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ls - list directory contents ls � l (-l use a long listing format) 2. Q. How do you list all files in a directory, including the hidden files? A. ls -a (-a, do not hide entries starting with .) 3. Q. How do you find out all processes that are currently running? A. ps -f (-f does full-format listing.) 4. Q. How do you find out the processes that are currently running or a particular user? A. ps -au Myname (-u by effective user ID (supports names)) (a - all users) 5. Q. How do you kill a process? A. kill -9 8 (process_id 8) or kill -9 %7 (job number 7) kill -9 -1 (Kill all processes you can kill.) killall - kill processes by name most (useful - killall java) 6. Q. What would you use to view contents of the file? A. less filename cat filename pg filename pr filename more filename most useful is command: tail file_name - you can see the end of the log file. 7. Q. What would you use to edit contents of the file? A. vi screen editor or jedit, nedit or ex line editor 8. Q. What would you use to view contents of a large error log file? A. tail -10 file_name ( last 10 rows)
directory. 15. ln /. Q. Using telnet server_name or ssh -l ( ssh . Internal commands are stored in the. ps -fu pat (-f -full_format u -user_name ) 17. Q. awk. How to copy file into directory? A. Q. man command_name info command_name (more information) 11.Q. How to remove directory with files? A. Grep.Q. A file system is the primary means of file storage in UNIX. without duplicating the contents of the files.OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program)) 10. Sum of all directories called file system. How do you create a symbolic link to a file (give some reasons of doing so)? A. providing full details and sorted by modification time? A. How do you list contents of a directory including all of its subdirectories. Q. s . 14. Q. Q. How do you log in to a remote Unix box? A. It recurses through all subdirectories and shows disk usage by each subdirectory with a final total at the end. How do you get help on a UNIX terminal? A. same level as the operating system while external .Q.Q.Q. How do you check for processes started by user 'pat'? A. There are two types of links to a file:Hard link./file1 Link_name Links create pointers to the actual files. du -s df The du command summarizes disk usage by directory. bg %4 (job 4) 18 Q.Q. Kde( works on Linux and Unix) 19.Q.Q. in current directory A. rm -rf directory_name 22. How do you get its usage (a filesystem)? A. a link is a way of providing another name to the same file. That is. File systems are made of inodes and superblocks. cp /tmp/file_name . ls -lac -a all entries -c by time 12. By storing and manipulate files. kde 20. What utility would you use to cut off the first column in a text file? A. What is the difference between internal and external commands? A. 13. How do you check the sizes of all users� home directories (one command)? A.size) 16. ls -ps (p.9.. (dot mean in the current directory) 21. Symbolic (or soft) link. What utility would you use to replace a string '2001' for '2002' in a text file? A. What is a filesystem? A. How do you start a job on background? A.
parent directory or current directory? A. 23. Which directory is closer to the top of the file system tree. With the more command you display another screenful by pressing the spacebar. A. 29.2 help. a) ls *2 b) ls aid. what would be the relative pathname name for the file called april? b) What would be the absolute pathname for april? A. Q. 27.4 help. The more command returns you automatically to the UNIX shell when completed. $ man who 28. Given the following pathname: $ /business/acctg/payable/supplier/april a) If you were in the directory called acctg. Suppose your directory had the following files: help. What are two subtle differences in using the more and the pg commands? A. options and arguments. What are two functions the move mv command can carry out? .O2 aid.3 help.O1 help. 26. with pg you press the return key. 25. directory or name. What is the purpose of online help? A. The parent directory is above the current directory. while pg waits until you press return. Q. It is sometimes better to use the more command when you are viewing a file that will display over one screen. Q. so it is closer to the root or top of the file system. Q. 1 help. What command do you type to find help about the command who? A. Q.O3 back.O1 aid. 33. Online help provides information on each operating system command. An argument is what the command should act on: it could be a filename. Q. 30.O2 aid.commands are stored on the hard disk among the other utility programs. Working directory can be anywhere on the system and it is where you are currently working. Q. Q. Name two forms of security. 24 Q. Home directory is the directory you begin at when you log into the system.* c) ls help. Q. the arguments with descriptive information. 34. 1 back. Q.? 32. What is the difference between an argument and an option (or switch)? A. Q. When is it better to use the more command rather than cat command? A. Two forms of security are Passwords and File Security with permissions specified.2 back.3 a) What is the command to list all files ending in 2? b) What is the command to list all files starting in aid? c) What is the command to list all "help" files with one character extension? A. The three main parts are the command. What is the difference between home directory and working directory? A. the syntax. the options. An option is specified when you want to request additional information over and above the basic information each command supplies. List the three main parts of an operating system command: A. a) $ payable/supplier/april b) $ /business/acctg/payable/supplier/april 31.
