UT D

CS6V81 Personal Communications Systems

Lecture 7 Third Generation (3G) Systems
4

Information Technologies Convergence
Mobility

Telecom Industry

Internet PC-LAN PC Desk-top computing

Infocom Industry

Computer Industry
Mainframes Electronic publishing and entertainment

Media Industry

Multimedia data communications are the driving force for IT convergence

2

1

Wireless Subscribers Worldwide
(in millions)
1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1995 2010 Year
3
Source: UMTS Forum

Rest of World Asia Pacific North America European Union

2000

2005

Wireless Data Service Usage Worldwide

4

2

Data support in 2G systems

BSC

PSTN

MSC
BSC IWF

Packet Or IP-Network

Limitations of 2G Systems
• Voice centric
– – – – Designed mainly for telephony application Circuit-switched CircuitHigh BER (Bit Error Rate) Low data bit rate (< 14.4kbps)

• Two many standards globally
– GSM, NA-TDMA, CDMA, PDC, PHS etc…. NAetc…

• Isolated networks
– MAP based – IS-41 based IS– Difficult to roam between these networks
6

3

Motivation for 3G
• 1.7B wireless subscribers by 2010 projected
– Exceed wireline access lines

• Increasing demand for high-speed data services highfrom anywhere
– Exponential growth of Internet traffic

• Increasing interest in multimedia services for wireless • 2G systems do not work together (usually)
– Many standards – Need to converge different regional and national 2G systems
7

Wireless Networks Evolution
Present Future

• • • • • •

Narrowband Voice Low data rate Circuit-switched CircuitMulti-standards MultiHierarchical, isolated networks

• • • • • •

Wideband Multimedia High data rates Packet-switched PacketHarmonized standards Integrated Networks

4

Third Generation History
• ITU started studies of 3G systems as Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Systems (FPLMTS) • Changed to IMT-2000 (International Mobile IMTTelecommunications for Year 2000) in 1997 • To evolve and converge 2nd generation systems to support wireless multimedia
– Global commercial roll-outs planned for 2001-2003 roll20019

Third Generation Vision
• Common spectrum worldwide
– 1920-1980 MHz and 2110-2170 MHz 19202110-

• Wide range of new services
– – Data centric (e.g. Internet) and multimedia oriented Data bit rates up to 2 Mb/s

• • • •

Seamless global roaming Improved security and performance Support a variety of terminal (from PDA to desktop) Intensive use of Intelligent Network (IN) technology
10

5

The 3G Environment
Global Satellite Suburban Urban In- Building Home-Cell Pico-Cell

Micro-Cell Macro-Cell

Multimedia Terminals

Global Inter-Network Roaming
Seamless End-to-End Service

11

Multimedia Data Rate Requirements
bps 1M Internet/ Intranet Access 100 k
Video Image

Video
High Quality Medium Quality Slow Scan/ Pictures

10 k

Voice

Text

1k

P.O.S./ Telemetry, SMS, E-mail 12

6

Coverage and Data Rate
(bps) RLL 2-3 GHz (High Bit-rates)

W-LAN (>5 GHz) 2M

Flexibility
Variable Bit-rates & Packet (IP) Asymmetric Rates

384 K Cordless 64 K 10 K Local Cellular/PCS++ Cellular/PCS+ Cellular/PCS Wide Area MSS 13 IMT-2000

3G Systems Data Capabilities
• Wideband “bit pipe” between communicating parties
– Up to 384 kbps in wide areas – Up to 2 Mbps in limited areas

• IP connectivity from end-to-end
IP .

– Data (& voice) – Real-time & non real-time Realreal-

..

... WWW IP ...

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7

Potential 3G Applications
• Interactive news delivery (voice, video, e-mail, egraphics) • Voice/High-quality audio Voice/High• Still photography • Video • Data transmission services • Internet gaming • Interactive audio • File transfer from intranet • Voice/CD–quality music Voice/CD– • Multimedia e-mail e(graphics, voice, video) • Video conferencing • Web browser
– On-line services On– Time schedules – Global Positioning Services/Geographical Information Systems
15

