directors Peter Hall. under the influence of David Garrick and some other actors. acting became much more naturalistic. вел борьбу против пуритан. the Puritans ['pjuantanz] — пуритане Answer the questions: 1. сын Марии Стюарт. David Garrick was one of the greatest actors known. By the 1920s naturalistic acting reached a peak in the performance of Sir Gerald du Maurier. At present most acting still continues to be naturalistic. James I ['d3eimzd3'f3:st] — Яков I {король Англии с 1603 по 1625.

Druidism flourished from the 2nd century BC through the 2nd century AD. TEXT 1 The Druids The Druids were the religious. They stood to the people of the Celtic tribes in a relation closely analogous to that in which the Brahmans of India. and magistral class among the Celtic people. They used no images to represent the object of their worship. knowledge about their practices is slight. placed in the manner of a table upon other stones set up on end. In the centre of the circle stood the Cromlech or altar. The Druids taught the existence of one god. learned. What renders this affinity more striking is that the Druids as well as the Phœnicians identified this. Our information respecting them is borrowed from notices in the Greek and Roman writers. Fire was regarded as a symbol of the divinity. Nineteenth-century American writer and mythologist Thomas Bulfinch drew the following stories about the Druids and their festivals from accounts written by ancient Romans and Greeks. These sacred circles were generally situated near some stream. and the priests of the Egyptians stood to the people respectively by whom they were revered. and Germany. The Druids had also their high places. The Druids were the priests or ministers of religion among the ancient Celtic nations in Gaul. Sightseeing and tourists attractions. the scholar." and which seems to have affinity with the Phœnician Baal. the Magi of Persia. on Salisbury Plain. A circle of stones (each stone generally of vast size). England. who lived mainly in the British Isles and areas of Gaul (now France). The most celebrated of these now remaining is Stonehenge. The Latin writers assert that the Druids also worshipped numerous inferior gods. to whom they gave a name "Be' al. which were large 118 . constituted their sacred place. nor did they meet in temples or buildings of any kind for the performance of their sacred rites. Because the druids relied on an oral tradition rather than written records. Britain. compared with the remains of Welsh and Gaelic poetry still extant." or "the source of all beings. with the Sun. The Druids combined the functions of the priest. their supreme deity. Why do they call him the ―Swan of Avon‖? Module 4 4. the magistrate.5. which was a large stone. and the physician. when the Romans suppressed Celtic culture and Christianity supplanted the Druids‘ religious functions." which Celtic antiquaries tell us means "the life of everything. or under the shadow of a grove or widespreading oak. enclosing an area of from twenty feet to thirty yards in diameter.2. and from fragments of ancient poetry.

The Druids observed two festivals in each year. to discharge the judicial functions of their order. in honour of the sun. All questions. The priest then. The former took place in the beginning of May. as for success in war or for relief from dangerous diseases." Many attempts have been made by Celtic writers to shake the testimony of the Roman historians to this fact. whose horns are then for the first time bound. which had been beforehand scrupulously extinguished." On this occasion a large fire was kindled on some elevated spot. whose returning beneficence they thus welcomed after the gloom and desolation of winter. and cuts off the mistletoe with a golden sickle. Besides these two great annual festivals. Of this custom a trace remains in the name given to Whitsunday in parts of Scotland to this day. The classical (Roman) writers affirm that they offered on great occasions human sacrifices.' and having made solemn preparation for feasting and sacrifice under the tree. especially the kindling of the sacred fire. but without success. But there is some uncertainty as to what they offered." says [1st-century Roman encyclopedist] Pliny [the Elder]. as well as to the oak itself. and of the ceremonies connected with their religious services we know almost nothing. those within are encompassed by the flames. after which they proceed to slay the victims. That the Druids offered sacrifices to their deity there can be no doubt. With these judicial acts were combined certain superstitious usages. robed in white. all crimes against person or property. from which all the fires in the district. These being set on fire. which means 'heal-all. the Druids were in the habit of observing the full moon. which still retains this designation in the Highlands of Scotland. whether public or private. These were called Cairns. This usage of kindling fires … lingered in the British islands long after the establishment of Christianity. [First-century Roman general and statesman Gaius Julius] Cæsar has given a detailed account of the manner in which this was done. the limbs of which are framed with twisted twigs and filled with living persons. were at this time brought before them for adjudication. On the latter they sought the Mistletoe. which grew on their favourite oaks. "They have images of immense size. ascends the tree. at the same time praying that God would 119 ." or "fire of peace." and was held on … [the] first of November. in the most central part of the district. they drive thither two milk-white bulls." etc. and was called Beltane or "fire of God. Blooming at Beltane in winter to fade. [Nineteenth-century Scottish novelist and poet] Sir Walter Scott uses the word in the "Boat Song" in the "Lady of the Lake": "Ours is no sapling. might be relighted. chance sown by the fountain. "by a word in their language. On this occasion the Druids assembled in solemn conclave. The discovery of it was an occasion of rejoicing and solemn worship. and especially the sixth day of the moon. The other great festival of the Druids was called "Samh' in. and were used in the worship of the deity under the symbol of the sun. "They call it.stones or piles of stones on the summits of hills. they ascribed a peculiar virtue and sacredness. and to which. It is caught in a white mantle.

" There are still occasional meetings of the lovers of Welsh poetry and music. Pennant gives a minute account of the Eisteddfods or sessions of the Bards and minstrels. Hemans' poems is one written for an Eisteddfod. They were also accomplished genealogists.render his gift prosperous to those to whom he had given it. But it is certain that they committed nothing of their doctrine. But the Roman writers admit that "they paid much attention to the order and laws of nature. which were held in Wales for many centuries. held under the ancient name. They were the oral historians of all past transactions. public and private. At these meetings none but Bards of merit were suffered to rehearse their pieces. their history. and after the conquest of Wales. The Druids were the teachers of morality as well as of religion. In the earlier period the judges were appointed by the Welsh princes. says." Their history consisted in traditional tales. or meeting of Welsh Bards. the "Bard. and investigated and taught to the youth under their charge many things concerning the stars and their motions. and think it a remedy for all diseases. These were apparently in verse. and that they held and inculcated many very noble and valuable principles of conduct. to some extent. though the probability is strong that they were. 1822. It begins with a description of the ancient meeting. and concerning the might and power of the immortal gods. One author. and is not always nor often found on the oak. and from this we may gather that their views of moral rectitude were on the whole just. or their poetry to writing. of which the following lines are a part: 120 . and thus constituted part of the poetry as well as the history of the Druids. Whether they were acquainted with letters or not has been disputed. Among Mrs. and suitable degrees were conferred. persecuted them with great cruelty. Of their ethical teaching a valuable specimen is preserved in the Triads of the Welsh Bards. This tradition has furnished the [18th-century English] poet [Thomas] Gray with the subject of his celebrated ode. "The Bards were supposed to be endowed with powers equal to inspiration. if not the actual productions of Druidical times. so that when it is found it is the more precious. in which the heroic deeds of their forefathers were celebrated. Their teaching was oral. They were also the men of science and learning of their age and people. held in London. and their literature (if such a word may be used in such a case) was preserved solely by tradition. in revenge for the influence of the Bards in animating the resistance of the people to his sway. The mistletoe is a parasitic plant." etc. Yet the tradition is that Edward I." They drink the water in which it has been infused. Judges were appointed to decide on their respective abilities. In the poems of [the legendary Gaelic poet] Ossian we have. Pennant. May 22. the size of the world and the lands. long after the Druidical priesthood in its other departments became extinct. and minstrels of skill to perform. by commission from the kings of England. what may be considered faithful representations of the songs of the Bards. The Bards were an essential part of the Druidical hierarchy.

by whom the inhabitants of that district were first led to profess Christianity. Built by John Sheffield. London./ There thronged the inspired of yore!/ On plain or height. Trafalgar Square."…midst the eternal cliffs./ Stood in the circle. Exercise 1. located near Saint James's Park. and in 1913 a new east front was built." The Druidical system was at its height at the time of the Roman invasion under Julius Cæsar. The Druids retained their predominance in Iona and over the adjacent islands and mainland until they were supplanted and their superstitions overturned by the arrival of St. whose strength defied /The crested Roman in his hour of pride. James's Palace continued to be the official residence until the accession of Queen Victoria. as their chief enemies. The site. public square in central London that commemorates the victory of British naval commander Viscount Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. was cleared in 1832 and developed according to a plan by British architect John Nash. these conquerors of the world directed their unsparing fury. The square is dominated by Nelson's Column. where none else might tread. official town residence of the British monarch since 1837. harassed at all points on the mainland./ In the sun's face. 1st duke of Buckingham and Normandy. beneath the eye of light./ And where the Druid's ancient cromlech frowned. retreated to Anglesey [a region in Wales] and Iona [an island off the coast of Scotland]. Columba [in the 1st century]. the apostle of the Highlands. Buckingham Palace has about 600 rooms and 20 hectares (50 acres) of gardens. What sight connected with the Druids do you know? What is it famous for? TEXT 2 Buckingham Palace. The Druids. The neoclassical structure was remodeled by John Nash in 1825. Against the Druids. where for a season they found shelter and continued their now dishonoured rites. formerly occupied by run-down housing and stabling for the king's horses. What is the main idea of their ―philosophy‖? 3./ And the oaks breathed mysterious murmurs round. in 1703. the palace was purchased for the royal family in 1761 by George III. Who were the Druids? 2. It is noted for its fine collection of paintings./ And baring unto heaven each noble head. Answer the following questions: 1. although St. a Corinthian column (see Column: Classical Columns) 51 m (170 ft) tall designed by British sculptor William Railton and erected in 1842. It is surmounted by a stone statue of Nelson 121 . In 1856 a ballroom was added.

It is flanked on its north side by the National Gallery. in Greek Revival style.E. a renowned art museum. Dutch and Flemish painters are also strongly represented. represents almost all the great Florentine and Venetian painters of that period and is the most comprehensive outside Italy. as well as a traditional location of New Year celebrations. was designed by William Wilkins and built in 1833-1887. its dome is only surpassed in size by St Peter's in Rome. displayed in the Sainsbury Wing. the last of which perished in the Great Fire of London in 1666. and the naturalist Charles Darwin—are located in the main church of the abbey. financed by members of the Sainsbury family (founders of the British supermarket chain) and designed by Robert Venturi. as are French and Spanish painters of the 15th century to 19th century. Acclaimed by many authorities as one of the most beautiful Renaissance buildings in the world. threatened by the sale of Sir Robert Walpole‘s collection to Catherine of full dress uniform by British sculptor H. each 6 m (20 ft) long and 3. and a government purchase in 1824 of 38 works from the collection of merchant John Julius Angerstein. The building of the present Cathedral commenced in 1675 and the last stone was laid in 1710. located in Trafalgar Square. National Gallery (London). in the four bays and aisles comprising the Poets' Corner. a popular tourist spot. The National Gallery now has over 2000 works representing the principal schools of European painting from the 13th century to 20th century. Bailey. The national collection grew from paintings presented to the nation in 1823 by collector and connoisseur Sir George Beaumont. 122 . Two fountains designed by British architect Sir Edwin Lutyens were erected in 1939. English monarchs since William the Conqueror in 1066 have been crowned in the abbey. the physicist Isaac Newton. It was later enlarged by the addition of the Sainsbury Wing. is often the site of political demonstrations. The tombs of famous citizens—among them the poet Geoffrey Chaucer. The new wing opened in 1991.4 m (11 ft) high. one of the principal art galleries in Britain and among the most important in the world. and many from Edward's time until 1760 (George II) are buried in its chapels. in whose house in Pall Mall they were initially displayed. and opened in 1838. Trafalgar Square. The idea of establishing a national gallery grew out of concern for protecting Britain‘s artistic heritage. tributes to Shakespeare and other outstanding literary personages. St Paul’s Cathedral Sir Christopher Wren's masterpiece stands on a site occupied by several predecessors. In 1867 four bronze lions were added at the base of the monument. The figures were cast from a design by British sculptor Sir Edwin Landseer. The gallery. The abbey also contains monuments to prominent political figures and. Its collection of Italian Renaissance paintings.

