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The Computer

"Computer" is a collection of devices that function as a unit. The most basic

collection includes a Computer CPU, a Monitor, a Keyboard, and a Mouse.
The Computer CPU is normally a rectangular box that sits on your desktop
(called a "Desktop Case") or next to your knee under the desk (called a
"Tower Case"). The computer's CPU is actually a small electronic device
inside the case but the term is often used to refer to the whole collection of
electronics inside the box.

Processors (CPU)
A Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor is an electronic circuit that
can execute computer programs, which are actually sets of instructions. This
term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s
(Weik 2007). The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed
dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation
remains much the same.
Early CPUs were custom-designed as a part of a larger, sometimes one-of-a-
kind, computer. However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a
particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-
produced processors that are made for one or many purposes. This
standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistor
mainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the
popularization of the integrated circuit (IC). The IC has allowed increasingly
complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order
of nanometers. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have
increased the presence of these digital devices in modern life far beyond the
limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern
microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to cell phones and
children's toys.
A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic
instructions that drives a computer. The Processor, also called the CPU, is
the brain of the PC. It performs all general computing tasks and coordinates
tasks done by memory, video, disk storage, and other system components.
The CPU is a very complex chip that resides directly on the motherboard of
most PCs, but may instead reside on a daughter card that connects to the
motherboard via a dedicated specialized slot. The term processor has
generally replaced the term central processing unit (CPU). The processor in a
personal computer or embedded in small devices is often called a
The most powerful microprocessor chip in your computer is the CPU. For
example the Intel Pentium chip handles the central management functions of
a high-powered PC. Intel's newest Hyper-Threading (technology that allows
the CPU to process two separate threads of data simultaneously) CPU
supports a 1 megabyte on-board L2 cache (the on-board cache functions as
a buffer to feed data to the CPU at a faster rate). The speed of the CPU is
measured in Gigahertz (billions of cycles per second).
For many years only single-core processors containing one processing unit
were available. However over the last few years dual-core processors that
contain two identical processing units and quad-core processors that contain
four identical processing units have become available from AMD and Intel.
AMD also provide triple-core processors that have three processing cores.
The manufacturer of a particular model of processor sets it to run at a
particular speed, which is really the frequency (measured in gigahertz in
modern processors) that it operates at. The higher the frequency (1GHz,
2GHz, 2.5GHz, 3.0GHz, etc.) the faster the processor can process data. Note
that the design is also an important factor in how fast a particular
make/model of processor processes data. However, most processors can be
over clocked to run faster than the manufacturer's setting allows. The
amount of speed/frequency overhead that a particular processor has
depends on several factors.

Graphics processing unit

A graphics processing unit or GPU (also occasionally called visual
processing unit or VPU) is a specialized processor that offloads 3D
graphics rendering from the microprocessor. It is used in embedded systems,
mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles.
Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics, and their
highly parallel structure makes them more effective than general-purpose
CPUs for a range of complex algorithms. In a personal computer, a GPU can
be present on a video card, or it can be on the motherboard. More than 90%
of new desktop and notebook computers have integrated GPUs, which are
usually far less powerful than those on a dedicated video card.

Computer Processor: What is it?

A computer processor analyzes data and controls data flow in a computer.

Also called the central processing unit (CPU), it is considered the brain of
the computer because it performs the actual data processing. Its speed is
measured in gigahertz (GHz), with common speeds ranging from 2.6 to
3.66 GHz. It comes in a small microchip and fits into a socket on the

Computer processors are responsible for analyzing data and controlling how
data flows in a computer. Also known as the central processing unit or the
CPU, they are considered to the brains of a computer since they perform the
actual data processing, with speeds that normally run between 2.6 to 3.66
Ghz (gigahertz). Computer processors are in the form of small microchips
and fit into sockets in motherboards.

A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip. It's sometimes

called a logic chip. It is the "engine" that goes into motion when you turn
your computer on. A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and
logic operations that make use of small number-holding areas called
registers. Typical microprocessor operations include adding, subtracting,
comparing two numbers, and fetching numbers from one area to another.
These operations are the result of a set of instructions that are part of the
microprocessor design. When the computer is turned on, the microprocessor
is designed to get the first instruction from the basic input/output system
(BIOS) that comes with the computer as part of its memory. After that, either
the BIOS, or the operating system that BIOS loads into computer memory, or
an application program is "driving" the microprocessor, giving it instructions
to perform.

