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Chapter 2

Data Transmission

2.1 Concepts and Terminology 2.1.1 Time-Domain Concepts 2.1.2 Frequency Domain Concepts 2.2 Why digital communication? 2.3 Band idth! Data rate and Channel Capacity 2.3.1 "yquist sampling rate 2.3.2 #hannon Channel Capacity 2.$ %ine Coding 2.& 'odems and Digital 'odulation 2.( Transmission 'edia 2.(.1 )uided Transmission 'edia 2.(.2 Wireless *+adio, Transmission 2.- ' 2.-.1 Frequency-Di/ision ' *FD', 2.-.2 Time Di/ision ' TD' 2.-.3 Wa/elength Di/ision ' 2.0 Circuit # itching 2.0.1 #pace-Di/ision # itches 2.0.2 Time-Di/ision # itches #uccess1ul transmission o1 data depends principally on t o 1actors2 the quality o1 the signal 3eing transmitted and the characteristics o1 the transmission medium. The o34ecti/e o1 this chapter is to pro/ide the student nature o1 these t o 1actors. ith an intuiti/e 1eeling 1or the

2.1 Concepts and Terminology

5n this section e introduce some concepts and terms that ill 3e re1erred to throughout the rest o1 the chapter. Data transmission occurs 3et een transmitter and recei/er o/er some transmission medium. Transmission media may 3e classi1ied as guided or unguided. 5n 3oth cases! communication is in the 1orm o1 electromagnetic a/es. With guided media! the

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a/es are guided along a physical path7 e.amples o1 guided media are t isted pair! coa.ial ca3le! and optical 1i3er. 8nguided media pro/ide a means 1or transmitting electromagnetic a/es 3ut do not guide them2 e.amples are propagation through air! /acuum and sea ater. The term direct link is used to re1er to the transmission path 3et een t o de/ices in hich signals propagate directly 1rom transmitter to recei/er ith no intermediate de/ices! other than ampli1iers or repeaters used to increase signal strength. 9 guided transmission medium is point-to-point i1! 1irst! it pro/ides a direct lin: 3et een t o de/ices and! second! those are the only t o de/ices sharing the medium *Figure 2.1a,.

Transmitter = +ecei/er


9mpli1ier or +epeater


Figure 2.1a Point-to-Point Transmission Configuration

Transmitter = +ecei/er

5n a multipoint con1iguration! more than t o de/ices share the same medium *Figure 2.13,.
Transmitter = +ecei/er Transmitter = +ecei/er 9mpli1ier or +epeater Transmitter = +ecei/er Transmitter = +ecei/er


'edium < or 'ore

Figure 2.1b Multi-Point Transmission Configuration 9 transmission may 3e simplex, alf-duplex, or full-duplex. 5n simplex transmission! signals are transmitted in only one direction7 one station is the transmitter and the other is the recei/er. 5n half-duplex operation! 3oth stations may transmit! 3ut only one at a time. 5n full-duplex operation! 3oth stations may transmit simultaneously. 5n the latter case! the medium is carrying signals in 3oth directions at the same time.

Frequency, Spectrum and Band idth

;ere! e are concerned ith electromagnetic signals! used as a means to transmit data. The electromagnetic signal is generated 3y the transmitter and transmitted o/er a

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medium. The signal is a 1unction o1 time! 3ut it can also 3e e.pressed as a 1unction o1 1requency7 that is! the signal consists o1 components o1 di11erent 1requencies. 5t turns out that the 1requency-domain /ie introduced here. o1 a signal is 1ar more important to the understanding o1 data transmission than the time-domain /ie . Both /ie s are

2.1.1 Time-!omain Concepts

>ie ed as a 1unction o1 time! an electromagnetic signal can 3e either continuous or discrete. 9 continuous signal is one in hich the signal intensity or signal strength ords there are no 3rea:s or hich the signal intensity /aries in a smooth 1ashion o/er time. 5n other

discontinuities in the signal. 9 discrete signal is one in

maintains a constant le/el 1or some period o1 time and then changes to another constant le/el. Figure2.2 sho s o1 3oth :inds o1 signals. The continuous signal might represent speech! and the discrete signal might represent 3inary 1s and <s. 9mplitude *>olts, Time Figure 2.2a Continuos #ignal 9mplitude *>olts,

Time Figure 2.23 Discrete #ignal

Periodic signal
The simplest sort o1 signal is a periodic signal! in a/e, and a periodic digital signal *square de1ined to 3e periodic i1 and only i1 s*t ?T, @ s*t, 1or -<< A t A ?<< here the constant T is the period o1 the signal. *T is the smallest /alue that satis1ies the equation., Bther ise! the signal is aperiodic. hich the same signal pattern repeats o/er time. Figure 2.3 sho s an e.ample o1 a periodic analog signal *sine a/e,. 'athematically! a signal s*t, is

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The sine "a#e is the 1undamental continuous signal. 9 general sine

a/e can 3e

represented 3y three parameters2 amplitude *9,! 1requency *1,! and phase *C,. The amplitude is the pea: /alue o1 strength o1 the signal o/er time7 typically! this /alue is measured in /olts or *;D,, at signal! atts. The 1requency is the rate *in cycles per second! or ;ertD hich the signal repeats. 9n equi/alent parameter is the period *T, o1 a hich is the amount o1 time it ta:es 1or one repetition7 there1ore! T @ 1=1.

Ehase is a measure o1 the relati/e position in time ithin a single period o1 a signal! as illustrated 3elo . The general sine a/e can 3e ritten as s*t, @ 9 sin *2 F 1 t ? G,

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Figure 2.$ % sin &2 F1t ? G , Figure 2.$ sho s the e11ect o1 /arying each o1 the three parameters. 5n part *a, o1 the 1igure! the 1requency is 1 ;D7 thus! the period is T @ 1 second. Eart *3, has the same 1requency and phase 3ut an amplitude o1 1=2. 5n part *c,! radians! e ha/e 1 @ 2! hich is equi/alent to T @ H seconds. Finally! part *d, sho s the e11ect o1 a phase shi1t o1 F = $ hich is $& degrees *2 F radians @ 3(<I @ 1 period,. 5n Figure 2.$! the horiDontal is time7 the graphs display the /alue o1 the signal strength at a gi/en point in space as a 1unction o1 time.

2.1.2 Frequency !omain Concepts

5n practice! an electromagnetic signal e.ample! the signal s*t, @ sin *2 F 11t, ?1=3 sin *2 F *311,t, is sho n in Figure 2.&. The components o1 this signal are 4ust sine and *3, o1 the 1igure sho a/es o1 1requencies 1 1 and 3117 parts *a, these indi/idual components. There are se/eral interesting ill 3e made up o1 many 1requencies. For

points that can 3e made a3out this 1igure2 the second 1requency is an integer multiple o1 the 1irst 1requency. When all o1 the 1requency components o1 a signal are integer multiples o1 one 1requency! the latter 1requency is re1erred to as the fundamental fre'uenc(.

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Figure 2.) %ddition of fre'uenc( components

The period o1 the total signal is equal to the period o1 the 1undamental 1requency. The period o1 the 1undamental signal sin&2 *f1 t+ is T@ 1= 11! and the period o1 s*t, is also T! as can 3e seen 1rom Figure 2.&c. 5t can 3e sho n! using a discipline :no n as Fourier Analysis that any signal is made up o1 components at /arious 1requencies! in hich case each component is sinusoid. This result is o1 tremendous importance!

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3ecause the e11ects o1 /arious transmission media on a signal can 3e e.pressed in terms o1 1requencies and the signal can 3e analysed to great e.tent. The Spectrum o1 a signal is the range o1 1requencies that it contains. For the signal in Figure 2.&c! the spectrum e.tends 1rom 11 to 311. The absolute band"idt o1 the signal is the idth o1 spectrum7 in the a3o/e case it ould 3e 31 1 - 11 @ 211;D. ;o e/er most o1 the energy in an actual signal ill 3e contained in a relati/ely narro 3and o1 1requencies! hich is :no n as bandwidth.