commemorating the nation's dead of all ranks and Services. fore. as it is affectionately known to the English. then along the great nave lit by the aisle and clerestory windows above. Reynolds. up to the Golden Gallery and then finally into the Golden Ball itself on which the Golden Cross dominates the City of London. look around you). Those with sufficient stamina may continue higher yet. Grinling Gibbons.most of which are the original choir stalls carved by Wren's contemporary. Despite the advice often given to ignore the clutter of memorials. Peter in Westminster. and Blake. artists. founded by Edward the Confessor in 1065 on the site of a church which had been built 500 years earlier (see pictures 26. was mostly built in the thirteenth century during the reign of Henry III. Constable. soldiers Sir John Moore. General Gordon. The magnificent interior of the Cathedral contains many fine paintings. This is where all the English monarchs have been crowned for over 600 years and many of them subsequently buried. Visitors are strongly recommended to make the ascent to the Whispering Gallery in order to experience the acoustic phenomenon from which it gets its name. but more properly the Collegiate Church of St. memorials to artists Turner. Westminster Abbey One of the finest examples of Early English Gothic architecture. Van Dyck. Lord Kitchener and the mighty sarcophagus of the Duke of Wellington. just inside the west door. Millais.The inner dome is decorated by paintings by Sir James Thornhill depicting the life of St Paul. physicians. whilst those of the master architect lie in the crypt with the simple inscription Si Monumentum requiris circumspice (If you seek a memorial. the fine wrought iron work by Tijou. the new High Altar based on Wren's own design and dedicated to Commonwealth troops who died in the Second World War. "The Abbey". 27). their magnificent tombs surrounded by a proliferation of commoners. authors. and the American Memorial Chapel in the apse behind the Altar. Holding pride of place is the tomb of the Unknown Warrior. prime ministers. soldiers and sailors. and above it there is the larger outer dome constructed of wood covered with lead. Entering by the west door the gaze is directed upwards to the vaulted ceiling. Lord Nelson's remains are interred in a black marble sarcophagus made originally for Henry VIM. actors. nearly a million who perished in the First World War. One object which miraculously survived the Great Fire is the macabre statue of John Donne the poet. politicians. another contemporary. and thence on to the exterior Stone Gallery from where the whole of London is visible. 123 . poets. these testimonials to the great dead are the very stuff of which history is made. sculptures. monuments and works of art. Also here are Holman Hunt's copy of his famous painting The Light of the World.

Westminster Abbey 124 . Picture 27.Picture 26. Westminster Abbey is one of the finest examples of Early English Gothic architecture.

Edward I and his wife Eleanor of Castile. Ben Jonson (incorrectly spelt Johnson). has been used for every Coronation since 1308. though much of the original fabric remains along with the floor tiles which surprisingly have survived to this day. who six years before had died in childbirth. Milton. For over one hundred and fifty years the Chapter House was used as Parliament House. the earliest contemporary painting of an English King. Here was kept the Pyx. Pitt. Purcell. Margaret's. The tomb's outer covering of gold and precious stones was stripped during the Reformation as was the original silver head from the nearby effigy of Herny V. Wordsworth. dating from the mid-thirteenth century. Queen of Scots. John Leland. Gladstone. The oak chair which was built by order of Edward I in 1300 to contain the legendary Stone of Scone. Statesmen: Disraeli. Philippa of Hainault and Anne of Bohemia. Ruskin. On the plain stone benches around the walls sat the medieval monks at their business. until 1547 when King Edward VI allowed the House of Commons to meet in St. King James I. Shakespeare. The Coronation Chair is situated between the High Altar and the Chapel of Edward the Confessor. Henry was buried here in 1509 alongside his Queen. Richard II (his portrait. Visitors would also be well advised to see the Museum and the adjacent Chapel of the Pyx which in ancient times was used as the Royal Treasury. St. The most sumptuous single addition to the Abbey is unquestionably Henry Vll's Chapel at the eastern end. Soldiers: Field Marshal Allenby. Stephens Chapel in the old Palace of Westminster. hangs in the nave by the west door). Browning.Among the famous persons buried or commemorated here are Queen Elizabeth I. and Painter: Kneller (the only painter so honoured). a box containing standard coins of the realm against which current gold and silver coins were tested each year for weight and purity of metal. beheaded in 1587 by order of her cousin and reburied in the Abbey 25 years later by command of her son. The Abbey's founder is buried in the Chapel of Edward the Confessor where his timeworn tomb was for hundreds of years a place of pilgrimage. as one of the wonders of the world. The octagonal Chapter House. Writers: Thackeray. The delicate lacework tracery of the fan-vaulted ceiling is unparalleled in the whole of England. Fox. Musicians: Handel. described by a contemporary antiquary. Edward III. Scientists: Sir Isaac Newton. Lord Baden-Powell. Darwin. Dickens. Samuel Johnson. many others. Elizabeth of York. captured four years earlier in Scotland. According to tradition the original 125 . King George II (the last sovereign to be buried in the Abbey). and many. Burns. has seen endless restorations. The Chapel also contains the tombs of Henry VIII. Actors: Irving. Chamberlain. Palmerston. General Gordon. Garrick. St Margaret's has been the parish church of the House of Commons since 1614. the tragic Mary. nearby Westminster Abbey. Goldsmith. Thereafter the Chapter House fell into disuse until 1860 when major restorations were carried out by Sir George Gilbert Scott. Chaucer.

Elaborate doors. 26) and the statue of Queen Anne outside No. On the day he stood down as Prime Minister. he was appointed official Envoy of the Quartet on the Middle East on behalf of the United Nations. Labour won a landslide victory in the 1997 general election. TEXT 1 Tony Blair Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to 27 June 2007. John Milton (1656) and Winston Churchill (1908). and Admiral Hollar was founded by Edward the Confessor in the twelfth century but the present building dates from 1523. and the only Labour Prime Minister to serve consecutive terms more than one of which was at least four years long. and stepped down as an Member of Parliament using a procedural device. the Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007 and the Member of Parliament for Sedgefield from 1983 to 2007 (see picture 28). Among the famous persons buried here are Sir Walter Raleigh. A street of early eighteenth-century houses of brown brickwork and bright clean paintwork. Blair is the Labour Party's longest-serving Prime Minister. Now mainly used for commercial purposes the houses are remarkably well preserved. the only person to have led the Labour Party to three consecutive general election victories. the United States and Russia. 4. 126 . Find some short texts about sights of Russia and translate them into English. torch extinguishers (No. Tony Blair was elected Leader of the Labour Party in July 1994 following the sudden death of his predecessor. later to become Henry VIM. 13 make this one of the prettiest streets in London.6. Exercise. son of Henry VII. the European Union. wooden porches. elegant canopies. Queen Anne's Gate. Catharine of Aragon. It was not until 1758 that the glass was installed in St. John Smith. and their daughter. Margaret's. Outstanding people of modern Great Britain and other English speaking countries. William Caxton. Under Blair's leadership the party abandoned many policies that they had held for decades. which ended 18 years of rule by the Conservative Party with the heaviest Conservative defeat since 1832. Unfortunately poor Arthur died and his brother. The fine Flemish glass of the east window was a betrothal present from Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to Prince Arthur. had married his widowed sisterin-law before the gift arrived. Westminster. Those married here include Samuel Pepys (1655). black iron railings.

Hazel Corscadden was the daughter of George Corscadden. who descended from Scottish settlers who took their name from Garscadden. living for a time with Hazel Blair's stepfather William McClay and her mother at their home in Stepps. was adopted by a Glasgow shipyard worker named James Blair and his wife Mary as a baby. Tony Blair has one elder brother. now part of Glasgow." Blair was arrested at Fettes. During this time. where his wife Sarah Margaret neé Lipsett gave birth to Blair's mother Hazel above her family's grocery shop. a notable independent school in Edinburgh. he played guitar and sang for a rock band called Ugly Rumours. who is a barrister and a Queen's Counsel (QC). As a student. after being out late. England. where his father was a lecturer in law at the University of Adelaide. After attending Durham's Chorister School from 1961 to 1966. having being mistaken for a burglar as he climbed into his dormitory using a ladder. before going up to the University of Oxford to read jurisprudence at St John's College. He reportedly modelled himself on Mick Jagger. Leo Blair. His teachers were unimpressed with him: his biographer. Whilst at Oxford. William Blair. his father being by then a lecturer at Durham University. Australia. the second son of Leo and Hazel Blair (née Corscadden). The Blairs lived close to the university. The Blair family was often taken on holiday to Rossnowlagh. John Rentoul reported that "All the teachers I spoke to when researching the book said he was a complete pain in the backside. Blair's Chancellor of the Exchequer during his entire ten years in office. Background and family life Blair was born at the Queen Mary Maternity Home] in Edinburgh. Ireland. whom he later appointed Lord Chancellor.Gordon Brown. in the suburb of Dulwich. Scotland on 6 May 1953. and a younger sister. he dated future American Psycho director Mary Harron. During this period his father worked as a junior tax inspector whilst also studying for a law degree from the University of Edinburgh. the son of two English actors. where he attempted to find fame as a rock music promoter. Blair boarded at Fettes College. and they were very glad to see the back of him. a butcher and Orangeman who had moved to Glasgow in 1916 but returned to (and died in) Ballyshannon in 1923. near Glasgow. Sarah.] His family spent three and a half years in the 1950s living in Adelaide. a beach resort near Hazel's hometown of Ballyshannon which is the venue of the main Orange order parade in the Republic of Ireland.] After Fettes. The family returned to Britain in the late 1950s. Blair spent a year in London. where he met Charlie Falconer (a pupil at the rival Edinburgh Academy). He spent the remainder of his childhood in Durham. Blair's mother Hazel died of 127 . succeeded him as Leader of the Labour Party on 24 June 2007 and as Prime Minister on 27 June 2007. Blair spent the first 19 months of his life at the family home in Paisley Terrace in the Willowbrae area of Edinburgh. George Corscadden was from a family of Protestant farmers in County Donegal.

His biographer Rentoul records that. but he promised before the 1997 election that New Labour would govern "from the radical centre". Blair married Booth. In 2001. They have four children (Euan. There was further criticism when it was revealed that Euan received private coaching from staff from Westminster School. instead of a poorly-performing Roman Catholic school in Labour-controlled Islington. has 128 . criticised by leftwingers for its selection procedures. Kathryn and Leo). pursuing economic prosperity and social justice as partners and not as opposites". Blair became a member of Lincoln's Inn. on 29 March 1980. After graduating from Oxford with a second class degree. a practising Roman Catholic and future Queen's Counsel. Picture 28. Nicky. and according to one lifelong Labour Party member. Although the Blairs stated that they had wished to shield their children from the media. since Francis Russell was born to Lord John Russell on 11 July 1849. "We are a left of centre party. in Richmond Avenue. enrolled as a pupil barrister and met his future wife. They both attended the Roman Catholic London Oratory School. where they then lived. 11 King's Bench Walk Chambers. Blair was much less concerned about which party he was affiliated with than about his aim of becoming Prime Minister. according to his lawyer friends. Euan and Nicky's education was a cause of political controversy.cancer which was said to have greatly affected Blair. Cherie Booth (daughter of the actor Tony Booth) at the Chambers founded by Derry Irvine (who was to be Blair's first Lord Chancellor). Tony Blair Political overview The Labour Party is historically a socialist political party. Leo (born 20 May 2000) was the first legitimate child born to a serving Prime Minister in over 150 years. Blair has rarely applied such labels to himself. Tony Blair said.

introduced student tuition fees (also controversial). Some left wing critics have argued that Blair has overseen the final stage of a long term shift of the Labour Party to the right. TEXT 2 Bill Clinton Picture 29. Labour Party backbenchers and other left wing critics typically place Blair to the right of centre. Blair has raised taxes. introduced a minimum wage and some new employment rights (while keeping Margaret Thatcher's trade union legislation). implemented redistributive policies. He introduced substantial market-based reforms in the education and health sectors. in order to challenge his hegemony there. promoted new rights for gay people in the Civil Partnership Act 2004. The forty-second President of the U S 129 . but instead a populist. and that very little now remains of a Labour Left. However. and signed treaties integrating Britain more closely with the EU. and introduced tough antiterrorism and identity card legislation. place Blair on the right of the political spectrum. A YouGov opinion poll in 2005 also found that a small majority of British voters. introduced significant constitutional reforms (which remain incomplete and controversial). sought to reduce certain categories of welfare payments.always described himself as a social democrat. The Financial Times on the other hand has argued that Blair is not conservative. including many New Labour supporters. to the extent that he has been fundamentally at odds with traditional Labour Party values. Critics and admirers tend to agree that Blair's electoral success was based on his ability to occupy the centre ground and appeal to voters across the political spectrum. There is also evidence that Blair's long term dominance of the centre has forced his Conservative opponents to shift a long distance to the left.

