CONCERT PROGRAM

January 31-February 1-2, 2014
Jaap van Zweden, conductor

BEETHOVEN Symphony No. 5 in C minor, op. 67 (1807-08) (1770-1827)
Allegro con brio Andante con moto Allegro— Allegro INTERMISSION

SHOSTAKOVICH Symphony No. 5 in D minor, op. 47 (1937) (1906-1975)
Moderato Allegretto Largo Allegro non troppo

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Jaap van Zweden is the Lucy and Stanley Lopata Guest Artist. The concert of Friday, January 31, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Karen and Bert Condie III. The concert of Saturday, February 1, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Mr. and Mrs. Wilfred R. Konneker. The concert of Saturday, February 1, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Mr. and Mrs. Lynn Britton. The concert of Sunday, February 2, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Dr. William H. Danforth. Pre-Concert Conversations are presented by Washington University Physicians. These concerts are sponsored by Thompson Coburn LLP. These concerts are part of the Wells Fargo Advisors Series. Large print program notes are available through the generosity of Dielmann Sotheby’s International Realty and are located at the Customer Service table in the foyer.

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FROM THE STAGE
Diana Haskell, Associate Principal Clarinet, on Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 5: “The clarinets have a lot of noodly runs—a lot of fast notes up high in the screech area. It’s like screaming, in a sense. Shostakovich channeled his frustrations and anger at Stalin’s government in the music. One of his common ways of getting out those frustrations was wild passages in the winds, usually played in unison. To play it all in tune and to make it sound good is difficult. “I’m playing the E-flat clarinet part. With the E-flat you feel very alone. There are a lot of exposed solos, especially in the second movement. The most prominent solo is quirky, a little sarcastic, a little in-your-face, but also a little lost.”

Shostakovich

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A PAIR OF FIVES
BY PA U L SC H I AVO

TIMELINKS
1807-08 BEETHOVEN Symphony No. 5 in C minor, op. 67 Napoleon forms alliance with Russia 1937 SHOSTAKOVICH Symphony No. 5 in D minor, op. 47 Eight Soviet Army officers executed as part of Stalin’s purges

The symphonic literature encompasses a number of traditions. We can note those of the nature symphony (Beethoven’s “Pastoral” and Mahler’s Third Symphonies are notable examples) and the travelogue symphony (Mendelssohn’s “Scottish” and “Italian,” Schumann’s “Rhenish,” and Vaughan Williams’ “London” Symphonies), as well as the superstition about the “fatal” ninth symphony, which so many great composers failed to either attain or surpass. But of these and other symphonic traditions, none is so striking as that of the triumphant Symphony No. 5. Not all composers cast their Fifth Symphonies as dramas of crisis and overcoming; Schubert and Dvořák are two outstanding symphonists who wrote bright, genial compositions of this type. But Beethoven, Tchaikovsky, Mahler, Shostakovich, Prokofiev, and others used the occasion of their Fifth Symphonies to create music of strife or pathos progressing to exultant finales. That progression makes for a musical drama that is both elemental and thrilling. Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 in C minor is the source of this tradition, the archetypal symphony of struggle and victory. Here the drama is clear and unambiguous. But such is not always the case. With Dmitry Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 5 in D minor, the circumstances attending the music’s creation have called its apparently triumphant finale into question.