2.2"hy digital communication

9 transmission system ma:es use o1 a physical transmission media or channel that allo s the propagation o1 electromagnetic energy in the 1orm o1 pulses or /ariations in /oltage! current! or light intensity. 5n analog communication the o34ecti/e is to transmit a signal a/e1orm! hich is a 1unction that /aries continuously ith time! as sho n in Figure 2.(a. For e.ample! the electrical signal coming out o1 a microphone corresponds to the /ariation in air pressure corresponding to sound. This 1unction o1 time must 3e reproduced e.actly at the recei/er output o1 the analog communication system. 5n practice! communications channels do not satis1y this condition! so some degree o1 distortion is una/oida3le. 5n digital transmission the o34ecti/e is to transmit a gi/en sym3ol that is selected 1rom some 1inite set o1 possi3ilities. For e.ample! in binar( digital transmission the o34ecti/e is to transmit either a < or a 1. This can 3e done! 1or instance! 3y transmitting positi/e /oltage 1or a certain period o1 time to con/ey a 1 or a negati/e /oltage to con/ey a <! as sho n in Figure 2.(3. The tas: o1 the recei/er is to determine the input sym3ol ith high pro3a3ility. The positi/e or negati/e pulses that ill operate correctly as positi/e or ere transmitted 1or the gi/en sym3ols can undergo a great degree o1 distortion. Where signaling uses positi/e or negati/e /oltages! the system as long as the recei/er can determine negati/e. The cost ad/antages o1 digital transmission o/er analog transmission 3ecome apparent hen transmitting o/er a long distance. Consider! 1or e.ample! a system that in/ol/es transmission o/er a pair o1 copper ires. 9s the length o1 the pair o1 ires increases! hether the original /oltage

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the signal at the output is attenuated and the original shape o1 the signal is increasingly distorted.

Figure 2., %nalog #ersus Digital signal transmission

5n addition! inter1erence 1rom e.traneous sources! such as radiation 1rom car ignitions and po er lines! as ell as noise inherent in electronic systems result in the addition o1 random noise to the transmitted signal. To transmit o/er long distances! it is necessary to introduce repeaters periodically to regenerate the signal! as sho n in Figure 2.-. #uch signal regeneration is 1undamentally di11erent 1or analog and digital transmissions.

Figure 2.- T(pical long-distance link

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5n an analog communication system! the tas: o1 the repeater is to regenerate a signal that resem3les as closely as possi3le the signal at the input o1 the repeater segment. Figure 2.0 sho s the 3asic 1unctions carried out 3y the analog repeater.

Figure 2.. %nalog repeater

The input to the repeater is an attenuated and distorted /ersion o1 the original transmitted signal plus the random noise added in the segment. First the repeater deals ith the attenuation 3y ampli1ying the recei/ed signal. To do so the repeater multiplies the signal 3y a 1actor that is the reciprocal o1 the attenuation a. The resulting signal is still distorted 3y the channel. The repeater ne.t uses a de/ice called an equali#er in an attempt to eliminate the distortion. The source o1 the distortion in the signal shape has t o primary causes. The 1irst cause is that di11erent 1requency components o1 the signal are attenuated di11erently. 5n general! high 1requency components are attenuated more than lo 1requency components. The equaliDer compensates 1or this situation 3y ampli1ying di11erent 1requency components 3y di11erent amounts. The second cause is that di11erent 1requency components o1 a signal are delayed 3y di11erent amounts as they propagate through the channel. The equaliDer attempts to pro/ide di11erential delays to realign the 1requency components. 5n practice it is /ery di11icult to carry out the t o 1unctions o1 the equaliDer. For the sa:e o1 argument! suppose that the equaliDer is per1ect. The output o1 the repeater then consists o1 the original signal plus the noise. 5n the case o1 analog signals the repeater is limited in hat it can do to deal ith noise. 51 it is :no n that the original signal does not ha/e components outside a certain 1requency 3and! then the repeater can remo/e noise components that are outside the signal 3and. ;o e/er! the noise ithin the signal 3and cannot 3e reduced ill contain some and consequently the signal that is 1inally reco/ered 3y repeater

noise. The repeater then proceeds to send the reco/ered signal o/er the ne.t

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transmission segment. By the time signal reaches the destination a1ter going through many repeaters as in the case o1 long distance transmission its quality degrades considera3ly as the noises accumulates at each segment. "e.t consider the same copper ire transmission system 1or digital communications. ires increases! the pulses are increasingly ig probabilit( the #uppose that a string o1 <s and 1s is con/eyed 3y a sequence o1 positi/e and negati/e /oltages. 9s the length o1 the pair o1 distorted and more noise is added. 9 digital repeater is required as sho n in Figure2.-. The sole o34ecti/e o1 the repeater is to determine "it original 3inary stream. The repeater also uses an equaliDer to compensate 1or the distortion introduced 3y the channel. ;o e/er! t e repeater does not need to completel( regenerate t e original s ape of t e transmitted signal . /t onl( needs to determine " et er t e original pulse "as positi#e or negati#e. To do so! the repeater is organiDed in the manner sho n in Figure 2.6.

Figure 2.0 % Digital repeater

9 timing reco/ery circuit :eeps trac: o1 the inter/als that de1ine each pulse. The decision circuit then samples the signal at the midpoint o1 each inter/al to determine the polarity o1 the pulse. 5n a properly designed system! in the a3sence o1 noise! the original sym3ol ould 3e reco/ered e/ery time! and consequently the 3inary stream hich implies that errors ill occur ould 3e regenerated exactl( o/er any num3er o1 repeaters and hence o/er ar3itrarily long distances. ;o e/er! noise is una/oida3le! 1rom time to time. %n error occurs " en t e noise signal is sufficientl( large to c ange t e polarit( of t e original signal at t e sampling point . Digital transmission systems are designed 1or /ery lo 3it error rates! 1or e.ample! 1< --!1<-6! or e/en 1<-12! hich corresponds to one error in e/ery trillion 3itsJ The impact on signal quality in multiple digital repeaters is similar to the digital recording o1 music here the signal is stored as a 1ile o1 3inary in1ormation. We can ith e.tremely small pro3a3ilities o1 copy the 1ile digitally any num3er o1 times

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errors 3eing introduced in the process. 5n e11ect! the quality o1 the sound is una11ected 3y the num3er o1 times the 1ile is copied. The preceding discussion sho s that digital transmission has superior per1ormance o/er analog transmission. Digital repeaters eliminate the accumulation of noise that ta:es place in analog systems and pro/ide 1or long-distance transmission that is nearly independent o1 distance. Digital transmission systems can operate le/els or ith lo er signal ith greater distances 3et een repeaters than analog systems can. This

1actor translates into lo er o/erall system cost and as the original moti/ation 1or the introduction o1 digital transmission. B/er time! other 3ene1its o1 digital transmission ha/e 3ecome more prominent. "et or:s 3ased on digital transmission are capa3le o1 handling any type o1 in1ormation that can 3e represented in digital 1orm. Thus digital net or:s are suita3le 1or handling many types o1 ser/ices. Digital transmission also allo s net or:s to e.ploit the ad/ances in digital computer technology to increase not only the /olume o1 in1ormation that can 3e transmitted 3ut also the t(pes of processing that can 3e carried out ithin the net or:! that is! error correction! data encryption! and the /arious types o1 net or: protocol processing that are the su34ect o1 this 3oo:.