What are the mane points in Tony Blair‘s political overview? 3." Clinton presided over the longest period of peace-time economic expansion in American history. the highest end-of-presidency rating of any President that came into office after World War II. However. he's got weak morals and ethics — and he's done a heck of a good job. What politicians do you believe work better male or female? 2. is the Junior United States Senator from the state of New York. ABC News characterized public consensus on Clinton as. Clinton served nearly twelve years as the 50th and 52nd Governor of Arkansas (see picture 29). On the heels of a failed attempt at health care reform with a Democratic Congress. His policies. Kennedy. He created the William J. serving from 1993 to 2001. have been described as "centrist. older than Theodore Roosevelt and John F. She was educated at Riddlesworth Hall in Norfolk. Clinton was described as a New Democrat and was mainly responsible for the Third Way philosophy of governance that came to epitomize his two terms as president.Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19. Princess of Wales. His presidency was also quickly challenged. Answer the questions: 1. Republicans won control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years. Her full name was Diana Frances Spencer. Before his presidency. but was subsequently acquitted by the United States Senate and completed his term.S. He was the third-youngest president. England. Clinton left office with a 65% approval rating. and West Heath School in Kent. public reaction to the Lewinsky scandal left a mixed impression about his personal character. Clinton has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. From 1979 until 130 . 1946) was the forty-second President of the United States. and a Democratic candidate for president in the 2008 election. Since leaving office. he released a personal autobiography. on issues such as the North American Free Trade Agreement. My Life. How can you characterize the period of Bill Clinton‘s life as a politician? TEXT 3 Princess Diana Princess Diana. as he was born in the period after the Second World War. Norfolk. In 2004. where they both currently reside. and is known as the first baby boomer president. such as treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS and global warming. was born in 1961 in Sandringham. He became president at the end of the Cold War. House for perjury. In his second term he was impeached by the U. Clinton Foundation to promote and address international causes. His wife. which included a balanced budget and a federal surplus. Hillary Rodham Clinton. "You can't trust him.

the heir to the British throne. 1981. He began to see his former lover Camilla Parker. Translate it into English using the following expressions: To give cause for gasping. Exercise 1. and Prince Henry Charles Albert David (born September 15. the heirs to the British throne. 1984). to refer to something. An ambulance took her to the hospital. everywhere. She was becoming even more popular than Elizabeth II.1981 Diana worked as a kindergarten teacher in London. on the yacht. drug abuse. After the birth of the second son the relationship between Charles and Diana began to worsen. who were following her car that day. This interest was: extremely exaggerated by the paparazzi. She was deprived of the title "Her Highness" and given a money compensation for it. She was alive right after the crash. but she could not take her sons. shining with quietness. with her. parentage. People sympathized with her after the divorce Windsors began to dislike Diana and tried to get rid of her. She was the vice president of the British Red Cross and served as a member of the J national Red Cross advisory board since 1994. This is an article which was published in a Russian newspaper six months after Diana‘s death. 1997 in one of the tunnels in Paris. not heard. to inform resolutely. Diana was loved by people. everyone's and no one's. Diana stayed. the injuries were so serious that she did not survive. Diana had changed a lot. our Lady of Sorrow. to have a striking resemblance to somebody. 131 . She was the image that outdid all others. 1 often acted tactlessly. to be killed in a car crash. 1981. It happened on August 31. in the street. Her life aroused great interest of the public. queen of hearts. the last and the greatest Silent Star of our noisy age. Princess Diana. Charles seemed not to take part in the life of his wife and his children. They were married in St Paul's Cathedral in an internationally televised ceremony on July 29. was announced. She could be anything that we wanted her to be. her engagement to Prince Charles. the senior adviser. She would never again be a naive girl for whom marrying into the Royal Family had been like a miracle. Her life was meant to be watched. Charles and Diana seldom appeared in public together. John Major announced the separation of the couple in December 1992. when she shook the hand of an AIDS patient. Diana shocked many people in 1987. They followed her everywhere in the swimming pool. to be skeptical about the prospects of. 1982). On February 24. By one of the versions Diana's tragic death caused by the paparazzi. Diana continued to give active support to many charities related to homeless and deprived children. She was always a silent woman. He looked awkward trying to play with his children. The couple had two sons: Prince William Arthur Philip Louis (born June 21. and victims of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diana wanted to leave England.

What else do you know about Lady Di? 2. На радость им королевская семья не дает повода забыть о себе: обывателю всегда есть о чем посудачить. . Answer the questions 1. так что его неприятие трона вполне объяснимо».g. принца Чарльза. Mass media Headline English Newspaper headlines try to catch the reader's eye by using as few words as possible language headlines use is. Уильям. По словам очевидцев.Сын принцессы Дианы не хочет быть английским королем. Вероятно. говорят. Британская газета «Санди» сообщает: на днях Уильям решительно уведомил отца. старший сын принцессы Дианы. Теперь свою лепту в пересуды внес и 15летний принц Уильям. What can you tell about her sons Prince William and Prince Henry? 4. • Grammar words like articles or auxiliary verbs are often left out. что быть королем в будущем он не намерен. она тоже скептически относилась к перспективе стать английской королевой. «Все.7. что принц мог видеть в королевской семье в последнее время. что окончательно отказаться от перспективы занять английский трон Уильям решил после гибели своей матери в автокатастрофе шесть месяцев назад. принц поразительно напоминает саму Диану. Журнал «Пипл» со ссылкой на слова старшего советника Букингемского дворца добавляет.это горе и несчастье. Так на него повлияла гибель матери – принцессы Дианы.g. PRESIDENT TO VISIT FLOOD AREAS 132 .g. Where did Diana work as a teacher before her marriage? 3. e. о том. после смерти матери выглядит подавленным. который еще учится в школе при Итонском колледже. разочаровавшимся во всем человеком. EARLY Q FORECAST IN INTEREST RATES • A simple form of the verb is used.заключает «Пипл». Ведь. . e. Любимое занятие англичан – думать о судьбах британской монархии. будучи женой Чарльза. Что ж. Exercise 2. unusual in a number of ways. consequently. мальчик все беды связывает именно со своим происхождением. MAYOR OPENS HOSPITAL • The infinitive is used to express the fact that something is going to happen in the e.

(adj. MP for of Parliament.Newspaper headlines use a lot of distinctive vocabulary. a wet open air concert in London by the opera singer Luciano Pavarotti was described as: 133 meaning . ploy clever * boss* 1 encourage (noun) activity head* 1 manager.) vital axe* cut. e. PM for Prime Minister. remove link* connecti on back support move step (verb) bar* exclude. forbid * ordeal towards a (noun) desired painful experience bid* attempt oust push out blast* explosion (verb) plea / remove blaze fire (noun) request * pledge* promise boost incentive.g. e. director poll* election / probe public opinio! * investigation clash* dispute quit leave. The words marl can be used either as nouns or verbs. threat danger effort gems jewels vow* promise (noun) go. (verb) resign curb* restraint. They usually prefer words are shorter and sound more dramatic than ordinary English words. Some newspapers also enjoy making jokes in their headlines. They do this by playing on words or punning.g. newsp aper word aid* news meaning paper word help key essential.approval affect wed (verb) marry ahead hit badly (verb) Newspaper headlines often use abbreviations. riddle mystery limit (noun) cut* reduction strife conflict (noun) drama tense talks discussio situation (noun) ns drive* campaign.

Note that the meaning given is sometimes in the form of a noun. EXAMPLE: PM TO CURB SPENDING limit 1 BOOK LINKS M15 WITH KGB 2 CHANCELLOR CUTS INTEREST RATES 3 BOMB BLASTS CENTRAL LONDON 4 PM PLEDGES BACKING FOR EUROPE 5 PRESIDENT HEADS PEACE MOVES 134 . Exercises: 1. The words marked * in the table opposite can be either nouns or verbs. Look at the underlined verbs and explain what they mean. POLL PROBES SPENDING HABITS 5. In the headlines below you have examples of words from the table used as verbs.TORRENTIAL RAIN IN MOST ARIAS An announcement that a woman working at the Mars chocolate company had go interesting new job was: WOMAN FROM MARS TO BE FIRST BRITON LN SI (Note that the word 'Briton' is almost exclusively found in GO-AHEAD FOR WATER CURBS 3. Match the headlines on the left with the appropriate topic on the right. See if you can find some examples at its website:www. You may need to use more than one word. 1. PM BACKS PEACE PLAN MP SPY DRAMA SPACE PROBE FAILS QUEEN‘S GEMS RIDDLE STAR WEDS a) marriage of famous actress b) royal jewels are stolen c) proposal to end war d) satellite is not launched e) politician sells secrets to enemy 2. BID TO OUST PM Prince vows to back family 3. MOVE TO CREATE MORE JOBS (Example: Steps are being taken with the aim to provide more work for people) The English newspaper The Guardian is particularly fond of playing on words in its headlines. Explain what the following headlines mean in ordinary English. Woman quits after job ordeal

Would you be interested in the stories under the following headlines? Why (not)? Mortgages cut as bank rates fall again New tennis clash Price curbs boost exports Teenage £4m fraud riddle Women barred from jobs Royal family quits (from English Vocabulary in Use upper intermediate and advanced) 135 .4.