3G Spectrum Allocation
1850 1900 1950 2000
2010 MHz

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

ITU Allocations
1885 MHz

IMT 2000
2025 MHz DECT

IMT 2000
2110 MHz 2170 MHz MSS 2170 MHz

Europe

GSM 1800

UMTS
WLL

MSS 1980 MHz

UMTS

1880 MHz 1850 MHz WLL

China

GSM 1800
1885 MHz

IMT 2000

MSS 1980 MHz

IMT 2000

MSS

1885 MHz 1918 MHz

Japan Korea (w/o PHS) North America

PHS 1895 MHz

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000
M D S

MSS

2160 MHz
A A D B E F C

PCS
A A D B E F C

MSS

Reserve

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

16

8

2G to 3G Evolution

17

Who’s Who in 2G to 3G Evolution

18

9

CDMA Data Evolution
Cdma2000 3xRTT 1xRTT Advanced 3G services up to 2 Mbps

IS-95B ISDN to 64 kbps

Advanced multimedia up to 384 kbps

19

CDMA
• CDMA is leading second generation air interface systems in US and Korea • cdma2000 1xRTT (Radio Transmission Technology)
– – – – – – – uses same carrier space as IS-95 cdmaOne (1.25MHz) ISpushed by Qualcomm data rates up to 307 kb/s 2.5G competes directly with W-CDMA WMulti Carrier – uses three cdmaOne carrier spaces up to 2 Mbps
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• cdma2000 3xRTT

10

GSM Data Evolution
Functionality

IMT-2000
WCDMA EDGE

GSM+

GPRS 124-171K

HSCSD
<115K

GSM IN Circuit Data
<14.4K

SMS Speech

Time 21

GPRS General Packet Radio Services
• A data networking technology – high speed mobile data (wireless Internet) services (up to 170 kbps - in theory) – using the GSM air interface – co-exists with 2G systems such as GSM and IScoIS136 • A stepping stone towards 3G systems for GSM and IS-136 networks (2.5G) IS-

11

GPRS Overview
GPRS provides mobile subscribers with ability to connect to Public Data Networks such as IP (the Internet) or X.25

IP GPRS Network X.25

GPRS Network Architecture

24

12

GPRS Enhanced BSC
The BSC is enhanced by a Packet Control Unit (PCU)

BSC

SGSN

GPRS Network

RAN

GPRS Network Architecture Two New Elements
SGSN = Serving GPRS Support Node

BSC

SGSN

GPRS

GGSN = Gateway GPRS Support Node GPRS

GGSN

Internet

13

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
• • • • External interfaces ‘Traditional’ Gateway functionality Subscriber address publishing Routing
GGSN X.25 Network

IP Network

27

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
• • • • • Encryption, Authentication, and IMEI check Mobility management Logical Link management toward the MS Billing Data IP Network Packet routing and transfer (relay)
SGSN GGSN X.25 Network
28

14

Backbone Network
• Links GSN nodes • Standardized using IP
SGSN GGSN X.25 Network Backbone (IP) Network IP Network

29

GPRS Network Reference Model
PSTN MSC/VLR
HLR

A

Gs Gb

Gr

Gci Gn Gi GGSN PDN

BSC

SGSN

15

GPRS Protocol Stacks
Application IP/X.25
Relay

Application IP/X.25 GTP

SNDCP SNDCP LLC
Relay

SNDCP

GTP

LLC BSSGP

UDP/ TCP IP L2 L1

UDP/ TCP IP L2 L1

RLC

RLC

BSSGP

MAC Physical

MAC Physical

Network service L1bis

Network Service L1bis

MS

Um

BSS

Gb

SGNS

Gn

GGNS 31

Packet Routing in GPRS

32

16

GPRS Internet Connection

33

UMTS Network Architecture
UTRAN
RNS RNS
Uu Iur

SCP SCP
INAP/CAP

MAP MAP

HLR HLR

Mobility Management IN
MAP

NodeB NodeB I ub

RNS RNS
Iu

3G MSC U-MSC 3G SGSN

ISUP

GMSC GMSC GGSN GGSN

PSTN

GTP

Radio Access Network

Internet

Core Network
3G Third Generation CAMEL Customized Applications for Mobile Networks Enhanced Logic CAP CAMEL Application Part GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node GTP GPRS Tunnel Protocol HLR Home Location Register INAP Intelligent Network Application Part ISUP MAP MSC Node B RNC SCP SGSN U-MSC ISDN User Part Mobile Application Part Mobile Switching Center Base Station Radio Network Controller Service Control Point Serving GPRS Support Node 34 UMTS Mobile Switching Centre

17

UMTS Protocol Stacks
Application

E.g., IP, PPP, OSP Relay PDCP RLC MAC L1
Uu

E.g., IP, PPP, OSP Relay GTP-U UDP/IP AAL5 ATM
Iu-PS

PDCP RLC MAC L1

GTP-U UDP/IP AAL5 ATM

GTP-U UDP/IP L2 L1
Gn

GTP-U UDP/IP L2 L1
Gi

MS

UTRAN

3G-SGSN

3G-GGSN
35

UMTS Market Introduction Plan
• 2000-2001 System Development Phase 1 2000• 2002 Commercial Use Phase 1 (Basic Services)
– – – – – High bit rate bearer services up to 2 Mbps Negotiated traffic and QoS characteristics Bursty and asymmetric traffic Integrated or stand-alone 3G MSC & 3G SGSN standMulti-vendor environment Multi-