2.$ Band idth, !ata %ate and Channel Capacity

We ha/e seen that there are a /ariety o1 impairments that distort or corrupt a signal. For digital data! the question that then arises is to hat e.tent these impairments limit the data rate that can 3e achie/ed. The rate at channel capacity. There are 1our concepts here that e are trying to relate to one another2 !ata rate. This is the rate! in 3its per second *3ps,! at communicated. Band idth. This is the ma.imum 3and idth o1 the transmitted signal as constrained 3y the nature o1 the transmission medium or transmission channel! e.pressed in cycles per second! or hertD *;D,. &oise. The a/erage le/el o1 noise o/er the communications path. hich data can 3e hich data can 3e transmitted o/er a gi/en communication path! or channel! under gi/en conditions! is re1erred to as the

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'rror rate. The rate at The pro3lem

hich errors occur!

here an error is the reception o1 a 1

hen a < as transmitted! or the reception o1 a < hen a 1 as transmitted. e are addressing is this2 communications 1acilities are e.pensi/e! and! in general! the greater t e band"idt of t e transmission facilit(, t e greater t e cost . Furthermore! all transmission channels o1 any practical interest are o1 limited 3and idth. The limitations arise 1rom the physical properties o1 the transmission medium or 1rom deli3erate limitations at the transmitter on the 3and idth to pre/ent inter1erence 1rom other sources. 9ccordingly! e ould li:e to ma:e as e11icient use e ould li:e to as possi3le o1 a gi/en 3and idth. For digital data! this means that band"idt . The main constraint on achie/ing this e11iciency is noise.

get as ig a data rate as possible at a particular limit of error rate for a gi#en

2.$.1 &yquist sampling rate

To 3egin! let us consider the case o1 a channel that is noise-1ree. 5n this en/ironment! the limitation on data rate is simply the 3and idth o1 the signal. 9 1ormulation o1 this limitation! due to &yquist! states that i1 the signal greater than ith 1requencies components not ;D *cycles per second, is gi/en! then it is possi3le to represent

completely that signal 3y sampling it at 2" samples per second. K.tending this to the transmission media! gi/en a transmission medium o1 3and idth W ;D! the highest signal rate that can 3e carried 3y it is 2W samples per second. "ote that in the last paragraph! e re1erred to samples. 51 the signals to 3e transmitted are 3inary *t o /oltage le/els,! then each sample ould represent a 3inary 3it! and the data rate that can 3e supported 3y W ;D is 2W 3ps. 9s an e.ample! consider a /oice channel 3eing used! /ia modem! to transmit digital data. 9ssume a 3and idth o1 31<< ;D. Then the capacity! C! o1 the channel is 2W @ (2<< 3ps. ;o e/er! signals or samples ith more than t o le/els can 3e used7 that is! each signal element can represent more than one 3it. For e.ample! i1 1our possi3le /oltage le/els are used as sampled signals! then each signal element can represent t o 3its. With multile/el signaling! the "yquist 1ormulation 3ecomes C @ 2W log2 ' here ' is the num3er o1 discrete signal or /oltage le/els. Thus! 1or ' @ 0! a /alue used ith some modems! channel capacity C 3ecomes 10!(<< 3ps. #o! 1or a gi/en 3and idth! the data rate can 3e increased 3y increasing the num3er o1 di11erent Data Communication $1

signals. ;o e/er! this places an increased 3urden on the recei/er2 5nstead o1 distinguishing one o1 t o possi3le signals during each signal time! it must distinguish one o1 ' possi3le signals. "oise and other impairments on the transmission line limit the practical /alue o1 '. Thus! all other things 3eing equal! dou3ling the 3and idth dou3les the data rate. "o consider the relationship 3et een data rate! noise! and error rate. The presence o1 noise can corrupt one or more 3its. 51 the data rate is increased! then the duration o1 3it 3ecomes s orter so that more 3its are a11ected 3y a gi/en pattern o1 noise. Thus! at a gi/en noise le/el! the higher the data rate! the higher the error rate. ill

2.$.2 Shannon Channel Capacity

9ll o1 these concepts can 3e tied together neatly in a 1ormula de/eloped 3y the mathematician Claude Shannon. 9s e.pect that greater signal strength signal-to-noise ratio *#=",! e ha/e 4ust illustrated! the higher the data rate! e ould the more damage that un anted noise can do. For a gi/en le/el o1 noise!

ould impro/e the a3ility to correctly recei/e data

in the presence o1 noise. The :ey parameter in/ol/ed in this reasoning is the hich is the ratio o1 the po er in a signal to the po er contained in the noise that is present at a particular point in the transmission. Typically! this ratio is measured at a recei/er! as it is at this point that an attempt is made to process the signal and eliminate the un anted noise. For con/enience! this ratio is o1ten reported in deci3els2 *#=",d3 @ 1< log * signal po er = noise po er, This e.presses the amount! in deci3els! that the intended signal e.ceeds the noise le/el. 9 high #=" ill mean a high-quality signal and a lo num3er o1 required intermediate repeaters. The e11ect o1 noise on signal is sho n in the Figure 2.1<. The signal-to-noise ratio is important in the transmission o1 digital data 3ecause it sets the upper 3ound on the achie/a3le data rate. ShannonLs result is that the t eoretical maximum c annel capacit(! in 3its per second! o3eys the equation C@W log2*l ? *#=", , here C is the capacity o1 the channel in 3its per second and W is the 3and idth o1 the channel in hertD.

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Figure 2.11 2ffect of noise on signal

9s an e.ample! consider a /oice channel 3eing used! /ia modem! to transmit digital data. 9ssume a 3and idth o1 31<< ;D. 9 typical /alue o1 #=" 1or a /oice-grade line is 3< dB! or a ratio o1 1<<<21. Thus! C @ 31<< log2*l ? 1<<<, C @ 3<!06$ 3ps This represents the theoretical ma.imum channel capacity that can 3e achie/ed.

2.( )ine Coding

)ine coding is the method used 1or con/erting a binar( information se'uence into a digital signal in a digital communications system. The selection o1 a line coding technique in/ol/es se/eral considerations. 'a.imiDing 3it rate is the main concern in digital transmission hen 3and idth is at a premium. ;o e/er! in other situations! ith hich the 3it timing in1ormation can 3e such as in %9"s! other concerns are also o1 interest. For e.ample! another important design consideration is the ease reco/ered 1rom the digital signal. 9lso! some line coding methods ha/e 3uilt-in error detecting capa3ilities! and other methods ha/e 3etter immunity to noise and

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inter1erence. Finally! the comple.ity and the cost o1 the line code implementations are al ays 1actors in the selection 1or a gi/en application.

Figure 2.11 3ine coding met ods

Figure 2.11 sho s /arious line codes that are used in practice. The 1igure sho s the digital signals that are produced 3y the line codes 1or the 3inary sequence 1<1<111<<. The simplest scheme is the unipolar non-return-to-#ero *&%*, encoding in sending a < /oltage. 51 3inary <s and 1s 3oth occur a/erage transmitted po er 1or this line code is *1=2,92 ? *1=2,<2 @ 92=2 The polar &%* encoding method that maps a 3inary 1 to ?9=2 and 3inary < to M9=2 is more e11icient than unipolar "+N in terms o1 a/erage transmitted po er. 5ts a/erage po er is gi/en 3y *1=2,*?9=2,2 ? *1=2,*-9=2,2 @ 92=$ The spectrum that results 1rom applying a gi/en line code is o1 interest. We usually assume that the 3inary in1ormation is equally li:ely to 3e < or 1 and that they are statistically independent o1 each other! much as i1 they ere produced 3y a sequence o1 independent coin 1lips. The unipolar and the polar "+N encoding methods ha/e the hich a 3inary 1 is transmitted 3y sending a ?9 /oltage le/el! and a < is transmitted 3y ith pro3a3ility 1=2! then the

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same 1requency components 3ecause they produce essentially the same /ariations in a signal as a 1unction o1 time. #trings o1 consecuti/e <s and consecuti/e 1s lead to periods here the signal remains constant 1or long time producing lo 1requency components. These strings o1 <s and 1s occur 1requently enough to produce a spectrum that has its components concentrated at the lo er 1requencies as sho n in Figure 2.12. This situation presents a pro3lem does not pass lo not pass the 1requencies 3elo a3out 2<< ;D. hen the communications channel 1requencies. For e.ample! most telephone transmission systems do

Figure 2.12 4pectra for different line coding

The +ipolar encoding method

as de/eloped to produce a spectrum that is more 1requencies. 5n this method 3inary <s are ill

amena3le to channels that do not pass lo

mapped into < /oltage! thus ma:ing no contri3ution to the digital signals7 consecuti/e 1s are alternately mapped into ?9=2 and -9=2. Thus a string o1 consecuti/e 1s produce a square a/e ith the 1requency *1 = 2T, ;D. 9s a result! the spectrum 1or

the 3ipolar code has its 1requency content centered around the 1requency *1=2T, ;D and has small content at lo 1requencies as sho n in Figure 2.12. Timing reco/ery is an important consideration in the selection o1 a line code. The timing-reco/ery circuit in the recei/er monitors the transitions at the edge o1 the 3it inter/als to determine the 3oundary 3et een 3its. %ong strings o1 <s and 1s in the 3inary and the polar 3inary encoding can cause the timing circuit to lose