Joseph Henry had never met the tall. So Bell traveled to Washington. thin. he would have to create a continuous current of electricity that would vibrate with the tones of the voice. First of all.Chapter 5. political life) and other English speaking countries. not because he knew very much about electricity. The USA (language. he would have to substitute electrical waves for the air waves on which our voices are carried in face-to-face conversation. "Work at it. to carry the human voice. He arrived at this conclusion. he wanted to test his ideas on someone else.C. Now he knew that a knowledge of electricity would also be necessary if he wanted to prove his theory and invent a practical instrument for sending the human voice over wires. Alexander Graham Bell: Broadening the Channels of Communication Bell’s great invention "I know it can be done. D. "I should never have invented the telephone. there are mechanical difficulties to be overcome that would require a knowledge of electricity that I don't have. 136 . sir. just as the air vibrates with the speaking voice. history. which he did not." "GET IT!" was the great scientist's advice. with Watson supplying the electrical knowledge that Bell lacked. He was impressed by the earnestness of his young visitor whose dark eyes blazed with excitement as he explained his theory of sending voices by electricity. such as Joseph Henry." Henry answered. an electrician. geography. "But for those two words of encouragement. to visit the famous scientist. sir. publish my discovery and let others work it out. culture. "What would you advise me to do. Bell's determination to do what seemed impossible was the key to his success. In other words. however. Bell. dark-haired young man who walked into his office that March day in 1875. one of the great physicists of the day. someone who was an expert.." Bell returned to Boston and got the help of Thomas Watson. It resulted in the invention of the telephone. But he had heard of the Belt family and their highly successful teaching methods with the deaf. The two worked as a team in the months that followed. but because he understood the nature of sound and sound vibrations." These words of determination were spoken by Alexander Graham Bell when he told scientists that he was trying to send human speech over an electric wire. he turned to Henry and said. Bell realized that. and I'm going to find the way. When Bell had finished his explanation. or attempt to solve the problem myself?" "You have the idea for a great invention." "But." Bell wrote later.

four years after the invention of the telephone. In 1878 they made the first long-distance telephone call between Boston and New York City. Each would shout into his instrument.As spring turned into summer 1875. 137 .000 telephones in use in the United States. Bell and Watson labored night and day. seven million. the other people in the house allowed them to string wires through their rooms and good naturedly endured their fruitless shouting. there were three times that number. Afterwards. and summer was followed by autumn and winter. a Boston newspaper reported that "The use of this discovery promises to completely change the business of sending messages by electricity between distant points. Bell and Watson worked on. 200 miles apart. they either made adjustments or threw away the old instrument and started again. They strung wires from one end of the house to the other. They worked in a hot. Watson built them. Think of some other great inventions which influenced our life. Task. on March 10. Patiently. Then. Bell sketched designs. By 1880. dusty room at the boarding house where Bell lived and which he used as his laboratory. 1876 — success! Several years passed before the public regarded Bell's telephone as more than a toy to be exhibited at lectures. but the only voice either man heard came through the walls or up the halls — never through the instrument." The newspaper's statement indeed became true. and by 1922. by 1910. and attached instruments at each end of the wire. Equally patient. there were 48. But Bell and Watson continued to improve their telephone and to display its practical use over increasingly long distances. Three months later the Bell Telephone Company was officially formed.

4 genuine 1.5 c 1.4.2 real 1.5 bequeathed 4.1 a powerful car sharpen 4. 138 . open countryside with few trees 3. someone who is not very polite 3.3 auburn hair 3.5 genuine 2.3.4 perfectly expression 3.1 c 2.4 b 2.4 a dolefully 3. 1) Hong Kong word for payment office at a car park 2) Australian word for 'person' 3) Scottish word for 'small' 4) Malaysian word for 'university' 5) Scottish word for a child 6) Canadian word for a public toilet 7) Caribbean word for a godmother 8) Irish word for 'idiot/fool' 9) South African word for flat.2 d 2. 1. 1) a dingo 2) 2) the Prime Minister of Australian Ireland 3) Australi 3) the wild land. 4.3 leisurely 4.1.1 real 1. Keys to some of the tasks Keys to Chapter 1. especially an the central deserts of Australia 4) Irish 4) fun / social enjoyment 5) in Ireland 6) in Australia or New Zealand 7) blow into it 8) a person.7 visit 3.2 strong tea 3.3 real/genuine 1.5 a lengthy 3. 1) Irish 2.1 brisk.3 a 2.8 spoilt 1. 1. 1.2 toll 4.Chapter 6.6 rightly meeting 3.

5. A spokesperson for the Department of Education provided us with a statement. The switchboard is continuously staffed even during holiday periods. It is useful if you do not know what a woman‘s marital status or if a woman dose not want people to know her marital status. virile 4. Ms Jones is in charge of the Human Resources Department of the company. 2. 1. It took a great many working hours to clean up the stadium after the concert. It was introduced as a title which dose not focus on whether a woman is married or not. Exercise 3. 5. The expression means words that have male connotations but are referring to people in general. 4. There might have been controversy perhaps because some people felt it was an unnecessary change or that it was impossible to try to impose language change artificially. 1. 10. 9. feminine 5. To try to make the language less stereotyped with regard to gender and also perhaps to try to alter sexist attitudes in this way. 139 . 2. Cleaner wanted for house in Priory Street. male Exercise 4. 8. The average person has little time for such issues. 12. 11. 1. 6. 4. 3. This was a great step for the human race. They even want to get rid of men in the words like manhandle and woman where the male idea has really been lost. 3. Police officers today spend more time in cars than on the beat. Three firefighters helped put out a fire at a disused warehouse last night. 7. sissy 3. Exercise 2. All our flight attendants are fluent in at least three languages.Exercise 1. They want to get read of ―male‖ words in traditional idioms like man in the street by using such phrases as the person in the street or the average person instead. They pushed the hostage into the van. Brenda‘s husband is a nurse. mannish 2.

Exercise 2. She got a diploma in personnel management. 3. usually lasting several days. teacher-training college. TEXTS 1-4. Red in touch with blue. e. (Only universities can give degrees. Or by making plural. Ex. Note that some people find it incorrect. Hear you passed/did well in your examination.) Exercise 3. Government ministers may have to neglect their families. I'm taking/doing/sitting an exam tomorrow. Personal answers. g. She's a teacher in a primary school. grammar. g. A government minister may have to neglect their family. 1. Possible questions 1. Keys to Chapter 2 2.7. (A conference is a meeting of the same interests.5 TEXT 2 Exercise 1. 3. (Professors are only in universities. Students‘ own answer. 2.1 1.) 6. It is also becoming increasingly common and acceptable for their to be used as a generic pronoun with a singular referent. 7. You can study a lot of different subjects / take a lot of different courses at this university. e. 2. comprehensive. 1. I got some good marks/grades in my continuous assessment this term. grant. higher 6. 3. 5. evening classes. 4. 7. The sentence can be altered by either using he or she. the red cross had to be bordered with white. Note that some writers use the pronoun s/he instead of he or she. 8. He gave an interesting 45-minute lecture on Goethe.) 7. primary. The red rose of the Lancastrians became the national symbol of England. 2. nursery. 3. g. A government minister may have to neglect his or her family. 4.1-6. because in heraldry a red on blue is not considered permissible. its own correct field. Do students in your country get a grant? 140 . e. 5.

MAMS graduating for your first degree. Students‘ own answers.2. Possible answer is ―Camelot‖. When the King left England. 5. The castle was on a small hill. Kings Henry VII. What've you been doing? 7. and he based royal power on good business sense.1 1.1 1. What goes on at play-schools and nursery schools? 4. 3. Did you skip yesterday's lecture? Follow-up activity: You could look up these things in an encyclopedia.7. a sophomore college student and graduate school is where you study for further degrees. But he was far more important in establishing the new monarchy. for example France or Scotland. Nottingham was a county town in England. Henry VII is less well known than either Henry VIII or Elizabeth I.g. Poor people liked eating ―humble pies‖ for lunch or dinner. He avoided quarrels with different countries. Broadly speaking a high like a British secondary school. or on the Internet. King Richard‘s brother is Prince John. Do you get marks/credits/points for your exams? 8. What's the difference between a university and a polytechnic in Britain? 3. 4. Henry VII had the same ideas and opinions as the growing classes of merchants and gentlemen farmers. John became king. TEXT 3 Ex.1 1. Why did you choose a teacher-training college instead of a university? 5. 2. and Edward VI. Sherwood Forest was the royal forest in England. college means further education. Henry VIII. 2. e. You look terribly tired. Only rich people could afford to buy meat. and Queens Mary I and Elizabeth I 2. By the way. he was a founder of the Tudors. Prince John loved to go hunting there. TEXT 4 141 . 3. The sheriff of Nottingham lived in a castle. TEXT 2 Ex. Each county had a sheriff. Students‘ own answers. What's the school-leaving age in Britain now? 6. TEXT 1 Ex. There were a lot of counties. 3.

The most serious mistake was her marriage to Philip. Newton‘s revolutionary contributions explained the workings of a large part of the physical world in mathematical terms. 4 a).1 1 c). and they suggested that science may provide explanations for other phenomena as well. 2.Ex. 2 i). 2f. 2. Ex. King of Spain. 5. 3e. his complete theory of natural selection.1 1. 142 . Daniel Defoe. Gulliver's Travels Extract 3. 3.2 1. She was a Henry VIII‘s daughter by his first wife Catherine of Aragon. TEXT 7 Ex. Robinson Crusoe Extract 2. 2. Extract 1. 3.1 1.7. 4.1. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. 9 f). 4b. Ex. 3 h). 10 d). Lady Jane Grey was the queen only for nine days. TEXT 5 Ex. rebels and with those who did not want to accept Catholic teaching. 5 a0 6 c. 7 g). 5 j). She was nicknamed Bloody Mary because of a large number of religious persecutions that took place during her reign. In 1859 Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species. Jonathan Swift.1 1d. 8 e). 5. 6 b). Walter Scott. Steps are being taken with the aim of providing more work for people. Ivanhoe 4. She dealt cruelly with the Protestantism. and his aim was the English throne. 4. Approval has been given to a plan to place restrictions on people‘s use of water. Newton was entangled in a lengthy and bitter controversy with Leibniz over which of the two scientists had invented calculus. the University of Cambridge Keys to Chapter 4 4.

3. 5. 6. in general. promises 5. Ex. An attempted has been made to remove Prime Minister from his/her position. The Prince has promised to give support to his family or to family values. A woman resigned from her job after undergoing some unpleasant experience there. A public opinion survey has looked into how people spend their money. leads/ is a major figure in. 4. reduces 3. explodes in 4. makes a connection between 2. 143 .3 1.

nodded. 4. Graham left the film before the end because he was bored/ lazy. 8. Keys 1. It‘s really hot day today. 6. 5. tasty. 9. 4. It‘s priceless/worthless. and it‘s a/an attractive/lovely day 7. It‘s rather dangerous/harmful. she is extremely slim/thin. The house was surrounded by a high/tall fence. language 6. damage 10. 1.recording 7-i 8-g 9-d 10-h Test 2. Helen doesn‘t look well. love 8. race 5.4 Test 1.thin. a) a close/long-distance/ a tough b) a difficult/an exciting/a huge c) complete/ firm/wide d) lasting/wide-spread/minor e) first/everyday/body f) wonderful/wasted/ideal g) effective/interview/traditional h) latest/pirat/live i) deep/true/platonic j) growing/clear/disturbing Keys 1-b 2-c 3-j 4-a 5-e 6-f 1.a lovely.dangerous. Underline the most suitable word or This chicken is good.10. 7. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence. The sun is shining.opportunity 7. Peter nodded/shook his head in agreement. I can‘t pay you anything for this old coin. 9. Test 3. angry. 1.1 -1. 8. Match each group of adjectives with a suitable noun. A character B appearance C personality D looking 144 . Be careful of the next corner. technique 9. 2. 3. but it‘s nice and chilly/cool in here. 3. When I saw him scratch my car I got very angry/nervous.worthless. You can‘t tell what someone is like just from their ___________.Additional questions and tests Chapter 1 1.suppourt 3. 10. 5.trend 4. challenge 2. 6. It‘s very tasteful/tasty. 2.bored.

