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Dr. S. N. GOTUR.

Dissertation submitted to the
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore
In partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the Degree of
Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D. [Ayurveda]



M.D (Ay)


Prof. Dr. D. K. MISHRA
M.D (Ay)(GAU)

Department of Post Graduate
A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College Koppa 577126
Dist: Chikmagalur Karnataka

I hereby Declare that this Dissertation Entitled PHARMACEUTICAL &
W.S.R ITS VAJIKARANA EFFECT. Is a Bonafide and Genuine Research
Work Carried Out By Me Under The Guidance Of Dr. B. I. MATHAPATI,
Assistant Professor, Department of Post Graduate Studies in Bhaishajya Kalpana,
A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College P. G. Centre, Koppa.


P. G. Scholar,
Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana
A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College, Koppa 577 126
Place: Koppa

A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College Koppa 577126
Dist: Chikmagalur, Karnataka
Department of Post Graduate


This is to certify that the dissertation entitled PHARMACEUTICAL &
W.S.R ITS VAJIKARANA EFFECT. Is a bonafide research work done by
Dr. S. N. GOTUR in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
Ayurveda Vachaspati (MD) in Bhaishajya Kalpana of Rajiv Gandhi University of
Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.

Place: Koppa

M.D (Ayu)
Assistant Professor,
Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana
A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College, Koppa 577 126

Department of Post Graduate
A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College Koppa 577126
Dist: Chikmagalur, Karnataka


This is to certify that the dissertation entitled PHARMACEUTICAL &
W.S.R ITS VAJIKARANA EFFECT. Is a bonafide research work done by
Dr. S. N. GOTUR in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D.) in Bhaishajya Kalpana of Rajiv Gandhi University of
Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.

Place: Koppa

Prof. Dr. D. K. Mishra
M.D (Ayu)(GAU)
H. O. D.
Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana
A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College, Koppa 577 126

Department of Post Graduate
A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College Koppa 577126
Dist: Chikmagalur, Karnataka


This is to certify that the dissertation entitled PHARMACEUTICAL &
W.S.R ITS VAJIKARANA EFFECT. Is a bonafide research work done by
Dr. S. N. GOTUR in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D.) in Bhaishajya Kalpana of Rajiv Gandhi University of
Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.

Dr. Dinesh Kumar Mishra
M.D (Ayu)
Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana
A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College, Koppa 577 126
Place: Koppa

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled PHARMACEUTICAL &
W.S.R ITS VAJIKARANA EFFECT. Is a bonafide research work done by
Dr. S. N. Gotur under the guidance of Dr. B. I. MATHAPATI, Assistant
Professor, Department of Post Graduate studies in Bhaishajya Kalpana, A.L.N. Rao
Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College and P.G Centre, Koppa
A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College Koppa 577126
Dist: Chikmagalur, Karnataka
Department of Post Graduate


Prof. Dr. Sanjaya K. S.
MD (Ayu)
A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical
College. Koppa 577126
Dist: Chikmagalur
Place: Koppa


I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,
Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation in
print or electronic format for academic/research purpose.

Dr. S. N. Gotur
P. G. Scholar
Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana
A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
Medical College, Koppa 577 126

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.

Background and objectives:
Impotency is a severe stress that disturbs the physical, psychological and
social well being of a person. It may be due to intake of substandard food,
consumption of alcohol, smoking, over indulgence in sex or the over stress and
anxiety are making the man impotent. Because of this he not only loses the ability to
produce healthy progeny, but also ends up in losing his normal course of enjoyment in
this connection. It becomes more important for mankind to produce therapeutic drug
to regain the positive health. Vajikarana drugs not only help in the recreation, but also
in procreation which are indicated in sexually active age.
In this connection the present drug Kamadhenu Churna has been selected to
evaluate Vajikarana action on albino rats. Group one dose is according to classical
reference & in Group-2 dose is double the dose of the classical reference-
To evaluate the Vajikara effect of the Kamadhenu Churna on albino-rats in
a. The dose mentioned as per classics.
b. The same formula is dispensed with respect to its dose as double
dose of classical reference.
To compare the efficacy of these Trial Drugs, in order to evaluate the best one.
To do pharmaceutical and physicochemical analysis of the sample of
Kamadhenu Churna
Pharmaceutical study:
The compound drug was prepared in the Pharmacy attached to the college
and analysed for physico-chemical parameters in the Quality Control Laboratory

attached with this college. Then the standard drug is subjected to experimental trials
to evaluate the effect of Vajikarana effect by following Beech and Stone 1940.
It can be interpreted on the following basis. Predominantly all the dravyas
have madhura rasa, snigdha guna & shita virya. Dhatu vruddhikara and balya
properties along with vata hara gunas are an additional specialty of this preparation.
Increasing the shukra dhatu and oja is possibly on the above said factors. While the
drug shall be confidently used on the loss of libido on clinical evaluation since the
ushna virya dravya gandhaka is also one of the major ingredients. Therefore the
snigdha, madhura sheeta is shukravardhaka, dathuvardhaka, ojavardhaka and ushna
veerya aids to nadibalya properties.
The more significant values of Kamadhenu churna with double dose possibly
is due to the above said characters.
Key words:
Vajikarana; Impotency; Kamadhenu churna; Stress; Vrishya; Balya; Shukra
Dhathu etc


The art of love is not only meant to give pleasure to man solely, but also to
provide women, the maximum pleasure and no doubt its an excellent solution for
procreation. This also strengthens the married life. Ayurveda though envisages sex
strictly for procreation but also indicates as a practice for healthy married life,
attainment of, (third aim of life) and as a means for fulfillment of Paralokaishana
(Pursuits of salvation).
The problem of low sexual desire, erectile this function are pre mature
ejaculation which could be because of physiological, psychological or organic cause
may disturb the entire rhythm of personal and social life.
Impotency is a severe stress that disturbs the physical, physiological and social
well being of a person. It may dew to intake of substandard food, consumption food,
consumption of alcohol, smoking, over indulgence in sex or the over stress and
anxiety making the man impotent. Because of this he not only looses the ability to
produce healthy progeny but also ends up in losing his normal course of enjoyment.
In this connection, it becomes more important for mankind to procure therapeutic
drugs to regain the positive health. Vajikarana drugs not only help in the recreation
but also in procreation, which are indicated in sexually active age
Since ancient times human societies have searched for effective drugs to
enhance sexual activity and desire, legendary aphrodisiac made from rhinoceros horn,
the glands of musk deer, sheep or bull testicles, Spanish fly and ginseng have been
used throughout the history

The word aphrodisiac originates from Aphrodites, greek goddess of sexual
love. Fertility and beauty born from severed genitals of god Uranus and aphrodisiac is
defined as any food or drug that arouses and increases pleasure and performance.
There are two types of aphrodisiac psycho-physiological stimuli (visual, tactile,
olfactory and aural) preparations and internal preparation(food alcoholic drinks drug).
As India is known as a holy land and Indians having deep interest in spiritual
knowledge, vedas recognize four goals for the complete development of any human
Dharm - concerning moral and ideal needs
Artha - concerning material needs
Kama - concerning physical needs
Moksha - eternal salvation
All these four together considered as the very foundation of life.
The time prior to the creation, mind, the primordial substance across thought
the power of tapas and the first product of mind was Kama, Sexual desires and love.
(Rigveda M. 10, 129, 1-7)
The sanskrit term kama in a wide sense refers to all the desire of a human
being it denotes love as well as lust. One angle of kama refers to sex means to get
physical and mental pleasure, the basis of mating, marriage and progeny. In ancient
India many treatise were written on kama describing the ways and means of deriving
maximum enjoyment from sex the author of these works were munis and rushis. They
knew that kama was an instinct and it was not possible to suppress it. They accepted
that the correct practice of kama makes both men and woman happy.

Charaka in his samhita covered the subject of vajjikarana in depth. Vajikarana
is the one of eight major specialties of ayurveda. Vajjikarana is a substance which
makes a man sexually as strong as horse and is able to copulate for longer period an
elephant and as frequently as a sparrow with many female partners. There are various
means by which vajikarana could be achieved i.e. ahara (diet), vihara (environment
and activities) and aushada (drugs). It involves all the therapeutically and non-
therapeutically measures taken to ensure healthy sex life.
In all cultures and societies, from the primitive to the most sophisticated,
nearly all women and men desire progeny. In many communities progeny is seen as
important asset to the family, particularly to those whose life revolves around
traditional family values in the rural area.
In many cultures progeny represent final proof or virility .if a women in the
society fails to get progeny after marriage she is subjected to indignity and will be
main accusation because. Failure to becomes pregnant is perceived to the entirely her
fault, but 30 percentage of the infertility is caused by male factor related to the
problem with sperm defects representing the highest single cause to overcome this
problem the present study aimed to find out the efficacy of Kamadhenu churna in
term of aphrodisiology as mentioned in Bhaishajya ratnavali to interpret the Same
effect of the compound through the parameters like initial arousal period ,peak arousal
period , Mounting behavior and Time interval to mount again.
This is an unforgettable moment of contentment on the successful
this dissertation work; I bow my head at the feet of the Almighty, whose
profound grace is always towards me. This work is a reflection of the rays of
It is beyond the reach of my language as it is very difficult to find
appropriate vocabulary to express; at this juncture I pay my obeisance to my
esteemed Father Mr. Nagappa. M. Gotur and Mother Late. Nagamma, for
The Herculean task would have been impossible but the love & affection
of my Dear brother Mr, Chandrashekhar, Dr.Venkatesh and also cannot forget
My Sister Mrs. Anasuya, Younger Sister Mrs. Sudha and My Brother in laws,
whose tender care and the moral support insulated me from all the petty
ademics. problemsofthedaytodaylife,helpingmetoconcentrateonmyac
It is matter of great pleasure andhonour for me to express my gratitude
Mathapati, Asst. Prof., and CoGuide Prof. Dinesh Kumar Mishra, H.O.D,
P.G. Department of Bhaishajya Kalpana for their valuable guidance. Many a
time they gave me constant inspiration, encouragement, support and a real
Aroor Ramesh Rao, A.L.N.Rao Ayurvedic Medical College Koppa, for giving me
I am very thankful to Respected, Principal & Prof.. Sanjaya K. S.

for their kind guidance as and when needed and administrative facilitation
Words fail to express the gravity of my heartfelt thanks to Dr. H. Abdul
andthe roughoutmyresearchtask. roundtheclockguidanceth
M.D.(Ay) Ph.D
,H.O.D. Dept.
of D.G and Prof. Debajit. Bhattacharya
, H.O.D Dept. of K.C., for their
I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude towards Prof. Dr. B. D.
, Prof. Dr .C.B. Jha
M.D. (Ay) BHU
, Dr. Vilas Dole
Pune, Dr.
Trivandrum, for their indefatigable guidance which had
workofitsfulfillment. mouldedandenrichedmyresearch

who helped me for confirming the genuineness and purity of crude drugs and
lDrugFormulatio helpingmeinAnalysingtheTria nofmydissertation.
I am thankful to Prof. H. R. Pradeep, Prof. P. K. Mishra, Prof. T. K.
Mohanta, Dr. Rashmirekha Mishra, Dr. S. V. Saraganacharya, Dr.
Ilanchezhian, Dr. Lakshmikant, and Lecturers Postgraduate studies for their
It was indeed a pleasure to work with and have friendly guidance and
Dr.Yashoda, r.JanniH,Dr.Ra D chanaC,Dr.AvinashPastore,Dr.Magesh,
ath. p
gratitude to Dr. Brijesh, Dr. Nagendra, Dr. Pravin Joshi, my junior friends
Nataraj T.K, Naveenkumar. J. and well wishers who lent their hand when
needed most, without whom my stay at Koppa is unimaginable. Memorable are
Dr. Nishababu, Dr. Priyalatha, Dr. Pallavi, Dr. Jaykrishna, Dr. Arunpratap,
Dr. Sarunmohan, Dr. Sreejith and Dr. Mahantesh, who made life at Koppa
It is a pleasure for me to remember all my Juniors Dr. Reddy, Dr.
I am grateful to the staff members of the pharmacy Mr. Mathew, Ms
Ganeshwari, Ms Devayani, Ms. Veda, Ms.Ponnamma for their assistance in
I am grateful to Librarian Mr. Basheer, Mr.Satish, Mrs.Jyoti, Miss.
And last, but not least, I owe my gratitude toall those Beloved Relatives,
Omission of any name in my acknowledgement is unintentional and

Place:Koppa Dr.S.N.Gotur

A. F. I - Ayurvedic Formulary of India
A.H.Chi - Astanga Hridaya Chikitsasthana
A.H.Ni - Astanga Hridaya nidanasthana
A.H.Sa. - Astanga Hridaya sarirasthan
A.H.Su. - Astanga Hridaya Sutrasthan
A.H.U - Astanga Hridayam Uttarasthan
A k - Amar Kosh
A.S.Chi - Astanga Samgraha chikitsasthana
A.S.K(A.x.M) - Astanga Samgraha kalpasthana
A.S.Ni - Astanga Samgraha nidanasthana
A.S.Su - Astanga Samgraha sutrasthan
B. P. M.K - Bhavaprakash Madhyam Khand
B.P.P.K - Bhavaprakash Pratham Khand
Bh.P.Ni. - Bhavaprakasa Nighantu
B.R. - Bhaishajya Ratnavali
B.S. - Bhela Samhita
Ca.S.Chi(c.x.c) - Charaka Samhita Chikitsa
Ca.S.K(c.x.M) - Charaka Samhita Kalpasthan
Ca.S.Ni - Charaka Samhita nidana
Ca.S.Sa - Charaka Samhita sarira
Ca.S.Su (c.x.x) - Charaka Samhita Sutrasthan
Ca.S. Vi - Charaka Samhita Vimansthan
Dal - Dalhana
Eg \ eg - Example
Ga. Ni. - Gada Nigraha
Gms - Grams
H.S - Harita Samhita
I. M. P - Indian Medicinal Plants
K. S. Khi.(M.x.Z) - Kashyapa Samhita Khilasthan
Ka.Ni. (M.l) - Kaiyadeva Nighantu
Kg - Kilograms
ml - Millilitre
No - Number
Pg - Page
Ref - Reference
Su.S.Chi. - Susrutha Samhita Chikitsa
Su.S.Ni. - Susrutha Samhita Nidana
Su.S.Sa. - Susrutha Samhita Sarira
Su.S.U. - Susrutha Samhita Uttara
Sha.S. - Sharangadhara Samhita
Sh. S. M. K. (z.x.q.Z) - SharangadharaSamhita madhyamakhanda
Sh.S.Pu (z.x.m.Z) - Sharangadhara Samhita Purva
Sl.No - Serial Number
V.S.S - Vanga Sena Samhita
WHO - World Health Organisation
Y.R. - Yoga Ratnakar
% - Percentage

The objectives of the present study are:
1) To evaluate the Vajikara effect of the Kamadhenu Churna on albino-rats in
a. The dose mentioned as per classics.
b. The same formula is dispensed with respect to its dose as double
2) To analyze the compounds physico-chemically.
3) To compare the efficacy of these Trial Drugs, in order to evaluate the best
Null Hypothesis: Kamadhenu churna do not have vajeekarana property, when
administered internally.
Alternate hypothesis: Kamadhenu churna do have vajeekarana property,
when administered internally
Pharmaceutical Review


Animals of the same class generally observe the same rules of eating and
enjoyments in the world. But as Man has supremacy over his nature/ basic instincts,
he is free to have changes. He renders the nature favorable to himself and derives
various kinds of advantages using various processes. On the contrary, in many
occasions owing to his ignorance, idleness, inclination towards sensual enjoyments
and compulsions of unavoidable circumstances, he is harmed by his habits of
Bhaishajya Kalpana as a science is evident as a map of intellectual reality
which briefs the principles of compounding drugs as general outlines applicable
within all the limitations of time or place while describing the Science of Ayurveda?
The elaboration is typical of Indian thinking and speaking. Thus the principles are
elucidated contextually i.e. context specific - while dealing a subject which is a
characteristic feature of the Brihattrayee although later classics show a deviation
from this path and start topic specific descriptions. Bhaishajya Kalpana- more than
simply the science of pharmacy which according to Remington is - The art and
science of preparing and dispensing medications and the provision of drug - related
information to the public. That is why Acharya Caraka reiterates that Yuktijna
always stands superior. The implementation of the Bhaishajya Kalpana principles is in
the form of Samskaras as noted below:
Asmxrm qWjiu mpixrsmMqiq | Mri
xrauzswMsxxMUrp: ||
Pharmaceutical Review


c. x. M. 12/48, cmh

Enhancing the utility (pharmaco-dynamic action) of a relatively small
quantity/quality of a substance (drug) or decreasing the utility of a relatively large
quantity/quality of a substance are possible by Samyoga (combination), Vishlesha
(disunion), Kala (time factor), Samskara (various pharmaceutical operations) and
Yukti (intelligent planning).
The Samskara is considered to be a change or sequence of changes, occurring/
induced which can be physical, chemical or both. The application of powerful
concepts and modern techniques to the adopted processes allows obtaining
meaningful results and making practical, useful predictions. Thus, an elaborate
comprehension of the preparation of the compound drug with respect to the changes
during the processes creates a unique opportunity for formulating the new/existing
compounds with improved stability and specially selected compositions for superior
nutritional, dieting and therapeutic qualities. Thus arises the necessity to
study/observe the preparation of a drug with utmost care, comprehend the principles
underlying, document the findings for further comparison, corroborate the document
with therapeutic efficacy and then formulate the resolutions.
Kashaya Kalpana
Acharya kasyapa concept regarding kashaya kalpana
ch ziMwr xuUxpwuxj |
ThO: MsMxij Yuj rju lok q ||
(Mwrm, Z.3/34)
Churna sita kashaya swarasa abhisava(madya kalpana) phanta kalka kwatha.
Pharmaceutical Review


Acharya kasyapa mentioned aushada kalpana (seven kashaya kalpana) 7 in
number and included abhisava (madhaya kalpana) and churna kalpana
The sequency of these kalpanas is not according to guru and laghu gunas

Acharya Sushruta concept regarding kashaya kalpana
U Ux MsMqj Mwr i vi iju
ThOq |
Msm wQi Zs pwel rjU i
sbu mS || (xi, x.44.91)
Acharya susrut as mentioned six kalpanas as follows
Ksira,rasa(swarsa), kalka, srta(kwatha), sita ,churna
Each preceding one more stronger then its succeeding
Acharya charaka as not included in churna in abhisava(madhaya kalpana) in
pancha vidha kashaya kalpanas
Because it might concidered that churna as a antarghata kalpana(upa kalpana)
of kalka and abhisava as a antarghata kalpana of sita kashya

Swarasa Kalpana
Synonyms: Rasa, Swarasa, Niryasa
xu Ux xuUx m | (c.x.4)
The juice expressed from particular substance is called Swarasa
rl lwmQiS SurS Ux xuUx Ecri | (c.x.4)
The juice extracted from a drug pressed by a machine is known as Swarasa
(pure juice, native juice or extract)
The rasa which is produced by compressing Eg- Iksu, amlaki etc., is called
Swarasa, this swarasa can be combined with other samshamana kalpana and
administrated for the treatment of different disease
Pharmaceutical Review


x xqSkii hhS r rui mOmQii |
xuUx x xqSS . . . . | (A.W.M.6.9)
The juice taken out from a fresh green herb well pounded and squeezed
through a cloth is kown as swarasa

rxql Sl xqSbi ixqu Sl msr hh
mOmQi rSSur ixr Ux xuUx |
The green drug should be collected on thae same day. The swarasa can be
prepared by washing and pounding them by squeezing and filtaring through a
cloth. The liquid which is prouduced is called swarasa
i x xqSki msihhxr
iliulwmQixr lrx xuUx |
(AXa xaW
Immediately after that drug is collected, it should be washed , crushed and
squeezed thorough a cloth. This is said to be swarasa or niryasa
AWiihMS Surihhi xqUi |
uxlwmQi r x Ux xuUx Ecri ||
The juice extracted from a fresh green drug drug by pounding it then
squeezing through a cloth, is known as swarasa
General procedure of swarasa preparation
Collect the fresh green wet drug and make them into paste from by pounding.
Then extract the juice by squeezing it with a cloth or yantra, thus obtained
juice is called swarasa.
Pharmaceutical Review


Acc. to Sharangadhara, Puta paka swarasa vidhi
Hence acharya sarangadhara described puta paka vidhi as an alternative
method of swarasa. Since the juice out by this method is also considered as
In this procedure the drug will be getting agni samskara, A bolus of mud
holding within it the kalka(paste) of drugs put into fire and removed when it

becomes red hot, the thickness of the layer of mud should be two angulas or
two angustas, it is better to wrap the paste of drug with leaves of kasmari, vata,
jambu etc, the puta paka swarasa should be taken in the dose of one pala to
which is added one karsha of honey and the proportion of kalka, Churnas or
other liquids if to be added shall be the same as described earlier under
Some of the examples of puta paka swarasa vidhi are mentioned here under.
Twak kutaja twak, Aralu twak etc
Patra Nyagrodha patra, Vasa patra, Amra patra, jambu patra, etc
Phala Pakwa dadima phala, Vibhitaki phala, etc
Panchangas kantakari,etc
Mula Bijapura, Amra, J ambu, Surana kanda, Shunti churana, etc
Matra of puta paka swarasa- One pala
Anu kalpana in swarasa abhava
qSimi xuUxui mrerq |
xuUxlqsp iur xuUxuk| (c.c.1.2.12)
Pharmaceutical Review