The CPU (Processor) is the brain of every computer. Every calculation and
process made by a computer is executed by the CPU. The processor
performs calculations by using bits (definition of bit), which can have a value
of 1 or 0. The most common processor is 32-bit, but 64-bit processors are
becoming more popular in newer computers. You can read here what's
different between 64 & 32 bit processors.
Moore's Law from 1965 predicts that processing power should double every
18 months, but was revised in 1975 to every 2 years. This prediction was
made on the basis that the circuitry, resistors, and other processor parts are
being made smaller and smaller.
Currently, an average CPU can have processing speeds from about 2.0 GHz
to 3.4 GHz, with the manufacturers fast approaching the 4.0 GHz mark.

Processing characteristics and functions:

-Machine cycle time
An instruction cycle' (also called fetch-and-execute cycle, fetch-decode-
execute cycle, and FDX) is the time period during which a computer
processes a machine language instruction from its memory or the sequence
of actions that the central processing unit (CPU) performs to execute each
machine code instruction in a program.
The name fetch-and-execute cycle is commonly used. The instruction must
be fetched from main memory, and then executed by the CPU. This is
fundamentally how a computer operates, with its CPU reading and executing
a series of instructions written in its machine language. From this arise all
functions of a computer familiar from the user's end.
The execution of a process takes place during a machine cycle. Machine
cycle time is measured in microseconds or nanoseconds and Pico seconds.
Machine cycle time can also be measured as how many instructions can be
executed in a second.
-Clock speed
Clock speed is a measure of how quickly a computer completes basic
computations and operations. It is measured as a frequency in hertz, and
most commonly refers to the speed of the computer's CPU, or Central
Processing Unit. Since the frequency most clock speed measures is very
high, the terms megahertz and gigahertz are used. A megahertz is one-
million cycles per second, while a gigahertz is one-billion cycles per second.
So a computer with a clock speed of 800MHz is running 800,000,000 cycles
per second, while a 2.4GHz computer is running 2,400,000,000 cycles per
The CPU produces electronic pulses at a predetermined rate, called clock
speed, which affects the machine cycle time. The control unit executes the
microcode in accordance with the electronic cycle or pulses of the CPU clock.
Each microcode instruction takes the same time as the interval between
pulses; the faster each microcode instruction can be executed. Clock speed
is often measured in megahertz. A hertz is one cycle or pulse per second.

-Word length
The word length is the number of bits the CPU can process per second. Early
CPUs were 4 bits /sec, but now we have 8, 16 and 32 bit machines.

-Bus line width

Data is transferred from CPU to other systems components via the Bus lines
(wires). The number of bits a bus line can transfer at any one time is known
as bus line width. All these factors, clock speed, cycle time, word length and
bus line speed contribute to the speed of the CPU.
Simultaneous processing with two or more processors in one computer or
two or more computers processing together. When two or more computers
are used, they are tied together with a high-speed channel and share the
general workload between them. If one fails, the other takes over.
Multiprocessing is also accomplished in special-purpose computers, such as
array processors, which provide concurrent processing on sets of data. All
computers perform simultaneous functions, such as executing instructions
while reading from an input device and writing to an output device. CPUs can
also execute multiple instructions simultaneously from a single stream of
instructions. However, multiprocessing refers specifically to the concurrent
execution of two or more independent streams of instructions.

The simultaneous use of more than one CPU or processor core to execute a
program or multiple computational threads. Ideally, parallel processing
makes programs run faster because there are more engines (CPUs or cores)
running it. In practice, it is often difficult to divide a program in such a way
that separate CPUs or cores can execute different portions without
interfering with each other. Most computers have just one CPU, but some
models have several, and multi-core processor chips are becoming the norm.
There are even computers with thousands of CPUs.
With single-CPU, single-core computers, it is possible to perform parallel
processing by connecting the computers in a network. However, this type of
parallel processing requires very sophisticated software called distributed
processing software.
Note that parallel processing differs from multitasking, in which a CPU
provides the illusion of simultaneously executing instructions from multiple
different programs by rapidly switching between them, or "interleaving" their
Parallel processing is also called parallel computing. In the quest of cheaper
computing alternatives parallel processing provides a viable option. The idle
time of processor cycles across network can be used effectively by
sophisticated distributed computing software.
Processor Components
Modern processors have the following internal components:

-Execution unit
the core of the CPU, the execution unit processes instructions.