He is so cheerful/ generous/ honest. 5. He is so imaginative/ snobbish/ stubborn. A. e) shy. d) lazy.B.B. g) Thanks for bringing us a present.2. h) stubborn. Keys a) rude. f) aggressive.B. club 3. rose 3. He was born in Scotland but he was ___________ in Northern Ireland. b) mean. It‘s very bad-tempered/ rude/ unsympathetic. A. know C. She is rather gentle/ lazy/ reliable. café 145 .C Test 4. Graham works well in class. acting 4. politeness D. He‘s rather frank/ greedy/ mean. brought up D. For company and conversation the British people go to the: 1. introduce B. j) generous. i) When Harry saw his girlfriend dancing with Paul he felt jealous/ selfish/ sentimental. j) Tom always pays for everyone when we go out. d) Helen never does her homework. 4. raised C. c) Our teacher is very proud/ strict/ tolerant. A. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence 1. sympathize 5. c) strict. Teresa never gets angry with the children. D. patient. rudeness B. brave B. pleasant Keys 1. restaurant 4. but his _____________could be better. meet D. 2. A. grew up B. It was very adorable/ grateful/ thoughtful of you. pub 2. i) jealous. honest C. behaviour C. I got to ___________ Steve last year when we worked together.C. f) I don‘t like people who are noisy and aggressive/ courageous/ sociable. b) Jack hates spending money. e) I didn‘t talk to anyone at the party because I felt ambitious/ lonely /shy. Test 5. h) Peter refuses to change his mind although he is wrong. She is very ____________ . Choose the most suitable word or phrase a) Please don‘t push. g) thoughtful. 3.

Opportunities 3. The most popular free time activity is: 1. gardening 4. ―I‘m not bad‖ 2. Fish and chips 2. ―Well. 1. rudeness 4. …. The stereotypical characteristic of British people is|: 1. and someone asks him if he is a good player. until recent times the centre of the natural interest. In English homes. 1. Cabbage soup 3. ―I‘m a first class golf-player ― 4. Stability 2. If a person is very good in golf. a kitchen table 7. Porridge 6. Ceremony 4. talking over the phone 3. tea-drinking 2. ― I think I‘m quite good‖ 3. The traditional British food is: 1. laziness 2. jogging 3. a radio 4.2. hospitality 4. a TV set 3. snobbery 3. a fireplace 2. Bacon and eggs 4. I‘m very keen on golf‖ 5. In most tourist brochures England is called ―The Land of …‖. Tradition 146 . he is not likely to answer : 1. has always been.

456 kilograms 4.38 litres 2. 0.6 litres 10. 6.38 kilograms Keys: 1-1 2-3 3-2 4-3 the convenient topic to ‗fill the gap‘. nor impressively large rivers c) the scenery changes noticeably over quite short distances 147 .4 6-1 7-4 8-3 9-2 10-1. Choose the most suitable answer to the questions. For the British …. 0. politics 2.456 kiligrams 2. Chapter 2 2.58 litles 3. 1. 1. 1 pint is: 1. hobby 9.Why has it often been remarked that a journey of 100 miles across the UK can seem twice as far? a) its landscape is boring b) it has neither towering mountain ranges. Why has Britain‘s climate got such a bad reputation? a) it rains all the time b) because of its changeability c) snow is a regular feature of the higher areas d) because of the image of a wet and foggy land 3. 1. monarchy 3.456 kilograms 3.1 Test 1. 1 pound is: 1.3. 2. 1. 1.16 litres 4. weather 4. What does the land in Britain have? a) mountains b) flat land c) a notable lack of extremes d) big rivers 2. 0.

c 7. What is the most densely populated area in the UK? a) the Midlands b) Northern England c) Southern England d) Scotland 8.c 2. What is Britain‘s second largest city? a) Edinburgh b) Birmingham c) London d) Glasgow 9.b 5.d) the south and east of the country is comparatively low-lying 4.d 6.c 10. Whose descriptions did the nineteenth century London‘s ―pea-soupers‖ (thick smogs) become famous through? a) William Shakespeare b) Robert Burns c) Charles Dickens d) Sherlock Holmes 7.b 148 . How many fairly clearly-marked regions are there in Scotland? a) two b) three c) four d) one Keys 1. What part of the UK is supposed to be the industrial one? a) Southern England b) the Midlands c) Northern England d) Northern Ireland 10. What does the word ―smog‖ mean? a) smoke b) fog c) brown air d) a mixture of smoke and fog 6. Why is much of the land in Britain used for human habitation? a) Britain is densely populated b) because of the desire for privacy and love of the country-side c) most people live in towns or cities d) the English and the Welsh don‘t like living in blocks of flats 5.c 8.b 9.b 3-c 4.

Queen opens new hospitals. Wales and Ireland b) The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and The Republic of Ireland c) England.‘ d. 1. ‗We can solve these problems here in Manchester. e. Choose the most suitable answer to the questions. We don‘t need Westminster to interfere. f. g.2 Test 2 . ‗At present people pay too much tax. b. What states do the British Isles consist of? a) England. Wales and Northern Ireland 2. What is the normal adjective to talk about something to do with the UK? a) British b) English c) Britain 3.‘ e.2. bridges and factories.3 Test 4. Queen doesn‘t have any contact with the Government.‘ b.‘ Keys a) Labour Party b) Conservative Party c)The Liberal Democrats d) The Conservative Party e) The Liberal Democrats 2. The Lords and the Commons have equal power. Keys a) F b) T c) F d) F e)F f) F g) T Test 3. Write whether these sentences true or false. The ‗Government‘ is the Prime minister and the Queen. Scotland. d. a. Scotland. ‗It is the governments job to build hospitals. Which party do these people support? a. There are 20 people in the Cabinet. ‗The unemployment must find jobs.‘ c. ‗We want a combination of private industry and help for the people in need. The government can‘t pay them for doing nothing. c. When did most of Ireland become a separate state? a) in 1800 149 . Queen never speaks in parliament. The Prime minister is the member of House of Lords.

b) in 1603 c) in 1922 4. What language/languages did people speak in the Celtic areas? a) Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh b) Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh Gaelic c) English 5. Which custom and practice are many aspects of everyday life in Britain organized according to? a) British b) English c) Scottish 6. One of the countries forming the United Kingdom has its own language in which the writing system is simpler than that of English because almost all letters correspond to their sounds. This country is ... a) Wales b) Scotland c) Northern Ireland 7. What country do people have the strongest sense of conflict with the English in? a) Northern Ireland b) Scotland c) Wales 8. When was Wales conquered by the English? a) about 800 years ago b) about 700 years ago c) about 600 years ago 9. What country has its own system of education? a) Northern Ireland b) Scotland c) England 10. Which of the countries forming the United Kingdom has two official languages? a) Scotland b) Wales c) Northern Ireland Keys 1-b 2-a 3-c 4-a 5-b 6-a 7-a 8-b 9-b 10-b 2.4 Test 5. Check yourself answering the following questions: Where is Norwich situated? Who is the shopping center in Norwich for? Where is Canterburry situated? 150

Who was Thomas Becket? When was the book ―The Canterburry Tales‖ written? How many pilgrims appear in the book by Geoffry Chaucer and who are they? When was Oxford first mentioned in the written record? Who is said to give the best discription of Oxford? What is Oxfam? What does OWLS stand for? When did cambridge University start? What is King‘s college in Cambridge famous for? What happened in Cambridge in 1871? What was the main reason to develop the cambridge science park? What kind of place was Colchester in Roman times? What was York famous for before medieval times? What cathedral can you visit in York? What was John Shakespare‘s business? When was the Globe Theatre build? When did Shakespare stop writing? What did men use to sell in Birmingham? Why was Derry renamed? What siege is commemorated in Londonderry? What kind of place was London in Roman times? What are different parts of London famous for? Speak about the East End, the West End, Westminster, Whitehall, Kensington and Knightsbridge, the City. If you are not sure in your answer read the texts about the cities and towns of Great Britain again! Test 6. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence 1. The Great fire of London which ended a terrible plague took place in___ 1) 1665 2)1666 3)1649 4)1660 2. Highgate is known as _______ 1) the financial and business centre 2) the shopping and entertainment centre 3) the government centre 4) the part of London that has kept its village character 3. The place associated with the West End is_______ 151

1) Trafalgar Square 2) Big Ben 3) Westminster Abbey 4) the Cenotaph 4. Behind Nelson‘s Column there is _______ 1) New Covent Garden 2) The National Gallary 3) Piccadily Circus 4) the Cenoteph 5. The museum you can visit in Kensington and Knightsbridge is ______ 1) the National Gallery 2) the Museum of Mustard 3) the Victoria and Albert Museum 4) the Museum of London 6. Cardiff has been the official capital of Wales since ________ 1) 1895 2) 1915 3) 1945 4) 1955 7. The ‗Titanic‘ was built and sent out on her fatal maiden voyage in______ 1) Glasgo 2) Belfast 3) London 4) Cardiff 8. You can see an original Viking street in ______ 1) York 2) Colchester 3) Stratford-upon-Avon 4) Cambridge 9. The city described by Matthew Arnold as ―that sweet city with her dreaming spires‖ is _______ 1) Canterburry 2) London 3) Cambridge 4) Oxford


for example Toyota in ____________ . 4. 8. During the 1980s Margaret Thatcher‘s government restricted immigration and ended the automatic right of anyone born in Britain to ________________ . Hertfordshire. Leading Japanese firms have chosen periphery areas for major investment. In the 1950s the immigrants were the target of discrimination and encountered ______________ . The largest shopping centre in Europe in 1990 was the Metrocentre in Gateshead. During the 1960s and 1970s a large number of immigrants came from India.6 Test 7. 5. 9. 1. Keys 153 2-4 3-1 4-2 5-3 6-4 7-2 8-1 9-4 10- . 6. Pakistan and ______________ . 7. At the outset of the 1990s Britain‘s total population was over ___________ . The 1997 ___________ sought to prevent discrimination in employment> housing and other areas. Kent and Surrey are the ___________ .10. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable word or phrase. In Cornwall there is still a sense of ___________ identity. Essex. Middlesex. _______________ . 10. 3. 2. Black immigrants first started coming to Britain in substantial numbers in response to _______________ . The religious capital of England is _______ 1) London 2) Cambridge 3) Canterburry 4) Oxford Keys` 1-2 3 2.

1. labour shortages 2. Bangladesh 3. hostility 4. Race Descrimination Act 5. British citisenship 6. Celtic 7. Home counies 8. 57 million 9. Newcastle 10. Wales 2.7 Test 8. Choose the most suitable answer to the questions. 1. What colours are represented on The Union Jack? a) red, white, and blue b) red, white, blue and green c) red and blue 2. The colors of Scottish national flag are ... a) red and white b) blue and white c) blue and yellow 3. Many people in Scotland have the name MacKenzie. 'Mac' means... a) 'sir' b) 'son of' c) 'family' 4. The Patron Saint of Scotland is ... a) St. George b) St. David c) St. Andrew 5. What is the national emblem of Wales? a) leek b) thistle c) shamrock 6. What is a very well-known symbol of Scottishness? a) skirt b) shirt c) kilt 7. The Welsh are known in Great Britain for their... a) handicrafts b) singing ability 154



c) dancing 8. What was the original Roman name for Britain? a) Caledonia b) Albion c) Hibernia 9. What is ―a national passion‖ of the British? a) sport b) reading c) travelling 10. Whose emblem was the Red Rose? a) the Lancastrian b) the Yorkist c) the MacDonalds Keys 1-a 2-b 3-b 4-c 5-a 6-c 7-b 8-b 9-a 10-a

Chapter 3 3.1 Test 1. Check whether you know the answers to the following questions. 1. What were the reasons why Henry VIII disliked the power of the Church of England? 2. When did the Parliament pass the Law of Supremacy? What did this law mean? 3. What does the letters FD on British coins stand for? 4. What religion became official during the rule of Henry VIII? 5. What happened to the monasteries during the rule of Henry VIII? 6. Who was the first Scottish king to rule in England? Answers 1. Henry disliked the power of the Church in England because, since it was an international organization, he could not completely control it. The power of the Catholic Church in England could therefore work against his own authority, and the taxes paid to the Church reduced his own income In 1510 Henry had married Catherine of Aragon, the widow of his elder brother Arthur. But by 1526 she had still not had a son who survived infancy and was now unlikely to do so. Henry tried to persuade the pope to allow him to divorce Catherine. But the Pope forbade Henry's divorce.