If wet drugs are not available, then further preparation of swarasa the
following special method should be adapted. The powder of the plant drug
should be taken the quantity of one adhaka in an earthen pot an to this one
adhaka(same quantity ) of water is added and kept for one ahoratri(24
hours)there after it should be squeezed by hand and filter. The liquid that
comes out after filtration can be used as swarasa

MQu chi Sur mi iS ah es |
AWU xji ixqu Ux Eq || (uM
One kudava powder of dry drug put in twice its quantity of water, kept over
for a day and night, then filtered and obtained liquid is also called swarasa
ASr vwMSur u xuUxlqxqpu |
esahi xkr mSv c ai ||
(v.x.q. 1.4)
In case of drugs, which are very dry and which do not give out any juice,
boiling them in 8 times their quantity of water and reducing to a quarter can be also
used as swarasa
qk i aQ Ul eUM suh ij |
bi is c chSl Msq Ux
mi || (v.q.1.6)
bi xi aQ S Msq Ux
mi |
Pharmaceutical Review

suhUchl rarqll Smri || (
rSu e)
Prakshepa dravyas of swarasa
Madhu(honey) sharkara(sugar) guda(jaggery) kshara(alkali) jiraka lavanga
gretha taila(oil)are any powder if required be added should be 1 kola each in
quantity (this should be mixed in 2 tola or pala of swarasa
Ghrita, Sita, Guda and Honey if mentioned should be added in 1 Kola maatra,
Lavana, kshara and Churna should be added in Yogya pramana

Table No.1- Some of the common Swarasa Kalpanas with their Amayika Prayoga
Sl.No Name of the swarasa Amayika prayoga
1. Amruta Swarasa Prameha
2. Dhatri Swarasa Prameha
3. Vasa Swarasa Rakta Pitta,Kasa,Ksaya,Kamala
4. Triphala, Daruharidra , Nimba, Guduchi
5. J ambu, Amraka, Amlika,Swarasa Raktatisara
6. Ardraka Swarasa Vrsana Vata,Swasa-Kasa,Aruci
7. Bijapura Swarasa Parswa Sula,Hrcchula,Vasti Sula
8. Satvari Swarasa Pittaja Sula
9. Kumari Swarasa Pitta Vrddi,Apaci
10. Alambusa Swarasa Apaci,Gandamala,Kamala
11. Brahmi, Kusmanda, Vaca, Shanka Puspi
All Type Of Unmada

Pharmaceutical Review


Kwatha kalpana is one of the Panchavidha, kashaya kalpana i.e. Swarasa,
Kalka, Kwatha, Hima and Phanta. The preceding kalpana is heavier than the latter i.e.
Swarasa is heavier than Kalka, Kalka is heavier than Kashaya/Kwatha, Kwatha is
heavier than Hima and Phanta, Hima and Phanta are lighter than the Kwatha, Kalka
and Swarasa
Kashaya kalpana is made up of two words-
Kashaya- Kash Himsayam, Dhatu +Ay pratyay
Kashati kantam - To remove Dosha/Rogas from kanta.
Kalpana-- Krip samarthye Dhatu+tyant yuch taap pratyay

The invention obtained after heating a dravya in a drava is called as Kwatha.
Kwatha is a type of medicinal preparation in which coarsely powdered drug is boiled
in a liquid for a definite time until the liquid is reduced to the desired quantity and the
entire matter is squeezed through a thin cloth. The filtrate is discarded and the
obtained liquid is used as Kwatha.
i Yuj Mwr lrW: x lai | - v. x. q. Z. 2/2
Shrita, Kwatha, Kashaya and Niryuha words are used synonymously. Kwatha
and Kashaya words are commonly used.
The Kwatha is utilized both internally and externally for therapeutic purposes.
Pharmaceutical Review


Externally - Prakshalana, Gandusha, Kavala etc.
Internally - Basti dravya, Pana and Anupana.
Apart from this, Kashaya is essential in the preparation of Sneha, Asava,
Arista, Ghana, Lehya etc Kalpanas. Like it is mentioned in many ways depends upon
types of Kwatha for treatment of various diseases. Different types of Kashayas are
mentioned in classics for internal purposes also.
Moreover, Kwatha is essential in preparation of other Kalpanas as in the form
of main drug or an accompanied for Avaleha Ghrita, Taila etc. preparations and
Asava, Arista etc are alcoholic preparations. For these preparations Kwatha should be
prepared first.

No special references about Kwatha kalpana are found in the Vedas. In
Samhita period, the description and wide usage of Kashaya is found to treat various
diseases. Acharya Sharangadhara mentions about the detailed aspect of preparation of
Kashaya, the ratio between drava and dravya, prakshepa dravya used etc.
Preparation of Kashaya:
ui Yuji Sur iqWMixM: || - c.
x. x. 4/7
Acharya Charaka mentions about preparation of Kashaya as- the dravya is
boiled in a drava for a specific time. But the exact time for boiling is not mentioned.
aiUxw Awkw| (cUM xWi
cMixxjl 1)
Pharmaceutical Review


Commenting on it Acharya Chakrapani says Gatarasheshu Aushadeshu i.e.
the taste of the drug should be completely transferred into the drava and the drug
should be tasteless.
All the Samhitas later mentions about the preparation of Kashaya, the nature
of the drug, ratio between drug and water and about the reduction of drava to obtain
the final product. Acharya Sushruta mentions about the preparation of Kashaya in
The Twak, Patra, Phala, Moola etc. part that is required is dried in sunlight. The drugs
suitable for cutting is made into small pieces, drugs that are hard are broken down and
pounded. Then the drugs are added to 8 or16 parts water, boiled and reduced to 1/4
It is then removed from fire
. Acharya Sushruta also says that the bark,
leaves, flowers or roots are added with 4 times water, boiled and reduced to 1/4
Ashtanga samgraha mentions the same principle as said by Acharya Sushruta and
adds that the vessel should be made of copper, iron or mud.

Depending upon the hardness and quantity of dravya, the quantity of water is
fixed. Mild heat is given during preparation and the mixture is stirred continuously
with a spatula to prevent stirred continuously with a spatula to prevent sticking of
drug to the vessel. When the water absorbs the active principles of drug and the drug
becomes tasteless, the mixture is removed from fire, filtered through a cloth
mSxji pui Yuj r oal iex | x
uros xqm aurkc vxri ||
- M. x. Z. 3/42.
Pharmaceutical Review


Kashyapa samhita mentions to take one part of drug and mixed with 4 or 8
times of water, boil the mixture in mild heat and reduce to 1/4
. Thus obtained
product is called as Kwatha.
Water ratio:
mlr wQv ah hh Surms mi |
qim Yujri a Aqvuvwiq ||
iees mrri kql Mwh qal xkiq | -
v. x. q. Z. 2/1
One pala of coarsely powdered drug is boiled with 16 parts of water in an
earthen pot over a mild fire till liquid is reduced to 1/8
of the original quantity. The
preparation of a Kashaya properly and to extract the active principles of the drug
completely, the drug- water ratio plays an important role. The residual water, after
boiling is the Kashaya.
The drug- water ratio is chosen based on two criteria:
i) Drugs consistency
ii) Drugs quantity

I. Drugs consistency:
ciah qSSur MPlah esq | ij c
qkrq Sur Si Aah mr: ||
Airli MPl Sur lU wQvM qiq | - v. x.
q. Z. 9/3 -4.
Pharmaceutical Review


The raw drugs are grouped into Mridu (soft), Madhyama (medium), Katina
(hard) and Atyanta katina (too hard). Based on this, the amount of water is to be
added and later reduced.
According to Acharya Sarangadhara, the criteria are as follows:
Table No.2-Showing amount of Jala depending upon quality of Dravya
S.I. Nature of drug Water to be added Reduction Example
1 Mridu 4 parts 1/4th Guduchi,
2 Madhyama 8 parts 1/4th Aragwada
3 Katina 8 parts 1/4th Dashamoola
4 Atyanta katina 16 parts 1/4th Padmaka
The residual part is always 1/4
of the original amount of water added.
II. Drugs quantity:
MwSi: ms rui mi wQvM esq |
iSku MQu rui pui Aah mr: ||
mxjSi: mU ZU rucciahq || - v.
x. q. Z. 9/4-5
The water ratio again depends upon the quantity of the material used during the

Table No.3-Showing amount of Jala depending upon quantity of Dravya
Pharmaceutical Review


S.I.No Quantity of drug Water to be added Reduction
1 1karsha-1 pala (12gm-48gm) 16 parts 1/4th
2 1pala-1kudava (48gm-192gm) 8 parts 1/4th
3 1prastha-1khari (746gm-96kg) 4 parts 1/4th
The water quantity should be decided according to the consistency and
quantity of the drug. If the amount of water taken is less, the drug may be burnt and if
water quantity is more, the active principles will get diluted in the water. According to
Acharya Sharangadhara, the residual amount of water after boiling should be 1/4
whereas Acharya Chakradatta and Acharya Gangadhara mention 1/8
part of water.
Types of Kashaya:
In the Ayurvedic (Sushruth) classics there is description of 2 types of Kashaya:-
i) Shrita Kashaya- The Kashaya prepared by boiling the drugs in water and
reducing the amount of water.
ii) Ashrita Kashaya- The drug is kept in water overnight and squeezed after
maceration. Eg. Phanta, Hima. Kalka and Swarasa are grouped under
Ashrita Kashaya.
Acharya Harita mentioned 7 types of Kwatha based on its function and method of
. Todarananda has told the same 7 types of Kwatha, according to
pharmacological actions.

Table No.4 - Showing types of Kashaya Kalpana according to Acharya Harita.
Pharmaceutical Review


Sl.No Kwatha
of reduction
Purpose or usage Time of
01 Pachana 1/2 Digestive for metabolic
transformation of tissue
Nisha night.
02 Deepana 1/10 Appetizing to stimulate
the power of digestion
Aparaahna -
03 Shodhana 1/12 Purificatory to eliminate
the waste products
(Dosha & Mala)
04 Samana 1/8 Palliative - to alleviate the
05 Tarpana Equal Nourishing to provide
nourishment to tissue i.e.
Rasa, Rakta etc. Dhatus.
06 Kledana 1/4 Lubricating to increase
the fluidity of the Dhatus
07 Shoshana 1/16 Drying - for absorption of
excessive part of the fluid
from Dhatus

Table No.5 -Various Kashaya- According to Bhoja
Pharmaceutical Review


S.I.No. Name of Kashaya % of drug to
be taken
% of water to
be added
1. Pana Kashaya 1part 24 palas 1/8th
2. Gandusha Kashaya 1part 4 parts 1/5th
3. Paniya Kashaya 1karsha pala 1/4th
4. Seka Kashaya 1part 4 parts 1/8th
5. Aschyotana Kashaya 1part 6 parts 1/6th
6. Vrana prakshalana
1part 3 parts 1/12th
7. Mukha Kashaya 1part 8 parts 1/9th
8. Shodana Kashaya 1part 8 parts 1/3rd
9. Asthapana Kashaya 1part 6 parts 1/7th
10. Vamana Kashaya 1part 3 parts 1/2
11. Virechana Kashaya 1part 6 parts 1/8th
12. Snana Kashaya 1part 60 parts 1/2
13. Yavagu Kashaya 1part 64 parts 1/8th
14. Sneha Kashaya 1part 4 parts 1/4th

Pharmaceutical Review


Administration of Kwatha:
AWU UxmM c xgei mslqiq | u
umSvl moiYuj xmciq ||
v. x. q.
Z. 2/3
According to Acharya Sharangadhara, the Kwatha is to be taken after the
proper digestion of ahara rasa and the conversion of ahara rasa into rasa dhatu in 2
pala dose. If the person takes medicine before the digestion of food or vice-versa, it
can lead to the manifestation of diseases
Kashaya should be taken in lukewarm condition. Reboiling of the Kashaya
before intake is contraindicated. As the shelf life of Kashaya is low, it should be
always prepared fresh from Kwatha choorna. Shamana Kwatha should be taken at
early morning in empty stomach. Shodhana Kwatha is to be taken before sunrise
while Deepana Kwatha is to be taken during the 3
prahara. In case of vataja or
kaphaja disorder, Kashaya is given lukewarm, whereas in pittaja disorder, Kashaya is
given after cooling
Acharya Sharangadhara
2 palas
1 pala (48ml) Madhyama Matra.
Acharya Yadavji
1 pala
Acharya Vangasena and Vrinda Madhava 4 pala.

Pharmaceutical Review

Table No.6 -Prakshepaka dravyas:
Author Prakshepaka dravya Quantity Vyadhi
of Kashaya vataja
of Kashaya pittaja

of Kashaya kaphaja
of Kashaya kaphaja
of Kashaya pittaja

of Kashaya vataja
Ksheera, Ghrita, Guda,
Taila, Gomutra, Any
Drava dravya, Kalka,
Churna, Guggulu

1karsha each


J iraka, Guggulu, Ksira,
one Sana each

Hingu, Saindhava, 1masa each Acharya Kashyapa
Guda, Ksheera, Sita

1karsha each

Prakshepa dravyas are added to the Kashaya to increase the palatability and
also increase the efficacy of the Kashaya. The classics have mentioned specific
amount for prakshepa dravya, which is mentioned below.
Prakshepaka dravyas are added to the Kashaya to increase the palatability and
also to increase the efficacy of the Kashaya. The classics have mentioned specific
amount for Prakshepaka dravya, which is mentioned below:


Pharmaceutical Review


Preparation of Kashaya:
Stove (heat source)
Clean, thin cloth
Clean vessel for filtration of
Pincer to hold the vessel.
Method of preparation:
First well arrangement of all equipments which are required above and take
potential drugs for Kwatha preparation.
Clean the drugs with water.
If the drug is fresh, cut it into small pieces; if dry, and then make a coarse
powder of it. In case of very hard drug, make it into small pieces and soak it
overnight in water.
Then Kashaya dravyas are put into sufficient amount of water and mixed well
in a big, wide mouth vessel.
Mild heat is given from below, so that complete potency of drug is transferred
to the liquid.
Lid should not be covered over the vessel.
The vessel is removed from the fire, when water is reduced to the required
amount after boiling.
After slight cooling of vessel, the Kashaya is filtered using a clean cloth to
another clean vessel.
Kashaya is not prepared of drugs having volatile oil, as volatile oils are
destroyed when heated.
Pharmaceutical Review

Test for Kashaya:
Kashaya dravya should be boiled properly.
Desired smell, taste and color should be obtained in Kashaya.
Kashaya should not contain suspended particles.
Residue of drug should be tasteless.
The Kashaya prepared should have accurate measurement (quantity) after
boiling and reducing of water.
The Kashaya should produce the desired effect against the disease for which it
is administered.
Modern concept of Kashaya
Decoction is the process in which water soluble and heat stable constituents of
a drug are extracted and transferred to water (liquid medium). Boiling and reducing
the water to the calculated final volume is important to derive the efficacy and benefit
from decoction. Uniform mild heat and type of vessel used for boiling the water is
also important. Always freshly prepared decoction should be dispensed. At present no
decoction is mentioned in Indian or British Pharmacopoeia.
Parameters to be followed to standardize Kashaya
1. Organoleptic characters 2.Ash value
3. Acid-insoluble content 4.T.L.C and pH
5. Specific gravity 6.Alkaloid content
The term Churna may be applied to the powder of a single drug or a mixture
of two or more drugs, which are powdered separately prior to their being mixed to

Pharmaceutical Review

According to Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Churna is a fine powder of drug
or drugs
AirlizwM rSur xm uxasiq | iixrh Ue:
Sxilq Mzxqi ||
z. x. q. Z.
According to Acharya Sharangadhara, churna means, nicely powdered dry
drug which is filtered through a cloth. Churna is that which is powdered without any
liquid. The churna may be applied to the powder of a single drug or a mixture of two
or more drugs which are powdered separately prior to their being mixed to
xqchi ch llMqx reri |
aWhrquMUw uhuirlelSw

|| M. x. Z. 3/36
According to Acharya Kasyapa the substance, which is made in to fine
powdered form by pulverized is called churna. This churna is used for Grahani roga,
Amavikara, Vrana and for the purpose of Anjana etc.
Vernacular Names
Sanskrit. - Shuska Kalka, Shuska Pista, Ksoda, Raja
English. - Powder
Hindi - Churna
Kannada. - Pudi, Hittu,Churna
Latin name - Pulver, Pulverata
Unani - Safuf, Atus, Avadhilana
iixrh Ue: Sxilq Mzxqi || z. x. q.
Z. 6/1

Pharmaceutical Review

Rajah (pulvis)
Kshoda (powder)
The sharangadhara samhita was explained synonyms of churna kalpana.

Similarities of churna and kalka kalpana:
zwMm: xqiliumOcrih: |
ixr xqxiSurmUiraSmsimra MsMSpS ||
A .x .M .8/10
Churna is considered as modified form of kalka kalpana. Because dried form
of kalka can be considered as churna and many of the times churna is used to make
the kalka. Churna is not different from kalka, because it is not devoid of any part of
the drug and used well soaked in fluids.
Pharmaceutical processing of kalka and churna has many similar features. In
certain conditions, kalka can be prepared with suska dravyas (dry drugs) by making
them vastra galita churna and adding drava dravya. The process of pounding is similar
for both churna and kalka.
Making powder

Churna Kalka (churna+drava dravya)

Vastra galana
Chart No 1. Showing Churna Proces
Types of Churna
Sthula Coarse powder For Hima, Phanta, Kasaya, sieved through No 20

Pharmaceutical Review

Shuksma Fine powder for Vati, Lehy, Nasya, sieved through No. 60 sieve.
Atyanta shuksma (Vastra Galita) Bhasmas, Anjanas. Sieved through No. 100
sieve (very fire powder).

Praksepaka Dravayas and their quantity:
ch aQ: xq Sr: zMU ah pui |
chw pei W Sr liYsSui || z.. x. q.
Z. 6/2
Guda = Equal to that of churna
Sarkara = Two times of that of churna
Hingu = Quantity which does not cause any Utkledan (Nausea) and
must be used after frying Liquids = Ghee, oil, honey etc. 2 parts
Milk, water =4 parts.
Bhavana dravya matra related with churna:
Suh rui xqrM ch xu msi pui |
pulr: mqh i ch m pwauU: || z. x.
q. Z. 6/6
The quantity of any liquid which soaks the powder fully well is called bhavanadravya.
Process of Preparation:
Equipment required
The drugs enumerated in the recipe in clean in well dried state.
A mortar and pestle.
A fine sieve or fine cloth.
Pulverizers and
Ball mills etc.

Pharmaceutical Review


The drugs that are to be used in the preparation should be taken from recently
collected material. Drugs, which are aged by prolonged storage or changed in colour,
taste, smell and those, which are insect infested, should be positively rejected.
However, drugs like embelia fruits, long pepper, coriander seeds, honey, jaggery, and
even cows ghee are preferred from old stock, which should be unspoilt otherwise.

In general, the aromatics are slightly fried in order to increase or sweeten their
aroma. Any extraneous material should be removed fromthe drugs.
The drugs mentioned in the churna yoga are cleaned and dried. They are
powdered by pounding in with mortar and pestle and sieved through a thin layer of
cloth (Vastragalita). In a prescription where there are a number of ingredients, the best
method is to powder the drugs separately, weight the required quantities of the drugs
and mix them all together.
As some of the drugs contain more fibrous matter than others, this method of
powdering and weighing them separately according to yoga, and then mixing them
together, is recommended.
The reason for separate powdering of different drugs in Churna kalpana is
that, different drugs will have different types of consistency as mrdu (soft),
madhyama (medium) and kathina (hard). If they mixed and pounded together, first
mrdu dravyas get powdered easily, kathina dravyas remains as it is, hence while doing
filtration (vastragalitam) variation in the ratio of ingredients mentioned in churna
formulae take place and also drugs which contains volatile oil property, may
evaporate easily and burnt sometimes, before kathina dravyas get powdered
Pharmaceutical Review


So that, it is advised to powder all drugs of Churna formulae separately, then
only they are supposed to be mixed together uniformly to get better therapeutic results
from the administered Churna formulae. Swadista virecana churna, lavana bhaskara
churna, Hingvastaka churna etc., which are having combination of sugar, salt as a

ingredient should not be formulated during rainy season, because they may get
spoiled with in a short period by attracting moisture from atmospheric conditions, it
happens because of more hygroscopic nature of ingredients in the recipe.
A volatile principle may get volatilized during the milling process. This is due
to the more exposed surface area of the crude drug and also to the increase in
temperature during grinding. Therefore, drugs like clove, cardamom, caraway or
cinnamon are not powdered to a very fine form.
When Hingu, Saindhava lavana and similar drugs are to be added they are
fried well and powdered so that they do not become moist. Sugar and camphor are
powdered separately and added.
The Churna should be very fine, amorphous and should be perfectly dry. The
fineness of the sieve used should be preferably 80 mesh per square inch or still finer.
Finer the powder better is the therapeutic value.
Churnas should be packed in air tight containers.
The prepared Churna should be stored in tightly stopper glass bot
Polythene and foil packing also gives damp proof protection.
Pharmaceutical Review


Anupana for churna:
chusWaiMsMlqlmlMq |
uimMTihM ukMmsqWUi ||
rj is es mi hlu mxmu | AlmlosSla
ij xmi pweq || z.x.q.Z.6/4-5

Anupana (vehicle for the medicine) for Churna (pulvis), Avaleha, Confection,
Gutika tablets, Kalka paste should be three, two and one pala respectively for diseases
of Vata, Pitta and Kapha. J ust as oil spreads quickly on water like medicines spread
inside the body by the strength of the vehicle.
Table No.7 -Showing the various amount of Anupana for churna -
Drugs Pala Doshas
Avaleha 3 Vata
Gutika 2 Pitta
Kalka 1 kapha

Important uses of Churna
Used as main medicament in the treatment of many diseases: Talisadi Churna,
Hingastaka Churna, Sankhapuspi Kalka etc.
Churnas could be used as adjuvants:-
o Suvarna Bhasma with Trikatu Churna
o Abhraka Bhasma with Talisadi Churna
Churnas are used to prepare Vati, Avleha, Arka, Kasaya, Hima,
Pharmaceutical Review


Phanta, Snehas, Ksirapaka, Asavarista preparations etc.
Powders are used externally - For Avadhulana (sprinkling), Lepana in
wounds and skin diseases.
Shelf life:
qxri ij ch Wluriuqmlri | z. x. m.
Z. 1/51
2 months

General Dose of Churna: 1Karsa- 12gms
ilq Mwxqi | |

z. x. q. Z. 6/1
Churna, Kalka and Gutika matra is one and same, that is one Karsha pramana.
If Churna is advised to chew after making paste form with the help of some drava
dravya, then that drava dravya is advised to drink after mixing in dravya, than the
drava dravya quatity should be four times more than Churna.
Advantages of Churna form
Fixation of the dose is easier when the medicament is in powder form.
Churnas are more stable than liquids, because chemical reactions take place
more rapidly in atmospheric conditions when the drugs are in liquid form.
Incompatibility is less in case of Churnas than liquids.
The rapid dissolution increases the blood concentration in a shorter time, there
by the action is produced in a lesser time.
They are more economical compared to other preparations.
It is easier to carry the Churnas and tablets than liquids.
Disadvantages of Churna form:
Drugs which deteriorate on exposure to atmospheric conditions are
Pharmaceutical Review


Not suitable for dispensing in powder forms.
Bitter, corrosive and unpalatable drugs cannot be dispensed in Churna form
Deliquescent and hygroscopic drugs cannot be dispensed in Churna form.
Volatile drugs are not suitable for dispensing in Churna form.