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synchroniDation 3ecause o1 the a3sence o1 transitions. 5n the 3ipolar encoding long strings o1 1s result in a square a/e that has strong timing content7 ho e/er! long strings o1 <s still pose a pro3lem. To address this pro3lem! the 3ipolar line codes used in telephone transmission systems place a limit on the minimum num3er o1 <s that may 3e encoded into the digital signal. Whene/er a string o1 " consecuti/e <s occurs! the string is encoded into a special 3inary sequence that contains <s and 1s. To alert the recei/er that a su3stitution has 3een made! the sequence is encoded so that the mapping in the 3ipolar line code is /iolated7 that is! t o consecuti/e 1s do not alternate in polarity. 9 pro3lem ith polar coding is that a systematic error in polarity can cause all <s to 3e detected as 1s and all 1s as <s. The pro3lem can 3e a/oided 3y mapping the 3inary in1ormation into transitions at the 3eginning o1 each inter/al. 9 3inary 1 is transmitted 3y en1orcing a transition at the 3eginning o1 a 3it time! and a < 3y ha/ing no transition. The signal le/el sho s an e.ample o1 ho ithin the actual 3it time remains constant. Figure 2.11 differential encoding! or &%* in,erted! carries out this

mapping. #tarting at a gi/en le/el! the sequence o1 3its determines the su3sequent transitions at the 3eginning o1 each inter/al. "ote that di11erential encoding one 3it time ill pro/ide the ill lead to the same spectrum as 3inary and polar rong re1erence 1or the ne.t time! thus leading to an encoding. ;o e/er! errors in di11erential encoding tend to occur in pairs. 9n error in additional error in the ne.t 3it. "ote that the 'anchester encoding can 3e /ie ed as the transmission o1 t o pulses 1or each 3inary 3it. 9 3inary 1 is mapped into the 3inary pair o1 1<! and the corresponding polar encoding 1or these t o 3its is transmitted2 9 3inary < is mapped into <1.

2.- .odems and !igital .odulation

For the past 1<< years! analog transmission has dominated all the communication. 5n particular! the telephone system as originally 3ased entirely on analog signaling. With the ad/ance technology! the long-distance trun:s 3et een telephone e.changes are con/erted to digital! 3ut the local loops 3et een a telephone e.change and the

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telephone at the user are still analog. Consequently!

hen a computer hich ishes to

send digital data it produces! o/er the telephone line! the data must 3e 1irst con/erted to analog 1orm 3y a de/ice 1or transmission o/er telephone line and at the recei/er end this recei/ed analog signal must 3e con/erted 3ac: to digital data. 9 de/ice that accepts a serial stream o1 digital 3its as input and produces modulated analog carrier signal as output *or /ice /ersa, is called a modem *1or modulator- demodulator,7 The modem is inserted 3et een the *digital, computer and the analog, telephone system. 9 continuous tone in the 1<<< to 2<<< ;D range! called a sine a,e carrier is modulated according to the input digital signal at the transmitting end and at the recei/er end the recei/ed modulated signal is con/erted 3ac: to digital stream o1 3its 3y the process o1 demodulation.

Figure 2-15 6se of bot analog and digital transmission for a computer to computer call. Con#ersion is done b( t e modems

>arious parameters o1 sine

a/e carrier li:e amplitude! 1requency! or phase can 3e

modulated to transmit in1ormation. 5n amplitude modulation! t o di11erent /oltage le/els are used to represent 3its < and 1. 5n frequency modulation! also :no n as frequency shift /eying! t o *or more, di11erent tones or 1requencies are used. 5n the simplest 1orm o1 phase modulation! the carrier a/e is systematically shi1ted $&! 13&! 22&! or 31& degrees at uni1ormly spaced inter/als. Kach phase shi1t transmits 2 3its o1 in1ormation. Figure 2.1$ illustrates the three 1orms o1 modulation.

Data Communication


Figure 2-1$ &a+ % binar( signal. &b+ %mplitude modulation &c+ Fre'uenc( Modulation &d+ P ase Modulation

To go to higher and higher speeds! it is not possi3le to 4ust :eep increasing the sampling rate. The "yquist theorem says that e/en ith a per1ect 5111-78 line * hich a dial-up telephone is not,! there is no point in sampling the signal 1aster than (<<< ;D as all 1requency components higher than 3<<<;D in the input signal are going to 3e 1iltered out 3y the 3<<<;D telephone line. Thus all research on 1aster modem is 1ocused on getting more 3its per sample *i.e. per 3aud,. 'ost modems use a com3ination o1 modulation techniques to transmit multiple 3its per-3aud. 5n Figure 2.1&a origin. 5n Figure 2.1&3 e see dots at <!6<! 10<! and 2-< degrees! ith t o amplitude le/els per phase shi1t. 9mplitude is indicated 3y the distance 1rom the e see a di11erent modulation scheme! in hich 1( di11erent com3inations o1 amplitude and phase shi1t are used.

C apter 2! Data Transmission


Figure 2-1) &a+ 5 bits 9 baud modulation &b+ $ bits 9 baud modulation

"um3er o1 com3ination used ill 3e a po er o1 2 and each sample or 3aud represents num3er o1 3its that is equal to the po er. For e.ample com3ination each 3aud represents 3 3its and 3aud represents $ 3its. The scheme o1 Figure 2.1&3 ith 0 @ 2 3 di11erent ith 1( @ 2$ di11erent com3ination each hen used to transmit 6(<< 3ps

o/er a 2$<< 3aud line is called 01. *Ouadrature 9mplitude 'odulation,.

2.2 Transmission .edia

The transmission medium is the physical path 3et een transmitter and recei/er in a data transmission system. Transmission media can 3e classi1ied as guided or unguided. 5n 3oth cases! communication is in the 1orm o1 electromagnetic With guided media! the a/es. a/es are guided along a solid medium! such as copper

t isted pair! copper coa.ial ca3le! and optical 1i3er. The atmosphere and outer space are e.amples o1 unguided media that pro/ide a means o1 transmitting electromagnetic signals 3ut do not guide them7 this 1orm o1 transmission is usually re1erred to as "ireless transmission. The characteristics and quality o1 a data transmission are determined 3oth 3y the characteristics o1 the medium and the characteristics o1 the signal. 5n the case o1 guided media! the medium itsel1 is more important in determining the limitations o1 transmission. For unguided media! the 3and idth o1 the signal produced 3y the transmitting Data Communication $6

antenna is more important than the medium in determining transmission characteristics. Bne :ey property o1 signals transmitted 3y antenna is directionality. 5n general! signals at lo er 1requencies are omnidirectional7 that is! the signal propagates in all directions 1rom the antenna. 9t higher 1requencies! it is possi3le to 1ocus the signal into a directional 3eam. 5n considering the design o1 data transmission systems! a :ey concern! generally! is data rate and distance2 the greater the data rate and distance! the 3etter. 9 num3er o1 design 1actors relating to the transmission medium and the signal determine the data rate and distance2 3 Band idth. 9ll other 1actors remaining constant! greater the 3and idth o1 the signal allo ed o/er the transmission line! higher the data rate that can 3e achie/ed. 3Transmission impairments. 5mpairments! such as attenuation! limit the distance. For guided media! t isted pair generally su11ers more impairment than coa.ial ca3le! hich in turn su11ers more than optical 1i3er. 3 4nterference. 5nter1erence 1rom competing signals in o/erlapping 1requency 3ands can distort or ipe out a signal. 5nter1erence is o1 particular concern 1or ith guided media. For guided media! unguided media! 3ut it is also a pro3lem

inter1erence can 3e caused 3y emanations 1rom near3y ca3les. For e.ample! t isted pair ca3les are o1ten 3undled together! and conduits o1ten carry multiple ca3les. 5nter1erence can also 3e e.perienced 1rom unguided transmissions. Eroper shielding o1 a guided medium can minimiDe this pro3lem. 3&um+er of recei,ers. 9 guided medium can 3e used to construct a point-to-point lin: or a shared lin: data rate. ith multiple attachments. 5n the latter case! each attachment introduces some attenuation and distortion on the line! limiting distance and=or

C apter 2! Data Transmission


Figure 2-1, 2lectromagnetic spectrum and its uses for communication

Figure 2.1( depicts the electromagnetic spectrum and indicates the 1requencies at hich /arious guided media and unguided transmission techniques operate. 5n this section! e e.amine these guided and unguided alternati/es.

