A Thesis Presented to The Faculty of College of Nursing Our Lady of Fatima University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing




This thesis entitled ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF MEMORY RETENTION AMONG PRESCHOOLERS AND THEIR MANIFESTATION IN SCHOOL RELATED SUBJECT prepared and submitted by MaryGrace B. Paras, Zyra O. Mendio, Michelle Ann F. Moral and Rachel Hanna R. Santiago in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor in Science In Nursing has been examined and is recommended for ORAL EXAMINATION. This is to certify that Mary-Grace B. Paras, Zyra O. Mendio, Michelle Ann F. Moral and Rachel Hanna R. Santiago is ready for the ORAL EXAMINATION.

MS. Marie King Estrella, RMT. MS Adviser


Acknowledgment. We wish to thank the following and express our genuine gratitude to all those people who gave us invaluable assistance, support and helped us in the accomplishment of this thesis. • God, for guiding us in our everyday life and for giving us his blessings. • Our families for being there all throughout, for giving us their unconditional love and understanding and encouraging us to succeed. They were our inspirations. • Our friends who showed their support and for also encouraging us for making this thesis possible. • • Mr. Jay Panganiban for sharing us his knowledge. Administrators, teachers, parents and students to different schools who allowed us to conduct our surveys. • And lastly, to Ms. Marie King Estrella, RMT. Ms, for her warmed support, concerned and for pursuing us to fulfill this requirement for the degree of Bachelor in Science in Nursing.


Table of Contents. -Thesis Abstract -List of tables -List of plates -List of figures - Chapter I. ……………………………………………………………….. 2 Introduction ……………………………………………………… 2-4 Theoretical Framework ………………………………..……….. 5- 6 Conceptual framework …………………………….……………. 6-8 Statement of the problem ………………………….…………... 8 Hypothesis ………………………………………..…………..…… 9 Significance of the study …………………………..….……….. 9 For the local government Unit Scope and limitations of the study …………………………… 9- 10 Definition of terms ……………………………………………….. 10-12
Chapter II …………………………………………….…..………………. 13

Foreign Literature ……………………………..……….…………. 13-16 Foreign Studies……………………………….……………………. 16-20 Theoretical Background ………..………………………………… 21 Conceptual paradigm ………………….…………………………. 22

5 Synthesis of related literature and studies ………………….. 22-23 Implications of related literature and studies ………………. 23-24


Chapter III …………….……………………………….…………………. 25

Research design …………….………………………………………... 25 Instrumentation ………………………………………………………..25 Description of respondents ………………………………………… 25-26 Data gathering Procedure ………………………………………….. 26-27 Sampling Design used in the study ………………………………. 27 Validity of research instrument ………………………….………….27 Statistical treatment used in the study ………………….………. 28 - Chapter IV …………………………………………………………………. 29 Discussion of result ……………………………….………………. 29 Table Title …………………………………………….……………… 29-34 - Chapter V ……………………………….…………..…….……………….. 35 Summary of findings ………………………….…..……….….……35-36 Conclusions ……….…………………..…….……………..……….. 36-38 Recommendations ………………….…………………………...… 38
Literature Cited Appendices

a. Plates b. Letters

c. Sample draft of questionnaires d. Sample of answered questionnaires e. Computations f. Summary Estimated account g. Recorded Dialogue of narration of video Curriculum Vitae

a. Rachel Hanna R. Santiago b. Mary-Grace B. Paras c. Michelle Ann F. Moral d. Zyra O. mendio


Thesis Abstract. Kids today are more willing and not afraid to try to discover new ways and methods of learning. They are more adventurous. The more they explore the more they desire to learn but of course with the help of the teachers. Memory retention of preparatory children can be improved and reach the highest level by means of motivating, encouraging ways for them to develop their memory potentials. Accompanied by supporting of teachers who are willing to teach that will enhance their cognition and learning. Preschool teachers will often take basic concepts and

incorporate them into play. Children at this age learn through play concepts that incorporate all of their senses. While they are having fun and practicing essential social concepts – being respectful of each other and taking turns. – They are unaware that they are even absorbing educational concepts. Effective preschool teachers are able to engage the preschooler and offer lessons through these playful avenues. Creative preschool teachers are crucial to successful preschool learning. It takes

8 an inspired, resourceful individual to effectively deliver educational lessons in a way that interests and motivates small children. Holding the attention of students so small can sometimes be the most difficult accomplishment. Most importantly, the goal of preschool learning is to foster a lifelong love of learning; children should leave the preschool experience with a feeling of accomplishment allowing them to move forward in their education with comfort and confidence.