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LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN Symphony No. 5 in C minor, op. 67 MUSIC OF FATE AND TRIUMPH No orchestral composition has gripped the popular imagination quite like Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony. Through countless performances, recordings, and even parodies, the famous four-note motif that opens this work has become familiar to millions of people, including many who have little other knowledge of symphonic music. Moreover, the piece has acquired a heavy gloss of extra-musical interpretation. It has been proposed as a mirror of one of Beethoven’s romantic relationships, as an allegory of Olympian strife, and more. Such descriptions generally say more about the imaginations of commentators than about the work itself. Still, this symphony demands to be heard as more than “pure music,” and not only because of the composer’s tantalizing description of its initial figure as “Fate knocking at the door.” More than any piece of music, the Fifth Symphony, with its strife-torn first movement and triumphant finale, gives vivid expression to the ideal of heroism that was a central theme of 19th-century Romanticism. Of course, the concept of individual heroism was not just an abstraction for Beethoven. The composer came of age during a tumultuous and idealistic period. The aristocracy that had presided over music-making—and most everything else in Europe since the Renaissance—was being challenged both politically and intellectually. Revolutions in America and France had turned the theories of the Enlightenment into an exciting—and to some—an alarming reality, and a sense of freedom and new possibilities was taking hold throughout the Western world. These developments strongly affected Beethoven and provided a larger context for the increasingly restive spirit of his music after the turn of the 19th century. More personally, there is the matter of Beethoven’s own struggles. During the last years of the 18th century he began to notice the deterioration of his hearing. By 1802, when he made his first sketches for the Fifth Symphony, his alarm at his growing deafness had reduced him to anguish and despair—so much so that
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Born December 16, 1770, Bonn Died March 26, 1827, Vienna First Performance December 22, 1808, in Vienna, the composer conducted STL Symphony Premiere December 5, 1907, Max Zach conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance October 2, 2013, Steven Jarvi conducted the Fifth for Education and Family Concerts Scoring 2 flutes piccolo 2 oboes 2 clarinets 2 bassoons contrabassoon 2 horns 2 trumpets 3 trombones timpani strings Performance Time approximately 31 minutes

he evidently contemplated taking his own life. Somehow he resolved to go on living and composing, his particularly cruel affliction notwithstanding. From that point, his life would be one of constant, and indeed heroic, struggle. His achievement as an artist would constitute an extraordinary triumph. FATE, A GHOSTLY DANCE, BLAZING VICTORY Although begun in 1802, the Fifth Symphony underwent a long gestation and did not reach completion until the spring of 1808. Significantly, the celebrated four-note motif that opens the piece was present in the earliest sketches. This motif, the figure Beethoven associated with “fate,” dominates the first movement, its rhythmic vigor accounting in no small way for the sense of agitation and momentum that prevail here. Beethoven provides a timely contrast to the turbulent spirit of the opening movement with the Andante con moto that follows. The scherzo is another matter. Here, the theme softly stated by the low strings in the opening measures seems ghostly and ominous, and its menacing aspect is confirmed moments later by a disturbing reappearance of the “fate” motif of the first movement. Later, Beethoven creates a moment of extraordinary drama. The ghostly melody freezes in mid-step as time and motion are suspended. Slowly, the theme is taken and transformed measure by measure until the music bursts into the finale with a blaze of light and victory. The drama is not yet over, however. In the middle of this fourth movement, we suddenly return to the “fate” motif and the spectral atmosphere of the scherzo. This prepares a recapitulation not only of the movement’s themes but also of the dramatic passage from darkness to light, from despair to joy— that is the “meaning” of the finale and the goal of the entire symphony.

Jaap van Zweden
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HANS VAN DER WOERD