2.2.1 5uided Transmission .edia

For guided transmission media! the transmission capacity! in terms o1 either data-rate or 3and idth! depends critically on the distance and on hether the medium is pointto-point or multipoint such as in a local area net or: *%9",. Ta3le 3.1 indicates the type o1 per1ormance typical 1or the common guided medium 1or long-distance pointto-point applications T%:32 2.1 Point-to-point transmission c aracteristics of guided media. Transmission medium Total data rate T isted pair $ '3ps Coa.ial ca3le &<< '3ps Bptical 1i3er 2)3ps '3ps2 'ega 3its per second @ 1<( 3ps! ';D2 'ega ;ertD per second @ 1<( ;D! Band idth %epeater spacing 3 ';D 2 to 1< :m 3&< ';D 1 to 1< :m 2 );D 1< to 1<< :m )3ps2 )iga 3its per second @ 1<6 3ps );D2 )iga ;ertD per second @ 1<6 ;D

The three! guided media commonly used 1or data transmission are t"isted pair, coaxial cable, and optical fiber.

T isted 6air
The oldest and still most common transmission medium is t isted pair. 5t is also the Data Communication &1

least-e.pensi/e one.

Figure 2.1-. T"isted pair cable.

9 t isted pair consists o1 t o insulated copper pattern! 4ust li:e a D"9 molecule. 9

ires arranged in a regular spiral rapping them

ire pair acts as a single communication lin:.

Typically! a num3er o1 these pairs are 3undled together into ca3le 3y

in a tough protecti/e sheath. B/er longer distances! ca3les may contain hundreds o1 pairs. The t isting tends to decrease the cross-tal: inter1erence 3et een ad4acent pairs in a ca3le. "eigh3oring pairs in a 3undle typically ha/e some hat di11erent t ist lengths to enhance the cross-tal: inter1erence. 5t is the most commonly used medium in the telephone net or: as or:horse 1or communications 3y t isted-pair ell as 3eing the ithin 3uildings. 5n the telephone system! indi/idual

residential telephone sets are connected to the local telephone e.change! or end office! ire. These are re1erred to as subscriber loops. Within an o11ice hich goes to the 3uilding! each telephone is also connected to a t isted pair!

in-house pri/ate 3ranch e.change *EBP, system. T isted pair is much less e.pensi/e than the other commonly used guided transmission media *coa.ial ca3le! optical 1i3er, and is easier to or: ith. 5t is more limited in terms o1 data rate and distance. T isted pair may 3e used to transmit 3oth analog and digital signals. For analog signals! ampli1iers are required a3out e/ery & to ( :m. For digital signals! repeaters are required e/ery 2 or 3 :m. For point-to-point analog signaling! a 3and idth o1 up to a3out 2&< :;D is possi3le. This accommodates a num3er o1 /oice channels. For long-distance digital point-to-point signaling! data rates o1 up to a 1e commercially a/aila3le products. '3ps are possi3le7 1or /ery short distances! data rates o1 up to 1<<'3ps ha/e 3een achie/ed in

Coaxial Ca+le
Coa.ial ca3le! li:e t isted pair! consists o1 t o conductors! 3ut is constructed di11erently to permit it to operate o/er a hollo ider range o1 1requencies. 5t consists o1 a ire conductor. The outer cylindrical conductor that surrounds a single inner

C apter 2! Data Transmission


inner conductor is held in place 3y either regularly spaced insulating rings or a solid dielectric material. The outer conductor is co/ered ith a 4ac:et or shield. 9 single coa.ial ca3le has a diameter o1 1rom <.$ to a3out 1 in. Because o1 its shielding! concentric construction! coa.ial ca3le is much less suscepti3le to inter1erence and cross-tal: than is t isted pair. Coa.ial ca3le can 3e used o/er longer distances and supports more stations on a shared line than t isted pair.

Figure 2-1. Coaxial cable.

Coa.ial ca3le is perhaps the most /ersatile transmission medium and is en4oying idespread use in a ide /ariety o1 applications7 the most important o1 these are Tele/ision distri3ution %ong-distance telephone transmission #hort-run computer system lin:s %ocal 9rea "et or:s

Coa.ial ca3le is spreading rapidly as a means o1 distri3uting T> signals to indi/idual homes - ca3le T>. 9 ca3le T> system can carry doDens or e/en hundreds o1 T> channels at ranges up to a 1e tens o1 miles. Coa.ial ca3le has traditionally 3een an important part o1 the long-distance telephone net or:. Today! it is getting replaced 3y optical 1i3er! terrestrial micro a/e! and satellite. 8sing 1requency-di/ision! a coa.ial ca3le can carry o/er 1<!<<< /oice channels simultaneously. Coa.ial ca3le is also commonly used 1or short-range connections 3et een de/ices. 8sing digital signaling! coa.ial ca3le can 3e used to pro/ide high-speed 5=B channels on computer systems. 9nother application area 1or coa.ial ca3le is local area net or:s. Coa.ial ca3le can support a large num3er o1 de/ices ith a /ariety o1 data and tra11ic types! o/er distances that encompass a single 3uilding or a comple. o1 3uildings. Coa.ial ca3le is used to transmit 3oth analog and digital signals. Coa.ial ca3le has

Data Communication


1requency characteristics that are superior to those o1 t isted pair! and can hence 3e used e11ecti/ely at higher 1requencies and data rates. The principal constraints on per1ormance are attenuation! thermal noise! and inter modulation noise. For long-distance transmission o1 analog signals! ampli1iers are needed e/ery 1e :ilometers! ith closer spacing required i1 higher 1requencies are used. The usa3le spectrum 1or analog signaling e.tends to a3out $<< ';D. For digital signaling! repeaters are needed e/ery :ilometer or so! ith closer spacing needed 1or higher data rates.

7ptical transmission system and 7ptical Fi+er.

9n optical transmission system has three components7 the light source! the transmission medium! and the detector. Con/entionally! a pulse o1 light indicates a 3it 1 and a3sence o1 light indicates 3it <. Transmission medium is an ultra thin 1i3er o1 glass. The transmitter generates the light pulses 3ased on the input electrical signal. The detector regenerates the electrical signal 3ased on the light signal it detects on the transmission medium. By attaching a light source to one end o1 an optical 1i3er and a detector to the other! e ha/e an unidirectional data transmission s(stem that accepts an electrical signal! con/erts and transmits it 3y light pulse! and then recon/erts the output to an electrical signal at the recei/ing end.

Figure 2-10 ;ptical fiber 9n optical 1i3er is a thin *2 to 12& nm M nana meter M 1< -6 meter,! 1le.i3le medium capa3le o1 conducting an optical ray. >arious glasses and plastics can 3e used to ma:e optical 1i3ers. The lo est losses ha/e 3een o3tained using 1i3ers o1 ultrapure 1used silica. 8ltrapure 1i3er is di11icult to manu1acture7 higher-loss multicomponent glass 1i3ers are more economical and still pro/ide good per1ormance. Elastic 1i3er is e/en less costly and can 3e used 1or short-haul lin:s! 1or hich moderately high losses are