Chapter I

The Research Problem and its Background

Introduction. “Bright minds make bright futures!” Preparatory children nowadays are far better than before they are more advanced in teaching and more capable of absorbing the methods of learning that used with them. Modern teaching accompanied with modules and analytical measures develop the preschooler’s memory retention that serves as the foundation of their education. Kids today are more willing and not afraid to try to discover new ways and methods of learning. They are more adventurous. The more they explore the more they desire to learn but of course with the help of able teachers. Memory retention of preparatory children can be improved and reach the highest level by means of motivating,

9 encouraging ways for them to develop their memory potentials. Accompanied by supporting of able teachers who are willing to teach that will enhance their cognition and learning. Preschool education refers to the education children prior to elementary school. In this level, they are designed to support the development of the preschooler in their early years. It helps to enhance the children’s mental capacity and language competence and builds up their self esteem and provide them with the skills of the self expression. They serve as a socializing agent that helps the children to prepare themselves in the world of elementary school as well as for their participation to their society at large. Preschool children want to touch, taste, and smell, hear and test things for themselves. They are eager to learn. They learn by experiencing and by doing. Preschoolers want to establish themselves as separate from their parents. They are more independent than toddlers. They can express their needs since they have greater command language. Cognitive development is the construction of thought

processes including remembering, problem solving, and decision making childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Cognitive development refers to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his world through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory.

10 The level of memory retention of preschool is more complicated and developmental prior to adulthood. At this age, lots of memory enhancers can be use to be able for them to increase their memorization. Strategies for learning and remembering are used in concerning developmental change in children. Children younger than 7 or 8 years old would rarely use this or any of the other potentially helpful memory strategies. The emergence of strategic behavior may be partly attributable to the growing child’s acquisition of mnemonic facts that implicit govern the behavior of a more mature individual. The concept of “forgetting”, gives idea how to understand “retention”. Memory strategies for preschool can used to avoid or minimize forgetfulness. In fact, it is now well established that this kinds of mnemonic knowledge for children increase in an orderly fashion as children develops. Preschoolers, consistently over predict the number of items they will recall in a memory span task. The mental capacities of the preschool child, when treated in an objective manner, becomes a subject with familiar and scientific aspects, our tasks is to bring them in higher retentive memory aspects relation. There is a chance to interact with other children. And Interacting with other children means learning how to wait, how to take turns, and how to listen. Young children learn social skills when they interact with other children. These social skills are critical to a developing personality and they would not send home them carelessly There are some

11 compensation to preschools, primarily that they are the foundations for academic learning. In preschool your child will listen to poetry and songs, building blocks needed to grasp phonics and reading skills when it is developmentally appropriate. Preschools joined all activities that are done over and over in preschool settings and help children get ready to learn academics. Watching other children pursue a challenging task is also helpful. The presence of other children and a wide variety of materials are two big reasons why a preschool is a good thing Theoretical Framework. The most famous and leading theory of Cognitive Development is that of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget’s theory, first published in 1952, grew out of decades of broad observation of children, including his own, in their natural environments as opposed to the laboratory experiments of the behaviorists. Even though Piaget was interested in how children reacted to their environment, he projected a more active role for them than that suggested by learning theory. He envisioned a child’s knowledge as composed of schemas, basic units of knowledge used to prepare past experience and serve as a basis for understanding new ones. Schemas are frequently being modified by two complementary processes that Piaget termed assimilation and accommodation.