DMITRY SHOSTAKOVICH Symphony No. 5 in D minor, op. 47 A COMPOSER UNDER FIRE Shostakovich composed his Fifth Symphony at a critical juncture in his career. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, he had established himself as one of the Soviet Union’s most accomplished composers, one who also appeared to be an exemplary “socialist” musician. Evidently a sincere supporter of the Communist regime in its early years, Shostakovich had cast several of his most ambitious scores as large-scale patriotic hymns. At the same time, he was eager to explore the new harmonic language being developed by such Western modernists as Berg and Hindemith. Initially, there was no serious conflict between these tendencies, and the composer’s creativity flourished in the liberal artistic atmosphere that prevailed in the Soviet Union for a decade and a half following the Revolution of 1917. But with Stalin’s consolidation of power in the mid-1930s, the political and intellectual climate changed abruptly. Shostakovich felt the chilling effect of the new Soviet conservatism early in 1936, when his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, a biting and rather surreal satire that had been playing to full houses for two years, suddenly came under attack in Pravda. An article appeared on January 28 of that year describing the composer’s music as “a confused stream of sounds” and “musical chaos.” One week later, a second Pravda review denounced his ballet The Limpid Stream. In the face of this criticism, Shostakovich retreated to the privacy of his study. Nearly two years passed before he again brought a major work before the public. When he did, it was on a note of contrition. His Fifth Symphony was accompanied by an explanatory article by Shostakovich entitled “A Soviet Artist’s Reply to Just Criticism,” and the music’s triumphant first performance in November 1937 saved Shostakovich’s career. The rich lyricism and relatively cautious tonal complexion of the work were hailed by critics who had previously attacked the composer. “The symphony is a work of extraordinary profundity by a mature
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Born September 25, 1906, St. Petersburg Died August 9, 1975, Moscow First Performance November 21, 1937, in Leningrad (now, as before, St. Petersburg), Evgeny Mravinsky conducted the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra STL Symphony Premiere November 29, 1940, Vladimir Golschmann conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance April 26, 2009, Vasily Petrenko conducting Scoring 2 flutes piccolo 2 oboes 2 clarinets E-flat clarinet 2 bassoons contrabassoon 4 horns 3 trumpets 3 trombones tuba timpani percussion 2 harps piano celesta strings Performance Time approximately 44 minutes

artist who has successfully overcome the childhood disease of leftism,” wrote one reviewer. “This is indeed a joyous occasion.” CREATION OR COMPROMISE? Whether or not Shostakovich made serious artistic compromises in composing this symphony has been the subject of considerable debate. Commentators hostile to the composer or the Soviet regime were quick to claim that he had abjectly submitted to censorship. This seems less certain, however, when considered in the context of the full corpus of Shostakovich’s music. The composer was a remarkably protean musician and always had been fluent over a broad stylistic range. Moreover, if Shostakovich wanted only to placate the bureaucratic arbiters of Soviet music, an expressly patriotic symphony might have fit the bill more neatly than the one he produced. The Fifth Symphony seems, in many respects, a deeply personal work, and it has long been recognized as one of the composer’s finest achievements. There is another possibility, one that has been proposed by several emigrant Soviet musicians. In the Fifth Symphony, according to this point of view, Shostakovich did not capitulate to the conservative critics but cryptically thumbed his nose at them. Thus the work’s triumphant finale is insincere, a sarcastic mockery of the type of music Shostakovich felt he was expected to write. It is extremely difficult for Western listeners to make a judgment about this notion; certainly, the score’s final pages, with its trumpets, timpani, and bright D-major harmonies, have all the trappings of a genuinely jubilant closing passage. Perhaps time will settle this issue. Meanwhile, the symphony remains one of the most popular by a 20th-century composer. FROM PATHOS TO TRIUMPH A rising and falling theme presented by the strings establishes the brooding character of the first movement. Soon, however, we hear a more hopeful subject, introduced by the violas over a gently rhythmic accompaniment. This second theme seems to establish itself beyond recall during a sweetly melodious duet for flute and horn near the end of the movement, but the initial material returns to close this first portion of the symphony on a somber D-minor tonality. The scherzo-like Allegretto strongly resembles similar movements in the symphonies of Gustav Mahler, which Shostakovich greatly admired. It gives way to a deeply elegiac slow movement made of sorrow and solace. As in the Fifth Symphonies of Beethoven and Mahler, the finale reverses the emotional direction of the work from pathos to triumph (sincere or otherwise, as discussed above). Thematic reference to the first movement, which appears midway through the piece, provides another point for comparison between these Fifth Symphonies. But here the similarities end. Shostakovich’s music, except for a quietly contemplative central episode, is at once martial and dance-like in character, while its brash energy seems more reminiscent of Tchaikovsky than of any Austrian or German composer.
Program notes © 2014 by Paul Schivao 30