Drug Review


Drug (Dravya) is one among the Cikitsa Catuspada and is having the next
place after the physician.
Acharya Caraka says that, he is the best of physicians who knows the science
of administration of drugs with due reference to the place and time, and who applies it
only after examining each and every patient individually.
A drug that is not understood perfectly is comparable to poison, weapons, fire
and the thunderbolt, while the perfectly understood drug is comparable to ambrosia.
Keeping these points in view the following drug has been selected for the sudy
which mainly contains-
alkMqsMch kUxupuiq |
xmik zsqsir zMUqkreiq ||
sRu clmr ml mirW Mi i r |
Lilziuwm zik Uqi xr || p.U.

Shuddha Gandhaka
Amalaki Churna
Amalaki swarasa
Shalamali toya
Drug Review

Botanical name: Embilica officinalis Goertn (Phyllannthus Embilica Linn)
Family name : Euphorbiaceae
Mostly collected in winter season after ripening and in Kashmir in summer, a small or
medium sized tree, found both in natural state in mixed deciduous forests of the
country ascending to 1300 m on hills; cultivated in gardens, home yards or grown as a
road side tree.
Sanskrit : Amrtaphala, Amalaka, Dhatriphala
Kannada : Nellikayi, Bela nelli, pottadenollikayi
Assamese : Amlakhi, Amlakhu, Amlaku
Bengali : Amla, Dhatri
English : Emblic Myrobalan
Gujrati : Ambala, Amala
Hindi : Amla, Aonla
Kashmiri : Amli, Embali
Malayalam : Nellikka
Marathi : Anvala, Avalkathi
Oriya : Ainla, Anala
Punjabi : Aula, amla
Tamil : Nellikkai, nelli
Telugu : Usirika
Urdu : Amla, Amlaj


Drug Review

Fresh amlaki swarasa - 10-20ml
Amlaki churna - 3-6gms
Use full part - fruit pulp/fruit rind
a) Macroscopic
Drug consists of curled pieces of pericarp of dried fruit occuring either as
separated single segment; 1-2 cm long or united as 3 or 4 segments; bulk colour grey
to black, pieces showing, a broad, highly shrivelled and wrinkled external convex
surface to somewhat concave, transversely wrinkled lateral surface, external surface
show s a few whitish specks, occasionally some pieces show a portion of stony testa
(which should be removed before processing); texture rough, cartilaginous, tough;
taste, sour and astringent.
b) Microscopic
Transverse section of fruit shows epicarp consisting of a single layered epidermis
cell appearing tabular and polygonal in surface view; cuticle present; mesocarp cells
tangentially elongated parenchymatous and crushed differentiated roughly into
peripheral 8 or 9 layers of tangentially elongated smaller cells, rest consisting of
mostly 7 isodiametric larger cells with walls showing irregular thickenings; ramified
vascular elements occasionally present; stone cells present either isolated or in small
groups towards endocarp ; pitted vascular fibres, walls appearing serrated due to the
pit canals, leading into lumen.
Powder: Fine powder shows epidermis with uniformly thickened straight walled
isodiametric parenchyma cells with irregular thickened walls, occasionally short
fibres and tracheids.

Drug Review

CONSTITUENTS - Ascorbic acid and gallotannins.

Rasa : Madhura,Amla,Katu,Tikta,Kashaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksha
Virya : Sheeta
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Cakshushya, Rasayana, Tridoshajit, Vrushya
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Cyavanaprasha, Dhatri Lauha, Dhatryadi
Ghrta,Triphala Churna
THERAPEUTIC USES - Raktapitta, Amlapitta, Premeha, Daha
DOSE - 3-6 g of the drug in powder form
SHALMALI (Stem Bark)
Botanical name: Salmalia Malabarica Schott
Family name: Bombocaceae
A deciduous tree attaining a height upto 40 m and a girth upto 6 m or more and
distributed throughout the hotter parts of the country upto 1500 m or more.
Sanskrit : Moca, Picchila, Raktapushpa.
Assam. : Semul
Beng. : Shimul, Simul
Eng. : Silk-Cotton Tree
Guj. : Shemalo
Hindi. : Semal, Semar
Kan. : Kempuburunga
Kash. : ---
Mal. : Mullilavu
Mar. : Sanvar, Katesavar
Ori. : --
Punj. : Simble
Tam. : Elavam
Tel. : Buruga
Urdu. : Sembhal

Drug Review


a) Macroscopic:
Bark 0.5-1 cm thick, pale-ashy to silvery-grey externally, brownish internally,
external surface rough with vertical and transverse cracks, mucilaginous on chewing;
fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic:
Stem bark shows 10-15 layered, transversely elongated, radially arranged, thinwalled,
cork cells with a few outer layers having brown coloured contents; rhytidoma present
at certain places interrupting the cork; secondary cortex con- sists of moderately
thick-walled, parenchymatous cells containing orange brown contents; stone cells in
singles or in groups, thick-walled, oval to irregular, and tangential bands of stone cells
having striations with narrow lumen, measuring 13-33 in dia., occur throughout the
secondary cortex; secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by phloem
rays, elements in the outer region form tangential bands of ceratenchyma; a number of
concentric bands of fibres alternating with groups of sieve elements also present;
fibres lignified having narrow lumen and pointed tips; phloem rays numerous and
wavy, 1-6 seriate, cells being radially elongated and moderately thick-walled; rosette
crystals of calcium oxalate scattered throughout the secondary cortex, phloem
parenchyma and ray cells; mucilage canals and tannin cells present in the
parenchymatous cells of cortex. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows fragments of cork
cells, parenchymatous cells, single or groups of thick-walled, oval to irregular, stone
cells having striations with narrow lumen, measuring 13-33 in dia., rosette crystals
of calcium oxalate, phloem fibres and numerous reddish-brown coloured masses and
tannin cells.
Drug Review


CONSTITUENTS - Saponins, Tannins and Gums. Seeds yield a fixed oil Resin
contains 2.9% mineral matters and tannin. Which also consists of tannic acid and
gallic acid. Roots [semal musali] contain starch 71.2 . Sugar 8.2, Protein 1.2, Minaral
matter 2.1 Percent. Also Fat Tannin and cellulose in lower percentage roots consist of
mucilaginous substance,
Rasa : Madhura, Kashaya
Guna : Laghu, Picchila, Snigdha
Virya : Sheeta
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Shothahara, Kaphavardhaka, Pittahara, Vatahara, Dahaprashamana, Vrushya
Useful Parts - Flower, Khanda, Roots, Gum, Bark, Leaves, Young fruits, Seeds
THERAPEUTIC USES - Raktapitta, Vrana, Daha, Yuvanapidika
Dose - 5-10 g. (Powder).

In Rasa classics Gandhaka comes under Uparasa varga and is a important
dravya next to parada. It is considered as the essential agent in mercurial process and
is believed to impart many desirable properties to parada and reduces its toxic effects.
Hence the mercurial preparations without gandhaka are considered to be more toxic.
It also plays major role in Bhasmikarana process of dhatus. Mythologically it is
considered as the Artava of Goddess Parvati.
Drug Review


English Sulphur.
Chemical Formula S
Gandhaka Shodana:
Shodhana removes 2 types of impurities present in it.
1) Shila dosha Stone powder, Clay
2) Visha dosha Arsenic etc.,
Shodhana is carried out by adopting various methods like.
1) Swedana
2) Dravana, Galana
3) Bhavana
4) Kurma Puta Bhoodara yantra method
5) Damaru yantra etc.,
Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya.
Guna : Sara
Veerya : Ushna
Vipaka : Madhura
, Katu
Karma : Deepana, Pachana, Rasashoshana, Krimihara, Rasayana,
Vishagna, Bala-veerya vardhaka, Kapha Vatahara.
Rogagnata : Kandu, Kusta, Twakdosha, Ama dosha, Krimidosha,
Pleeharoga, Kshaya, Jwara, Netra roga Visarpa, Dadru etc
Drug Review


Dose : 1-8 rakti
Modern Chemical Classification
- Sulphur occurs in native form in the volcanic regions of Sicily, Italy,
Japan etc., Small deposits have been found in India, Pakistan.
It occurs in the form of
1) Sulphides (ZnS, PbS), Pyrites (CuFeS
2) Sulphates (CaSO
4 .
1. Sulphur has property of allotropism. This property is its important
characterisitic physical state is same chemical is same but forms and physical
properties are different.
2. Ithas an atomic weight of 32.064 and it s atomic number is 16.
3. Sulphur melts at 120deg c if it is heated slowly and 113degc if it is heated
rapidly.It boils at 444.8deg c.
4. At temperature above 150deg c sulphur becomes thick and viscous.Above becomes more fluid again and its colour changes from yellow to
Red. IT is dark brown at its boiling point.
5. Sulphur is a very reactive element at 250deg c it ignites with air. As it burns it
combines with oxygen to form sulphur-di-oxide (So2) a clourless gas.
6. It is good conductor of heat and electricity.
7. It is insoluble in water but dissolves in carbondisulphide benzene and
Drug Review


Ghrita is said to the Shresta Sneha because of its property to absorb the
property of other drugs when put into it, In ayurveda Go-ghrita is said to be superior
out of the ghrita from various sources.
Vernacular Name:
Sanskrit name : Ghrita
English name : Ghee
Hindi name : Ghee
Kannada name : Tuppa
Synonyms : Aajya, Havis, Sarpis,
Properties :
Rasa - Madhura,
Guna - Guru, Snigha, Mridu,
Veerya - Sheeta,
Vipaka - Madhura,
Dosha Karma: Vatapittahara
Karma: Medya, Rasayana, Vrishya, Chakshushya, Balya,
Ghrita is one among the Ajasrika Rasayana, It is Ayuvardaka, Balavardhaka,
Vayasthapak, Dhatuposhak, and is suprime in snehana dravyas, By virtue of
yogavahitwa, As per its ingredients the medicated ghrita will be attaining properties.

Drug Review


Chemical Constituents
Ghee contains 8% lower saturated fatty acids, Which makes it easily
digestible, Due to having 4-5%, linoleic acid an essential fatty acids, it promotes
proper growth of human body, Ghee also contains vitamin A B E and K vitamin A
and E are anti oxidant and are helpful in preventing oxidative injury to the body, Ghee
is lipophilc and this action of ghee facilitates the transportation of ingredients of
formulation to target organ and final delivery jnside the cell, because cell membrane
is highly lipophilic.
Vernacular names:
Sanskrit name - Dugdha
English name - Milk
Hindi name - Doodh
Kannada name - Halu
Synonyms: Ksheera, Payas.
aur Sak uzwh qkU UxmMr: |
Swkiqsxi: MliYsSMU a ||
zis xilr Yixlak uimxlzlq |
eUxqxiUah zlii xul xS ||
- p. m. l. S. 7-8.
Rasa - Madhura
Guna - Guru, Snigdha, Mridu
Virya - Sheeta
Vipaka - Madhura
Doshakarma - Vatapitta Shamana
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Karma - Medhya, Rasayana, Vrishya, Jeevaniya.

Disease Review
Historicity and origin of aphrodisiac therapy in the form of quest of virility
(Pumshatva) for progeny (Praja) begins from Vedic age, and later it has developed as
an indepent branch of ancient science medical science as Vajikarana Tantra.

Afterwards, the development of phenomenon of sexual life took place in later
periods of chronology. There appears mainly Kucumara tantra, which figures in
history, as solitary treatise dealing with the major subject of aphrodisiacs related to
Vajikaran. Simultaneously Kama Sutra (erotics) or Kama Vijnana (sexology) was
gradually took lead in specific direction which had contributive role.

Confidentiality and secret nature of sexual behaviour desiring privacy inspired
sexual activity for its recognisation Auponisadika, the specific terminology applied in
later works particularly in the area of Kama Shastra. Some importamt works on Kama
Sastra are generally referred, viz Kama Sutra (Vatsayana), Rati Rahasya (Kokka),
Panchasayaka (J youtirisvacharya), Anangaranga (Kalyanamalla), Ratiratna Pradipika
(Proudhadevaraja), Kuttanimatam (Damodar Gupta), Kandarapa Churamani,
Kailikoutuhalam, Ratimanjari (J aidev), Kamakunjalata (Dwdosharajarsignaha) etc
Kama inspired the god for creation of universe (Naradiya sutra), which is still
continuing, achievement of which depends upon the normal intact sexual apparatus.
Kama effects in sexual gratification and better progeny to lead happy life which is
perturbed in the absence of the same


Disease Review

The word Vajayan hints towards Vajikaran. The important husband of
Vatrimati was satisfactorily treated and was able to become fertile. The name of twin
physicians Asvinau is indicative horse and horsepower. The unmarried, old aged
patient Ghosa was successfully treated to become young and later on to get married.
Kali achieved youth and married. Vandana, Kaksivana, Vraddha kali, Vraddha
chyavana, J ahnu, Raja mana etc were treated for ageing and achieved youthfulness
and progeny. Various means were advocated in Garbhaposhana, Garbhapata,
Niyantrana and Govandhyata with treatment.
It has many references related to normal and abnormal sexual functions.
Anatomical terms like Vrisana, Sepha, Sisna, Viryavahini nadi etc. are available. The
word Mritabhaja (who has lost body heat) is used for Klaibya. Sepha harsini was the
drug used to enhance the size of penis like that of horse, improve erection and
increase the semen production to make the individual sexually active. Specific
mantras to improve erection are available. The word Klaibya, Klibikarana (castration)
and impotence because of injury to Viryavahinadi are highlighted. The term Krisata
denotes physical impotence or under developed size of genital organs, whereas the
word glayata denotes psychological impotence.
Upanishad and Purana Period
Prestigious Madhuvaidya and the way of getting prosperous progeny are found
in Upanishad period.
Woman is Virilific because certain body parts of woman are the seat of
erotica. There are twelve factors famous for erotic potency, out of which six are body


Disease Review
parts of the woman viz. the Kamini katasa (eye movements), the knotting of the hairs,
the thighs, the breasts, the umbilical part and the lips. The remaining six factors are
environmental such as autumn, the sound of kokila, the full moon light, a lake place,
Madhu Madhava etc. the drugs Shatavari, Ashwagandha, Sriaushada vatamkura,
Ashwatha etc. are advised as Yuktivyapsraya Vajikarana therapy, it can be used in
the form of powder, with milk, honey etc. and may also be used in the form of varti,
lingalepa etc. putrshti yagna, various types of charities, sraddha, pilgrimage to some
holy places, story hearing of some progeny and about 15 putrakara or putra prada
(male progeny inducing) recipes have been mentioned. Hence it seems that Pauranic
advises for Vajikarana are mostly herbal.
Mythological texts also show the significance of performing putreshti yagna
by emperor Dasharatha to have a son. Testicular transplantation to restore the virility
of Indra with mesa vrisana is also found. The death due to excessive indulgence in
coitus, in the form of example of Vicitravirya, son of Satyavati is highlighted.
Naradas conversation with Yudhishtira on skills of Vaidyas on 8 branches of
medicine points towards Vajikarana as one of the branches well established at that
time. Stories of Drupada, Shikhandi, and Yayati are also indicative of prevalence of
sexual dysfunctions. In Darshana period references are found regarding kama
(passion), marriageage, sexual conducts, legal aspects of marriage and second
marriage according to the circum-stances. The references regarding sexual
dysfunctions are rare.
Bauddha Period
Navanitakam, a famous treatise on therapeutic preparations illustrates
numerous Vajikarana yogas, indirectly giving hints to sexual disorders. Lashuna is a
useful mentioned drug.


Disease Review

Maurya and Gupta Period
A reference has been made to Pumsavana karma to change the foetal sex. The
famous Chinese traveler Meghasthanes writes so in his book Indica. The golden age
of Ayurveda and speciality of sexology, culture and literature in Gupta dynasty
brought out significant improvement in this field. Kama sutra was written by
concising the Bhabravyas writings by Vatsyayana, the father of ancient sexology. The
book which is authentic till today consists of 36 chapters, 67 contexts with 1250
slokas. Pandit Varahamihira in his treatise, Brihat Samhita described many Vajikarna
yogas under the heading of Kandarpikam to enhance the sexual potency and fertility.
Samhita Period
Acarya Caraka has described the characterstics and types of napumsaka,
different etiological factors leading to Klaibya viz. katu, lavana, ksara rasa etc. Shukra
kshaya, shukra dushti, rasa pradosha, general nidana, specific nidanas, detailed
pathogenesis and description of klaibya, its management, details and allied aspects
for the benefit of svastha purusha from procreational and recreational standpoint are
also mentioned. Vrishya and Vajikarana yogas, conduct, ethics and relative
descriptions are dealt with in detail. Hence the whole Vajikarana tantra has been
stressed and covered in Charaka Samhita.
Acharya Sushruta has described Vajikarana tantra in a separate chapter Ksina
Baliya Vajikarana adhyaya. He defines Vajikarana and elaborates the types of
Klaibya with characteristic clinical presentation and therapeutic yogas. Klaibya due to
injury to shukravahi nadi, pumsavana karma and psychological factors affecting
sexual life have been listed. Napumsaka of 5 types and ejaculatory dysfunctions are
also explained.