C apter 2! Data Transmission


accepta3le. 9n optical 1i3er ca3le has a cylindrical shape and consists o1 three concentric sections2 the core! the cladding! and the 4ac:et. The core is the innermost section and consists o1 one or more /ery thin strands! or 1i3ers! made o1 glass or plastic. Kach 1i3er is surrounded 3y its o"n cladding, a glass or plastic coating that has optical properties di11erent 1rom those o1 the core. The outermost layer! surrounding one or a 3undle o1 cladded 1i3ers! is the <acket. The 4ac:et is composed o1 plastic and other material layered to protect against moisture! a3rasion! crushing and other en/ironmental dangers. Bne o1 the most signi1icant technological 3rea:throughs in data transmission has 3een the de/elopment o1 practical 1i3er optic communications systems. Bptical 1i3er already en4oys considera3le use in long-distance telecommunications. The continuing impro/ements in per1ormance and decline in prices! together ith the inherent ad/antages o1 optical 1i3er! ha/e made it increasingly attracti/e 1or local area net"orking and metropolitan net"orks. The 1ollo ing characteristics distinguish optical 1i3er 1rom t isted pair or coa.ial ca3le2 5reater capacity. The potential 3and idth! and hence data rate o1 optical 1i3er is immense7 data rates o1 2 )3ps o/er tens o1 :ilometers ha/e 3een demonstrated. Compare this capa3ility to the practical ma.imum o1 hundreds o1 '3ps o/er a3out 1 :m 1or coa.ial ca3le and 4ust a 1e tens o1 meters 1or t isted pair. Smaller si#e and lighter eight. Bptical 1i3ers are considera3ly thinner than coa.ial ca3le or 3undled t isted-pair ca3le - at least an order o1 magnitude thinner 1or compara3le in1ormation-transmission capacity. For cramped conduits in 3uildings and underground along pu3lic rights-o1- ay! the ad/antage o1 small siDe is considera3le. The corresponding reduction in eight reduces structural support requirements. )o er attenuation. 9ttenuation is signi1icantly lo er 1or optical 1i3er than 1or coa.ial ca3le or t isted pair and is constant o/er a ide range. 'lectromagnetic isolation. Bptical 1i3er systems are not a11ected 3y e.ternal electromagnetic 1ields. Thus! the system is not /ulnera3le to inter1erence! impulse noise! or cross-tal:. By the same to:en! 1i3ers do not radiate energy! there3y causing little inter1erence ith other equipment and thus pro/iding a high degree o1 security Data Communication && '3ps o/er 1 :m or up to 1<< '3ps o/er a 1e

1rom ea/esdropping. 5n addition! 1i3er is inherently di11icult to tap. 5reater repeater spacing. Fe er repeaters mean lo er cost and 1e er sources o1 error. The per1ormance o1 optical 1i3er systems 1rom this point o1 /ie that achie/es a data rate o1 3.& )3ps o/er a distance o1 310 :m has 3een steadily impro/ing. For e.ample! 9TQT has de/eloped a 1i3er transmission system ithout repeaters. Coa.ial and t isted-pair systems generally ha/e repeaters e/ery 1e :ilometers.

2.2.2 "ireless 8%adio9 Transmission

+adio encompasses the electromagnetic spectrum in the range o1 3 R;D to 3<< );D. 5n radio communications the signal is transmitted into the air or space! using an antenna that radiates energy at some carrier 1requency. For e.ample! in O9' modulation the in1ormation sequence determines a point in the signal constellation that speci1ies the amplitude and phase o1 the cosine a/e that is transmitted. Depending on the 1requency and the antenna! this energy can propagate in either a unidirectional or omni-directional 1ashion. 5n the unidirectional case a properly aligned antenna recei/es the modulated signal! and an associated recei/er in the direction o1 the transmission reco/ers the original in1ormation. 5n the omnidirectional case any recei/er ith an antenna in the area o1 co/erage can pic: up the signal. +adio communication systems are su34ect to a /ariety o1 transmission impairments. The attenuation in radio lin:s /aries logarithmically ith the distance. 9ttenuation 1or radio systems also increases recei/er ith rain1all. +adio systems are su34ect to multipath 1ading and inter1erence. 'ultipath 1ading re1ers to the inter1erence that results at a hen t o or more /ersions o1 the same signal arri/e at slightly di11erent ill cancel each other. 'ultipath 1ading can result in ide times 3ecause o1 re1lections 1rom di11erent o34ects. 51 the arri/ing signals di11er in polarity! then they 1luctuations in the amplitude and phase o1 the recei/ed signal. 5nter1erence re1ers to energy that appears at the recei/er 1rom sources other than the transmitter. 5nter1erence can 3e generated 3y other users o1 the same 1requency 3and or 3y equipment that inad/ertently transmits energy outside its 3and and into the 3ands o1 ad4acent channels. 5nter1erence can seriously a11ect the per1ormance o1 radio systems! and 1or this reason regulatory 3odies apply strict requirements on the emission properties o1 electronic equipment.

C apter 2! Data Transmission


Figure 2.21 =adio 4pectra

Figure 2.2< gi/es the range o1 /arious 1requency 3ands and their applications. The 1requency 3ands are classi1ied according to a/elengths. Thus the lo 1requency *%F, 3and spans the range 3< :;D to 3<< :;D! hich corresponds to a a/elength o1 1 :m to 1< :m! hereas the e.tremely high 1requency *K;F, 3and occupies the range 1rom a/elengths o1 1 millimeter to 1 centimeter. "ote 3< to 3<< );D corresponding to

that the progression o1 1requency 3ands in the logarithmic 1requency scale ha/e increasingly larger 3and idths! 1or e.ample! the band 1rom 1<11 to 1<12 ;D has a 3and idth o1 <.6 . 1<12 ;D! hereas the 3and 1rom 1<& to 1<( ;D has a 3and idth o1 <.6 . 1<( ;D. The propagation properties o1 radio the >%F! %F! and 'F 3ands 1ollo a/es. >%F a/es /ary ith the 1requency. +adio a/es at a/es! the sur1ace o1 the earth in the 1orm o1 ground a/es in the ;F 3and are

a/es can 3e detected at distances up to a3out 1<<< :m! and 'F

1or e.ample! 9' radio! at much shorter distances. +adio a/es are detecta3le only Finally! radio

re1lected 3y the ionosphere and can 3e used 1or long-distance communications. These ithin certain speci1ic distances 1rom the transmitter. a/es in the >;F 3and and higher are not re1lected 3ac: 3y the

ionosphere and are detecta3le only ithin line-o1-sight. Data Communication &-

5n general! radio 1requencies 3elo

1 );D are more suita3le 1or omnidirectional

applications. For e.ample! paging systems *beepers, are an omnidirectional application that pro/ides one- ay communications. Cordless telephones are e.ample o1 an omnidirectional application that pro/ides t o- ay communications. ;ere a simple 3ase station connects to a telephone outlet and relays signaling and /oice in1ormation to a cordless phone. This technology allo s the user to mo/e around in an area o1 a 1e tens o1 meters hile tal:ing on the phone. Bther applications o1 ireless transmission are gi/en 3elo . Cellular Communications Cellular telephone net or:s e.tend the 3asic telephone ser/ice to mobile users porta3le telephones. 8nli:e con/entional telephone ser/ice ith here a ca3le carries

signal 3et een the telephone e.change and the telephone equipment at the user end! here the radio signal is used 1or transmission. Both porta3le telephone equipment and the inter1ace at the telephone e.change are capa3le o1 3roadcasting and recei/ing the /oice signal hich modulates the radio carrier signal. There are t o standards in cellular telephone systems. )#' - )lo3al #ystem 1or 'o3ile *)#',! Code Di/ision 'ultiple 9ccess *CD'9, "ireless )1&s Wireless %9"s are another application o1 omnidirectional an e.tension to! or as an alternati/e 1or! a 8sing electromagnetic ired %9" ireless communications. 9 Wireless %9" *W%9", is a 1le.i3le data communication system implemented as ithin a 3uilding or campus. a/es! W%9"s transmit and recei/e data o/er the air!

minimiDing the need 1or ired connections. Thus! W%9"s com3ine data connecti/ity ith user mo3ility! and! through simpli1ied con1iguration! ena3le mo/a3le %9"s. 5n recent past! W%9"s ha/e gained strong popularity. Wireless %9"s use electromagnetic air a/es *radio and in1rared, to communicate in1ormation 1rom one point to another accurately e.tracted at the recei/ing end. 'ultiple radio carriers can in the same space at the same time inter1ering ith each other i1 the radio ithout a/es are transmitted on di11erent radio &0 ithout relying on any physical connection. The data 3eing transmitted is superimposed on the radio carrier so that it can 3e

C apter 2! Data Transmission

1requencies. To e.tract data! a radio recei/er tunes in *or selects, one radio 1requency hile re4ecting all other radio signals on di11erent 1requencies.