2. In 1531 Henry persuaded the bishops to make him head of the Church in England, and this became law after Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy in 1534 3. Henry had earlier written a book criticizing Martin Luther's teaching and the pope had rewarded him with the title Fidei Defensor, Defender of the Faith. The letters "F. D." are still to be found on every British coin. 4. Catholicism. 5. James VI. Test 2. Choose the most suitable verb form in each sentence. a) I suddenly remembered that I forgot/had forgotten my keys. b) While Diana watched/was watching her favourite program there was a power cut. c) Tom used to/would live at the end of the street. d) Laura missed the party because no-one was telling/had told her about it e) By the time Sheila got back, Chris went/had gone. f) David ate/had eaten Japanese food before, so he knew what to order. g) I did/was doing some shopping yesterday when I saw that Dutch friend of yours. h) I used to like/was liking sweets much more then I do now. i) What exactly were you doing/did you do when I came into your office yesterday. j) Helen would/used to be a doctor. Keys a) had forgotten b) was watching c) used to d) had told e) had gone f) had eaten g) was doing h) used to i) were you doing j) used to. Test 3. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. 1. In 43 AD Britain was invaded by: 1. Emperor Claudius 2. Julius Caesar 3. Beaker Folk 4. Vikings 2. The Battle of Hastings took place: 1. 14 April 1066 2. 14 October 1086 3. 14 October 1066 4. 14 April 1086 156

1381 4. Wat Tyler‘s uprising was in: 1. William the Conqueror 2. Plague in London 4. the defeat of Spanish Armada 4.1649-1660 3. 1348 3. Wars of the Roses took place in the period of: 1. 1455-1485 4. 1215 is the year of: 1. The foundation of Parliament 5. Lord the Protector 4. 1775-1783 7. 1337-1437 3. In 1603 there was: 1.1647-1658 4. Union of England and Ireland under one crown 4. Union of England and Wales under one crown 10. Gunpowder plot 8. Edward the Confessor 3.3. Bonny Prince Charlie 4. 1625-1649 9. Put the events in the right order: 157 . The Years Commonwealth and protectorate of England: 1. England and Wales under one crown 2. round-the-world journey 3. Magna Carta 3. the title of the Prince of Wales 2. Union of Scotland. Union of Scotland and England under one crown 3. the introduction of Poll Tax 2. 1399 6. 1189-1199 2. Guy Fawkes is famous for: 1.1653-1658 2.1346 2. Domesday Book was compiled by the court of: 1.

The Leader of the Opposition Party 12. Habeas Corpus Act. Robert Walpole is: 1. Glorious Revolution 4. going back at least to the … century: 1.3 3-1 4-2 5-3 11 -2 12-1 6-2 7.10th 4. 2. Interregnum 3. The leader of American patriots 2.9th 3. Lancaster and Tudor 158 .1. What is Chartism: 1. wrote the Constitution 4.1. The monarchy is the oldest secular institution in the UK. A famous English poet 4. The court of William the Conqueror: 1.8th 2. A movement of the working class in Ireland for independence Keys 1-2 2-3 10-2. The first British Prime Minister 3. A movement in painting 4.1337-1437. compiled Doomsday Book 2.4. accepted the Magna Carta 3. Wars of the Roses took place in the period of… between the dynasties of …. Restoration 11. 3.2 Test 4. A British working class movement for parliamentary reforms 2. A movement in literature of 18th-19th centuries 3.4 8-1 9-2 3. passed the Bill of Rights.11th 2. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence 1.: 1.

Ceremony of the Keys 3. Lord Melbourne 4. Katherine of Aragon 5. Katherine Parr 7.2. Albert Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 7. Ann of Cleves 2. Who was not the wife of Henry VIII: 1. a democratic republic. Mary Tudor 2. Lancaster and Windsor 4. a limited constitutional monarchy. Trooping the Banner 9. Elizabeth Tudor 4. Katherine Howard 6. quitted to be. 1337-1437. Honours List 159 . William IV 2. Queen Victoria was married to: 1. 1455-1485. The 17th century struggle between Crown and Parliament led to the establishment of … . Ann Boleyn 4. The colony in North America was called Virginia in honour of : 1. Duke of Kent 3. quitted to be 3. Jane Seymour 6. remained 4. 8.1775-1783. an absolute monarchy. York and Lancaster 3. The money given to the Queen and some of her relatives by the Parliament each year so that they can perform their public duties is called: 1. Trooping the Colour 4. The ceremony on Queen‘s official birthday is called. 1. Changing of the Guards 2. York and Hannover 4. democracy. The monarch … the centre of the executive power throughout most of the 18th century. Victoria Hannover 5. Edward. remained 2. Elizabeth Windsor 3. Florence Nightingale 3. 1.

Royal List 4.3 Test 5. Commonwealth day is celebrated on the official birthday of Queen Elizabeth II 1) in May 2) in June 3) in July 4) in August 5. governs but doesn‘t rule Keys: 1-2 2-1 3-2 4-3 5-2 6-4 7-3 8-3 9-4 10 -1 3. reigns but doesn‘t rule 2. rules but doesn‘t reign 3. The Commonwealth Secretariat headquarters are at 1) Malborough House 2) White House 3) the House of Parliaments 4) the House of Lords 4. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. The country that withdrew from the Commonwealth in 1949 was 1) South Africa 2) Fiji 3) Pakistan 4) Ireland 3. Private List 3. The Commonwealth of Nations was established by the State of Westminster in 1)1929 2) 1931 3)1937 4) 1941 2. The heads of government of all Commonwealth countries meet every 1) year 2) two years 160 . Civil List 10. rules but doesn‘t govern 4.2. What best describes the role of British monarch nowadays: 1. 1.

3) three years 4) four years Keys 1-2 2-4 3-1 4-2 5-2 161 .

1.4 Test 7. The Falklands armed conflict took place in 1) 1972 2) 1979 3) 1982 4) 1985 2. Keys 1) false 2) true 3) true 4) true 5) false 3. 1) Today there is as strong sense of Commonwealth purpose as 30 years ago. By 1980 it was possible that Britain could leave the European Community. on account of the dispute over its contribution to the 1) International Policy 2) Common Agricultural Policy 3) Ethnic Minority Policy 4) Eastern Europe Policy 4. 5) Canada withdrew from the Commonwealth. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. Say whether the following statements are true or false. 3) There was a dramatic reduction of Britain‘s overseas aid during the 1980s.Test 6. 2) The Queen is the titular head of the Commonwealth. Britain joined the European Community in 1) 1973 2) 1975 3) 1977 4) 1979 3. Hong Kong was British colony till 1) 1995 2) 1997 3) 1999 4) 2001 162 . 4) South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth.

5. In 1980 the most important military ally of the UK was 1) the USA 2) the European Community 3) the Commonwealth 4) Germany 6. The author of the stories about James Bond is 1) Ian Flemming 2) Len Deighton 3) John Le Carre 4) Harold Wilson 7. The organization that runs Britain‘s spy network abroad is 1) M14 2) M15 3) M16 4) M17 8. The Gulf war took place in 1) 1989 2) 1990 3) 1991 4) 1992 9. In 1990 britain was spending on defence the same amount of money as 1) Russia 2) the USA 3) France 4) West Germany 10. The SAS (Special Air Service) represents 1) the upper-class elite 2) the tough operational elite 3) great land owners 4) infantry regiments Keys 1-3 2-1 3-2 4-2 5-1 6-1 7-3 8-3 9-4 10-2

Test 8 . Decipher the following abbreviations and tell what you know about them. LEA, REACH, CTC, GSCE, AS Level, A Level, FE.


Keys LEA-Local Education Authority REACH- 'Records of Achievement‘, and it attempts to set learning objectives for each term and year in primary school, and for each component of each subject at secondary school. This has introduced much more central control and standardization into what is taught CTC- City Technology Colleges GSCE-General Certificate of Secondary Education AS level-(Advanced Supplementary), which is worth half an 'A' Level A level-Advanced level FE- Further Education Task 9. Decide which answer best fits each space. Learning to learn. There is usually one important (1) ... missing from most school (2)... Very few student are (3) ... how to organize their learning, and how to (4)... the best use of their time. Let‘s take some simple (5) ... Do you know how to (6).. up words in a dictionary? And do you understand all the (7) ...the dictionary contains? Can you (8) ... notes quickly, and can you understand them (9)...? For some reason many schools give learners no (10)...with this matters. Teachers ask students to (11) ... pages from books, or tell them to write ten pages, but don‘t explain (12) do it. Learning by (13)... can be useful, but it is important to have a genuine (14)... of a subject. You can (15).. a lot of time memorizing books, without understanding anything about the subject! 1) A theme B book C subject D mark 2) A agendas B timetables C terms D organizations 3) A taught B learnt C educated D graduated 4) A take B give C get D make 5) A sentences B results C rules D examples 6) A find B look C research D get 7) A information B advice C subjects D themes 8) A do B send C make D revise 9) A after B afterwards C lastly D at last 10) A teaching B ability C instruction D help 11) A concentrate B remind C forget D memorize 12) A how B what C why D it 13) A the way B heart C now D law 14) A information B success C understanding D attention 15) A pass B waste C tell D use 164


1.C 2.B 3.A 4. D 5.D 6.B 7.A 8.C 9.B 10.D 11.D 12.A 13.B 14.C 15.B

Test 10. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence 1. Public school in Britain is not: 1. a private school 2. a boarding school 3. a state school 4. an independent school 2. English schoolchildren have …in the school year. 1. 2 terms 2. 3 terms 3. 4 terms 4. 5 terms 3.The National Curriculum was introduced in: 1. 1948 2. 1968 3. 1988 4. 1998 4. In Britain education is compulsory: 1. from 5 to 16 2. from 5to 18 3. from 7 to 16 4. from 7 to 18 5. What is the example of selective secondary education? 1. a comprehensive school 2. a secondary modern school 3. a technical college 4. a grammar school 6. Oxford University was founded in: 1. 13th century 2. 14th century 3. 15th century 4. 16 century


students working in cafes 10. 1998 Keys: 1-3 2-2 3-3 4-1 5-4 6-1 7-3 8 -2. Choose the most suitable answer to the following questions.7.‘ Fellows‘ are: 1. Put in the right order: 1. What is the abbreviation for the exam taken at the end of the secondary school? 1. group mates 2. The Open University was founded in: 1. 10 years old c. 8 years old b. SCE 8. GNVQ 2. PhD 4. 1. What is the most common type of indictable offence recorded by the police? a.4. 12 years old d. GSCE 4. Theft and handling stolen goods c. CTC 3. 3. fresher 3.6 Test 11. What is the age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales (the age when a person can be charged with a criminal offence)? a. MA 2. BA 9. 1969 3.3 9. staff at Oxbridge 3. room mates 4.1. Burglary and robbery 166 . 1949 2. 1989 4. Sexual offences b. 14 years old 2.2 10-2.

Theft by an employee d. At what age is a person most likely to be found guilty of or cautioned rot an indictable offence? a. Criminal damage 3. 50 b. Twice as likely c. How likely is man over 21 to be found guilty of an indictable offence than a woman over 21? a. 17 and under 21 c. Theft from another person c.d. Probation b. What is the average age of judges in the England and Wales? a. Fine 7. Prison c. Fraud and forgery f. True or false? More women than man are found guilty of shoplifting. Shop-lifting 5. Which of the following crimes known to the police in England and Wales involves the greatest total value of property stolen? a. Burglary b. 60 c. Keys 1b 2b 3b 4d 5b 6c 7c 8False Test 12 . Violence against the person e. As Likely b. 21 and over 4. 14 and under 17 b. 70 6. Underline the most suitable word or phrase. Theft of motor vehicles e. Four times as likely 8. What is the most frequently used punishment for indictable offences? a. 167 .