Disease Review

Samgraha Period
Acharya Vriddha Vagbhata deals with etiological factors of Klaibya, Shukra
kshaya and their management with different yogas in a separate chapter along with
various descriptive discussions on the topic Vajikarana. Certain Vrishya yogas are
used to treat different types of Shukra dosha and Vandhyatva. Acharya Vagbhata also
deals with the branch of Vrisha Tantra, Shukra doshas and its management with
different modalities. Significance, scope and necessity of Vajikarana, specially to the
Alpa satva person has been stressed along with the allied explanations. A note has
been made to follow raticharya and to follow the advices of Kama sutra according to
Desha, Bala, and Kala etc. Five types of Klaibya are described and separate chapter is
devoted to Vajikarana.
In Bhela Samhita, 4 types of Klaibya, scattered references on Vajikarana and
Vrishya basti specially indicated in Shukra doshas and sexual disorders are found.
Acharya Shodala has given many of the Vajikarana yogas and followed the previous
classics in the same period.
Acharya Sharangadhara followed Acharya Sushruta and classified
Napumsaka into 5 types. Vajikara/Vrishya drugs are said to be of 3types. Shukrala
and Vajikarana yogas have been mentioned and Shukra Sthambhaka yoga is a
contribution of Acharya Sharangadhara.
Acharya Bhavamishra describes klaibya as being of 7 subtypes based on
Sushruta Samhita and says that in the management of sexual problems, shodhana
therapy is to be adopted before Vajikarana for better results in Chikitsa


Disease Review

Acharya Kalyanamallas Anangaranga (16
Century AD) is the most
authentic, compact text on sex after Kama sutra of Vatsyayana. It incorporates the
classification of woman, generally based on sexual response into 4 types viz. Padmini,
Chitrini, Hastini and Ragini. Seasonal sexual capacities, regional sexual ethics, eritic
means of woman according to the regions, diet and recipes for Vajikarana are the
contributions of the text.
In Yogaratnakara, details of etiology, pathogenesis, types and various
Vajikarana yogas are available for Klaibya. Vata, Pitta, Rasa, Shukra, Marmaghata,
Sahaja and Manas are the factors involved in causation of Klaibya. Surata, Akshamata
is Klaibya and to treat the same Vajikarana. Astanga Maithuna has been referred.
Bhaishajya Ratnavali has numerous preparations to promote Shukra in
addition to Vajikarana and Vrishya yogas. Viryasthambhadhikara is separately dealt
with by Vangasena.
Madhava Nidana parisista has also dealt with the topic Klaibya and Vajikarana.
Basavarajiyam defines Retohintva, Vandya, and Shanda in 15
chapter and
treatment from the same is also found.
Thus descriptions about Vajikarana are available in the entire span ranging
from the Vedas to the present day texts. The terminologies used might have been
different but the importance of Vajikarana in maintaining a healthy sexual life was
very much understood.
Etymology of Vajeekarana:
Vajikarana is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda and vividly explained
under separate chapter in classical literature of Ayurveda, apart from the scattered
references which indicate towards its speciality as an individual medical branch
existing in practice in those ancient days. Sexual potency and attitudes vary from

Disease Review
person to person. Explaining the subject by using similes is the unique approach of
Ayurveda. Here the simile of Vaji (stallion) which cohabits vigorously,
uninterruptedly for longer duration has been considered to denote the sexual potency
and hence the name Vajikarana is used.
Aue ueuirj qjl z: ri rl
ieMUhq | c. x. c. 2/3, cmh.
Chakrapani quotes that Vajikarana is a process in which an impotent will soon
turn into potent as it is denoted by powerful horse.
It is a therapy which enables one to approach women in an unfrustrated
manner, endowing him with great strength and robustness, like that of a Stallion,
makes one greatly endearing to women, increases ones proportions and strength,
causes the seminal secretion even of the aging to remain undiminished and fertile and
enables a man to have many and excellent off springs

Thus it seems that main
action of Vajeekarana drugs is to produce Shukra of good quality and quantity so that,
the man may cohabit with women like stallion and indulge in sexual activity
frequently with exhilaration.
Vaja denotes to sexual intercourse and Vaji indicates to capability of
copulation. Method or process which makes Avaji to Vaji is known at
. Man who is seeking pleasure should resort to Vajikarana (Virilification)
therapy constantly. It bestows contentment (Tusti), nourishment (Pusti), children of
good qualities (Apatyam Gunavat), continuity of progeny (Apatyasantanakaram) and
great happiness immediately (Sadya Sampraharasanam)
Vaja means Shukra (semen) and vaji is indicating for its increasement or
. That (medicine or therapy) by which the man becomes capable of
copulating with the woman with great strength likes a horse, by which he becomes

Disease Review
loved by women and by which the body of the person gets nourished, is known as
Vajikarana. It is the best promoter of strength and vigor. Makes person capable of
performing excessive sexual intercourse
Articles which are sweet, unctuous, J eevana (promoters of life), nourishing and heavy
and which cause excitement of the mind-all these are called Aphrodisiac (Vrsya).
Childless Man
A man without children is like a tree which has no shade, bearing flowers of
foul smell, and not bearing fruits, not having branches, and standing alone.
Objects of Aphrodisiac Therapy
A person should always seek the intake of aphrodisiacs because, for, he can
earn Dharma (righteousness), Artha (wealth), Priti (love) and Yasas (fame) through
this therapy alone. A person gets these benefits through his progeny and the
aphrodisiac therapy enables him to procreate children (or sons).
Application of Vajikarana Therapy
A person, whose system has not been (previously) cleared (Shodhana) with the
proper purifying remedies (emetics and purgatives) should not, in any case, have
recourse to such tonics in as much as they fail would fail to produce the wished
result, just as the application of a dye to a piece of dirty cloth will prove non-effective.
Person who is free from all disease (Niramaya) should first entirely detoxify
(Samyak suddha), purify internal body by implying purificatory measures
(Pancakarma) and then administer aphrodisiac (Vajikaran yogan) therapy, during the
life span from the age of 16 to 70 years, youth to senility.
Purification Process before Aphrodisiac Therapy
The person should be administered Oleation, Purification, Decoction enema,
Fubricating enema etc., along with ghee, oil, meat juice, milk, sugar and honey
adopting proper procedure; food should be milk, meat soup and boiled rice etc., after

Disease Review
these therapies, he should be asked to consume Vajikara recipes which give strength
to the semen and the offspring.
Role of Aphrodisiac Therapy
For those who are of weak mind, those who are suffering from miseries those
and who are afflicted by diseases, Vajikarana (Virilifactory recipes/aphrodisiac
recipes) will be described to protect the wasting of their body.
Three types of Vajikarana Drugs
The Vajikarana drugs or remedies are of three kinds viz.
(a) Those producing the semen.
(b) Those secreting the semen and
(c) Those producing as well as secreting the semen.
Important aphrodisiacs (vajikara)
Anointing (Abhyanjana)
Massaging (Udvarttana)
Seka (bathing of body)
Gandhasrakcitravastrabharana (using scents, wearing different kinds of
beautiful garlands, dress and jewels)
Gandharavakavyadi katha pravinah samasvabhava (well versed in music,
poetry, storytelling) and vasaga vayasya ( who are obedient attending on him)
Dirghika svabhavananta nivista (swimming inside his own house full of lotus)
Padmarenumadhumatta vihanga (bees humming intoxicated by the nector of
those flowers) Nilasanugirim kutanitambe (soujourn in the green forests on the
slopes of mountains).
Kananani purakanthagatani
Drstisukha vividha tarukati (different species of trees providing happiness to
the eyes)

Disease Review
Srotrasukhah kalakokilanadah (pleasant note of the cuckoo gladdening to the
Angasikhartuvasena (the climate of the season pleasant to the body)
Vibhusacittasukha sakalah oarivarah (all the attendants and others in family
providing for happiness of the mind)
Tambulmacchamadira (betel chewing, Fish and madira, a specific kind of
Kanta kanta nisa sasankanka (beautiful wife on his lap, in the night shining of
These factors & any other similar things (also which are desired by the mind)
& recognized as aphrodisiacs (Yadyacca Kincidistamanaso Vajikaram Tat)
Use of Aphrodisiac before Coitus for Supplementing Dhatuksinatva
Man who is passionate and craving for sexual enjoyment-lustful or libidinous
(Kamukah0kami) should (first of all) select and consume any one of the excellent
recipes (Yogan sansevya Vrsyan) and then, he should drink milk (pitva) mixed with
sugar (Sasitamathpayah) or cold water Sitalamvambu). In this, when man (kanta)
engages himself sexually in coitus (Surata) with woman (Kantha), he never suffers
from deficit or abnormalacy of dhatus (Mahadapi na vai Dhatuvaisamyamati) - ever to
little extent as a result of sexual intercourse (Katangasangad) with woman.
Process Producing Strength
It is observed that strength of man has no relevance with power of procreation.
It is not that all men possessing physical strength are capable of procreating children.
There are persons having stout and strong physique.


Disease Review
Pervasion of semen
The entire sugarcane plant is pervaded which in juice. Ghee is available in the
whole of curd; oil is available in all parts of the sesame seed. Similarly semen
pervades the entire body which has the sensation of touch.
As water comes out of wet cloth when squeezed, similarly, the semen trickles
out from its site during copulation between and the woman, because of sex act
(Chesta) and because of passionate attachment (Samkalpa) and physical pressure
(Pidana). The semen is ejaculated from the body because of eight factors, namely,
excitement, passionate desire, fluidity, sliminess, heaviness, anubhava (atomicity),
pravana bhava (the tendency to flow out and the force of vayu. The unmanifested soul
which takes different forms in this world manifests itself in the form of semen.
Eight kinds of Sexual Act
There are eight types (and processes stages or aspects) of maithuna (sexual
act) described in classical texts in wide perspective of Astanga maithuna as follows:
Smarana (memorizing or recollecting the sexual object)
Kirtana (repetition of sexual object)
Keli (physical activities belonging sexual performance)
Prekasana (visionary concentration aijuing for seducing sexually)
Guhyabhasana (confidential conversation in secrecy with opposite sex).
Sankalpa (sexual thought or concentration for sexual urge)
Adhyavasaya (different efforts for attracting for sexual relations).
Kriyanivrtti (performance of sexual intercourse).
Sex Stimulant Factors
On the lines of major classical texts e.g. Charaka Samhita and Susruta Sahmita
Bhavamisra enumerates various factors which are helpful for inspiring the sexual

Disease Review
instincts. These factors belong to different kinds of diet or food (ahara) as well as
conduct (vihara) such as:
Different kinds of food regimens ,liquids or drinks;
Audible pleasing songs and sweet talks;
Pleasant skin touch;
Clothes, ornaments etc., pleasing to psycho activation;
Use of betel leaves (Tambula), liquors (Madhira)
Fragrance of flowers (puspa sugandhi) and pleasant odours favourite smells,
Naturally beautiful garden having descant colourful flowers; and
All the activities and thoughts pleasing to minds.
Unwholesome Articles for Aphrodisiacs Administration
Person who is passionate or lustful (kami), indulging in sexual intercourse
(ratiman) and loving women (vanitabhilasi) should restrict (no bhaksayediti) to
consume certain dietary or food articles as follow:
Atyantamusna (Excessive hot)
Tikta (Bitter)
Kasaya (Astringent)
Amla (Sour)
Saka-patrasaka (Leafy vegetable)
Lavandhikanca (salty articles
Such precautionary consideration in course of aphrodisiac therapy is popular
in society (Sanastajana prasiddha).
Advantages of Vajeekarana Karma
Acharya Sushrutha has mainly described three great mottos of Vajeekarana therapy.

To become lovable between the women by providing sexual contentment.
Procreation that is to get a strong, better and genetically good progeny.
Enhancement and maintenance of bodily strength.

Disease Review

Vajeekarana and vrushya:
Acharya Charaka opines that, the method of therapy which improves potentiality
for getting the off springs for the continuity of the lineage, treats all type of disorders
of Shukra, causes instantaneous sexual excitation, performance like a strong horse and
nourishes the tissue elements is called Vajeekarana

The drugs or the articles which perform the above said functions are called as
Vrsya, the substance or factor helpful to increase quantity of Oja in human being
Vrushya and Vajeekarana are taken as synonyms for each others.
While commenting the above, Dalhana stated that Vrsyam Sukrajanakam and
Vajeekarana as Shukrapravatakam
A Vrsya dravyam can act as Vajeekarana also and these words are shown as
synonyms, to each other.
Vrsya dravyas may act as Vajeekarana also, but all Vajeekara do not possess
Vrsya property, because stimulant action on Shukaravaha samsthana is predominant
in Vajeekarana dravya, while Vrsya is subjected mainly to increase the sukra in
quantitative and qualitative measures.
According to Shabda kalpa druma Vrsya is mentioned as Veerya vridhi karam
Bhavaprakasha explains Vrsya as Shukravridhikara i.e. the one which
increases the quantity and quality of shukra in the human body
In another sense, Vaji means horse which is a symbol of sexual vigor and vrsa
means bull, which is sexually not so potent like horse, but can have multiple orgasms
and procreate off springs better than horse. The semen analysis of both these animals
reported that, the sperm count of horse is 1, 20,000/ ml while that of bull is
10, 00,000/ ml (Thaddeus and Mann 1981).


Disease Review

Hence Vaji may be considered for sexual vigor and Vrsa for procreation. This
might be the sense of using both Vaji and Vrsa in classics.
In classics, both these Vrsya and Vaji are mentioned synonyms to each other.
Vajeekarana is a therapy while the Vrsya is the property (karma) of the drug or
substance, which performs.
At present time the prime importance is give to control the population by
following contraceptive measures. But in this aspect similar importance is being
considered for a happy healthy family life. It emphasizes to think over sensitive
subject like sexual relationship. This subtle aspect can give rise to many difficulties
assaulting the healthy growth of the community. With this regard, the society also
needs the sexual vigor and vitality by the help of Aphrodisiac or Vajeekarana dravya,
for eliminating the farlacies and fantasies over sexual knowledge and to provide
fearless mind and healthy body.
Benefits of Vajeekarana
Vajeekarana is meant for imparting a happy and successful marital life. Its aims are:
Giving instantaneous enjoyment
Imparting fertility to a man even in
old age.
Providing multiple progeny.
Provide prolonged sexual act and
giving satisfaction to the spouse.
Bringing a state of honour in the

Establishing a good lineage and
Improving body strength.
Optimizing the nutritional status in


Disease Review
Vajeekarana and its adaptation:
The Vajeekarana therapy is only indicated for males omitting the female
because the females do have sexual motive forces eight times more than the males.
But in contrast to other sciences the equal arousal and interest is needed to fulfill the
act in both sexes, though the active females are passive. Sexual activities were
limited to procreational, attitude in ancient times where the various stimulants are
being used by both sexes in recreational attitude right now. Supplementation of
hormonal therapy for both in sterility and impotency is being observed today.
By quoting Nithyamatvam Chakrapani describes it as young males should
be considered for Vajeekarana, omitting the adolescents and under nourished or ill
developed people. It elucidates the priority attested to procreational sex rather than
considering it as recreational as in those periods.
In Kshema kutuhala, it is indicated to indulge in sexual activities from 16
years onwards and some observed 20 years for male 16 years for females.
Contemporary Classics considered the Balavastha is below 20 years and old age
comes after 80 years. Out of all the theories the maturation for adaptation of
Vajeekarana karma Acharya Sushrutha fixes it up to 25 years for males and 16 years
for females
Acharya Sushrutha falls near to modern viewpoint of thinking, the maturation
of the sperms takes place after 25 years to male and the prescribed age for female to
marry is 18years. Though the various other factors such as, Desha, Kala, Ahara and
seasonal variations may change the maturation levels
Vajeekarana Dravyas:
Multiplication of the living beings, animals or plants for the existence and
propagation of the species is a biological phenomenon and is known as reproduction.

Disease Review
Reproduction or procreation is rather a natures compulsion or biological principle or
law of nature.
Present generation when compared to ancient is addicted to different things
like smoking, alcoholism, narcotics, chewing tobaccos and other chemical ingredients
like opium, heroin etc. are more subjected to afflict with sexual inadequacies like
impotency and sterility of various types.
The environmental pollution of sound, water and air exercising upon the
natural resources hardly yield various edibles for human kind. Finally the adulteration
in food stuffs stands to give rise many diseases, especially using different colours in
eatables causing impotency and hence various factors intriguing the sexual apathy.
In spite of all Vajeekarana and Vrishya Ahara and Aushada, the fascinating
woman of pretty looking is mentioned extreme stimulant as Vajeekarana providing
the prior preference on being. It indicates that the mental attitude of decision or
Sankalpa is the most important factor of psychological arousal of interest, rather than
the administration of any kind of substance into action.
When it is speculated into the Vajeekarana and Vrishya dravyas mentioned in
the classics, reveals the properties of having Madhura rasa, Madhura Vipaka, Guru,
Snigda guna and mainly Sheeta Veerya drugs where with their nutritive values
nourishing all the dhatus, may act as bramhana and hence Vrishya etc. But it can also
be interpreted as the drug possessing Ushna veerya will stimulate the reserved
energies in the body accumulated by the Vrishya ahara and aushada may be
considered as Vajeekarana dravyas and the augmenting factors of Sheeta Veerya
dravyas as vrishya in properties.


Disease Review
Classification of Vajeekarana dravyas and Concepts:
Acharya Charaka has defined the Vajeekarana as the substance by which the
man acquires potency like horse and profound semen formation. This definition
denotes two aspects of Vajeekarana, the potency of energy for sexual act, and the
formation of semen at the desired level. Then Acharya Charaka includes the
definition both psychic and somatic aspects of the sexual performances which is
concerned not only with psychic satisfaction of the individual but also with the
reproductive functions one aspects concerns with Deha (body) and other with Satva
(mind). The stimulation is due to energy of the body and mind, which as a result
produces the potency. In simple, these two aspects have been said as Dehabalkara
and Manobalakara.
The above two categories of Vajeekarana have been also termed respectively
as Shukra vrudhikara and Shukra chutikara. Some scholars also proposed to a
third category as Shukrasrutivrudhikara which is actually a combination of the
above two categories. Acharya Chakrapani while commenting on the definition given
by Acharya Charaka quotes a verse mentioning these three categories and himself
explains them with examples as follows
Categories Example
1. Shukra vrudhikara Masha etc
2. Shukra srutikar Samkalpa etc
3. Shukrashruti vrudhikara Ksheera etc
Acharya Sushrutha also follows the psycho-somatic aspects described by
Acharya Charaka, but in addition he goes further subdividing the somatic aspect. He
has mentioned four types of substance for four deficiencies and abnormalities of
Shukra dhatu such as
: -

Disease Review
Table.No.8-Showing the abnormalities of Shukra dhatus

Abnormalities Effect Desired
Alpa shukra Shukra apyayana
Dusta shukra Shukra prasadana
Vishuska shukra Shukrapacaya
Ksheena shukra Shukra janana

Then it is evident that Acharya Sushrutha has been able to develop groups of
dravyas for various quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of Shukra dhatu. Dusta
shukra is qualitative abnormality for which Acharya Sushrutha has prescribed
prasadana dravyas, which are the same as shukra shodhana in charaka. The other
three are quantitative deficiencies of Shukra dhatu. Dalhana says that Alpa shukra
means genetic deficiency of semen. The other two conditions ksheena and vishuska
are gradual stages of shukra kshaya. Acharya Dalhana has also proposed as
alternative interpretation based on the age factor. In this way Alpa, ksheena and
Vishuska denote the deficiency of semen in adolescence, middle age and old age
Acharya Dalhana, the commentator of Sushruta and Acharya Vagbhatta have
classified Vajikarana Dravyas into three groups as:
Table. No.9-Showing the classification of Vajikarana dravyas.

kra J anaka Dravyas are the ones which nourish the Dhatus in sequential pattern right
form rasa to Shukra eg. Mamsa, Ghruta, Shatavari, Musali. It is synonymus with
Shukravriddhikara of Chakrapani and Shukrala of Acharya Sharangdhara.
Shukra janaka Mamsa, ghreeta, payasa and masha
Shukra J anaka pravarthaka Godhuma and above all
Shukra pravarthaka Ucchata, brihati etc

Disease Review
Shukra Pravartakam - These dravyas possess ushna, tikshna, properties and
which initiate the ejaculation of Semen. eg. Akarkarabha, Kasturi, Gunja etc.
Chakrapani includes such drugs under Shukrasrutikara.
Shukra J anaka Pravartakam - Drugs having both J anaka and Pravartaka
properties are known as Shukrajanaka Pravartaka eg. Bhallataka,
Kapikacchu, Ghruta, Godhuma, Masha etc. Chakrapani has described it as
Shukrasruti vriddhikara.
At the end commentator mentions three groups by alternative terms such as
Godhumadi are only Dehabalakara and Shukra J anakam; Sankalpadi are only
Manobalakara with Shukra Pravartaka property and Ghruta Kshiradi are
Dehamanobalakara and thus perform Ubhaykara function. This description supports
the view that sound sexual health is dependent upon sound state of body and mind.
The Vajeekarana dravyas protect the body of the persons indulging in sex and also
suffering from complications
Acharya Sharangdhara studied this subject intensively and as such classified
the Vajeekarana dravyas in great details
Table No. 10- Classification of Vajeekarana dravys in detail.
Categories Examples
Vajeekarana Nagabala, Kapikachu,Khakasa Tila etc.
Shukrala Ashwagandha, Musali, Shatavari etc.
Shukrapravarthaka Stree
Pravarthaka janaka Dugda, Masha etc
Shukra rechana J atiphala, Brihati etc
Shukra Stambhaka J atiphala
Shukra shoshana Haritaki

Disease Review

In another version in place of Haritaki as Shoshana, Kalinga has been
mentioned as Ksayakari. Two types of Vajeekarana mentioned in ancient texts have
been elaborated to seven by Acharya Sharangadhara in his extensive work.
Aphrodisiac is an agent, food, drinks or drug, which stimulates sexual desire
and power. In another way these agents are divided into four headings:
Physical Stimuli
Mental Psychic factors
Drugs: are again categorized into five
Spermatopiotic: which increases in quantity, production and stimulation like
J eevaka, meda,kapikachu and satvari
Spermo purifiers: which purify and improve the quantity of semen like kusta,
Katphala Tila, Usheera, Kadambha and Samudraphena.
Help sexually and in ejaculation: Kupilu, Kasturi, Bhanga, J atiphala, Dattura,
Indragopa, true cantharides, red pepper oysters and hard-boiled eggs.
Drugs which help in retention of semen and increase the time of copulation are
Bala, Shatavari, Kasturi, Karpoora, Akarakara, Ahiphena and Kapikachu.
Drugs which help in sexual arousal alone are Ashwagandha, Satavari,
Keshara, Kasturi, Bhanga, Dattura, Akarakara, Lata kasturi and Ahiphena.
Diets: - Include milk, ghee, butter, meat, eggs, Shukra and alcoholic drinks.
Physical factors: Dressing, touching, kissing, teasing & external stimuli etc.
Mental or psychic factors: - Behaviors, talking, staring and Acharya Charaka was
aware that under the influence of Vajeekarana drugs, there are chances of person
being indulge in sex indiscriminately. Therefore he advocates the use of
Vajeekarana to only those who have self-control, who could control their desire and

Disease Review
that too as object of producing progeny, which was necessary for continuation of the
progenitors race.
Whom to follow:
One who is having Avara satva and affiliated with various diseases producing
toxemia frequently, should undergo for the Vajeekarana karma after treating the
ailments i.e., in convalescent period in order to substitute the loss of Dhatus resulted
due to diseases.
Second one is for the importance of producing offspring it is essential. It is
necessary to adopt purificatory measures of Panchakarma before going to advice for
Vajeekarana and the age factors in between 16-70 years are selected, prior and after to
this age limit and for unpurified therapy because unhygienic or unclean cloth will not
take the dye, as their best as a clean will washed cloth used to be.
Diseases occurring for not following Vajeekarana therapy
If a person indulges in sex performance without using Vajeekarana karma
excessively may lead to afflict by various diseases mentioned below:
Glani, Kampa, Shithilata, Krishnata, Indriya Shithilata, Shosha, Shwasa,
Upadamsha, J wara, Arsha, Bhagandhara, Rasa and Rakta dhatu ksheenata, Vata roga,
Kleebata and Lingabhanga or Dwaja bhanga.
Untoward results of today the blood pressure, cardiac problems, diabetics,
insomnia, etc are also develop due to the negligence of following Vajeekarana
measures and cohabiting excessively.