-Branch predictor
the branch predictor attempts to guess where the program will jump (or
branch) next, allowing the prefect and decode unit to retrieve instructions
and data in advance so that they will already be available when the CPU
requests them.

-Floating point unit

the floating point unit (FPU) is a specialized logic unit optimized to perform
non integer calculations much faster than the general purpose logic unit can
perform them.

-Primary cache
also called Level 1 or L1 cache, primary cache is a small amount of very fast
memory that allows the CPU to retrieve data immediately, rather than
waiting for slower main memory to respond. See Chapter 5 for more
information about cache memory.

-Bus interfaces
Bus interfaces are the pathways that connect the processor to memory and
other components. For example, modern processors connect to the chipset
Northbridge via a dedicated bus called the front side bus (FSB) or host bus.

-Processor Speed
the processor clock coordinates all CPU and memory operations by
periodically generating a time reference signal called a clock cycle or tick.
Clock frequency is specified in megahertz (MHz), which specifies millions of
ticks per second, or gigahertz (GHz), which specifies billions of ticks per
second. Clock speed determines how fast instructions execute. Some
instructions require one tick, others multiple ticks, and some processors
execute multiple instructions during one tick. The number of ticks per
instruction varies according to processor architecture, its instruction set, and
the specific instruction. Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) processors
use complex instructions. Each requires many clock cycles to execute, but
accomplishes a lot of work. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
processors use fewer, simpler instructions. Each takes few ticks but
accomplishes relatively little work.

These differences in efficiency mean that one CPU cannot be directly

compared to another purely on the basis of clock speed. For example, an
AMD Athlon XP 3000+, which actually runs at 2.167 GHz, may be faster than
an Intel Pentium 4 running at 3.06 GHz, depending on the application. The
comparison is complicated because different CPUs have different strengths
and weaknesses. For example, the Athlon is generally faster than the
Pentium 4 clock for clock on both integer and floating-point operations (that
is, it does more work per CPU tick), but the Pentium 4 has an extended
instruction set that may allow it to run optimized software literally twice as
fast as the Athlon. The only safe use of direct clock speed comparisons is
within a single family. A 1.2 GHz Tualatin-core Pentium III, for example, is
roughly 20% faster than a 1.0 GHz Tualatin-core Pentium III, but even there
the relationship is not absolutely linear. And a 1.2 GHz Tualatin-core Pentium
III is more than 20% faster than a 1.0 GHz Pentium III that uses the older
Coppermine core. Also, even within a family, processors with similar names
may differ substantially internally.

Kinds of Computer Processors

Intel® computer processor

The Intel computer processor is exclusively designed by Intel. Its latest and
most popular models include Intel® Pentium® 4 processor, Intel® Pentium®
4 processor with HT Technology, and Intel® Celeron® processor. The Intel®
Pentium® 4 processor is a powerful processor that can handle demanding
applications such as DVD authoring, 3D gaming, and other multimedia
applications. The Intel® Pentium® 4 processor with Hyper-Threading (HT)
Technology is designed for running multiple applications simultaneously with
a fast and efficient and response. The Intel® Celeron® processor is
compatible with almost all leading computer hardware and software brands.
AMD computer processor
The AMD computer processor is exclusively made by Advanced Micro
Devices, Inc. (AMD). It provides excellent performance and value. It is
compatible with most off-the-shelf computer programs and applications.
Some AMD Computer Processors are programmed with built-in anti-virus
protection. Its most popular models are AMD Athlon™ XP and AMD Athlon™
64. The AMD Athlon™ XP processor provides outstanding performance by
enhancing Windows® XP applications with intense and lifelike images and
graphics. The AMD Athlon™ 64 processor is designed for more advanced
computers especially those with 64-bit programs. It allows the execution of
complex software and games.