Assimilation refers to the process of taking in new information by incorporating it into presented schema. In other words, people assimilate

12 new experiences by involving them to they already know. Conversely, accommodation is what happens when the schema itself changes to accommodate new understanding. According to Piaget, cognitive

development involves a continuing attempt to achieve a balance between assimilation and accommodation that he termed equilibration. At the center of Piaget’s theory is the principle that cognitive development occurs in a series of four distinct, universal stages, each characterized by increasingly refined and nonfigurative levels of thought. One of these stages is the Pre-operational stage (toddler hood and early childhood). In this period, which has two sub-stages, intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical reversible manner. Preschoolers, age’s three to six, should be at the “pre-operational” stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory, meaning they are using their imagery and memory skills. They should be conditioned to learning and memorizing and their outlook of the world is usually very selfcentered. Preschoolers have developed their social interactions skills, such as playing and cooperating with other children in their own age. It is normal for preschooler to test the restrictions of their cognitive abilities and they learn pessimistic concepts and actions, such as talking back to adults, lying and bullying. Other cognitive development in Preschoolers are developing an increased attention span, learning to read, and

13 developing structured routines, such as doing household chores. Conceptual Framework. Child development refers to the hereditary and mental changes that take place in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from reliance to increasing self-sufficiency. For the reason that these developmental changes might be strongly influenced by hereditary factors and events all through prenatal existence, hereditary and prenatal development are usually built-in as part of the study of child development. Related terms include

“developmental psychology”, referring to development throughout the lifespan and “pediatrics”, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may happen as an outcome of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. In our own conceptual framework we will be modifying two corresponding processes that we termed adaptation and adjustment. Adaptation refers to the development of captivating in latest information by incorporating it into representation. To be further with that, people incorporate latest experiences through relating them to things they previously recognize. On the other hand, adaptation is what happens when the representation itself changes to put up latest perceptive. In relation with the study cognitive growth involves an enduring

14 endeavor through accomplishing stability among adaptation and

adjustment. At the core of our theory is the opinion to facilitate cognitive growth occurs within a succession of four discrete general stages, characterized through gradually more advanced and abstract levels of thinking. Preschool covers nursery, kindergarten and preparatory stage. We will be focusing our study in preparatory level. Where in, in this stage it has two subordinate phases, intellect is recognized through the use of signs, verbal communication, reminiscence and thoughts is developed,

excluding philosophy is completed within a non-reasonable, noninvalidate manner. In preparatory stage they should be trained towards education and remembering, with their viewpoint of the humankind is frequently egotistical. In preschoolers wherein preparatory is included have developed their communal relations ability, for instance like collaborating in the midst of other kids with the same age. Usually, preschoolers are in to test their restrictions of their cognitive capability, and they become skilled at unenthusiastic perception. Statement of the Problem. Is there a significant correlation between memory retention among Preschoolers as to manifestation of students’ academic performance? 1. What are the means to improve Preschooler’s memory retention? 2. Which type of learning is most efficient for Preschooler?

15 3. Does genetic influences affect the child’s learning strategies? 4. Does the method of racing a child affect his/her performance in school? 5. How the environment and ways of living affect the learning abilities of a child? 6. What strategies that teacher can use to extend the span of focus of the Preschooler during lessons? Hypothesis.  There is No significant relationship that exists in terms of memory retention among Preschoolers as to manifestation in students’ academic performances. Significance of the Study. Beneficiaries are a) preschooler because they how to cope up easily in every activity their teachers want them to accomplish, they also learn how to deal with other people and help to boost up their self-esteem. b) second beneficiary are the parents because through this, they will be able to know their importance to their children and it helps to have a warm relationship to one another. c) third beneficiary are the teachers because their skills in teaching is being developed. d) fourth is the school because they are associated to their student’s success and they earn money because of them. e) lastly is the community because they strengthen the community awareness of the school and improve its public image.

16 Scope and Limitation of the Study. The study is limited on the problem of specific diagnosis with children in preparatory school who have poor memory, which includes different aspects that will help them to learn and will provides them a good memory, good learning in skills and creativeness, proper way to exercise and develop the brain with the help of proper nutrition. The start of the study was held this 1st semester of 2009 at Montessori Academy at 38 Ste. Fe cor. Consuelo Sts., Marulas Valenzuela, Metro Manila, Salvation Army Academy at Blk 31 Langaray Highway,Caloocan City, Catholic Bethel Academy at Libiz espina st. Sangandaan Highway Caloocan City, Wrimare School,Inc. at Panghulo,obando,Bulacann, Precious Vessels Christian Academy at Interior 10-A San Pascual Obando,Bulacan, St. Bernadette College of Valenzuela City at Gen. T de Leon Valenzuela City, Arayat Holy Child Foundation, Inc. at #389P.Tan St.Poblacion, Arayat, Pampanga, Adelle Grace Montessori School, Inc at Poblacion, Arayat, Pampanga, Arayat Central Elementary School at Poblacion, Arayat, Pampanga, Dominican School of Mexico, Inc. at Mexico, Pampanga, and Methodist Church Ecomenical Learning School at Plaza Luma, Arayat, Pampanga. The need of this study is due to poor ability in memory retention causing the children to have low potential of learning. In our study, there are many instrument we uses to enhance, develop and exercise the brain of the children to achieve better memory such as music, colored pictures, games and many more, but in our study we use