Q. Two methods that could be used: a. cp .OO4 that is identical to Gteam./boys cp Bteam.2 1. A. List all the files beginning with A A.3 1.abc Bteam. 1.5 Q.txt Specify one character Redirect input from a file Redirect the output and append it to a file A.A.win -or.4 double greater than sign: >> 1. use the mv command b. All of these files are in one directory called "soccer". showing all the files and directories. To list all the files beginning with A command: ls A* . b) erase the file Gteam.4 1.1 double-dot or .win rm Gteam.OO2 Gteam.OOl Gteam. a) mv Bteam..OO1 Gteam. 38. and one for the girl team files called" girls" d) move all the boy teams into the "boys" directory e) move all the girl teams into the "girls" directory f) make a new file called Gteam.more Gteam. Remember that we are currently in the directory /soccer/girls.OO2 Bteam. 1.OO3.OO4 Gteam.win Gteam.1 1.abc to Bteam. The mv command moves files and can also be used to rename a file or directory.3 question or ? 1./boys/Bteam. 35.abc Bteam. Q.OO5 37.OO5 or cd . 1.OOl Bteam. the girl teams begin with G.OO3 Write the commands to do the following: a) rename the file Bteam.OOl g) make a new file called Gteam. win after you have viewed the contents of the file c) make a directory for the boy team files called "boys". b) cat Gteam. copy the file and give it a new name and then remove the original file if no longer needed./girls/Gteam. 1. Q.OO4 g) There are several ways to do this. The soccer league consists of boy and girl teams.2 asterisk or * 1.5 the less than sign or < 39. which is your current directory: Bteam. Name two methods you could use to rename a file. The boy file names begin with B. Draw a picture of the final directory structure for the "soccer" directory. win c) mkdir boys mkdir girls d) mv Bteam* boys e) mv Gteam* girls f) cd girls cp Gteam...OO3.OO2 Gteam.OO2 .OO5 that is identical to Bteam.OO2 A. What metacharacter is used to do the following: Move up one level higher in the directory tree structure Specify all the files ending in .. 36.
Q. mount -l 47. --human-readable print sizes in human readable format (e. The double quote (") allows the dollar sign ($) to retain its special meaning. 44.txt.txt newdir mv file2.list files in databases that match a pattern) 48. 44. The tar program is an immensely useful archiving utility.txt using MORE. What Linux HotKeys do you know? A. Q.txt 44. What types of files you know? . A shortcut method would be: mv file?.3 The file testdata feeds information into the file called program 44. 50. Q. Use du command (Summarize disk usage of each FILE.) Good to use arguments du -hs (-h. 44.1 Redirect the output from the directory listing to a printer. It can combine an entire directory tree into one large file suitable for transferring or compression. The operator >> either adds the new contents to the end of an existing file or creates a new file. Both the backslash (\) and single quote (') would remove the special meaning of the dollar sign. b.5 ls > dirsave | more 45. How can you find a path to the file in the system? A. Copy a file to make a new file.1 ls > lpr 44.txt newdir A. Q. Q. What can you tell about the tar Command? A. --summarize display only a total for each argument) 46.g.txt newdir mv filel. Which of the quoting or escape characters allows the dollar sign ($) to retain its special meaning? A.txt 43.4 Observe the contents of the file called xyz.txt newdir mv file3. 1K 234M 2G) (-s. What is a faster way to do the same command? mv fileO. 44. A. 41. Q. ls -l > newfile. 44. Q. Q. List two ways to create a new file: A.txt to the end of the file abc. How can you see all mounted drives? A.txt 44. Use the output operator e. Ctrl-Alt-F1 Exit to command prompt Ctrl-Alt-F7 or F8 Takes you back to KDE desktop from command prompt Crtl-Alt-Backspace Restart XWindows Ctrl-Alt-D Show desktop 49. a.txt newdir 42. Q.5 Observe a directory listing that is four screens long.. locate file_name (locate .40. recursively for directories.2 Add the file efg. The operator > either overwrites the existing file (WITHOUT WARNING) or creates a new file.3 program < testdata 44.g. How do you estimate file space usage A. What is the difference between > and >> operators? A.2 cat efg.txt >> abc. Q. Write the command to do the following: 44.4 more < xyz.