JAAP VAN ZWEDEN
LUCY AND STANLEY LOPATA GUEST ARTIST

Amsterdam-born Jaap van Zweden has been Music Director of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra since 2008, and in September 2012 he took up the position of Music Director of the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. Appointed at 19 as the youngest concertmaster ever of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, he began his conducting career in 1995 and held the positions of Chief Conductor of the Netherlands Symphony Orchestra (1996-2000), Chief Conductor of the Residentie Orchestra of The Hague (2000-05), Chief Conductor of the Royal Flemish Philharmonic Orchestra (2008-11), and Chief Conductor and Artistic Director of the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic Orchestra and Radio Chamber Orchestras from 2005-2011. He remains Honorary Chief Conductor of the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic Orchestra and Conductor Emeritus of the Netherlands Radio Chamber Orchestra. In November 2011 van Zweden was named as the recipient of Musical America’s Conductor of the Year Award in recognition of his critically acclaimed work as Music Director of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra and as a guest conductor with the most prestigious U.S. orchestras. Recent highlights have included highly acclaimed debuts with the Berlin and New York Philharmonic, Tonhalle-Orchester Zurich, National Symphony Orchestra, Boston Symphony, and his BBC Proms debut conducting the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic in Bruckner’s Symphony No. 8. Highlights of the 2013-14 season and beyond include subscription debuts with the London Symphony, San Francisco Symphony, Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, and Deutsches Sinfonieorchester Berlin, performances with the Chamber Orchestra of Europe, and return visits to the Orchestre de Paris and the Rotterdam and London Philharmonic Orchestras. He will curate a three-week festival with the Chicago Symphony entitled Truth to Power, which will focus on the music of Britten, Prokofiev, and Shostakovich, tour China with the Hong Kong Philharmonic, and return to the Verbier Festival.
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Jaap van Zweden most recently conducted the St. Louis Symphony in February 2012.

HANS VAN DER WOERD

A BRIEF EXPLANATION
You don’t need to know what “andante” means or what a glockenspiel is to enjoy a St. Louis Symphony concert, but it’s always fun to know stuff. Or think about stuff, such as the finale to Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony. A study in contrasts: Listen to the finale to Beethoven’s iconic Symphony No. 5. And then when you hear the finale to Shostakovich’s Fifth, ask yourself, are they similar? If Beethoven presents a full-throated shout of triumph, is Shostakovich doing the same? Is Shostakovich bright and optimistic (like Beethoven), or severe and ominous? The timpani pounds relentlessly. For what?

PLAYING SHOSTAKOVICH:
“Shostakovich uses the clarinet in such beautiful ways. There are long, plaintive, heart-warming solos in his music— although not so much in the Fifth. The Fifth is a challenge just for the sheer amount of notes. But notes are just the beginning of learning the music. It’s what you do with that full page of 16th notes that is music making. How do we shape them? What colors do we bring? “I’m playing the E-flat clarinet, which is very loud. The piccolo and the E-flat are heard over most of the orchestra. There’s an old saying: ‘Loud is good. Louder is better. Loudest is best.’ Now of course we try to play much more delicately than that, but with Shostakovich, there is some truth it.”

DIANA HASKELL, ASSOCIATE PRINCIPAL CLARINET

Diana Haskell

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DAN DREYFUS

YOU TAKE IT FROM HERE
If these concerts have inspired you to learn more, here are suggested source materials with which to continue your explorations. Elliot Forbes, editor, Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 W. W. Norton Essays discussing the historical background, genesis, reception, and music of this famous symphony, along with a complete score Michael Tilson Thomas, Keeping Score: Shostakovich: Symphony No. 5 DVD An American conductor delves inside a great work with insightful commentary, followed by a complete performance by the San Francisco Symphony Wendy Lesser, Music for Silenced Voice: Shostakovich and His Fifteen Quartets Yale University Press Lesser argues that the soul of Shostakovich may be found in his quartets

Read the program notes online at stlsymphony.org/planyourvisit/programnotes Keep up with the backstage life of the St. Louis Symphony, as chronicled by Symphony staffer Eddie Silva, via stlsymphony.org/blog The St. Louis Symphony is on