Disease Review
Shukra kshaya comprises of two words i.e Shukra and Kshaya.
Kshaya means less diminished, diminution
Shukra means semen, seed and seminal fluid (M.W.Dictionary)
Thus the Combined meaning of word Shukra kshaya is diminution of semen.
In the present Context the Shukra kshaya has been used to describe qualitatative and
quantitative diminution of components of Seminal fluid with particular refrence to
sperms. Hence Shukra kshaya stands for oligospermia in this context.
Shukra, the seventh Dhatu is also considered Sara of all the other Dhatus. The
term "Shukra" is derived from the root word "Suk- Soce"," Suca Kleda"
means purity. It also means resplendent, white, shining, radiant etc.
. The other
technical meanings of Shukra are bright, fire, the plant Venus, semen, sperm,
preceptor of Daityas (Shukracarya), a morbid affliction of the eyes etc. (MWSE
1. Majja Samudbhava (born out of Majja): Produced from Majja during the
evolutionary metamorphosis of Dhatus.
2. Bijam (Seed): One which has the capacity to induce new growth / generation.
3. Shukra (ejaculate): Which is ejaculated at the time of coitus.
4. Ananda Samudbhava (born out of pleasure): That, which is ejaculated at the
time of intense pleasure or orgasm.
5. Rupa Dravya
: That which imparts structure to the Atma.
6. Pumstva (Fertility): The fertility factor.
7. Paurusam (Virility): Inherent character of Purusa.
8. Virya (Potency): By virtue of which action is manifested.
9. Tejas (Resplendent): That which is shining, bright


Disease Review
The term "Virya" is derived from the Sanskrit root "Vira Vikrantau" which
means 'to be victorious'
. Virya is defined as Saktih, Manah Saktih i.e., physical
and mental power
. Sayanacarya has defined Virya as the Samarthya (capacity /
potency) which bestows offsprings. The various meanings of the word "Virya" have
been mentioned as heroism, vigour, valour, power, strength, energy, virility, potency,
efficacy, semen, gold
Sharangadhara used the term 'Virya' to mean emen. While describing the
testes, he mentions Virya Vahi Sira
"Virya" word in the context of sexuality and reproduction means "potency" as
has been described by Caraka in the context of Klaibya due to old age
. Rasadi
Dhatus too are mentioned implying that Shukra and Virya are different entities.
From the foregoing, the term "Virya" can be equated to Psycho-
neuro- endocrinal factors responsible for manifestation of actions such as desire,
erection, ejaculation and orgasm.
Shukra is a substance which is responsible for body activities especially
regeneration, reproduction metabolism and tends to impart vigour and energy, and
part of which comes out of the body in male at the height of sexual act and performs
the specific function of reproduction.
GUNA OF SHUKRA: Spatikabha, (crystal like), Shukla, Snigdha Madhura,
Madhugandhi, Taila and Kshaudravat, Guru, Bahu (abundant), Bahala (thick),
Picchila (viscous), Anupravana Bhava (atomicity and tendency to move), Soumya (ap
pradhana), Sara (moving tendency), Drava (fluid), Avisram (not foul smelling)
Avidahi (soothing) and Phalavat (fertilizing and pleasurable). All these are the

Disease Review
Biophysical and Physico chemical properties of Shukra which clearly resembles the
physical properties of the seminal fluid.
Mahabhautik origin: Shukra is derived from Soma and hence is described as Saumya
. Also it has predominance of J ala Mahabhuta among the four Mahabhutas exclusive
of Akasa
It is J ala Guna Pradhana
and drugs with Madhura, Snigdha properties bring about an
increase in Shukra
suggesting the Kaphavargatva of the same.
The production of Shukra can be understood under the terms J anaka and
Pravartaka. This classification is justified by the descriptions of Shukrajanaka and
Pravartaka drugs of Vrsya category
. Thus, the stages of Sukrotpatti can be
summarised as follows:
J anana Stage - A1 - Production of Shukra Dhatu
Stage - A2 - Transformation of Shukra into Rupadravya
Pravartana - Stage B - Expulsion of Rupadravya
Besides the prime function of reproduction, Shukra possesses other functions
too, which can be grouped as under -
(1) Sarvadaihika i.e., systemic function
(2) Maithunagata i.e., related with sexual act
(3) Rupadravyagata i.e., functions related to seminal fluid
(1) Sarvadaihika: The Shukradhara Kala is said to pervade the whole body and
hence, the Shukra is spread throughout the body just as ghee in milk and jaggery in
sugarcane juice
. This Shukra performs certain functions like-

Disease Review

Dhairyam: Dalhana describes it as the capacity to fight against any condition
and is
related to the physical and mental alertness (Apte, 1984).
Dehabalam: Dalhana opines that Dehabalam includes both Deha Upacaya i.e.,
physical fitness (physique) as well as Utsaha i.e., enthusiasm
. Caraka has ascribed
Sarira Upacaya and Bala (both Sarira and Manas) to the optimum level of Dhatus
Ojoposaka: The Ojas - essence of all Dhatus gets nourished by the Shukra Dhatu
Thus, the functions of Ojas can be said to be maintained by Sarvadaihika Shukra.
(2) Maithunagata: The function of Shukra pertaining to the sexual act is not par
independent to the Sarvadaihika Shukra and these are -
Priti: The love towards opposite sex, a sexual instinct or the desire to co-habit with
the opposite sex is an attribute of Shukra
. Dalhana also opines that this Priti is
indirectly induced by Ojas under the control of Shukra Dhatu
Cyavanam: The word meaning is "to secrete" or "come out also has been described
by Dalhana as timely ejaculation
which suggests Maithunagata function of Shukra.
Harsa: Deriving curiosity and pleasure about repeated sexual acts has been
mentioned as a function of Shukra Dhatu
. Chakrapani has opined that the
development of sexual thoughts and maintenance of erectile state of penis (Dhvaja
Harsa) are special functions of Shukra
. Thus, the complex sexual behaviour
including erection, ejaculation and orgasm are due to Shukra through its Maithunagata
(3) Rupadravyagata: The function of Reto Dhatu pertaining to Rupadravya renders
fulfillment of one of the Purusarthas of life.
Bija, a synonym of Shukra can be considered a subtle part of Rupadravya and
the function Bijartham can be attributed to the same
Garbhotpadana, the prime
function of Shukra can be considered the Rupadravyagata Karma

Disease Review
The above said systemic and sexual act related functions of Sarvadaihika
Shukra can be correlated to the function of androgens especially testosterone. The
Rupadravyagata function can be correlated to semen in general and the spermatozoa
in specific.
(1) Production of Shukra from Majja Dhatu: From the point of view of
Ayurvediya Kriya Sarira, a Shukra stand last among the Sapta Dhatus and is the
outcome of evolutive metamorphosis of Majja Dhatu, the 6
and preceding Dhatu
This metamorphosis is brought about by the action of Shukra Dhatvagni on the
essence of Majja. The Vayu and Akasa produce pores, very subtle in the Asthi Dhatu
from which the Shukra oozes out just like water from a new earthern pitcher
. This
Shukra pervades the whole body, integrity of which is maintained by the Shukradhara
(2) Production of Shukra from Ahara Rasa: The Rasadi Sapta Dhatus are the
outcome of successive evolutions, the previous Dhatu being transformed into the
latter. The Ahara Rasa or the Anna Rasa forms the substrate for this progressive
evolution. Thus, Rasa Dhatu is formed foremost, then Rakta Dhatu, and so on, upto
the transformation of Majja into Shukra Dhatu.
Among the three hypothesis laid for Dhatu formation, the Ksiradadhi Nyaya
explains the initial Dhatu formation as such and the rest two viz., Kedarakulya and
Khalekapota Nyaya explain the nourishment of Dhatus.
(3) Quantity of Shukra: Caraka has mentioned the quantity of Shukra to be 1/2
whereas Bhela mentioned it as 1 Anjali
(4) Upadhatu of Shukra: Though Acaryas like Caraka, Susruta and Vagbhata
haven't mentioned any Upadhatu for Shukra, Sarngadhara considers Ojas as -
Upadhatu of Shukra

Disease Review
(5) Shukra Mala: Acaryas Caraka and Susruta have considered Shukra to be the
purest form of substance and hence devoid of any Mala just like Svarna. However,
some authors and commentators felt the necessity to describe mala of Shukra and
hence have named Ojas
, Smasru
Vaktra Snigdhata (sebum on the face), Pidika
as the Mala of Shukra.
The process of proliferation and differentiation of germ cells has been termed
spermatogenesis, and takes place within the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous
tubules occupy approximately 70% of the testis
The long seminiferous tubules of the human testis are lined with the single
continuous layer of Sertoli cells that are epithelial elements of mesodermal origin
organized in a complex helical plan. The germinal cells pack the spaces between
Sertoli cells. In the adult testis Sertoli cells do not divide spontaneously. Extensive
tight junction along their lateral borders, they joins adjacent Sertoli cells by forming
an impermeable blood testis barrier. Sertoli cells divide the tubule into basal and
adluminal compartment. Germ cells develop upon the stage of leptatone with the
basal compartments. Secondary spermatocytes continue their development into
spermatozoa in the abluminal compartment. Because of the blood testis barrier, any
factor influencing the latter stages of spermatogenesis must be mediated through the
Sertoli cells.
Process of Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis can be sub divided into four successive processes.
1) Undifferentiated Spermatogonia - Proliferation process
2) Spermatogonial differentiation
3) Spermatocyte development Meiosis
4) Spermatoid development - Spermiogenesis and spermiation

Disease Review
Proliferation or Spermatocytogenesis: In the human testis four Spermatogonial
types were recognized viz. A-long, A-dark, A-pale and B. All type A
Spermatogonia have stem cell role. A-dark and A-pale Spermatogonia are numerous,
while A-long occur infrequently, A-dark Spermatogonia are reserve stem cells that
dont contribute to spermatogenesis, whereas the A-pale are active stem cells.
Spermatogonial Differentiation: Type B Spermatogonia, which are produced, by
the A-pale spermatogonia are differentiated cells that ultimately produce
preleptotone spermatocytes.
Meiosis: The final Spermatogonial division generates preleptotene spermatocytes,
which enter a resting phase of 2-6 days, which forms about 16% of the cycle duration.
At the end of this period, the preleptotene spermatocytes begin to synthesize DNA for
meiosis and enter the long meiotic prophase. It occurs in the basal compartment of the
tubule, lent as the cells transform into leptotene spermatocytes, syncytial clusters pass
across the tight junction to enter the adluminal compartment. This process is passive
on the part of the germ cells and involves the interposition of the slips of Sertoli cells
cytoplasm between the spermatocytes and the tubular wall. When the cytoplasmic
extension meets, new tight junctions are formed and the existing junction unzips to
provide the leptotene spermatocytes to the lumen environment. The tight junction
does not depend on the pressure of germ cells.
Once the spermatocytes have traversed the tight junction, a unique
morphological relationship develops between the pachytene spermatocytes and Sertoli
cells which persist until spermiation. J ust prior to the 1st meiotic division, primary
spermatocytes replicate their DNA and contain twice the normal amount (4N). After
1st meiotic division, each secondary Spermatocyte contain a haploid number of
chromosomes, but the total amount of DNA in each daughter spermatocytes in equal

Disease Review
to that of a normal somatic cell (2N), since each chromosome is in a double structure.
During II meiotic division, each double structured chromosome divides, so that each
daughter cell (spermatid) containing 23 chromosomes.
Spermiogenesis and Spermiation: During the maturation of spermatids into
spermatozoa several events occur, including the formation of the acrosome, changes
in nuclear morphology, and the formation of the flagellum.
Sperm Transport: The released spermatozoa are immotile. They are transported
from here to the ampulla of the vas deferens by various methods including contraction
of the myoid cells of the seminiferous tubuli, capillary forces and reabsorption of the
testicular fluids in the caput epididymis and peristaltic contractory of the smooth
muscles of the epididymis of vas deferens. From seminiferous tubule the
spermatozoa travels to the rete testis and then to epididymis. It takes 10-15 days for
the transport of spermatozoa through epididymis during which the final steps of
maturation takes place. During ejaculation the semen is released by powerful, short
adrenergically mediated contraction of the distal cauda epididymis and vas deferens.
A spermatozoon then mixes with the secretion of the ampullary glands, seminal
vesicles, prostate etc.
"Sarira Dhatvatma Shukrabhuto Angat Angat Sambhavati"
"Shukram Hi Sarvadhatubhyah Param Utpadyate, Param Iti Sara"
Shukra is the essence of the human body and represents each and every organ.
The Shukra as a whole with the subtle Bija impelled by the orgasm is ejaculated from
the body (of male) and entering the uterus through the female genital tract finally
unites with the ovum or Stri Bija
. So, it can be concluded that the term Shukra bears
contextual similarities to sperm.


Disease Review
The ultimate outcome of the male sexual act is a complex fluid composed of
millions of spermatozoa and the secretions from various glands - seminal vesicles,
prostate, Cowper's gland etc., collectively termed the seminal plasma. The bulk of the
fluid is formed by secretions from seminal vesicles (about 60%), 30% comes from the
prostate and the rest from vas, mucous glands etc. The average pH of semen varies
from 7.2-8.0 wherein, the alkaline prostatic fluid tends to neutralise the mild acidity of
other fluids.
The prostatic fluid imparts the milky appearance, and the fluid from the
seminal vesicles and mucous glands gives the semen a mucoid consistency. The
clotting enzyme present in the prostatic fluid causes the fibrinogen of seminal vesicle
fluid to form a weak coagulum that holds the semen in the deeper areas of the vagina.
In the next 15-20 min, the profibrinolysin disintegrates slowly to fibrinolysin which
liquefies this coagulum. The sperms remain relatively immotile in the coagulum
owing to the high viscosity but, as the coagulum dissolves, the sperms become highly
motile. So, any factor impairing liquefaction or which increase the viscosity hinder
sperm motility.
The sperms are viable in the male genital tract i.e., in the vas for upto 1-2
months but, once they are ejaculated through semen, their maximum life span is
limited to 24-48 hrs at body temperature
. Semen also contains plasmin, which has
the ability to destroy certain bacteria. Since both the semen and the lower female
reproductive tract contain bacteria, the antibiotic activity of seminal plasmin may
keep these under check to ensure fertilization
A matured spermatozoon is about 60 in length and consists of a head,
midpiece and tail. The head, composed of the nucleus containing the DNA is capped

Disease Review
by the acrosome consisting of mucopolysaccharidase and acid phosphatase. Below the
head, is a very short neck followed by the broad midpiece which encompasses the
mitochondrial power-house. The tail consists of the principal piece and end piece and
aids in movement. The shape of the spermatozoan helps it to surge forwards
relentlessly in the vast female genital tract until it reaches its target.
Shukra in a broad term represents both the semen and the androgens in male
reproductive physiology. Two broad terminologies viz. ShukraKshaya and Shukra
Dushti described in Ayurvedic texts cover the entire pathological array pertaining to
Shukra. Here Shukra kshaya refers to the improper or deficient functioning of the
testes in one or both of its aspects viz., synthesis of testosterone and spermatogenesis.
This deficient functioning could be primary i.e., congenital or secondary i.e.,
acquired, depending upon the cause and condition as may be. The conditions
AlpaShukra, Shukra kshaya and VisuskaShukra come under the purview of
as suggested indirectly by the treatment mentioned for these
The Astavidha RetoDushti described by Caraka includes Phenila,
Tanu, Ruksa, Vivarna, Puti, Picchila, Avasadi and Anya Dhatu Samsrsta. The
Astavidha ShukraDushti described in Cikitsa Sthana
resemble verbatim to that of
Sutra Sthana except the terms Asveta and Suska which are in no way different from
Vivarna and Ruksa.
The 8 types of Reto Dushti described by Susruta are Vatadusta, Pittadusta,
Kaphadusta, Sonitadusta (Kunapa), Granthi, Putipuya, Kshaya and Mutra Purisa


Disease Review
(Su Su 1: 7)

Shukra Kshaya Shukra Dushti
(Male hypogonadism) (Abnormal seminal plasma)

Primary Secondary Vata Dusta
(Congenital) (Acquired) Pitta Dusta
(Alpa Shukra) Kapha Dusta
Kshaya (moderately Visuska (Extremely Putipuya
Low levels of low levels of Shukra) KshayaShukra
Shukra due to (occurs physiologically Mutrapurisagandhi
Various causes in in old age due to
Middle age; Dhatu Kshaya
Physiologically (Dal on Su Su 1: 7)
also due to Dhatu
Kshaya (Dal on Su Su 1: 7)
Chart -2 Classification of Retodosha
It is the condition with Shukra Asara Laksana and ShukraKshaya Laksanas
The ShukraKshaya Laksanas are Daurbalya (weakness) Mukhasosa (dryness of
mouth), Pandutva (Pallor), Sadana (lassitude), Srama (exertion), Klaibya (impotency)
Shukra Avisarga (delayed ejaculation / anejaculation), Alpa, Rakta Shukra Darsana
(ejaculation less in quantity or admixed with blood), Medhra- Vrsana Vedana (pain in
penis and testes)

Dalhana has described this condition as low level of Shukra since birth or
below the age of 25 years
. This condition is usually seen in primary hypogonadism

Disease Review
of male due to chromosomal or congenital causes. Though the level of Shukra is
below normal since birth it can be diagnosed only after puberty. This condition may
be considered under Adibala and J anmabala Pravrtta Vyadhi.
In this condition, Shukra is moderately decreased, especially in the middle
age due to undefined etiology
. In this type, the body growth, pubertal development
and level of Shukra may be normal initially until the etiological factors bring about a
fall. Here the cause could be Aharajanya (Katu, Kasaya Rasa), Viharajanya,
(Abhighata) Vyadhikarsana etc. i.e.,both +endogenous and exogenous causes. Hence,
this condition may be considered under Dosabala Pravrtta Vyadhi (humoral),
Sanghata bala Pravrtta (traumatic), Daivabala Pravrtta (super natural) or Kalabala
Pravrtta (seasonal) Vyadhi.
Extremely low levels of Shukra or the depletion of Shukra that occurs
physiologically in old age i.e., after 70 years of age is termed VisuskaShukra.
. Here
right from birth upto the onset of old age the Shukra is supposed to be normal. As per
the description it may be considered under Svabhavabala Pravrtta Vyadhi.
It can be considered an acquired quantitative and qualitative abnormality in
Shukra caused by faulty dietetic, psychological, traumatic factors and chronic
debilitating illness
, with both subjective and objective manifestations. Due to the
vitiation of Shukra or semen by the morbid Dosa, the individual becomes Kliba
(impotent), and there is Aharsana (if at all there is erection there will be failure in
peNetration). His progeny will be Rogi (sick), Kliba (impotent), Alpayu (short lived),
and Virupa (disfigured). Either there will be no conception, or there is abortion or

Disease Review
miscarriage. Thus, the vitiation of Shukra not only brings misery to the individual but
also to his wife and progeny
. All these are the subjective manifestations.
The objective manifestations are in the form of abnormal semen having
characteristics of the vitiated Dosa such as Phenila, Tanu, Ruksa etc.
. This condition
may be considered under Dosabala Pravrtta (humoral), Sanghatabala Pravrtta
(traumatic), Daivabala Pravrtta (super natural) or Kalabala Pravrtta (seasonal).
Infertility is problem facaed by many couples throughout the World, how ever, it is of
great importance in the male dominated society of the third World Countries.In
another report (Guyton, 1991) it is started that male infertility is assessed through
spermiogram and hormonal profile. According to Amelor (1996) density of less than
20 million ml spermatozoa is Called Oligospermia.
The etiological factors which may cause oligospermia can be classified as follows:
1. Bijadosa Karanas
2. Aharaja Karanas
3. Viharaja Karanas
4. Manasika Karanas
5. Vaidykrta Karanas
6. Vyadhikarsanajany Karan
Specific genetic defect on male sex chromosome

Klinefelters Syndrome

XXY Syndrome

Testicular Malposition: (cryptorchidism)

Kallmanns Syndrome


Disease Review
In Ayurveda, following dietetic factors are told as Shukravaha Sroto
Dushtikara Nidanas: Anasana
, Alpa-Pramitasana (Eka Rasabhyasa)
, Visamasana
causes ShukraDushti which ultimately leads to impaired fertility. Ruksa-
Tikta-Kasaya-Atilavana-Atiamla-Ksara Sevana
, Atisevana of Lavana Rasa, Katu
Rasa (due to its Vipaka Prava) and Kasaya Rasa (due to its Ruksa-Khara-Visada
Guna) leads to loss of sexual potency and Shukravahasrotokharata,
Tikta Rasa leads
to Shukraupasosana
Katu Vipaka is Shukrahara and Amla Vipaka is