AMD Processors

The AMD computer processor is exclusively made by Advanced Micro

Devices, Inc. (AMD). It provides excellent performance and value. It is
compatible with most off-the-shelf computer programs and applications.
Some AMD Computer Processors are programmed with built-in anti-virus
protection. Its most popular models are AMD Athlon™ XP and AMD Athlon™
64. The AMD Athlon™ XP processor provides outstanding performance by
enhancing Windows® XP applications with intense and lifelike images and
graphics. The AMD Athlon™ 64 processor is designed for more advanced
computers especially those with 64-bit programs. It allows the execution of
complex software and games.
Advanced Micro Devices Headquarters, 1
AMD Place, Sunnyvale.
AMD's Canadian headquarters, based in

The History of AMD

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. is an American based company operating out
of Sunnyvale, California. The company, which has now spanned three
decades, first began operation in 1969.
The company has specialized in developing products such as computer
processors, microprocessors and motherboard chipsets. They also have
graphics processors, and embedded processors that are required for all
types of computer systems such as business and personal computers,
handheld devices and game consoles.
AMD, founded by Jerry Sanders and Edwin Turney has grown to become the
second largest global supplier of microprocessors and the third largest
supplier of the world’s graphics processing units. The company began its
impressive rise as the producer of logic chips. The year 1975 proved to be
quite productive in that the company began to produce RAM chips,
introduced a clone of the Intel 8080 microprocessor, designed bit slice
processors elements and attempted the diversification into audio devices
and graphics.
The ‘80’s proved to be quite an impressive decade in the history of Advanced
Micro Devices, Inc. In 1984 AMD was considered listed as one of the “100
Best Companies to Work for in the U.S”. And in 1985 it was listed for the first
time as a Fortune 500 company. In 1986, due to AMD’s quality and
innovation, the company secured a major manufacturing contract with
Commodore Business Machines agreeing to supply 7000 chips a week. The
year 1987 found the company entering the programmable logic business
when they acquired Monolithic Memories, Inc.
AMD announced a merger with ATI Technologies in 2006, which brought
together the supplier of microprocessors and the company that released the
first 3D graphic chip. They were the first company to release products
supporting the Accelerated Graphics Port and in 1998 ATI had shipped ten
million AGP chips.
After the merger, AMD began to restructure some of the combined products.
Products such as the Imageon, which is for handheld devices and mobile
phones and the Xilleon, which is for digital television sets, were rebranded
with the AMD brand. However, some products such as chipsets used for Intel
processors and a Radeon graphics line retained the ATI brand.
The main focus of the company has always been marked by their
commitment to finding new and innovative products that are truly beneficial
to the people who use them. It has always been about the customer, the
customer needs are always placed above the growth of technology strictly
for the sake of technology. Of course, it does not hurt that the new
technology they are developing is growing by leaps and bounds and
providing the customer with computer graphics and systems that are getting
better and running faster all the time. The focus on customer satisfaction is
just one of the factors which have helped AMD to be the mainstay in global
While the company does not choose to divulge information about any new
products of plans, it does continue to host the annual Technology Analyst
Days. The event, which is held mid year is focused on upcoming trends in
technologies. They also have an end of the year event called Financial
Analyst Day, which is devoted to discussing how well the company
performed financially the previous year. And they also support publications
and newsletters related to processors and other business solutions.
Advanced Micro Devices has been and continues to be a successful,
innovative company contributing much to the international world of

AMD chipsets
Before the launch of Athlon 64 processors in 2003, AMD designed chipsets
for their processors spanning the K6 and K7 processor generations. The
chipsets include the AMD-640, AMD-751 and the AMD-761 chipsets. The
situation changed in 2003 with the release of Athlon 64 processors, and AMD
chose not to further design its own chipsets for its desktop processors while
opening the desktop platform to allow other firms to design chipsets. This is
the "Open Platform ATI, VIA and SiS developing their own chipset for Athlon
64 processors and later Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon 64 FX processors, including
the Quad FX platform chipset from Nvidia.
The initiative went further with the release of Opteron server processors as
AMD stopped the design of server chipsets in 2004 after releasing the AMD-
8111 chipset, and again opened the server platform for firms to develop
chipsets for Opteron processors. As of today, Nvidia and Broadcom are the
sole designing firms of server chipsets for Opteron processors.
AMD will also return to the server chipsets market with the next-generation
AMD 800S series server chipsets, scheduled to be released in 2009