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CLASSICAL CONCERT:
MOZART 39

February 21-23 Bernard Labadie, conductor; Philip Ross, oboe; Andrew Gott, bassoon; Kristin Ahlstrom, violin; Melissa Brooks, cello Balancing elegance and power, Mozart’s Symphony No. 39 is also full of charming humor. The work completes a program celebrating the 250th birthday of St. Louis by showcasing talented STL Symphony musicians performing Haydn’s delightful Sinfonia concertante, as well as works by Rameau and Haydn composed in the same year as the founding of St. Louis, 1764.

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CLASSICAL CONCERT:
ENIGMA VARIATIONS

Benedetto Lupo plays Rachmaninoff

February 28, March 1-2 Juanjo Mena, conductor; Benedetto Lupo, piano Spanish conductor Juanjo Mena makes his STL Symphony debut leading Elgar’s Enigma Variations. A musical puzzle, this work will astonish and delight with its unforgettable melodies including the noble “Nimrod” movement. Rachmaninoff’s Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini provides pianist Benedetto Lupo a showcase for his outstanding technical agility displayed against a gorgeous orchestral backdrop.

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EDUCATION & COMMUNITY:
SYMPHONY IN THE CITY ON STAGE AT POWELL

The audience is on the stage with the performers at On Stage at Powell concerts.

March 19 Bosnian Journey: Generations St. Louis celebrates 21 years since it welcomed the first refugees from war-torn Bosnia. Come and hear the stories of your Bosnian neighbors and experience powerful Sevdah music as we celebrate this vibrant St. Louis population.

This On Stage at Powell concert is part of Music Without Boundaries, presented by the MetLife Foundation, with additional support from the Daughters of Charity Foundation of St. Louis, and is in collaboration with the Bosnia Memory Project and the International Institute of St. Louis.

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AUDIENCE INFORMATION
BOX OFFICE HOURS
Monday-Saturday, 10am-6pm; Weekday and Saturday concert evenings through intermission; Sunday concert days 12:30pm through intermission.

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You may store your personal belongings in lockers located on the Orchestra and Grand Tier Levels at a cost of 25 cents. Infrared listening headsets are available at Customer Service. Cameras and recording devices are distracting for the performers and audience members. Audio and video recording and photography are strictly prohibited during the concert. Patrons are welcome to take photos before the concert, during intermission, and after the concert. Please turn off all watch alarms, cell phones, pagers, and other electronic devices before the start of the concert. All those arriving after the start of the concert will be seated at the discretion of the House Manager. Age for admission to STL Symphony and Live at Powell Hall concerts varies, however, for most events the recommended age is five or older. All patrons, regardless of age, must have their own tickets and be seated for all concerts. All children must be seated with an adult. Admission to concerts is at the discretion of the House Manager. Outside food and drink are not permitted in Powell Hall. No food or drink is allowed inside the auditorium, except for select concerts.

TO PURCHASE TICKETS
Box Office: 314-534-1700 Toll Free: 1-800-232-1880 Online: stlsymphony.org Fax: 314-286-4111 A service charge is added to all telephone and online orders.

SEASON TICKET EXCHANGE POLICIES
If you can’t use your season tickets, simply exchange them for another Wells Fargo Advisors subscription concert up to one hour prior to your concert date. To exchange your tickets, please call the Box Office at 314-5341700 and be sure to have your tickets with you when calling.

GROUP AND DISCOUNT TICKETS
314-286-4155 or 1-800-232-1880 Any group of 20 is eligible for a discount on tickets for select Orchestral, Holiday, or Live at Powell Hall concerts. Call for pricing. Special discount ticket programs are available for students, seniors, and police and public-safety employees. Visit stlsymphony.org for more information.

Powell Hall is not responsible for the loss or theft of personal property. To inquire about lost items, call 314-286-4166. POWELL HALL RENTALS
Select elegant Powell Hall for your next special occasion. Visit stlsymphony.org/rentals for more information.
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