Vyavaya Sosa
Shukravega Vidharana
Na Gaccata Maituna
Shukravega Nigrahaha


Daurmanasyam Avrsyanam
Stri suati prasangaha Sosakaranam
Cinta (worry), Soka (depression) Bhaya (fear)
, Aviswa, Krodha (jealous)
Abhicara etc
Vaidykrta (iatrogenic) causative factors of oligospermia:
Surgical Procedures
Drugs: Ketoconazole


Disease Review

Dhatu Sampradusana


Arsa (Sahaja)

Chronic renal failure

Cirrhosis of Liver
Diabetes mellitus


Varicocele (Shukravaha Siragranthi)
Oligospermia (Shukra kshaya) is a Krchhrasadhya disease
of Shukravaha
Srotas, occurs mostly in the middle age which is manifested clinically as Na ca
Garbham J ayate (infertility).
Samprapti of Shukra kshaya (oligospermia) is not mentioned in classics
separately. But it is mentioned that vitiation of Vata and Pitta Dosa are responsible
for manifestation.
In classics, there are the general guidelines on the basis of which the
Samprapti of any disease can be constructed. In this case there is a clear indication
that the disease belongs to the Shukravaha Srotas and predominantly caused by Vata
and Pitta Dosa. In Caraka
it has been said that the etiological factor affecting the
Dhatus may also disturb the Dosas. This may happen also the vice-versa. The Nidanas
may perform the functions like DosaDushti, Kha-vaigunya, Dusya-daurbalya and
Agnimandya. This may simultaneously or gradually takes place. In this case of
Shukra kshaya, the Vata and Pitta provocation damage the Shukradhatu also, causing
Shukradhatu Daurbalya and Shukravaha SrotoDushti. In this disease, most of time
Agnimandya is not manifested at all, may be due to being a deepest Dhatu.
As explained by Dalhana while commenting on Susruta
Dosas deplete the Dhatus by their Atmatejas. Here in this case, Dalhana explained

Disease Review
that Atmatejas is Sosana of the Dhatus by Vata and Tiksna and Usna Guna of Pitta. In
the different context, it has been already been explained that the Gunas like Ruksa,
Khara, Tiksna and Usna may directly damage the Shukradhatu. Hence, the Shukra
kshaya condition the Ruksa and Khara Guna of Vata and Tiksna and Usna Guna of
Pitta participates.
Certain Nidanas such as Anasana, Pramitasana, Visamasana, consumption of
Ruksa-Sita-Katu-Amla Rasa-Usna Bhojana, and Ativyayama, Ati-Atapa Sevana,
Ratriprajagara, Atipravartana of Kapha-Shukra-Sonita and Mala, Bhutopaghata,
DhatuKshaya, and Ativyavaya, improper and unhealthy sexual practices; certain
psychological causes like Bhaya (stress), Soka etc. leads to Prakopana of Vata Dosa
in Shukravaha Srotas.
Besides this, consumption of Pitta Vardhaka Nidanas such Dusivisa such as
pesticides, working in leather factory, lead, parathion, arsenicals; exposure to
irradiation, chemotherapy, intake of drugs such as cimetidine, excessive consumption
of alcohol (Ruksapana), morphine, excessive smoking (Dhumapana) etc. all these
leads to Pittaprakopa.
Mithyahara Vihara Sevana leads to vitiation of Vata and Pitta Dosa. At the
same time they also cause Dushti of Shukravaha Srotas,
which manifests either in
the form of Srotosanga and / or Siragranthi of Shukra Dhatu.
Vata and Pitta is the main culprit in manifestation of oligospermia (Shukra kshaya).
Shukradosa occurs due to Vyana and Apana Vata Prakopa


Disease Review
Table. No.11- Samprapti Ghataka of Shukra kshaya (oligospermia)
Dosa - Vata (Apanavayu, Vyana Vayu), Pitta
Dusya - Rasa and Shukra, Mainly Shukradhatu
Agni - J atharagni, Shukra-dhatvagni
Ama - J atharagnimandya
Udbhavasthana - Amapakvasaya
Sancarasthana - Vrsana, Sarvasarira
Vyaktasthana - Vrsana, Sisna,
Srotas - Shukravaha
SrotoDushti Prakara - Sanga
Rogaswabhava - Krccrasadhya (Cirakari)

Lakshana of Shukra kshaya
Lakshana of Shukra kshaya can be divided into two groups viz. related to
Shukra Vaha Srotas and those symptoms related to Sharira.
Lakshana of Shukra kshaya can manifest due to dysfunction or
hypofunctioning of one or other properties of Shukra (Semen and Androgen)

The basis of the evaluation of infertility should be a complete history, physical
examination, and pertinent laboratory tests.
Medical history Semen analysis
Endocrine evaluation
Upadrava of Shukra kshaya
No direct Upadrava has been mentioned for Shukra kshaya. But while dealing
with Shukra Kshayajanya Klaibya, it is said that, as Shukra is the end product of
Dhatu Parinama, it is said to be the essence (Paramadhama) of food. Its wastage leads
to number of serious diseases or even death
Some Dustha Shukraja Roga has been mentioned in Charaka Samhita, which
can be considered as Upadrava. They are Klaibyam, Aharshanam, Roga-grasta,
Nachaasya J ayate Garbham, Garbha Patati, Garbha Prasravyatapi, and Apatyam

Disease Review
Previously scientists used to believe that if sperm were damaged, they could
not fertilize an egg, therefore only the fittest sperm could carry on the species - some
call this the macho sperm theory. Research now shows sperm are vulnerable and
that even when damaged they may still fertilize an egg. Some toxins may alter the
sperms chromosome, which carry genetic information. If this happens, the results
may range from infertility and miscarriage to stillbirth, birth defects, learning
disabilities and even childhood leukemia and kidney cancer.
Sadhya Sadhyata
Assessment of the Sadhyasadhyata is mandatory before the commencement of
treatment. It determines whether the disease is curable or not.
Shukra Kshaya being Dwidoshaja is said to be Krichra Sadhaya, Pitta Prakruti
Purusha has less Shukra and if he is affected with Shukra Kshaya then the prognosis
is still more Kasthasadhya.
Prognosis of Oligospermia
It usually depends upon the underlying cause i.e. Oligospermia due to major
systemic disorders like cirrhosis of liver or renal involvement depends upon the
severity of the disease.
1. Oligospermia associated with Varicocele has a very poor prognosis with medical
management. Surgical intervention (Varicocelectomy) is very much necessary.
2. Oligospermia due to genetic causes is difficult to manage.
3. Severe Oligospermia i.e. <5 million/ml has a very poor prognosis according to
modern science and so they suggest for ART) Assisted Reproductive Technology.
4. Stress induced Oligospermia and Oligospermia due to environment hazards and
chemicals often have a good prognosis until and unless the cause is avoided


Disease Review
Management of oligospermia (Shukra kshaya) can be broadly classified into
I. SAMANYA CIKITSA- Cikitsa Sutra (Principles)
The main line of treatment in Shukra kshaya has been suggested as Ksine
Shukrakari Kriya.
. As Upacaya is the primary line of treat ment in Shukra kshaya
. Vrdhhi Unnati etc are the meanings of the word Upacaya. So while treating
Shukra kshaya the physician has to select combination of drugs which boost the
Shukradhatu. Properties of Vrsya Dravya (Shukrakara) are having following qualities:
Madhura (Rasa), Snigha and Guru (unctuous and heavy quality), J ivana (promotes
quality of life), Brmhana (nourishing property).
Charaka, Sushruta, Vagbhata have dealt with the Chikitsa aspect of Reto
Dosha. The Samanya Chikitsa for Reto Dosha are Snehana, Svedana, Vamana,
Virechana, Niruha Basti and Anuvasana Basti followed by Uttarabasthi
which can
be adopted for all types of Shukra Dosha including Shukra kshaya.
After Panchakarma procedures (Snehana, Vamana, Virechana and Basti) the
Shamanoushadhi are to be administered.
The principle treatment in any Dhatu Kshaya is to administer the Dravya,
which are having the same qualities of that Dhatu Eg. Mamsa in Mamsakshaya,
Shukra in Shukra Kshaya.
Administration of Shukra such as consuming Nakra
In Sushruta Samhita Vajikara Dravya are particularly recommended for
Shukra Kshaya in Ksheena Baleeya chapter some of them are Vajikara Utharika,
Amalaka Yoga, Masha Yoga, and Svayamguptadi Yoga
. Dravya having the
properties of Madhura, Sheeta, Snigdha, Picchila such as Kshira, Ghrita, Mushali etc.
are very good Shukrala Dravya. Charaka has mentioned Shukrajanaka Gana, 10
Dravya namely Mashaparni, Meda, Shatavari, Kulinga etc


Pharmaceutical Study


Animals of the same class generally observe the same rules of eating and
enjoyments in the world. But as Man has supremacy over his nature/ basic instincts,
he is free to have changes. He renders the nature favorable to himself and derives
various kinds of advantages using various processes. On the contrary, in many
occasions owing to his ignorance, idleness, inclination towards sensual enjoyments
and compulsions of unavoidable circumstances, he is harmed by his habits of
Bhaishajya Kalpana as a science is evident as a map of intellectual reality
which briefs the principles of compounding drugs as general outlines applicable
within all the limitations of time or place while describing the Science of Ayurveda.
The elaboration is typical of Indian thinking and speaking. Thus the principles are
elucidated contextually i.e. context specific - while dealing a subject which is a
characteristic feature of the Brihattrayee although later classics show a deviation
from this path and start topic specific descriptions. Bhaishajya Kalpana - more than
simply the science of pharmacy which according to Remington is - the art and sci-
ence of preparing and dispensing medications and the provision of drug - related in-
formation to the public. That is why Acharya Caraka reiterates that Yuktijna
always stands superior
. The implementation of the Bhaishajya Kalpana principles is
in the form of Samskaras as noted below:
Asmxrm qWjiu mpixrsmMqiq |
Mri xrauzswMsxxMUrp: ||
- c. x. M. 12/48,
Pharmaceutical Study


Enhancing the utility (pharmaco-dynamic action) of a relatively small
quantity/quality of a substance (drug) or decreasing the utility of a relatively large
quantity/quality of a substance are possible by Samyoga (combination), Vishlesha
(disunion), Kala (time factor), Samskara (various pharmaceutical operations) and
Yukti (intelligent planning).
The Samskara is considered to be a change or sequence of changes, occurring/
induced which can be physical, chemical or both. The application of powerful
concepts and modern techniques to the adopted processes allows obtaining
meaningful results and making practical, useful predictions. Thus, an elaborate
comprehension of the preparation of the compound drug with respect to the changes
during the processes creates a unique opportunity for formulating the new/ existing
compounds with improved stability and specially selected compositions for superior
nutritional, dieting and therapeutic qualities. Thus arises the necessity to study/
observe the preparation of a drug with utmost care, comprehend the principles
underlying, document the findings for further comparison, corroborate the document
with therapeutic efficacy and then formulate the resolutions.
The raw materials Gandhaka, dry Amalaki were procured from the jogappa
Shanbag Pharmacy Udupi. A humble attempt to practically demonstrate the prepara-
tion of samples of Khamadhenu churna has been performed according to classical
reference with little modification. Practical study was carried out under the supervi-
sion of my Guide in Rasa Shastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana Including Drug Research
Department of A. L. N. Rao M.A.M.C Pharmacy Koppa. Practical study comprised
Preparation of Churna Preparation of Gandhaka shodhana
Pharmaceutical Study


Preparation of Amalaki swarasa Preparation of shalmali kwatha

Practical name Preparation of Amalaki Churna
Date of starting - 18-08-08
Date of completion - 18-08-08
Equipments - Khalwa yantra, clean cloth, spoon, tray etc.
Amalaki - 550gm
Above mentioned the drugs are to be cleaned and dried, taken in mentioned
Made into powder by pounding in Khalwa yantra.
Then filtered with clean thin layered cloth.
The drugs are completely dried.
After proper grinding no fibrous material left as residue.
Small amount of Churna had been lost during grinding and shifting the
Initial individual weight of Churnas - 550gms each
Churna obtained - 500grams.
Total loss - 50gms.
Pharmaceutical Study


Practical name - Gandhaka shodhana
Reference - Rasatarangini-8/8-12
Date of starting - 20-08-08
Date of completion - 20-08-08
Equipments - Vessels, Clean cloth, Glass rod
Gandhaka - 550 gm
Go ghrith - 1kg
Go dugdha - 3lts
The Gandhaka is melted along with equal quantity of ghee and this liquified
sulphur isn then poured into another vessel containing milk and filtered
through a cloth tied over the mouth of tha vessel(then boiled in the same ves-
sel for a while)
This process was been repeated for 3 times.
Then it is taken out and washed cleanly with water.
By this process, the stoney substances remained on the cloth and gandhaka
flots on milk like husk, mixed with ghee.
And the sulphur remains inside the milk in the solid form
In last sulphur boiled with some milk for 1 hour.
Pharmaceutical Study

When Gandhaka, which washed in to hot w water, and dry the sun light
The Gandhaka is collected in the bottom of the vessel and it is collected by
scraping with a spoon.
After shodhana Gandhaka is yellowish colour.
Result: - Successful
Character of gandhaka:
Colour - Yellow
Taste - Madhura
Consistency - Solid form
Initial weight of Gandhaka - 550gm
Gandhaka obtained - 500grams.
Total loss - 50gm

Name of the practical Preparation of Amalaki swarasa
Date of starting 21-08-2008
Date of completion 27-08-2008
Apparatus Vessels, Vastra, Khalwa yantra, Grinder.etc
Ingredients: Shuddha gandhaka
Amalaki churna
Bhavana with Amalaki swarasa for 7 days


Pharmaceutical Study


Table No.12-Amalaki Swarasa Bhavana with 7 Days
day 21-08-2008 6 kg 6hrs bhavana 3lts swarasa
day 22-08-2008 4Kg 51/2hrs bhavana 2lts swarasa
day 23-08-2008 4kg 6hrs bhavana 2lts swarasa
day 24-08-2008 4kg 5hrs bhavana 2lts swarasa
day 25-08-2008 4kg 7hrs bhavana 2lts swarasa
day 26-08-2008 4kg 6hrs bhavana 2lts swarasa
day 27-08-2008 4kg 6hrs bhavana 2lts swarasa

Method of preparation;
Daily amlakai friuts were taken and made into a swarasa and bhavana was
given to the mixture of shudda gandaka and Amalaki churna.
Colour - Ash colour
Taste - Madhura
Name of Practical: - Preparation of Shalmali Niryasa Kwatha.
Reference - General method of Kwatha preparation
Date of Starting - 28/08/2008
Date of Completion - 03/09/2008
Material required: - Stainless steel vessels, Gas stove, clean
Pharmaceutical Study


cotton cloth, measuring jar, Spatula etc.

Shalmali Niryasa - 125 gms.
Water - 1 liter.
Shalmali Niryasa was kept soaked in water for overnight..
Water was evaporated slowly and reduced till the quantity became th.
It was filtered with clean cotton cloth and filtered liquid was collected as
Shalmali kwatha.
Shalmali Niryasa became soft when kept soaked for mandagni
During the preparation of kwatha little frothing was observed.
It took approximately 6 hours heating to reduce the water to th quantity.
The colour of prepared kwatha was dark reddish
Final quantity of Shalmali obtained 250ml.
Colour Reddish colour
Taste Kashaya, Madhura
Shalmali Niryasa should be taken for Kwatha preparation.
Boiling should be done on slow heat.
Utensils, vessels and filtering cloth should be clean.
Pharmaceutical Study


Stirring should be carried out time to time.

Table No.13-Shalmali niryasa Bhavana with 7 Days
day 28-08-2008 125gms 6hrs bhavana 250ml kwatha
day 29-08-2008 125gms 51/2hrs bhavana 250ml kwatha
day 30-08-2008 125gms 6hrs bhavana 250ml kwatha
day 31-08-2008 125gms 5hrs bhavana 250ml kwatha
day 01-09-2008 125gms 7hrs bhavana 250ml kwatha
day 02-09-2008 125gms 6hrs bhavana 250ml kwatha
day 03-09-2008 125gms 6hrs bhavana 250ml kwatha

Initial individual weight of Churna
Amalaki churna - 500gms
Shuddha gandhaka - 500gms
Churna obtained - 800gms
Total loss - 200gms

Analytical Study


Science means systematized and generalized knowledge of any thing, which
can be proved by consecutive experimentation, with certain required standard parame-
ters. Analysis in systematic manner is not away from this. It is the need of time for at
least those which are directly concerned with the human health. Ayurvedic drugs are
one of them.
In ancient days, the drugs were prepared by the physician himself, with the
help of experienced assistants in their own pharmacies attached to their clinics. Now a
days the trend has entirely changed. The demand of Ayurvedic drugs have increased
by many folds and availability of raw materials are limited. So, there are chances of
production of low quality drugs for the commercial benefits.
The quality of final products depends on the raw material used as well as on
the pharmaceutical process adopted. The increasing demand for Ayurvedic drugs have
made it necessary that some sort of uniformity in the manufacturing of Ayurvedic
medicine should be brought out. The need has also been felt for statutory control to
ensure standards of Ayurvedic drugs.
Chemical analysis of any drug should be known well before experimental and
clinical trials. Chemical study ensures not only chemical constituents but also sug-
gests us standards of any preparation. It not only gives standards of the products but
indirectly gives suggestions for further advancement if required.
For complete development of the drugs for large scale consumption, the stan-
dardization is done in three stages including standardization of raw material, stan-
dardization of process and standardization of finished product. Among these, stan-
Analytical Study


dardization of finished product is most essential from health point of view as these
products are given to or used by consumer dierectly. There must be some parameters
exposing the uniformity of drugs as well as their status of drugs detailing about the
micro-compponents of drugs, so their good and bad effects could be revealed. Keep-
ing these in attention, physic-chemical and chemical testings were done for present
work. These studies include following headings as:
Analysis by organoleptic method
Organoleptic parameters:
Table.No.14- Description of Kamadhenu churna
Sl,No Parameters Kamadhenu Churna
1 Colour Light ash colour
2 Odour Odour characterstic
3 Taste Amla kashaya
4 Consistency churna

Analysis by chemical methods
a. Physico-chemical analysis
1. Loss on drying
2. Ash value
3. Acid insoluble ash
4. Water soluble etractive
5. Alcohol soluble extractive
6. Water soluble ash
7. Total sulphated ash

Analytical Study


1. Determination of loss on drying at 105C :
The loss on drying was determined by taking, 2 gm accurately weighed sample, in a
dried petri dish (tared evaporating dish) and drying in an oven at 105 C till constant
weight. The weight after drying was noted and loss on drying was calculated. The
percentage was calculated on the basis of air dried sample.
2. Determination of Ash value :
The ash value of the sample was determined by incinerating about 3 gm of
weighed drug in a tared silica crucible at a temperature of 450 C until free from car-
bon (up to constant weight). Then cooled and weighed. If a carbon free ash can not be
obtained in this way, then charred mass was exhausted with hot water. The residue
was collected on an ashless filter paper. Incinerating the residue and filter paper, the
filtrate was added, evaporated to dryness and ignited at a temperature not exceeding
450 C. The percentage of ash was calculated with reference to the air-dried sample.
3. Determination of Acid-insoluble ash :
The ash obtained in (2), was boiled for five minutes with 25 ml of dilute hydrochloric
acid. The insoluble matter was collected on an ashless filter paper, washed with hot water and
ignited to constant weight. The percentage of acid insoluble ash was calculated with reference to
air dried sample.
4. Determination of Water Soluble Extractive :
5 gm of sample was macerated with 100 ml of distilled water in a closed flask
for twenty four hours, shaking frequently during first six hours and allowed to stand
for eighteen hours. Filtered rapidly, taking precaution against loss of solvent and 25
ml of the filtrate was evaporated to dryness in a tared flat bottom shallow dish. First
Analytical Study


dried over water bath and then at 105 C in hot air oven, to constant weight, and
weight was noted down. From the weight of the residue the percentage of water-
soluble extractive was calculated with reference to air dried sample.
5. Determination of Alcohol Soluble Extractive :
5 gm of sample was macerated with 100 ml of alcohol of the specified strength (95%)
in a closed flask for twenty four hours, shaking frequently during first six hours and
allowed to stand for eighteen hours. Taking precaution against loss of solvent, it was
filtered and 25 ml of the filtrate was evaporated to dryness in a tared flat bottom shal-
low dish and dried at 105 C to constant weight, and weight was noted down. From
the weight of the residue the percentage of alcohol soluble extractive was calculated
with reference to air dried sample.
6. Determinatin of Water Soluble Ash
The ash was boiled for 5 min with 25ml of water and insoluble matter was
collected on ashless filter paper and paper was taken in Gooch crucible after washing
with hot water. Then it was incinerated at 450 C.wash with hot water and ignite to
constant weight at a low temperature subtract the weight of the insoluble matter from
the weight of the ash.The difference in weight represents the water soluble ash.
Calculate the percentage of water soluble ash with reference to the moisture free drug.
7. Total sulphated ash
A silica rucible was heated to redness for 10 minutes and then was allowed to
coll in dessicator and weighed. Then 2 gm of drug was taken into the crucible and was
ignited gently. Now it was moistened with 1ml of sulphuric acid and was heated gen-
tly until white fumes were no longer evolved. Then it was incinerated at 800
c 25
Analytical Study