Embedded systems
For the past couple of years AMD has been introducing 64-bit processors into
its embedded product line starting with the AMD Opteron processor. In 2006
AMD added the AMD Athlon, AMD Turion and Mobile AMD Sempron
processors to its embedded product line. Leveraging the same 64-bit
instruction set and Direct Connect Architecture as the AMD Opteron but at
lower power levels, these processors were well suited to a variety of
traditional embedded applications. Throughout 2007 and into 2008 AMD has
continued to add both single-core Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon
processors and dual-core AMD Athlon X2 and AMD Turion processors to its
embedded product line and now offers embedded 64-bit solutions starting
with 8W TDP Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors for fan-less
designs up to multi-processor systems leveraging multi-core AMD Opteron
processors all supporting longer than standard availability.

AMD Flash technology

While less visible to the general public than its CPU business, AMD is also a
global leader in flash memory. In 1993, AMD established a 50-50 partnership
with Fujitsu called FASL, and merged into a new company called FASL LLC in
2003. The joint venture firm went public under ticker symbol SPSN in
December 2005, with AMD shares drop to 37%.
AMD no longer directly participates in the Flash memory devices market now
as AMD entered into a non-competition agreement, as of December 21,
2005, with Fujitsu and Spansion, pursuant to which it agreed not to directly
or indirectly engage in a business that manufactures or supplies standalone
semiconductor devices (including single chip, multiple chip or system
devices) containing only Flash memory.

AMD Mobile platforms

AMD started a platform in 2003 aimed at mobile computing, but, with fewer
advertisements and promotional schemes, very little was known about the
platform. The platform used mobile Sempron processors.
As part of the "Better by design" initiative, the open mobile platform,
announced that in February 2007, comes Turion 64 X2, and consists of three
major components: an AMD processor, graphics from either Nvirdia or ATI
Technologies which also includes integrated graphics (IGP), and wireless
connectivity solutions from Atheros, Broadcom, Marvell, Qualcomm or
The Puma platform and Turion Ultra processor was released on June 4, 2008.
In the future, AMD plans quad-core processors with 3D graphics capabilities
(Fusion) to be launched in 2009 as the Eagle platform.
AMD processors
Am2900 · Am29000 · Am9080 · Am286 · Am386 · Am486 · Am5x86 · K5 ·
K6 · K6-2 · K6-III · Duron · Athlon · Mobile Athlon 64 · Alchemy

Geode · Sempron · Athlon 64 (Athlon Neo) · Athlon X2 · Phenom (Phenom
II) · Athlon II · Turion · Opteron

Fusion (Bulldozer · Bobcat)

The future
The future is here. Newer ARM processors exist, but they are 32 bit devices.
This means, basically, that RISC OS won't run on them until all of RISC OS is
modified to be 32 bit safe. As long as BASIC is patched, a reasonable
software base will exist. However all C programs will need to be recompiled.
All relocatable modules will need to be altered. And pretty much all
assembler code will need to be repaired. In cases where source isn't
available (ie, anything written by Computer Concepts), it will be a tedious
It is truly one of the situations that could make or break the platform.
I feel, as long as a basic C compiler/linker is made FREELY available, then we
should go for it. It need not be a 'good' compiler, as long as it will be a drop-
in replacement for Norcroft CC version 4 or 5. Why this? Because RISC OS
depends upon enthusiasts to create software, instead of big corporations.
And without inexpensive reasonable tools, they might decide it is too much
to bother with converting their software, so may decide to leave RISC OS and
code for another platform.
I, personally, would happily download a freebie compiler/linker and convert
much of my own code. It isn't plain sailing for us - think of all of the library
code that needs to be checked. It will be difficult enough to obtain a 32 bit
machine to check the code works correctly, never mind all the other pitfalls.
Asking us for a grand to support the platform is only going to turn us away in
droves. Heck, I'm still using ARM 2 and ARM 3 systems. Some of us smaller
coders won't be able to afford such a radical upgrade. And that will be VERY
BAD for the platform. Look how many people use the FREE user-created
Internet suite in preference to commercial alternatives. Look at all of the
support code available on Arcade BBS. Much of that will probably go, yes.
But would a platform trying to re-establish itself really want to say goodbye
to the rest?
I don't claim my code is wonderful, but if only one person besides myself
makes good use of it - then it has been worth it.