Figure 2.21 >ireless 3%? 5n a typical W%9" con1iguration! a transmitter=recei/er *transcei/er, de/ice! called an access point! connects to the 3et een the W%9" and the ired net or: 1rom a 1i.ed location using standard Kthernet ca3le. 9t a minimum! the access point recei/es! 3u11ers! and transmits data ired net or: in1rastructure. 9 single access point can ithin a range o1 less than one support a small group o1 users and can 1unction

hundred to se/eral hundred 1eet. The access point *or the antenna attached to the access point, is usually mounted high 3ut may 3e mounted essentially any here that is practical as long as the desired radio co/erage is o3tained. Knd users access the W%9" through ireless %9" adapters! hich are implemented as EC cards in note3oo: computers! or use 5#9 or EC5 adapters in des:top computers! or 1ully integrated de/ices ithin hand-held computers.

")1& technology - Spread Spectrum

Data Communication



ireless %9" systems use spread-spectrum technology! a

ide3and radio

1requency technique de/eloped 3y the military 1or use in relia3le! secure! missioncritical communications systems. #pread-spectrum is designed to trade o11 3and idth e11iciency 1or relia3ility! integrity! and security.

Satellite Communications
Karly satellite communications systems can 3e /ie ed as micro a/e systems ith a

single repeater in the s:y. 9 *)eostationary, satellite is placed at an altitude o1 a3out 3(!<<< :m a3o/e the equator here its or3it is stationary relati/e to the rotation o1 the earth. 9 modulated micro a/e radio signal is 3eamed to the satellite on an uplin: carrier 1requency. 9 transponder in the satellite recei/es the uplin: signal! regenerates it! and 3eams it do n 3ac: to earth on a do nlin: carrier 1requency. 9 satellite typically contains 12 to 2< transponders so it can handle a num3er o1 simultaneous transmissions. Kach transponder typically handles a3out &< '3ps. #atellites operate in the $=(! 11=1$! and 2<=3< );D 3ands! here the 1irst num3er indicates the do nlin: 1requency and the second num3er the uplin: 1requency.

Figure 2.22 satellite Communication )eostationary satellite systems ha/e 3een used to pro/ide point-to-point digital

C apter 2! Data Transmission


communications to carry telephone tra11ic 3et een t o points. #atellite systems ha/e an ad/antage o/er 1i3er systems in situations esta3lished quic:ly or here communications needs to 3e here deploying the in1rastructure is too costly. #atellite

systems are inherently 3roadcast in nature! so they are also used to simultaneously 3eam tele/ision! and other signals! to a large num3er o1 users. #atellite systems are also used to reach mo3ile users ho roam ide geographical areas. Constellations o1 lo -earth or3it satellites *%KB#, are deployed. These include the 5ridium and Teledesic systems. The satellites are not stationary ith respect to the earth! 3ut they rotate in such a ay that there is continuous co/erage o1 the earth. The component satellites are interconnected 3y high-speed lin:s 1orming a net or: in the s:y.

2.: .ultiplexing
.ultiplexing in/ol/es the sharing o1 e.pensi/e net or: resources 3y se/eral connections or in1ormation 1lo s. The net or: resource o1 primary importance is 3and idth o1 the communication channel! hich is measured in ;ertD 1or analog transmission system and 3its=second 1or digital transmission system. ;ere e consider techniques that are used to share a set o1 transmission lines among a community o1 users.

Figure 2.25 Figure 2.23a sho s an e.ample three separate sets o1


here three pairs o1 users communicate 3y using

ires. This method 3ecomes ine11icient as the num3er o1 users a hich allo s this sharing.

increases. 9 3etter approach is to dynamically share the net or: resources among a community o1 users. Figure 2.233 sho When a user ants to communicate ith another user at the other end the

Data Communication


dynamically assigns a communication line 1or the duration o1 the call. When the call is completed! the transmission line is returned to the pool that is a/aila3le to meet ne connection requests. "ote that signaling is required 3et een t o to set up and terminate each call. These schemes can 3e di/ided into t o 3asic categories2 FD' 8Frequency !i,ision .ultiplexing9, and TD' *Time !i,ision .ultiplexing9. 5n FD' the 1requency spectrum is di/ided among the logical channels! ith each user ha/ing e.clusi/e possession o1 some 1requency 3and. 5n TD' the users ta:e turns *in a round ro3in,! each one periodically getting the entire 3and idth 1or a little 3urst o1 time.

2.:.1 Frequency-!i,ision .ultiplexing 8F!.9

#uppose that the transmission system line has a 3and idth that is much greater than the required 3y a single connection. For e.ample in Figure 2.2$ each user has a signal o1 W ;D and the channel that is a/aila3le is greater than 3W ;D. 5n such a case a/aila3le 3and idth can 3e shared 3y the indi/idual users and each user ill ha/e the required 3and idth at his disposal 1or the complete duration o1 allotment.

Figure 2.2$ Fre'uenc( Di#ision Multiplexing, FDM

5n Frequency-di,ision multiplexing 8F!.9, the 3and idth is di/ided into a num3er o1 1requency slots! each o1 hich can accommodate the signal o1 an indi/idual

C apter 2! Data Transmission


connection. The assigns a 1requency slot to each connection and uses modulation ith appropriate carrier 1requencies to place the signal o1 the di11erent connection in corresponding 1requency slot. This process results in an o/erall com3ined signal that carries all the connections as sho n in Figure 2.2$3. The com3ined signal is transmitted! and the reco/ers the signals corresponding to each connection. +educing the num3er o1 that need to 3e handled reduces the o/erall cost o1 the system. FD' as introduced in the telephone net or: in the 163<s. The 3asic analog com3ines 12 /oice channels in one line. Kach /oice signal occupies $ :;D o1 3and idth. The modulates each /oice signal so that it occupies a $ :;D slot in the 3and 3et een (< and 1<0 :;D. The com3ined signal is called a group. 9 hierarchy o1 analog multiple.ers has 3een de1ined. For e.ample! a supergroup *that carries (< /oice signals, is 1ormed 3y 1i/e groups! each o1 3and idth $0 :;D! into the 1requency 3and 1rom 312 to &&2 :;D. "ote that 1or the purposes o1! each group is treated as an indi/idual signal. Ten supergroups can then 3e multiple.ed to 1orm a mastergroup o1 (<< /oice signals that occupies the 3and &($ to 3<0$ :;D. >arious com3inations o1 mastergroups ha/e also 3een de1ined. Familiar e.amples o1 FD' are 3roadcast radio and 3roadcast ca3le tele/ision! here each station has an assigned 1requency 3and. #tations in 9'! F'! and tele/ision are assigned 1requency 3ands o1 1< :;D! 2<< :;D! and ( ';D! respecti/ely. FD' is also used in cellular telephony here a pool o1 1requency slots! typically o1 2& to 3< :;D ithin a geographic cell. Kach user is assigned a each! are shared 3y the users ires

1requency slot 1or each direction. "ote that in FD' the user in1ormation can 3e in analog or digital 1orm and that the in1ormation 1rom all the users 1lo s simultaneously.

2.:.2 Time !i,ision .ultiplexing T!.

4n time-di,ision multiplexing *TD',! the transmission 3et een the multiple.ers is pro/ided 3y a single high-speed digital transmission line. Kach connection produces a digital in1ormation 1lo that is then inserted into the high-speed line. For e.ample in Figure 2.2&a each connection generates a signal that produces one unit o1 in1ormation

Data Communication


e/ery 5T seconds. This unit o1 in1ormation could 3e a 3it! a 3yte! or a 1i.ed-siDe 3loc: o1 3its. Typically! the transmission line is organiDed into 1rames that in turn are di/ided into equal-siDed slots. For e.ample! in Figure 2.2&3 the transmission line can send one unit o1 in1ormation e/ery T seconds! and the com3ined signal has a 1rame structure that consists o1 three slots! one 1or each user. During connection setup each connection is assigned a slot that can accommodate the in1ormation produced 3y the connection.

Figure 2.2) Time Di#ision Multiplexing


as introduced in the telephone net or: in the early 16(<s. The T1 carrier

system that carries 2$ digital telephone connections is sho n in Figure 2.2(

Figure 2.2, Time Di#ision Multiplexing @ T1 Carrier 4(stem

2.:.$ "a,elength !i,ision .ultiplexing

C apter 2! Data Transmission


For 1i3er optic channels! a /ariation o1 1requency di/ision is used. 5t is called "!. 8"a,elength !i,ision .ultiplexing9. 9 simple ay o1 achie/ing FD' on 1i3ers is depicted in Figure 2.2-. ;ere t o 1i3ers come together at a prism *or more li:ely! a di11raction grating,! each ith its energy in a di11erent 3and. The t o 3eams are passed through the prism or grating! and com3ined onto a single shared 1i3er 1or transmission to a distant destination! here they are split again.