After I ate the shellfish. e. Italian is actually Mary‘s native language. After dinner. They have a new house right in the centre of the countryside. i. David fell down the steps and twisted his ankle/heel/toe. stomach ache. Agony. c. e. brains. beard. heart. and was in great pain all night. j. Everyone admired Lucy because she was tall and skinny/slim/thin. Whenever I travel by boat I start feeling hurt/sick/sore. g. David managed to grow a lot of hair on his face. Before I dived in the water. sick h. ankle e. temperature j. I experienced/fell/happened ill. Keys a. look. g. examines i. The police discovered the dead person buried in the garden. body. One thing you can say about Ann. aches g. b. Replace the words in italics with one of the given words. 168 .a. breath. I had a very bad toothache. d. b. h. slim f. Jack had a pain from eating too much. heal d. she has certainly got intelligence. Use each word only once. f. i. cought she Test 13 . I took a deep mouthful of air. Use this thermometer and take his fever/heat/temperature. I seem to have caught/infected/taken cold. I‘ve been digging the garden and now my back aches/pains/injures. The doctor can‘t say what is wrong with you until cures/examines/recovers you. h. d. fell c. There were ten people waiting in the doctor‘s office/surgery/ward. c. tongue a. j. f. Shirley had a strange expression on her face. surgery b. Janet fell from her horse and injured her backbone. spine. George‘s cut arm took over a week to cure/heal/look after.

5. Jones to hospital. a. e. 6. to carry the injured man out of the building. b. to keep fit or to loose some weight. Use each ending once. to take old Mr. d. I bought some special cream… 1. g. Some people go jogging every morning… c.Keys a) spine b) agony c) Body d) Brains e)Heart f)Tongue g) Breath h) Stomachache i) Look j) Beard Test 14. c. Nobody could find a stretcher… i. The doctor gave Helen a prescription… j. 8. Keys a-3 b-8 c-1 d-6 e-10 f-2 g-5 h-9 i-7 j-4 Test 15. f. Richard jawed away for at least an hour. to put on my sunburned arms and legs. to check weather it had recovered from its accident. 169 . to get rid of her headache. 9. The doctor gave Andy an injection… e. Match each sentence (a-j) with a suitable sentence (1-10) below which has the same meaning. 2. 3. Harry backed his boss. I‘m going to the hospital tomorrow… f. We took the cat to the vet… g. Dave hah a lot of cheek to talk like that. Henry‘s heart was in the right place. Susan took two aspirins… h. It would be a good idea for you to go to the dentist‘s… d. Paul held his tongue. 7. to have an operation on my foot. William kept poking his nose in. to have that bad tooth of yours taken out. a. Keith couldn‘t stomach his new boss. to reduce the pain and held him sleep. 4. I think we should send for the ambulance… b. Complete each sentence (a-j) with a suitable ending (1-10). to take to the chemist‘s. 10.

How many wives had Henry VIII? a) five b) six c) four 2. He said the wrong thing. Jack‘s heart ached to be where he belonged. Charles put his foot on it. He talked. He interfered in other people‘s business. 9. 4. 7. 2.h. He was rather rude. He hitchhiked. When did the Tudor occupy the throne of England? a) from 1485 to 1603 b) from 1485 to 1553 c) from 1509 to 1603 3. Choose the most suitable answer to the questions. What is the place of the UK in the world in awarding the Nobel Prize in science? a) the first b) the second c) the third 6. 6. Keys a-4 b-6 c-1 d-5 e-10 f-2 g-7 h-8 i-3 j-9 Test 16. He didn‘t say anything. i. 5. 10. What queen is known as ―the virgin queen‖? a) Elizabeth I b) Elizabeth II c) Mary I 4. He missed home. 1. He was kind. j. He didn‘t like him. What threat was posed by Mary Queen of Scots to the rule of Elizabeth I? a) she wanted to execute Elizabeth I b) she tried to plot against Elizabeth I c) she wanted to put Elizabeth I in prison 5. Who is known for his discoveries of electromagnetic induction and of the laws of electrolysis? a) Isaac Newton 170 . He supported him. 3. 8. 1. Graham thumbed a lift to work.

The ―History of the English Church‖ was written by 1) Bede 2) King Alfred 3) Duke William 4) Chaucer 2. What is the main idea of Charles Darwin‘s theory of evolution? a) each generation will improve adaptively over the preceding generations. and this gradual and continuous process is the source of the evolution of species b) species intensely compete for survival c) the next generation tends to embody favorable natural variations Keys 1-b 2-a 3-a 4-b 5-b 6-c 7-a 8-c 9-b 10-a Chapter 4 4. Who formulated laws of universal gravitation and motion—laws that explain how objects move on Earth as well as through the heavens? a) Isaac Newton b) Alexander Fleming c) Michael Faraday 8.1 Test 1. Geoffrey Chaucer was born in 1) 1168 171 . The English owe the famous Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to 1) Bede 2) King Alfred 3) Duke William 4) Chaucer 3. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. 1. What nationality was James Watt? a) He was English b) He was Irish c) He was Scottish 9.b) Alexander Fleming c) Michael Faraday 7. Who is known for his discovery of penicillin? a) Isaac Newton b) Alexander Fleming c) Michael Faraday 10.

2) 1209 3) 1340 4) 1384 4. who was 1) an Englishman 2) an Irishman 3) a Welsh 4) a Scotch 6. 1564 2) May. William Wordsworth is a representative of 1) renaissance 2) romanticism 3) realism 4) modernism 9. Beowulf was from 172 . The novel ― Robinson Crusoe‖ is about adventures of a real man. Walter Scot was born in 1) Ireland 2) Wales 3) Scotland 4) England 8. Jonatan Swift was born in 1) Ireland 2) Wales 3) Scotland 4) England 7. 1564 5. The author of ―Childe Harold‘s Pilgrimage‖ is 1) Samuel Taylor Coleridge 2) John Keats 3) Percy Bysshe Shelley 4) George Gordon Byron 10. 1564 3) June. Alexander Selkirk. 1564 4) July. William Shakespeare was born in 1) April.

furnished with only a bed. A passage B doorway C access D communication. c) All the rooms have covered/fitted carpets. Architectural pressure groups fought unsuccessfully to save a terrace of eighteen century houses from. A generous B profuse C lavish D sprendrift 5. 173 . Our hosts had prepared a . but there is another door at the edge/side of the house. 4... the garden has two ornamental iron doors/gates and there is a stone path/pavement leading to the the garden is through a bedroom. and there are sinks/washbasins in all the bedrooms....contacting all the accomodation agencies in the city.1) the country of Geats 2) Denmark 3) England 4) the country of Hrotgar Keys 1-1 2-2 3-3 4-1 5-4 6-1 7-3 8-2 9-4 10-1 Test 2... d) All the cupboards/wardrobes in the kitchen and the bookshelves/library in the living room are included in the price. we. a) As you see. 1.. a wardrobe and an ancient armchair. Choose the correct alternative. A thinly B sparsely C lightly D sketchingly 3. The main disadvantage of our house is that the only .. e) There is a beautiful stone chimney/fireplace in the living room. Having decided to rent a flat.. The hotel room was . A disruption B abolition C démolition D dismantling 2.meal with several courses to celebrate our arrival. Choose the most suitable word. b) There is the front entry/entrance. A set to B set off C set out D set about Keys 1-C 2-B 3-C 4-C 5-D Test 3.

b) entrance. The Houses of Parliament were built by Sir Charles Barry and A. greenhouse.16th 2. Norman 4.18th 4. George Gilbert Scott 4. John Wallis 3. f) stairs. h) an attic. Paul‘s Cathedral was rebuilt by_______ 1. Pugin in _______century. c) fitted. neighbourhood. William the Conqueror 4. Classical 4. St. bookshelves. path. Inigo Jones 2. Westminster Abbey was founded by Edward the Confessor and is built in _______style. i) fence.N. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. d) cupboards. 1. Christopher Wren 3. taps. The Tower of London was founded by _________ 1.W. e) fireplace. side.19th 174 . 1. stained. j) detached. Victorian 3.17th 3. shed. 1. g) The bathroom has a shower/washer and modern mixer pipes/taps. washbasins. h) At the top of the house there is a/an attic/cellar and the garden contains a glass house/greenhouse and a garden hut/shed. g) shower. j) There is a fine single/detached house in a quite neighbourhood/suburb. Richard the Lion Heart 3. Test 4. Edward the Confessor 2. and a bush/hedge on the other. i) There is a wooden fence/wall on the one side of the garden. Keys a) gates. hedge. King Alfred 2.f) At the top of the stairs /steps there is a coloured/stained glass window. Gothic 2.

French 4. The prevalent styles in British architecture of the 20th century are_______ 1. Buckingham Palace 4. the great Bell 4. Post-modernist 3. the tower housing the Palace Clock 9. the Tower of London 2. removed to Sydenham 3. dismantled 2. Royal Pavilion in Brighton was redesigned by John Nash in 1815-1822 and has a very_______appearance: 1. Balmoral Castle 3. Windsor Castle 2. Neo-classical 175 . The ―Traitor‘s gate‖ is in_______ 1. The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton which housed the Great exhibition of 1851 was _______ in 1936. the Palace Clock 3. Holyrood Palace 10. Which is not the official Royal Residence but one of the Royal Family‘s private homes? 1. Buckingham Palace 4. Holyrood Palace 8. destroyed by fire 4. Classical 4. rebuilt 6. Japanese 2. The Palace of Westminster 2. the Houses of Parliament 3. Indian 3. Modernist 2.5. Big Ben is the name of_________ 1. 1. Scandinavian 7.

5. Use each word only once. A scene B cast C circle D drama Keys 1-A 2-D 3-C 4-A 5-B Test 6.electric 2. The play was a success and had very good ______in the papers. We enjoyed the play so much that we _______ for ten minutes A booed B screamed C applauded D handed 4.3 Test 5. Who is the _______? Keys 1.popular 3. Unfortunately the boy upstairs is learning the ______guitar. A self B own C selfish D auto 2.Keys: 1-3 2-2 3-1 4-4 5-3 6-2 7-1 8-3 9-2 10-2. Of course its possible to like both classical and _________ music. No recording can be as good as a. 3. A reviews B critics C advertisements D notes 5. Susan‘s first painting was a/an _____portrait. 1. Peter sings every Sunday in the local church______ A concert B chorus C opera D choir 3. The orchestra would no be so successful with a different______ 4.______ concert in my opinion. All the members of the ________ had a party after the play was over. composer conductor electric live popular 1. 176 . That‘s a nice piece of music. Complete each sentence with the suitable word.composer. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.conductor 5.4 4. 2.

comprising the Coronation Regalia b) The Imperial State Crown c) The Queen Mother's Crown 8. Who presides over the assembly of The House of Lords? a) the Prime Minister b) the Queen c) the Lord Chancellor 177 .5 Test 7. 1. Choose the most suitable answer to the question. What does the phrase ―The Crown Jewels‖ mean? a) the world's largest and most valuable collection of jewels and gold plate. How do they call the guard of the Tower? a) the Yeomen of the Guard c) the Yeomen Warders 9. Who built the White Tower? a) Henry III b) William the Conqueror c) Charles II 5. What street is the most famous in London for № 10? a) Downing Street b) Victoria Street c) Oxford Street 10.4. What place did the Tower Green use to be? a) the treasury b) the prison c) the place where the less common prisoners met their end 6. What is displayed in The Tudor Gallery? a) the personal armours of Henry VIII b) the personal armours of Henry VII c) the personal armours of Elizabeth I 7. What plain does Stonehenge stand on? a) the Wiltshire Plain b) the Salisbure Plain c) the Lancashire-Cheshire Plain 2. What is the oldest surviving building in London? a) the Westminster Palace b) Buckingham Palace c) the Tower of London 4. What way did the Druids use Stonehenge? a) it was used as an ancient astronomical observatory b) it was used as a place of worship c) it was an ancient calendar for them 3.

. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence. A.. antiquated. veteran B... (9)from newspapers because they do not concentrate upon . She used her weekly column in the local newspaper as a . Periodicals . (10)the reader a summary of the immediate news.Keys 1-b 2-b 3-c 4-b 5-c 6-a 7-a 8-c 9-a 10-c Test 8. Publications that come out at regular . The majority of periodicals ..(1) of more that one day are known .In an effort to increase his newspaper‘s . (8) is more varied... for D.. vehicle B..500 ... means C. There are also physical .. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the passage with one suitable word. traveller..(5). for her political views. about 3. customary D. propaganda B. A. (4)to print topical news stories and articles in a way that a book . refund C. they are easier to read.(3) to press between a week and six weeks before the publication and they are therefore . penalty D.... A. they are smaller and are stapled or stitched. and their.. of B.. the editor introduced a weekly competition. (6)the book.fear as he performed his daredevil tricks....... The newspaper was ordered to pay him £1. 5. (11) most periodicals are .... (13) so that they last longer... passage 4. he ‗s a . vintage C. .. for printing a libellous story about him.. This is one advantage that periodical has . A.. restitution Keys 1-C 2-C 3-A 4-A 5-D Test 9..... damages B...(7)advantages are that periodicals are cheaper. dispersion 2..(12) on better paper.. The line between newspapers and 178 . 1. Having been a foreign correspondent all his working life... circulation D. distribution C.. (2) periodicals. A.. over C. vessel D.. The stuntman seemed to show total disregard .

A ―paper round‖ is: 1.well 14. The Daily Mail 2. Keys 1. however.cannot 6. a newspaper bound to your purchase in the shop 4.printed 13. your purchase wrapped in the newspaper 2. 3. ―quality sheets‖ 2. ―white pages‖. (14). five.differ 3. The Independent 4. The Times 5.. The Guardian 2.advantages 12. seven 2.periodicals is not clearly . There is a striking difference between the … ―quality papers‖ and the …. five. Scotland has …important ―quality papers‖. three 179 .basis 2. a morning paper delivered to the door by a teenager 3. 1. The Daily Telegraph 4... twelve. Another name for ―quality paper‖ is: 1. mass circulation ―tabloids‖: 1. 6. Other 8. six. 2. 1.. The Daily Express 11. Choose the quality paper: 5. a newspaper that can be bought round the corner. ten 4. Choose the‖ tabloid‖: 1. content 9. The Sun 3. Choose the alternative according to the task. six.over 7. two 2. The Star 4..defined 15. because some weeklies that appear in newspaper. (15) are really periodicals.go 4. six 3. Test 10. ―broadsheets ― 4. ―serious sheets‖ 3.

a federal republic 4. 7. The Daily Express 8. The Missisippi River. The Financial Times 4. BBC 2 4. Which channel broadcasts the programs of Open University? 1. an organ of the Government and has no link with any party. a constitutional monarchy 2. 1. BBC 1 2. Channel 4 5. ―Radio times‖ is: 1. The largest rivers in the USA are: 1. Keys: 1-2 Chapter5. Which TV channel(s) have no advertisement? 1. Channel 4 5. a union of 50 states. The Guardian 2. Test 11 1. 1. a popular radio program. five. the Missoury and the Ohio 180 2-3 3-2 4-4 5-2 6-1 7-2 8-1. ITV 3. ITV 3. Channel 5 9. a popular TV program 4. The most famous of all British newspapers is … It is not now and has never been. a bestselling magazine 2. BBC 1 2. a presidential republic 3.3 9-3 10-1 . The USA is ….3. BBC 2 4. The Times 3. a constitutional republic 2. four . a popular newspaper 3. Channel 5 10.

Oval Office 6. By the time of the American Revolution (1776). A popular American folk art practiced by the country‘s ordinary people is making patchwork …. The House of Commons and the House of Representatives 3. Indian 4. (A)… is the head of the executive branch of the Government and works from his (B)…. shirts 4. 1. In the White House to make the decisions that govern and protect the nation.The Prime Minister 2. The Missisipi River. kirts 2.Blue Room 2. Dutch 7. 1. Potomac and the Colorado 4. State Dining Room 4. A 1. In 1782. The Alabama River. The President B. the bald eagle was adopted as the nationalbird for the country. the culture of the American colonists had been thouroughly… 1. The legislative body is the Congress (bicameral). consisting of …. British 2.2. white-streaked 4. 1. Red Room 3. The baud eagle is… 1. French 3. kilts 181 . The House of Representatives and the President 5. wingless 4. black-streaked 3. The Missisippi River. the Missoury and the Grand 3. the Sacramento and the Colunmbia 3. really bald 2. The Vice-President 3.quilts 3. The Senate and the House of Representatives 2. The House of Commons and the Senate 4.

1. Australia has a …legislature: …. 10. Canada is officially bilingual and the federal government is available in English and… 1.8.. Wellington 3. The capital of New Zealand is: 1. B-4 6-1 7-2 8-1 9-3 10-2 182 . Quebec Keys: 1-3 2-1 3-4 4-1 5-A-3. Chinese 3. French 2. Punjabi 9. unicameral…The Senate 3. bicameral. Ottawa 2. bicameral... The House of Representatives and The Senate 4. The House of Representatives and The House of Lords. unicameral…The House of Representatives 2. Italian 4. Canberra 4.

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79 1209 1249 1295 1337 1348 1430 1440 1453 1455 1474 1564 . First vikings raids on Britain Beowulf.1300BC 800BC 55BC 43AD 50 70 .50 1650 .1629 1642 1649 .1630 1626 .88 1165 . old English epic poem Anglo-Saxon chronicle begun Battle of Hastings William 1 crowned in Westminster Abbey Tower of London built Windsor Castle rebuilt in stone London bridge finished in stone University college.84 409 470 495 793 800 891 1066 1078 . Oxford founded Meeting of model Parliament Start of Hundred Years War Black Death Joan of Arc burnt Eton college founded End of Hundred Years War Outbreak of the Wars of the Roses William Caxton prints first book in English Shakespear Rebellion in Ireland War with Spain War with France Outbraek of Civil War Cromwell conquers Ireland Cromwell conquers Scotland Cromwell becomes Lord Protector 186 .Appendix 1 BRITISH CHRONOLOGY 2200BC .1616 1609 1624 .1652 1653 Stonehenge built Immigration of Celts Julius Caesar‘s first expedition to Britain Roman invasion Foundation of London Conqest of Wales & North Last Roman legions leave Saxons settle in Sussex Saxons settle in Wessex.

1665 1666 1694 1707 1710 1727 1753 1756 1805 1815 1824 1836 1848 1940 1969 1983 .1659 1664 . Thatcher resigns. Thatcher wins third term of office Mrs. Thatcher Mrs. the first prime-minister British museum founded Seven Years‘ War begins Battle of Trafalgar Battle of Waterloo National Gallary founded Chartist movement launched Chartist movement collapses Churchill becomes Prime-minister North Sea oil discovered Conservatives re-eelected under Mrs.98 Minister Richard Cromwell overthrown by army Great Plague Great Fire Bank of England established Union of England and Scotland St.Paul‘s Cathedral completed Robert Walpole. John Major becomes Prime 187 .90 1987 1990 .

Gladstone Party Tory Tory Tory Tory Tory Whig Whig Tory Whig Tory Whig Tory Peelite Liberal Conservative Liberal Liberal Conservative Conservative Liberal Date 1809 1812 1827 1827 1828 1830 1834 1834 1835 1841 1846 1852 1852 1855 1858 1859 1865 1866 1868 1868 188 .E.Appendix 2 BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS AND GOVERNMENTS Name Spencer Perceval Earl of Liverpool George Canning Viscount Goderich Duke of Wellington Earl Grey Viscount Melbourne Sir Robert Peel Viscount Melbourne Sir Robert Peel Lord John Russell Earl of Derby Earl of Aberdeen Viscount Palmerston Earl of Derby Viscount Palmerston Earl Russell Earl of Derby Benjamin Disraeli W.

Ramsay MacDonald Stanley Baldwin J. Balfour Sir H.H.E. Bonar Law Stanley Baldwin J. Asquith H. Asquith D.Benjamin Disraeli W.E. CampbellBannerman H. Attlee Sir Winston Churchill Sir Anthony Eden Conservative Liberal Conservative Liberal Conservative Liberal Liberal Conservative Conservative Liberal Liberal Coalition Coalition Conservative Conservative Labour Conservative Labour Coalition Coalition Coalition Coalition Conservative Labour Conservative Conservative 189 1874 1880 1885 1886 1886 1892 1894 1895 1902 1905 1908 1915 1916 1922 1923 1924 1924 1939 1931 1935 1937 1940 1945 1945 1951 1955 . Gladstone Earl of Rosebery Marquess of Salisbury A.J. Lloyd-George A.H. Gladstone Marquess of Salisbury W. Ramsay MacDonald J. Churchill Winston S. Churchill Clement R. Ramsay MacDonald Stanley Baldwin Naville Chamberlain Winston S. Gladstone Marquess of Salisbury W.E.

Harold Macmillan Sir Alec Douglas-Home Harold Wilson Edward Heath Harold Wilson James Callaghan Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher John Major Tony Blair Tony Blair Conservative Conservative Labour Conservative Labour Labour Conservative Conservative Conservative Conservative Labour Labour 1957 1963 1964 1970 1974 1976 1979 1983 1987 1990 1995 1999 190 .

Appendix 3 The Commonwealth of Nations Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Canada Cyprus Dominica Gambia Ghana Great Britain Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Maldives Malta Mauritius Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea St. Lucia St. Christopher and Nevis St. Vincent and the Grenadines 191 .

Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda Vanuatu Western Samoa Zambia Zimbabwe 192 .

Abraham Lincoln 17. Warren Harding 30. Zachary Taylor 13. William Harrison 10. James Garfield 21. George Washington 2. Franklin Pierce 15. Rutherford Hayes 20. Dwight Eisenhower 35. William McKinley 26. John Fitzgerald Kennedy 193 1789-1797 1797-1801 1801-1809 1809-1817 1817-1825 1825-1829 1829-1837 1837-1841 1841-1841 1841-1845 1845-1849 1849-1850 1850-1853 1853-1857 1857-1861 1861-1865 1865-1869 1869-1877 1877-1881 1881-1881 1881-1885 1885-1889 1889-1893 1893-1897 1897-1901 1901-1909 1909-1913 1913-1921 1921-1923 1923-1929 1929-1933 1933-1945 1945-1953 1953-1961 1961-1963 . Benjamin Harrison 24. John Adams 3. Chester Alan Arthur 22. James Buchanan 16. Herbert Clark Hoover 32. Franklin Delano Roosevelt 33. Andrew Johnson 18. James Maddison 5. Grover Cleveland 23.Appendix 4 Presidents of the USA 1. Andrew Jackson 8. James Monroe 6. Thomas Jefferson 4. John Quincy Adams 7. Grover Cleveland 25. Calvin Coolidge 31. John Tyler 11. Theodore Roosevelt 27. Harry S Truman 34. James Knox Polk 12. Millard Fillmore 14. William Таft 28. Ulysses Grant 19. Woodrow Wilson 29. Martin Van Buren 9.

George Bush Jr. 2000- 1963-1969 1969-1974 1974-1977 1977-1981 1981-1988 1988-1992 1992-2000 194 .36. Bill Clinton 43. Ronald Reagan 41. George Bush 42. Jimmy (James Earl) Carter 40. Lyndon Baines Johnson 37. Gerald Rudolph Ford 39. Richard Milhous Nixon 38.