COMPUTER processor chip called the dual-core POWER6 in

India. With this launch, the company's System p570, which the company
claims to be the world's most powerful midrange consolidation machine, and

blade Center JS22 servers, both powered by this new chip, would
be available in the country. According to Morgan Stanley, energy used to
power and cool today's data centers represents 44 per cent of the centre's
total cost of ownership - and for a company of any size today, a 50 per cent
saving is huge.

In 2007, $10 billion has been spent on data centre energy requirements
worldwide, and IDC predicts that power and cooling spend in the data centre
will grow eight times the rate of hardware spend. For the cost conscious
Indian companies, virtualization and adoption of green technologies is the
ideal solution.

The new chip at 4.7 GHZ, is twice as fast as its predecessor, but
uses nearly the same amount of electricity to run and cooL This means
custom¬ers can use the new processor to either increase their performance
by 100 per cent or cut their power consumption by 50 per cent, said Manish
Gupta who heads the research Lab at IBM.
On the card itself, you can't help noticing the presence of a big E-MU
processor called E-DSP, which is a special version of the processor used in
top-of-the-line E-MU and Creative brand products. This DSP can perform
many types of sound processing without calling on your computer's CPU,
thus avoiding overloading it. It's accompanied by a specific FGPA also from E-
Analog/digital conversion is handled by a well-known component, the TI Burr-
Brown PCM1804, which is a delta/sigma stereo converter operating in 24 bits
up to 192 kHz. Conversion in the other direction (digital/analog) uses an AKM
AK4395, which is also a delta/sigma stereo converter operating in 24 bits up
to 192 kHz. Note that the two converters can function at 192 kHz, whereas
the card itself is limited to 96 kHz. True, that frequency is quite sufficient in
practice - except for reading certain DVD Audios, but then that's not the
purpose of the 0404.
An Inside Look at a Computer
This is a Motherboard of a 386 PC.
The thing in the middle that says
"intel" is the CPU. CPU stands for
"Central Processor Unit". It is really
the brains of the computer. This is
where all the adding, subtracting,
dividing and multiplying takes place.
Examples of CPUs are Intel's Pentium
and now Pentium II. On the Mac side
you have the new G3 chip or Motorola
604E. Each chip operates at a certain
clock speed measured in megahertz or
Mhz. This is how fast the chip can
perform a single operation.

Amd Athlon Processors History began with the original Athlon Classic, which
is the first seventh-generation x86 processor and since it is the first, it
remained to be the first performance lead over Intel for a couple of years.
It showed a lot of promise as it showed superior performance compared to
the Pentium 3 which was the champion at that time. The second generation
Athlon called The Thunderbird came along in year 2000. It had a speed
ranging from 600 to 1400 MHz. AMD replaced the 512 KiB external reduced
speed cache used by the Athlon Classic with 256 KiB of on-chip, full speed
exclusive cache. The Thunderbird at this time, won over rival Pentium 3 but
AMD did not stop there. AMD released The Palomino or the Athlon XP. XP
meaning "Extreme Performance". Then AMD released The Thunderbird which
is at 1.8 GHz. Then the fifth generation Athlon came along, Barton core
processors, running at the same speed as the Thoroughbred predecessors.
Finally, the Mobile Athlon XP was introduced. It has lower power
consumption, and lower heat production which is basically used for the
notebook. AMD is not stopping and is still continuing to improve its
processors as to beat it's rival Intel. See for more details on the
AMD Processor.
AMD ex CEO Jerry Sanders vision was to create a "virtual gorilla" that would
equip AMD to compete with Intel. A couple of years later, AMD released
Athlon K7 processor. AMD got lots of benefits working with Motorola as AMD
was able to refine copper interconnect manufacturing to the production
stage one year earlier than Intel.