Figure 2.2- >a#elengt Di#ision Multiplexing >DM

There is really nothing ne

here. 9s long as each channel has its o n 1requency ith electrical FD' is that an optical system using a

range! and all the ranges are dis4oint! they can 3e multiple.ed together on the longhaul 1i3er. The only di11erence di11raction grating is completely passi/e! and thus highly relia3le. 5t should 3e noted that the reason WD' is popular is that the energy on a single 1i3er is typically only a 1e )igahertD *1< 6 ;D, ide 3ecause it is currently impossi3le to con/ert 3et een electrical and optical media any 1aster and since the 3and idth o1 a single 1i3er 3and is a3out 2&!<<< );D! there is great potential 1or many channels together o/er long-haul routes. 9 necessary condition! ho e/er! is that the incoming channels use di11erent 1requencies.

2.; Circuit S itching

Data Communication


9 net or: is 1requently represented as a cloud that connects multiple users as sho n in Figure 2.20a. 9 circuit-s itched net or: is a generaliDation o1 a physical ca3le in the sense that it pro/ides connecti/ity that allo s in1ormation to 1lo 3et een inputs and outputs to the net or:. 8nli:e a ca3le! ho e/er! a net or: is geographically distri3uted and consists o1 a graph o1 transmission lines *that is! lin:s, interconnected 3y s itches *nodes,.

Figure 2.2. ?et"ork consists of links and s"itc es

9s sho n in Figure 2.203! the 1unction o1 a circuit s itch is to trans1er the signal that arri/es at a gi/en input to an appropriate output. The interconnection o1 a sequence o1 transmission lin:s and circuit s itches ena3les the 1lo inputs and outputs in the net or:. o1 in1ormation 3et een

2.;.1 Space-!i,ision S itches

Space-di,ision s itches pro/ide a separate p (sical connection 3et een inputs and outputs so the di11erent signals are separated in space. Figure 2.26 sho s the cross3ar

C apter 2! Data Transmission


s itch!

hich is an e.ample o1 this type o1 s itch. The cross3ar s itch consists o1 an

? x ? array o1 crosspoints that can connect any input to any a/aila3le output. When a request comes in 1rom an incoming line 1or an outgoing line! the corresponding crosspoint is closed to ena3le in1ormation to 1lo 1rom the input to the output. The ords! connection requests are cross3ar s itch is said to 3e non+loc/ing< in other Connection requests are denied only engaged in another connection.

ne/er denied 3ecause o1 lac: o1 connecti/ity resources! that is! crosspoints. hen the requested outgoing line is already

Figure 2.20 Crossbar 4"itc

The comple.ity o1 the cross3ar s itch as measured 3y the num3er o1 cross-points is ?2. This num3er gro s quic:ly ith the num3er o1 input and output ports. Thus a e sho ho the num3er o1 1<<<-input-3y-1<<<-output s itch requires 1<(crosspoints! and a 1<<!<<< 3y 1<<!<<< s itch requires 1<1<crosspoints. 5n the ne.t section crosspoints can 3e reduced 3y using multistage s itches.

.ultistage S itches
Figure 2.3< sho s a multistage s itch that consists o1 three stages o1 smaller spacedi/ision s itches. The ? inputs are grouped into ?9n groups o1 n input lines. Kach group o1 n input lines enters a small s itch in the 1irst stage that consists o1 an n x n array o1 crosspoints. Kach input s itch has one line connecting it to each o1 k intermediate stage ?9n . ?9n s itches. Kach intermediate s itch in turn has one line connecting it to each o1 the ?9n s itches in the third stage. The latter s itches are

Data Communication


k x n. 5n e11ect each set o1 n input lines s ares : possible pat s to an( one of t e s"itc es at t e last stage, that is! the 1irst path goes through the 1irst intermediate s itch! the second path goes through the second intermediate s itch! and so on. The resulting multistage s itch is not necessarily non3loc:ing. For e.ample! i1 : A n, then as soon as a s itch in the 1irst stage has k connections! all other connections 3loc:ed. ill 3e

Figure 2.51 Multistage s"itc

The num3er o1 crosspoints required in a three-stage s itch is the sum o1 the 1ollo ing components2 ?9n input s itches . nk crosspoints=input s itch. k intermediate s itches . *"=n,2 crosspoints=intermediate s itch. ?9n output s itches . nk crosspoints=output s itch. 2?k ? k&?9n+2. The num3er o1 crosspoints required to ma:e the s itch nonblocking is 2?&2n A1, ? *2n-1+&?9n+2 The num3er o1 crosspoints can 3e minimiDed through the choice o1 group siDe n. By di11erentiating the a3o/e e.pression ith respect to n, e 1ind that the num3er o1 crosspoints is minimiDed i1 n S @ &?92+ 192. The minimum num3er o1 crosspoints is then $"**2",192 - 1,. We then see that the minimum num3er o1 crosspoints gro s at a

5n this case the total num3er o1 crosspoints is

C apter 2! Data Transmission


rate proportional to "1.)

hich is less than the ? 2 gro th rate o1 a cross3ar s itch.

2.;.2 Time-!i,ision S itches 5n the pre/ious section! e e.plained ho Time Di/ision ' *TD', could ithin a replace multiple physical lines 3y a single high-speed line. 5n TD' a slot

1rame corresponds to a single connection. The time-di/ision s itch uses time-slot interchange *TS4, technique to do the s itching operation. 5t 3asically s itches the time slots o1 the input 1rame in the output 1rame.

Figure 2.51 Time slot interc ange T4/ tec ni'ue in Time di#ision s"itc

Consider users 9 Q B


ishes to tal: to each other. #uppose 8ser 9 is assigned ill ta:e the data

slot 3 and user B is assigned slot & then the time di/ision s itch 1rame. 5n e11ect in1ormation 3its in the slot 3

in1ormation in the slot 3 in the input 1rame and puts it into the slot & in the output hich came 1rom user 9 is going into ay the slot allocated to the user B in the output 1rame. This results in the one

connection 1rom 9 to B. #imilarly the time di/ision s itch put the in1ormation in the slot & in the input 1rame to the slot 3 in the output 1rame resulting in connection 1rom B to 9. The de/elopment o1 the T#5 technique as crucial in completing the digitiDation o1 ere the telephone net or:. #tarting in 16(1 digital transmission techniques o11ice the digital streams

introduced in the trun:s that interconnected telephone central o11ices. 5nitially! at each ould 3e con/erted 3ac: to analog 1orm and s itched 3y

Data Communication


using space s itches o1 the type discussed a3o/e. The introduction o1 T#5 in digital time-di/ision s itches led to signi1icant reductions in cost and to impro/ements in per1ormance 3y o3/iating the need to con/ert 3ac: to analog 1orm. 'ost modern telephone 3ac:3one net or:s are no s itching. entirely digital in terms o1 transmission and

1, Di11erentiate 3et een a continuous signal and discrete signal. 2, What is a periodic signal? K.plain. 3, Discuss the 1requency domain concepts o1 electromagnetic signal. $, K.plain analog and digital repeaters. &, Brie1ly discuss hy digital transmission is pre1erred o/er analog transmission. (, What is "yquist sampling rate? -, Discuss #hannonTs channel capacity. 0, Discuss /arious line coding techniques. 6, What are modems? K.plain ho higher data rates are achie/ed in modems. 1<, K.plain di11erent modulation techniques. 11, %ist di11erent guided transmission mediums. Discuss properties o1 optical 1i3er ca3le. 12, Discuss propagation properties o1 /arious radio a/es. 13, %ist the application o1 Discuss t o o1 them. 1$, What is %ist the di11erent :ind o1 schemes. 1&, ;o Wa/elength Di/ision ' is di11erent 1rom Frequency Di/ision ' 1(, What is Circuit # itching? 1-, Discuss Cross3ar s itch. ;o 'ultistage # itches? 10, Discuss the or:ing o1 Time Di/ision ' the cross-points required are reduced in the ireless transmission o1 signal in data communication.

C apter 2! Data Transmission