The process was continued until all black particles dissappered. Now again it
was weighed and percentage was calculated with reference to the quantity of drug
b. Chemical analysis
i. Qualitative tests
1. Fehlings test: To 1 gm of drug, methanol was added and heated for 1 hour. Then
it was added with equal amount of Fehling,s solution A & B was added. The colour
was observed in each case.
2. Protein test: 2 gm of drug was taken and was dissolved with methanol. Then it was
added drop by drop with equal volume of 10% NaOH +0.5 CuSO4. The colour was
3. Antraquinine Glycoside (Borntragers test): 2 gm powder of drug was macerated
with ether. Then they were filtered and were added with aqueous ammonia. Finally
colour in each case was observed.
4. Flavanoid test (Shinoda test): 1gm powder of was extracted with methanol and
extract was dissolved in 10%, HCL and then Zinc dust was added. Finally the colour
was observed.
5. Alkaloid test: 1gm of drug was moistened with alkaline solution (ammonium hy-
droxide). It was kept in a stoppered flask for more than 1 hour. Now, it was extracted
with any organic solvent (methanol) for three times. Extract was taken in a dish and
solvent was evaporated. The residue (left after drying) was tested for presence of alka-
loid with Dragendroffs reagents in presence of few drops of 2N HCl. Then colour
was observed.
Analytical Study


ii. Quantitative test
Total sulphur percentage-Total Sulphur estimation
1 gm of drug was taken in 500 ml beaker and was oxidized with 7 ml of bro-
mine in 10 ml of carbon tetrachloride. Now it was covered with clock glass. It was
allowed to stand for 15 minutes with occasional swirling. Then 10 mL of concentrated
nitric acid was added down the side of the beaker and was allowed to stand for an-
other 15-20 minutes. Now it was heated just below 100 C on water-bath until the
ceasing of all other actions. Then clock-glass was removed and allowed the evapora-
tion of liquid from beaker by placing them in an oven at 95-100C for 30-60 minutes.
Now it was cooled and moistened with 2 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid and,
after an interval of 3-5 minutes, it was diluted with 50 ml of hot water. The sides of
the beaker and the cover-glass with water were also rinsed. Now the contents of the
beaker were digested at 100 C for 10 minutes to dissolve al1 soluble salts. The solu-
tion was allowed to cool for 5 minutes. Now it was filtered through a Whatman filter
paper No. 540. paper, and was collected in an 800 ml beaker. Filter paper was
washed thoroughly with hot water. The combined filtrate was diluted 600 ml and 2 ml
of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added. The sulphate was precipitated with 5 %
solution of barium chloride at a rate not exceeding 5 ml per minute. After addition of
all precipitant, it was stirred gently and allowed to settle for overnight. It was again
filtered with a No. 540 filter paper and residue was taken in a crucible after5 proper
washing with hot water. Then it was incinerated at 850 C to constant weight. Then
the percentage of sulphur was calculated from ash.
Kamdhenu churna- Sulphur total Percentage: 0.687
Analytical Study

iii. Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) has been established and accepted as one
of the most powerful analytical laboratary technique for separation and quantify
the chemical constituents of any single or compound drug. For present work sol-
vent system developed was Acetone: Methanol: Acetic Acid: : 5: 3: 2. Anisalde-
hyde Sulphuric Acid was used spraying reagent.
Table. No. 15- Physical characters of Kamadhenu churna

Sl. No. Parameters Kamadhenu Churna Result
1 Loss on drying % w/w 5.5%
2 Total ash % w/w 7.25%
3 Acid insoluble ash % w/w 2.75%
4 Water soluble extractive % w/w 23.25%
5 Alcohol soluble extractive % w/w 14.25%
6 Water soluble ash % w/w 3.5%
7 Total sulphated ash % w/w 4.5%


Analytical Study


Table. No.16- Qualitative analysis of Kamadhenu churna

1 Felhings test Appearance of brick red colour + + +
2 Protien test _ +
3 Anthraquinone glycoside test Presence of red colour + + +
4 Flavanoid test No pink colour _
5 Alkaloid test Presence of brick red colour + + +

Solvent System : Acetone: Methanol: Acetic Acid: : 5: 3: 2
Spraying Reagent : Anisaldehyde Sulphuric Acid.
Rf Value-

Experimental Study


Experimental study was undertaken because in the process of new drug
development, experimental study is the first and foremost fundamental step.
Man is considered as supreme amongst all living creatures. Since Sushruta
period, the lower animals have been useful for experimental and toxicity studies.
The animals, which have similarity in structures and function to human body,
are to be selected for experimentation. The result of the experiments can be evaluated
and later applied in human trials for the betterment of mankind.
It is always not possible to produce the same etiopathological events that occur
in human i.e. vitiation of dosha, dushya and mala on animals but inducing of
pathological conditions like hyperacidity, inflammation, fever etc. and efficacy of trial
drugs can be tested on experimental models (animals).
Sexual behavior in animals:
The sexual behavior of female is linked to the period of estrous that coincides
with evaluation and during which the animal is said to be in heat. The estrous female
arouses sexual interest in male by physical changes in her genital region and the
production of potent signals conveyed by pheromones. Pheromones are secreted to the
outside and scents emanating from them influence the behavior of other animals of
the same species.
Unlike in females, males sexual interest is not cyclic; the male is always
ready to copulate, provided there is receptive female available. In effect, then male
sexual, behavior is dependent on or controlled by female receptivity, gonadal
hormones regulate the sexual receptivity of females secretes both estrogen and
Experimental Study


progesterone. When the estrogen levels are high relative to progesterone level, the
animals are said to be in estrous and become receptive to males. Rodents in estrous
respond sexually to all males, which display species-specific sexual patterns.
Dogs in estrous, show preference to some males over others. Hormones
further influence primate females.
Other parameters frequently used to measure sexual activity in rat are the
number of intromissions, which precede each ejaculation. The importance of
ejaculation from a series of intromission apparently triggers the release of hormones,
which are essential to implantation. Still anther measure of sexual activity is the
length of time following behavior. This is taken to indicate recovery from sexual
Much of our knowledge about the sexual behavior comes from the research on
rodents like rats, hamster and guinea pigs. Rats are used as experimental subjects for
most of the work done in this area. These animals were convenient to study and have
predictable, stereotype and gender specific sexual behavior that are under the strong
influence of sex hormones.
Morphological analysis of rat sexual behaviour:
1) Description of male rat sexual behaviour
Copulatory behavior of male rat is characterized by series of mounts with or
without vaginal intromission from the rear of the female approximately once in every
30 to 120 seconds, that eventually culminates in lordosis response (A dorso flexion of
the spine and deflexion of the tail to one side allowing vaginal access to the male).
Typically, the male achieves vaginal penetration on 50-80% of his mounts

Experimental Study


intromission patterns can be distinguished behaviorally from mounts without
penetration by the presence of deep thrust and springing dismount.
2) Analysis of components of male rat sexual behavior
Common measures of copulatory activity have been categorized into several
hypothetical regulatory factors. A sexual arousal factor is typically measured by
mount and intromission latencies (time from introduction of female to the first mount
and intromission) A measure reflecting the copulatory efficiency is the proportion of
mount, which gain penile insertion, and is termed intromission ratio or some time hit
A copulatory rate factor is comprised of the intromission interval (mean
interval between successive intromission proceeding ejaculation), ejaculatory latency
and post ejaculatory interval. Finally, ejaculation behavior is regulated by the
intromission count factor, and is measured as the number of intromission proceeding
ejaculation. A hypothetical threshold is defined primarily as the number of
intromission and latency to ejaculation.
In summary, sexual behavior can be analyzed broadly into two major
components. Libido and potency. Libido is defined as sexual arousal and is measured
in terms of mount and intromission latencies. These measures are confounded by the
erectile process (i.e. potency), necessary for successful execution of copulatory
Other tests have been devised which allow some separation of sexual
motivation from potency. Sexual arousal can be assessed with mount tests following
penile anesthetization, which prevent penile insertion and ejaculation.
Experimental Study


3) Component of female rat sexual behavior
In females, it is fixed action pattern elicited by the mounting of the male. Acceptance
of male is seen by the exhibition of different grades of lordosis by female (figure).
A. Marginal lordosis- Spinal flexion is slight head and tail base are slightly
B. Normal lordosis Spinal flexion is prominent. Head is elevated at an angle of
30 to the floor. Front paws are placed slightly forward and hind legs are straighten as
to elevate the tail base.
C. Exaggerated lordosis Spinal flexion is pronounced. Head is elevated at an
angle 45 or more to the floor.
Limitation of sexual behavior study in animals:-
Extrapolation of the animal data to human being is a major problem because
1. It is difficult to measure sexual enjoyment in animals unlike humans.
2. There are number of parameters to be observed. This makes the conclusion
3. The environment conditions and seasonal changes result in variation in the
behavior of the animals, which may affect the study.
Experimental procedure:
From two weeks before the screening tests until the end of study, the rats
were housed individually at 22C under reversed light and cycle (with light from 11
pm to 11 am) food and water were given.
1. Both the trial drugs are made into suspension with distilled water and
administered to male rats in the classical reference dose of 0.216mg/200gm and
Experimental Study


double dose of the classical reference 0.432mg/200gm of body weight. Control group
of animal received only distilled water.
2. Isolated female rats were taken and they were given 2-mcg/kg estrogen 48 hrs
before and 500 mcg of progesterone 6 hrs. Before starting of the experiment.
3. After 6 hrs of administration of the progesterone the female rats were observed for
estrous stage by observing the vaginal smear of the rat.
4. The female rats, which are estrous stage, were employed in the study.
5. Then the highly receptive female (in estrous stage) was introduced into males
cage and each male rat was observed for copulatory behavior for 30 min. in red light.
Similar procedure is followed for the control groups also. Rats were tested for
copulatory behavior. These tests lasted for 30 min. The following parameters were
Initial arousal period
Peak arousal period
Mounting behavior
Mount latency
Ejaculatory reflex
Time interval to mount again
Rat sexual behavior study:
According to standard patterns set by Beach and Stone 1940, proceptive and
acceptive phases of sexual attitudes are designed in 18 male albino rats.
Pre-copulatory and copulatory components are well classified in a proforma before
observations are recorded.
Under pre-copulatory performances the sexual motivation scale, proceptive
signals, extra genital love play and number of attempts for mounting have been
recorded. Under copulatory performances number of intromission and number of
Experimental Study


ejaculatory reflexes and post ejaculatory interval or refracting period is noted by
assessing time interval to mount again.
Observational component under sexual motivation scale include initial arousal
period and peak arousal period.
Initial arousal period:
Initial arousal period is that when the male turns on or pays attention in
number of seconds after the female introduced into the observational cage and starts
sending proceptive signals in matting behavior of genital smelling, licking, tale
smelling etc.
Peak arousal period:
Peak arousal period is that when the male paying attention towards female
after some time or in few minutes with vigorous try for obtaining a female goes by
constant dating, with increased frequency of genital licking, biting and try to mount is
being noted as the male peak arousal period.
Under proceptive signals by both male and female incorporate in mating
dance, particularly to each species. Such as bush back appearance of male and kissing
by lifting the legs to approach to face-to-face, tale smelling and female a typical ear
wiggling in its estrous period especially. Extra genital love play include grooming
each other, love bites etc.
Number of mounting:
Number of mounts observed in 30 mins.
Ejaculatory reflex:
Ejaculatory reflex is the number of ejaculation in 30 minutes.
Mount latency:
Mount latency is defined as the time taken for the first mount from the
introduction of the female into the cage containing the male.
Experimental Study


Selection of male rats:
Normal adult rats of 90 days age, weighing about 150-200gms are selected
and trained for sexual experience. The rats that are sexually active during training
period are selected. Then they are divided into three groups. The animal that did not
show any sexual interest during training period is considered as inactive.
Training of male rats:
Males are trained individually with normal adult female rats in estrous cycle in
a cage. A male is considered as sexually active when it attempts to mount the female
rats, which is introduced into the cage. Only the active males are selected for the
To provide sexual experience each male rat is allow to 30 min exposure to
receptive female in estrous cycle. Several days before testing for copulatory
performance. The animals are tested three times over a period of 10 days for
copulatory behavior.
Selection of female rats:
Adult female rat of 90 days, weighing about 150-200mgs are selected for
experiment and divided into three groups. The rats, which are in oestrous cycle, are
selected. Each group consisting of 6 rats, they were housed in a
temperature-controlled room and in a 12hrs. Light and dark cycle. Normal food and
water provided.
Confirmation of estrous:
This was done by vaginal smear method. Vaginal smear was prepared by
introducing a drop of distilled water into vagina and collecting it and placing on a
Experimental Study


clean slide. This was gently covered with clean cover slip after adding a drop of
glycerin. Smeared slide was examined microscopically under low power for type of
cells. If majority of cells mainly leucocytes, the animal was labeled as in diestrous,
presence of large number of nucleated cells indicates the presence of proestrous and
estrous was confirmed when 50% or more of the cells are cornified.
Plan of study:
Group I - Treated with sample 1 classical reference dose
Group II - Treated with sample 2 classical reference double dose
Group III - Control group
18 young male albino rats are selected weighed and marked to separate them.
They kept individually in separate cages to ovoid even pheramonal contact with the
main colony for 10 days. During this period they were placed in a cool and dark place
at 22-25 C of room temperature and fed with normal diet and water. Suitable
environment is created for albino rat providing good ventilation and change of food
and drinking water etc. After that on 11
day the trial drug was administered for 7
consecutive days and for control group distilled water is administered. Then
observational readings are compared with control group.
Table no. 17- Grouping and drug doses:
Sl.No. Group Drug Dose
1 Trial 1 Trial drug 1 0.216mg/200gm body wt.
2 Trial 2 Trail drug 2 Double dose 0.432mg/200gm body wt
3. Control Distilled water 0.5ml

Experimental Study


Dose fixation:
The generalized dose for the animals has been calculated based on the
conversion formula rat dose/ =human dose 0.018 5. All the above
preparations were administered according to this formula.
Precautions taken:
Males were kept individually but females were kept in groups.
Training of each male rat for 15 min. at a time was done till they elicited sexual
behavior. Once the behavior was noticed males were exposed to receptive
Initially male animals did not elicit the behavior in the presence of observer,
which was overcome by repeated training.
Experiment was conducted in a dark and silent room.
Care was taken to prevent animal jerking movement of mating arena during the
Care was taken to provide sufficient space for animals in the mating arena to
chase each other.
Since the urine trials left by one rat may have marked effect on the behavior of his
successor, cleaning of the matting arena was done after each trial.
Evaluation of aphrodisiac activity:
The copulatory behavior is an important parameter for evaluating the
aphrodisiac activity of a substance in experimental study.
Observation and Results

After subjecting the Albino rats for the experiments following are the
observations obtained on various parameters.
Table. No.18- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Initial arousal period

Group No.of rats Mean S.D S.E
Trial 1 6 18.0 0.993 0.405
Trial 2 6 14.2 1.18 0.481
Control 6 21.7 1.27 0.518
*Score assessed in Seconds
Graph. No.1- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Initial arousal period

Table. No.19- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Peak arousal period
Group No.of rats Mean S.D S.E
Trial 1 6 26.1 1.41 0.575
Trial 2 6 24.7 2.27 0.926
Control 6 37.7 2.16 0.881
*Score assessed in Seconds
Graph. No.2- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Peak arousal period

Observation and Results

Table. No.20- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Mounting behavior

Group No.of rats Mean S.D S.E
Trial 1 6 30.5 0.966 0.394
Trial 2 6 28.8 1.83 0.746
Control 6 37.5 2.60 1.061
*Score assessed in numbers
Graph. No.3- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Mounting behavior

Table. No.21- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Ejaculatory reflux
Group No.of rats Mean S.D S.E
Trial 1 6 23.1 1.01 0.412
Trial 2 6 22.1 1.77 0.722
Control 6 25.1 1.39 0.567
*Score assessed in minute
Graph. No.4- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Ejaculatory reflux


Observation and Results

Table. No.22- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Mount latency

Group No.of rats Mean S.D S.E
Trial 1 6 3.08 0.821 0.335
Trial 2 6 2.48 0.736 0.300
Control 6 5.92 1.01 0.412
*Score assessed in minutes
Graph. No.5- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Mount latency

Table. No.23- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Time interval for mount again
Group No.of rats Mean S.D S.E
Trial 1 6 35.9 1.62 0.661
Trial 2 6 31.4 1.38 0.563
Control 6 66.9 5.31 2.16
*Score assessed in seconds
Graph. No.6- Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Time interval for mount again


Observation and Results


Comparison in between the groups

Table. No.24- Showing the Significance of Initial arousal period
Groups T value P value
Control and Trial 1 5.51 P<0.001
Control and Trial 2 10.5 P<0.001
Trial 1 and Trial 2 6.06 P<0.001
Initial arousal period: Initial arousal period showed highly significant at
(P<0.001) in all the groups.
Table. No.25- Showing The significance of Peak arousal period
Groups T value P value
Control and Trial 1 11.0 P<0.001
Control and Trial 2 10.1 P<0.001
Trial 1 and Trial 2 1.25 P>0.2

Peak arousal period: Peak arousal period showed highly significant at
(P<0.001) in both treated groups in comparison with control group.
Table. No.26- Showing The significance of Mounting behavior
Groups T value P value
Control and Trial 1 6.18 P<0.001
Control and Trial 2 6.70 P<0.001
Trial 1 and Trial 2 2.01 P<0.05

Mounting behavior: Mounting behavior showed highly significant at
(P<0.001) in both treated groups in comparison with control group.
Observation and Results


Table. No.27- Showing The significance of Ejaculatory reflux
Groups T value P value
Control and Trial 1 2.89 P<0.02
Control and Trial 2 3.29 P<0.01
Trial 1 and Trial 2 1.20 P<0.2
Ejaculatory reflex: Ejaculatory reflex showed significant at (P<0.02) in both
treated groups in comparison with control group.
Table. No.28- Showing The significance of Mount latency
Groups T value P value
Control and Trial 1 5.34 P<0.001
Control and Trial 2 6.74 P<0.001
Trial 1 and Trial 2 1.33 P<0.2

Mount latency: Mount latency showed highly significant at (P<0.001) in both
treated groups in comparison with control group.
Table. No.29- Showing The significance of Time interval to mount again
Groups T value P value
Control and Trial 1 13.7 P<0.001
Control and Trial 2 15.9 P<0.001
Trial 1 and Trial 2 5.28 P<0.001

Time interval to mount again: Time interval to mount again showed highly
significant at (P<0.001) in both treated groups in comparison with control group.


Since the Evolution of Somewhat higher Species, sexual reproduction and sex
come in pivotal position. Life, not only directly but indirectly is also dependent upon
this as new races/varieties of animals and plants/crops coming in existence daily. Sex
has been a beautiful tool to maintain the population and for keeping any species away
from extinction in normal condition. It has been an instrument to bring the world in
this stage. This has been in core of all necessities other than food, being primary one.
It was the brain of human beings which inspired them to make pleasure and enjoy the
sex very much. Osho, a great Indian saint has given the path of salvation through sex
saying, Sambhog Se Samadhi Ki Or. Whatever the logics can be given regarding the
subject but it is true to keep the race alive, sex is necessary. It has been in keen of
human nature to do new experiment with this beautiful tool to enjoy the sex rather
than doing the duty for mainataing the race.
Sensing the Pulse of nature, ancient sages who glorified our mother land with
their elaborative scientific thoughts, framed the concepts and documented the
knowledge added with the time tested herbal formulations to protect the mankind.
Thus, the system of Ashtanga Ayurveda was evolved which incorporates Vajeekarana
as one among its branches, which implies its weightage. Also non-Ayurvedic erotic
texts from 3
Cent AD, deals with the social, cultural and scientific aspects of sex.
Conceptual study
Though the terms Vrushya & Vajikarana are used as synonymous, their mean-
ings differ qualitatively & quantitatively in terms of Semen.



Although, the bull (Vrusha) ejaculates only 4 ml of semen (sperm count is
300,000/L) during one ejaculate in sexual act in comparison to stallion (Vaji), which
ejaculates near about 70 ml (sperm count 60,000/L) but possesses sperm density
more than that of stallion in terms per L. (Mann Thaddeus, 1981). This indicates that
Vajikarana or Vrusya drugs provide the qualitative and quantitative improvement in
the seminal parameters.
Though sexual activity is a well known biological function, modern medicine
is rather reluctant to recognize aphrodisiacs as an authentic discipline. As sexual
activity like any other biological activity is bio-chemical in nature, the role of herbs
and drugs to effect this function should not be ruled out. The number of plants
believed to have sex stimulant activity is actually very large.
The term ukra have multiple identities in its nature, if the physical,
functional and pathological characteristics are concerned. It is sarva sarirastha, ex-
plained as tvakastha and have specific functions, general body functions, psycho-
logical functions and functions related to sexual act. A critical analysis reveals that
ukra have structural and functional identity as androgens, semen or spermatozoa; its
expulsion is controlled by Apana Vata. The nidanas vitiates the Vata, which gets ac-
cumulated in vanksana pradesa resulting in diseases of Semen.
Drug Review
The drugs and articles which improve libido and quality of semen can be
called as Viya. The Viya drugs are classified as ukra Vriddhikar, ukra Srutikara
and ukra Vriddhi-Srutikar, (Su.Ci.26/6). ukra Vriddhikar drugs can be subdivided



into ukra janak and ukra pravartak. Considering these points, the present Kamad-
henu churna in single dose and double dose have been selected for the study.
Kamadhenu churna contains Gandhaka and Amalaki. The other conventional
drugs are Amalaki swarasa and Salamali niryasa kwath for Bhavana while Godugda
and Goghrita for Gandhaka-Shodhana. Looking to the guna-karmas of all the drugs, it
can be said that all the drugs possess Madhura rasa, Madhura vipaka and Sheeta virya
which enhance the quality & quantity of semen.
The only solution is to comprehend the things better in multiple dimensions
and look into the avenues for trying things better. Hence, the research study on
Pharmaceutical & Experimental Evaluation of Kamadhenu churna w.s.r. to its
Vajikara effect was planned to investigate in the area of increasing the therapeutic
efficacy and standardizing the formulation to suit the economy.
To maintain the quality of the final product one has to concentrate over all the
matters, from the collection of raw drugs till the packing and storage. It can be mainly
divided in to three main stages
Stage 1 Collection of raw drugs
Test for genuinity
Different process of preservation
Stage 2 - The pharmaceutical procedure
Stage 3 - Storage and quality control.