• Being delayed in Europe and in North America • Asia (Japan and Korea) is leading the world in this front • Japan‘s WCDMA and Korea‘s cdma2000 networks are Japan‘ Korea‘ deployed since Oct 2001
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18

UMTS Evolution
WCDMA UTRAN
BS BS BS BS Iub RNC RNCIur

Circuit side

MSC/VLR
(optional) HLR Iu

GMSC SCP GGSN
Packet side (GPRS)

PSTN/ISDN

3G-SGSN

Internet

WCDMA Mobile

UMTS Release 1999
WCDMA/VoIP Mobile WCDMA UTRAN
BS BS BS BS Iub RNC Iur RNC

NEW ! MSC/VLR HLR
IP transport option for SS7

CS Core
GMSC

NEW !

IP Multimedia Core SCP
CSCF CSCF MGCF MGCF SGW SGW MGW MGW PSTN/ ISDN (optional)

BS BS BS BS

Abis BSC BSC

EDGE (GSM) BSS Iu EDGE/VoIP Mobile

3G-SGSN

GGSN

Enhanced PS Core
NEW !

Internet
37

UMTS Release 4/5

R5 System Level Architecture
Application servers Gr+ MAP+ Iu-PS Iu-

HSS CAP

SCP

OSA

Service capability servers

WIN

3G RAN

SGSN GGSN

RAS

IPv6 All-IP Core AllFW

TSGW MGW RSGW MAP IS-41 ISISUP

PSTN
Legacy Cellular

WLAN, DSL, cable...
SIP H.248 CSCF MGCF MRF

Internet
Multimedia Resource Function Remote Access Server (DSLAM, head end…) Roaming Signaling Gateway Transport Signaling Gate 38

CSCF HSS MGCF MGW

Call State Control Function Home Subscriber Server Media Gateway Control Function Media Gateway

MRF RAS RSGW TSGW

19

UMTS Domain Definitions

39

Layered Approach for Control
SCP OSA, VHE, etc. Service Layer

Legacy Mobile Signaling Networks

CSCF RSGW CSCF MGCF HSS MRF

Application Layer

External IP Networks

TSGW MGW PSTN/ External CS Networks

3GTransport 3GSGSN Layer

3G3GGGSN

RAS

3G RAN

WLAN, DSL, Cable, etc.

40

20

New Function: QoS
RNC Node B Iu

Different channel types (dedicated/common)
3G-SGSN

AAL2 connections

DiffServ. on transport level IP
Data Network (Internet)

PS Domain Gn Inter-PLMN 3G-GGSN Backbone Network Gn IP

External QoS mechanisms

Firewall

QoS infrastructure in R4 End-to-End QoS is required in R5 End- to-

41

Wireless Internet Application Protocols
• Wireless systems have various constraints
– Small terminal display – High bit error rate

• High-level protocols for Internet Access specifically for wireless systems are required • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) • iMode
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21

WAP Characteristics
• Uses WML as page description language
– Wireless Markup Language – Divides content into “cards” equal to one telephone cards” screen

• Simplified but incompatible form of HTML • Requests and responses are encoded/decoded before transmission over RF channels

43

WAP Operation
Internet Web Content Server

Non Mobile Internet User WAP Gateway Mobile Terminal

Mobile Network
WAP simulator

Database Server

SOURCE: DANET

44

22

WWW Programming Model

45

WAP Programming Model

46

23

iMode
• A service of NTT DoCoMo in Japan
– ドコモ means “anywhere” anywhere” – More than 18 Millions user (Jan 2001), 50,000 new user every day

• Japan is the wireless Internet leader thank to iMode

SOURCE: EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN K.K.

47

iMode Characteristics
• Use packet data on radio transport
– Currently slow - 9.6 Kbps – 3G will raise to 384 K

• Uses cHTML (compact HTML)
– – – same rendering model as HTML no tables or frames low memory footprint

• Services:
– telephony, SMS, email, location tracking – Internet browsing for banking and ticketing – Gaming

• More information on I-Mode: Ihttp://www.privateline.com/imode/imode.htm http://www.privateline.com/imode/imode.htm
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24

iMode Operation
INFO PROVIDER

iMode Servers
HTTP
BILLING DB

INTERNET IP

USER DB

DoCoMo Packet Network
(PDC-P) (PDC-

PACKET DATA

IP

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