or the file name .How do you execute a program or script. How you will uncompress the file? A. .9. Use tar command (The GNU version of the tar archiving utility): tar -zxvf file_name.10. Q. This is a result of command $ls -l we have two files.9.9.A.5 client-2. 57.tar.9. grep time my_new.buf bin client -> client-2.tar.0. Please describe information below: 1 9 1 11 7 12 5 11 1 dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc dotpc 102 4096 20 4096 4096 4096 4096 4096 644836 Jul Oct Mar Sep Dec Oct Dec Mar Mar 18 21 21 2 14 21 7 21 22 2003 09:34 15:00 2005 12:13 09:41 14:22 15:54 09:53 file.conf email@example.com Grep searches the named input files (or standard input if no files are named. General Regular Expression Parser. Q. my_script in your current directoty? A. If you would like to run two commands in sequence what operators you can use? A. Q. Q.5 directory. 54.5 client-2. Top provides an ongoing look at processor activity in real time. Q.conf file from your PC to alex computerscp /etc/X11/xorg.169: 52. second command will be run automatically. 53. Use the following command:scp yur_file you_login@your_IP example: copy . What does grep() stand for? A.9 data docs etc client-2. Q. There is number of files in every directory. (q is to quit) .is given) for lines containing a match to the given pattern.gz 55. 6 directories and one link to client-2. Files come in eight flavors: Normal files Directories Hard links Symbolic links Sockets Named pipes Character devices Block devices 51.How to find current time configuration in the file my_new./my_script 56.gz -rw-rw-r-drwxr-xr-x lrwxrwxrwx drwxrwxr-x drwxrwxr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x -rw-r--r-- A. and can provide an interactive inter face for manipulating processes. . or && the difference is: if you separate commands with . size and data of last change. What does the top command display? A. if you separate commands with && second command will be run only in the case the first was run successfully.cfg A.8. Q. Q.5. It displays a listing of the most CPU-intensive tasks on the system. How to copy files from on PC to another on the same network A.
it configures an interface. If a single interface argument is given. if a single -a argu. Use tail command . done Question: How to switch to a previously used directory? Answer: cd - 1.58. How can you copy lines into the buffer in command mode? A. Use command line: ":wq" that is write changes and quit.Three modes Command mode: letters or sequence of letters interactively command vi. ifconfig displays the status of the cur. do rm $i. Command line mode: enter this mode by typing ":" and entry command line 2.output the last part of files tail -n file_name ( the last N lines. 59. Otherwise.conf 60.conf /usr/home/my_project2/etc/ABC.ment is given. Q. 62. it displays the status of all interfaces. at the foot of the screen. yy . How to find difference in two configuration files on the same server? A. for i in *log*. How can you find configuration on linux? A. How can you terminate VI session? A. Current line and two lines below it. What is the best way to see the end of a logfile. by using /sin/ifconfig If no arguments are given.How many VI editor modes do you know? A. Q.copy a single line defined by current cursor position 3yy . Q. Q. Q. Q.log file? A. Insert mode: Text is inserted. . Q. even those that are down. it displays the status of the given interface only. instead of the last 10 as default) 61. Use command: ZZ that is save changes and quit. Please write a loop for removing all files in the current directory that contains a word 'log' A. Use diff command that is compare files line by line diff -u /usr/home/my_project1/etc/ABC.rently active interfaces.copy 3 lines. Use command line: ":q!" to ignore changes and quit. 3.
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