A humble attempt to practically demonstrate the preparation of different doses
of Kamadhenu churna has been performed according to classical reference with lit-
tle modification in doses.
As this study is concerned, four main practicals were done namely 1) Gand-
haka Shodhana, 2) Preparation of Churnas, 3) Preparation of Swarasa and, 4) Prepa-
ration of Kwatha
Practical No.1- Preparation of Churnas:
Amalaki is taken in a quantity of 550 gms. The total yield was 500gms with a
loss of 50gms.
Practical No.2- Preparation of Gamdaka shodhana:
500 gms of yellow colored shuddha Gandhaka was obtained out of 550 gms of
Asudha Gandhaka with a loss of of 50 gms.
Practical No.3- Preparation of Amalaki swarasa:
15 litre of Amalaki swarasa was gained from 30 kg of Amlaki fruits, which
was utilized for giving Bhavana to the mixture of Amalaki churna and Gandhaka for
duration of seven days.
Practical No.4- Preparation of Salamali Niryasa Kwatha
875 gms of Salamali Niryasa was collected, which is an mridu dravya so 4
parts of water was added to it and reduced to 1/4
. After cooling it was used in the
preparation of Kamadhenu churna.
The aim of preparing Kwatha is to extract the water-soluble active principles
of the drug into the water. While preparing Kwatha, lid is not to be closed over the
vessel, to-


Prevent spilling out of the contents from the vessel.
Enable the water to evaporate properly.
Help in the reduction of water content.
Analytical Study:
As a measure towards standardization of finished product, analytical study of
the drug was conducted.
For the chemical analysis of drug, parameters were segmented in analysis like
phyisco-chemical, qualitative and quantitative. The physico-chemical parameters
involved the analysis involving the physical and chemical principles. The total ash,
and acid insoluble ash were respectively measured as 7.25% and 2.75%. It means the
even after the direct involvement of sulphur, total inorganic salts were only 7.27%
and out of these only 2.75% were not soluble with 6N HCl. These findings are quite
under approach number herbal medicines which denote its safety in terms absence
extra inorganic elements. These findings get strength when the percentage of sulphur
and sulphated ash were quantitatively calculated as 0.687% and 4.5% in sequence.
This is not too high to be excreted if given with combination of diuretic drugs. It is
quite apparent from the result that good quantity of sulphur might have changed its
form in complex with organic compounds or was lost during the preparation of drugs.
Prof. C.B. Jha has mentioned sulphur as Vrishya and Vajeekaran. So, if the
formulation contains the permissible quantity of sulphur for the body (as with this
drug) and in combination of diuretic drugs or with suggestion of more water intake,
this drug acts well for the purpose.



The high values of water soluble extractives and alcohol extractives like
23.25% and 14.25% refer the better absorption of extractives against the cell-
membrane. The qualitative tests for the formulations revealed the presence of
reducing sugar, Anthraquinone glycoside and alkaloid in good quantity. Sugar itself is

proved Vrishya and better carrier to bring the active constituents to the molecules
needed for desired effect of drug. The alkaloid may trigger the physiology of body to
increase the count of sperm and motility by inserting the new life. Anthraquinone
glycoside increases the peristaltic movement which is suggested and required
phenomenon for any drug which is used as Vrishya and Vajeekaran.
Benefits of Physico-chemical analysis
When compared to organoleptic analysis, physico-chemical analysis is more reli-
able, because it is an objective criterion.
By repeatedly doing analysis of the finished product, which is manufactured under
standard conditions, a standard for preparation of the compound can be set.
It is helpful in detection of adulterants and substituents, which when used, would
give altered value rather than standard value.
Experimental study:
Experimental study was undertaken because in the process of new drug develop-
ment, experimental study is the first and foremost fundamental step.
In the experimental study, 18 healthy albino rats of male sex were selected and
grouped into 3.


The drug is subjected for experimental trials to evaluate its Vajeekarana effect
by Beach and stone method 1940. The observations of the experimental are as
Initial arousal period:
The mean time of Initial arousal period in seconds, observed in individual
groups are
Peak arousal period:
Peak arousal period showed highly significant at (P<0.001) in both treated
groups in comparison with control group. The mean times of peak arousal period in
seconds observed in individual groups are
Mounting behavior:
Mounting behavior showed highly significant at (P<0.001) in both treated
groups in comparison with control group. The mean times of mounting behavior ob-
served in minutes in individual groups are


Ejaculatory reflex:
Ejaculatory reflex showed significant at (P<0.02) in both treated groups in
comparison with control group. The mean times of Ejaculatory reflex observed in
minutes in individual groups are
Mount latency:
Mount latency showed highly significant at (P<0.001) in both treated groups in com-
parison with control group. The mean times of Mount latency observed in minutes in
individual groups are:
G1-3.08 min.
G2-2.48 min.
G3-5.92 min.
Time interval to mount again:
Time interval to mount again showed highly significant at (P<0.001) in both
treated groups in comparison with control group. The mean times of Time interval to
mount again observed in seconds in individual groups are:



From the above results it can be concluded that Trial drug 2 possesses better
Vajikara activity in comparison with the Trial drug 1. i.e. Kamadhenu churna admin-
stered in double dose posses better Vajikara activity in comparison with Kamadhenu
churna given in single dose.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma Doshagh-
Amalaki Madhura,
Sheeta Madhura Rasayana,
Gandhaka Katu,
Sara Ushna Madhura Rasyana,
Deepan, Pa-
chana, Balya

Madhura Laghu,
Sheeta Madhura Vrushya Vata



The drugs are utilised for the preparation of Kamadhenu churna are comenly
vrusha, Balya and Veerya Vardaka, predominately all the dravyas are having mad-
hurarasa and sheet veerya . At the same time all are having madhura vipaka, Rasayana
and Jeevania properties along with vatahara and medhya character with additional
specialty of the preparation. The Aim of the experimental study is to increase the su-
kra dhatu. If the sukra dhatu is increased automatically the increase of oja is possible.
The main ingredient Kamadhenu churna is Amalaki which is having Lavana
varjita pancha-rasa with sheeta veerya and madhura vipaka is having the characters of
rasayana, Vrishya and tridosahara
The total sulphur percentage of trial drug is 0.687%. This percentage cannot
harm to the body of the human being, so it could be prescribed without fear to the pa-
tient for the better results.



Conceptual Study:
The present study is aimed to evaluate the Vajeekara effect of Kamadhenu
churna in single and double dose through an experimental study on albino
rats following Beech and Stone 1940 method and along with clinical study.
Vrushya drugs may have aphrodisiac activity as well as spermtogenic
Vrushya drug are those, which can increase sexual vigor and improve
seminal quality.
Pharmaceutical Study :
A humble attempt to practically demonstrate the preparation of
Kamadhenu churna has been performed according to the classical
reference with little modification.
Analytical Study:
As a step towards finished product standardization of Kamadhenu churna
was subjected to relevant analytical parameters.
Experimental Study:
In almost all Parameters, the trial drug II and trial drug I show statistically
significant result in Experimental Study when compared to control group.


Scope for further study
This formulation might be tried in form of a Capsule.
As the trial drug showed significant results it is essential to study the drug
in large sample.
It is also essential to evaluate the therapeutic action of Kamadhenu churna
through clinical trials with various specifications.



The present dissertation entitled Pharmaceutical and Experimental Evaluation of
Kamadhenu Churna w.s.r. its Vajikara effect comprises of VIII chapters. An attempt has
been made here to find out an efficacious compound, which had Vajikarana property.
This study includes following chapters viz.
1. Introduction,
2. Aims and objectives
3. Review of literature
4. Methodology
5. Results
6. Discussion
7. Conclusion
8. Summary
Tables & charts
In the introductory part aims and objectives of Ayurveda, importance of
Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, necessity for the assortment of this research work,
materials and methods and plan of present study has been mentioned in brief.
In the 2
chapter aims and objectives, objectives of the present study were
Review of literature is dealt in 5 sub headings.
1. Drug review
2. Disease review
3. Swarasa Kalpana
4. Kwatha Kalpana
5. Churna Kalpana


Analytical study The drugs were analyzed physico chemically to standardize it and
results were tabulated in chapter of methodology.
Experimental study- The drug is subjected for experimental trials to evaluate its
Vajeekarana effect by Beach and stone method 1940.
The study includes: Randomized selection of Albino rats, fixation of dose, administration
of trial drugs etc.
The Observations made in the Experimental study were subjected to Statistical
Analysis - Students Unpaired t test.
The Trial drug 2 possesses better Vajikara activity in comparison with the Trial
drug 2 i.e. Kamadhenu Churna with double dose posses better Vajikara activity in
comparison with Kamadhenu Churna single dose.
In the last the results along with statistical analysis of the results obtained in
treatment groups of Kamadhenu Churna in single dose and in double dose are depicted.
Highlights the Pharmaceutical, Drug and Disease Review.
The Observations made during pharmaceutical, analytical and experimental study
are discussed to arrive at proper conclusions.
Probable mode of action of the drug & further scope of the study is elucidated
Conclusion- Finally, the Essence of this Dissertation is enlightened.
Summary - Precise form of this Dissertation.
This is followed by List of Tables & Charts, References and Bibliography.

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Arya Vaidya shala, Kottakkal, Orient Longman, and Hyderabad.A.P.1995.



KOPPA 577 126



IAECApprovalNo:A.E.B.K.04/07 Date:


ThistocertifythatDr. S. N. GOTUR, finalyearPGScholar

of Bhaishajya Kalpana Department had completed his experimental

Pharmaceutical and Experimental Evaluation of

Kamadhenu Churna w.s.r. its Vajikara effect,intheAnimalHouse
attached to the P.G. faculty of A.L.N. Rao Memorial Ayurvedic
The animal model used for the experimental study was
Wister strain Albino rats, maintained under standard hygienic
conditions, fed with standard, regular diet & sufficient water.
1940 method. The observations & Parameters for evaluation were

Dr. Hari Venkatesh. K. R.

Prof. Sanjaya. K. S.

ScientificInchargeAnimalHouse Principal/Chairman,IAEC



Patron: Honourable Shri Aroor Ramesh Rao
Laboratory is not liable to bear any legal action or dispute based on this report

Reference Number: QC/ST/12/2009 Date: 10
November 2009

Analytical Study of Kamadhenu churna :
Sl. No Parameters Kamadhenu Churna
1 Colour Light ash
2 Odour characteristic
3 Taste Sour-astringent
4 Consistency Churna

Physico-chemical analysis of Kamadhenu

Parameters Kamadhenu Churna
1 Loss on drying % w/w 5.5%
2 Total ash % w/w 7.25%
3 Acid insoluble ash % w/w 2.75%
4 Water soluble extractive % w/w 23.25%
5 Alcohol soluble extractive % w/w 14.25%
6 Water soluble ash % w/w 3.5%
7 Total sulphated ash % w/w 4.5%


Patron: Honourable Shri Aroor Ramesh Rao
Laboratory is not liable to bear any legal action or dispute based on this report
Qualitative analysis of Kamadhenu churna

Sl. No Metabolites Quantity
1. Reducing Sugar Abundant
2. Protein Very Low
3. Anthraquinone glycoside Moderate
4. Flavanoid Not revealed
5. Alkaloid Moderate

Quantitative analysis of Kamadhenu churna

Percentage of Sulphur : 0.687

Thin Layer Chromatography
Solvent System : Acetone: Methanol: Acetic Acid:: 5: 3: 2
Spraying Reagent : Anisaldehyde Sulphuric Acid

Rf value

Dr.Prashant Kumar Jha

Table No Name of Table Page No
1 Common Swarasa Kalpanas with their Amayika Prayoga 11
2 Showing amount of J ala depending upon quality of Dravya 15
3 Showing amount of J ala depending upon quantity of Dravya 16
4 Types of Kashaya Kalpana according to Acharya Harita 17
5 Various Kashaya- According to Bhoja 18
6 Prakshepaka dravyas 20
7 The various amount of Anupana for churna 28
8 Showing the abnormalities of Shukra dhatus 57
9 Showing the classification of Vajikarana dravyas 57
10 Classification of Vajeekarana dravys in detail 58
11 Samprapti Ghataka of Shukra kshaya (oligospermia) 77
12 Amalaki Swarasa Bhavana with 7 Days 85
13 Shalmali niryasa Bhavana with 7 Days 87
14 Description of Kamadhenu churna 89
15 Physical characters of Kamadhenu churna 94
16 Qualitative analysis of Kamadhenu churna 95
17 Grouping and drug doses 103
18 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Initial arousal period 105
19 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Peak arousal period 105
20 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Mounting behavior 106
21 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Ejaculatory reflux 106
22 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Mount latency 107
23 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Time interval for mount again 107
24 Showing the Significance of Initial arousal period 108
25 Showing The significance of Peak arousal period 108
26 Showing The significance of Mounting behavior 108
27 Showing The significance of Ejaculatory reflux 109
28 Showing The significance of Mount latency 109
29 Showing The significance of Time interval to mount again 109
30 Probable Mode Of Action 118
Chart No Name of Chart Page No
1 Showing Churna Process 24
2 Classification of Retodosha 71
Graph No. Name of Graph Page no
1 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Initial arousal period 105
2 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Peak arousal period 105
3 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Mounting behavior 106
4 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Ejaculatory reflux 106
5 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Mount latency 107
6 Showing Mean, S.D, S.E of Time interval for mount again 107
Sl. No. Name of Photograph
1 Showing Raw drugs and Preparation of kamadhenu churna
2 Showing Experimental study
3 Showing T.L.C. of Kamadhenu churna

Photograph. No-1
Asuddha Gandhaka Ghrita Bharjana Filtering into milk

Taking out Gandhaka Shuddha Gandhaka Wet and Dry forms of Amalaki

Amalaki Swarasa Shalmali Niryasa Shalmali Kwatha

Bhavana to Churna Kamadhenu churna Kamadhenu Capsule

Photograph. No.2 Experimental study

Drug Administration Licking

Kissing Mounting

Photograph No -3

Reference Disease Review

1.Vaji. Tantra by G. P, prologue, XXIII
2.Vaji. Tantra by G. P, prologue, XXIII - XXIV.
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4.V. S. S. 40/42
5.B. R. Vaji. 74, 4.
6.A. H. U.40, 1 2 (i).
7.B. R. Vaji. 74, 3.
8.A. H. U.40, 2 (ii) - 3.
9.A. H. U.40, 9.
10.Ca. S. Chi. 2/1, 3 4(i).
11.Su. S. Chi. 27, 3.
12.A. H. U.40, 7 - 8.
13.A. H. U.40, 5.
14.Vaji. Tantra by G. .no 6
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17. Ca. S. Chi 2 4, 3.
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20. B. R. Vaji. 74, 23.
21. Su. S. Chi. 26/39
22. Ca.S.Chi. 1/1/9-12,Ca.Chi. 2/4/52
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25. Shabdakalpadruma (Vrushya)
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27. Vaji. Tantra by G. 8
28. Ca.S.Chi 2
29. Su.S.Chi.26/6
30. Ca.S.Su.27/24
31. Su.S.Chi.26/6
32. Ca.S. Chi. 2 4 / 45.
33. Sh.S.Pu.2/15,16,17
34. B. R. Vaji. 74, 5.
35. Shabdakalpadruma vol.5
36. Apte v, 1975
37.A k 6/2 &62; Shabdakalpadruma Ca ci 2: 4: 49
38.Shabdakalpadruma 474
39.Bhagavata purana, 8: 18/5
40.Apte; S E D Part III; M W, S E D p 1006.
41.Sh.S Pu 1/5
42.Ca.S. Chi. 30/178
43.Su. Sa. 4
44.Su. Sa.2/11
45.Su. Sa. 3/ 4
46.Ca.S. Sa. 2/4
47.Su.S. Su 15/10; A. S. 1/ 4
48.Ca.S. Sa. 6/ 6-11
49.Ca.S. Su. 27/ 24; Su Ci 26/ 6; S. S. Pu 2/ 15, 16, 17
50.Biet tin gi chua, vao day coi di
51.Dal on Su.S. Su. 15/4
52.Dal on Su.S. Su. 15/ 7
53.Ca.S. Vi. 8/89
54.C. D on Ca.S. Chi. 15/ 16 ; C. D on Su. Su. 14/ 18
55.Dal on Su.S. Su. 15/7
56.Dal on Su.S. Su. 15/ 24
57.Dal on Su.S. Su. 15/7
58.Dal on Su.S. Su. 15/ 7
59.C .D on Ca.S. Chi 2/4 &48
60.Dal on Su.S. Su. 15/ 7
61.C. D on Ca.S. Chi. 2/4& 49
62.Ca.S. Chi. 15/15; Su. S.Su. 14/101; A. H. Sa. 3/ 62
63.Ca.S. Chi. 15/ 22-25
64.Ca.S. Chi. 15/16; Su.S. Su. 14/10; A .H. Sa. 3/62-63
65.Ca.S. Sa. 7/ 15
66.Bh. S. 7/6
67.Sh.S Pu. 5/16
68.A. H. Sa. 3/ 63
69.A. H. S. 3/ 39; Gaya & Dal on Su.S Sa. 4/ 52
70.Sh.S. Pu. 5/14-18
71.I.M.F. 151-181
72.Ca.S. Sa. 4/7
73.C .D on Ca. S. 4/ 7
74.Ca.S. Sa. 4/7
75.Guyton Physiology, 1999
76.Tortora, 1997
77.Su.S. Su. 1/7
78.Ca.S. Chi. 30/153
79.Su.S. Sa.2/3
80.Ca.S. Su. 17/65; Su. Su. 15/ 9
81.Ca.S. Su. 17/69; Su. Su. 15/9
82.Dal on Su.S. Su. 1/7
83.Dal Su.S. Su. 1/7
84.Ca.S. Chi. 30/135-137
85.Ca.S. Su.28/18-19
86.Ca.S. Chi. 30/142; A. H. S. 2: 3; A. S. S. 1/ 13
87.MIT Tech Talk Vol 40, No. 28, 1996
88.Gedalia F et al, 1993
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90.Ca.S. Su. 17/ 77
91.Ca.S. Chi. 30/ 130, Ca.S. Su. 17/77, Ca.S. Ci. 30/ 164-167
92.Ca.S. Su. 26/42, 43
93.Ca.S. Su. 26/ 5
94.Ca.S. Su. 26/61-62
95.Su.S. Ni. 12/7
96.Ca.S. Chi. 30/ 130, Ca.S. Vi. 5/18, Ca.S. Chi. 2/ 4 & 43, Su.S. Ni. 12/7
97.Su.S. U. 41/ 7
98.Su.S. Ni. 12/ 7
99.Ca.S. Chi. 30/ 130, Ca. Chi. 2/ 4 & 43
100.Ca.S. Su. 25/ 40
101.Su.S. K 3/ 31
102.Ca.S. Su. 25/ 40
103.Ca.S. Su. 25: 40
104.Ca.S. Chi 2 / 4 & 43, Ca.S. Chi. 30/ 130, Ca.S Su. 17 / 77
105.Ca.S. Chi. 30/ 130
106.Ca.S. Chi. 2:/ 4 & 43
107.Ca.S. Chi. 30/130
108.Ca.S. Ni. 4/ 18
109.Su.S. Ni. 2/ 17
110.Ca.S. Chi. 14/8
111.Freeman et al, 1968; Schimtt, 1968; Elstein et al, 1969; Chen et al,1970; Lim
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112. A. H. Ni. 10: 22
113.Ca.S. Chi. 3/ 81
114.Su.S Sa. 2/4
115.Su.S. Sa. 2/ 4, A. S. Sa. 1/ 13, A. H. Sa. 1/ 11
116.Ca.S..Vi. 5/ 23
117.Su.S.Su. 15/ 36
118.Ca.S. Vi. 5 / 23
119.Su.S. Ni. 1/ 10
120.Ca.S. Su. 17/69, A.S.Su. 19/10, Su.S. Su. 15/9.
121.WHO, 1993; NAFA, 2002
122.Ca. S.Chi. 30/186
123.Ca.S. Su. 28/18-19
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17. Su. S.chi.31/8
18. Su.S.Chi.31/8
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23. Sh. S. M. K. 2/3
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25. Sh.S.M. K. 2/3
26. Acharya Yadavaji
27. Sh.S.M.K. 7/4-5
28. Sh.S.M.K. 7/4-5
29. Sh.S.M.K. 7/4-5
30. Sh.S.M.K. 7/4-5
31. A.S.K.8 chapter
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36. Ca.S.Su.2/16
37. R.T-8/8-12
38. B.R.74/42-43

Drug review
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2. A.P.I.Part-1, Vol-3
3. Ibid-2/15-16
4. Rasendra chudamani-11/4
5. Textbook of Inorganic chemistry.
6. Bh.P.Ni. Ghrita varga 1-3 sloka
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