17 not only thesis pictures but it also accompanied by different techniques such as teaching of proper nutrition, lifestyle check and help them to reduce stress. Definition of Terms. For purposes of the study, the following key terms are defined: Assimilation. The process of receiving new facts or of responding to new situations in conformity with what is already available to consciousness. Cognitive Capability. Provides the foundation for skilled activities of daily living, and is linked in many ways to health and survival. Cognitive Development. Is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Forgetting. Refers to apparent loss of information already encoded and stored in an individual's long term memory. Forgetting Curve. This refers to illustration of decline of memory retention in time. A related concept is the strength of memory that refers to the durability those memory traces in the brain. Free Recall. During this task a subject would be asked to study a list of words and then sometime later they will be asked to recall or write down as many words that they can remember. Intelligence. This refers to the ability to learn facts and skills and apply them, especially when this ability is highly developed. Language Development. Is the process by which children come to

18 understand and communicate language during early childhood. Learning. Is acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values,

preferences or understanding, and may involve synthesizing different types of information. Mind. This refers to the center of consciousness that generates thoughts, feelings, ideas, and perceptions, and stores knowledge and memories. Musical Memory. This refers to the ability to remember music-related information, such as melodic content of songs or other progressions of tones or pitches. Psychology. This refers to the scientific study of the human mind and mental states, and of human and animal behavior. Remembering. Designates the specific psychic action of producing a memory and is to be distinguished from reminiscences, flashbacks. Retention. This refers to the act of retaining something or the condition of being retained. Schema. A pattern imposed on complex reality or experience.


Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

Foreign Literature. Tammy A. Marche (2001) mentioned that the model of long-term retention was used to examine whether and how the strength of original information (differences in learning and testing time) and the strength of misleading information (differences in timing and frequency) influence 3to 5-year-olds' memory for an event. In three experiments, preschoolers viewed a slide presentation depicting an event, some of them were asked misleading questions, and memory for event details was tested. There was little evidence of memory impairment, but exposure to misleading information encouraged reporting of this information. Differences in learning influenced reporting in that children exposed to the event once reported more misled details than those who saw the event multiple times.

20 Furthermore, preschoolers who saw the event once were just as susceptible to misleading information whether exposed to misinformation once or three times; however, preschoolers who had seen the event multiple times were susceptible only to repeated presentations of misinformation. Given that the reporting of misinformation is determined by the degree of integrity of both the original and misleading information, it is important to control for differences in trace strength for both types of information in future research. Melissa K. Welch-Ross (2001) cited that Fifty-seven 3- to 5-1/2-yearolds listened to a story accompanied by pictures of target items. After a short delay, an interviewer asked children questions about the story and suggested information that conflicted with the original details. Story memory was assessed 5–11 days later using a two-alternative, picture recognition test. Children completed theory of mind (ToM) tasks that indexed an understanding of knowledge and the ability to reason about conflicting mental representations (CMRs). An increase in ToM scores was associated with a decrease in suggestibility, independent of age. The relation between ToM scores and suggestibility was significant for children who had poorer story memory, but was no significant for children who showed better story memory. An increase in CMR scores predicted an increase in response times on the recognition test when children made incorrect choices. Children who spontaneously reported original

21 details when the interviewer suggested misleading information had higher CMR scores than children who did not report original details. Diane H. Schetky, Elissa P. Benedek (2000) invoked that by age 3, a qualitative change in the ability to remember appears in most children. As verbal abilities become more complex and children are exposed to the contextual situation where they can learn to remember, there are advances in the three major requirements of memory. Children get better at encoding- specifically attending to particular aspect of the environment long enough to take it into memory. They begin to be able to store events and experiences in short-term memory and, less effectively, in long-term memory. Finally, they become more able to retrieve memories to by thinking about them or by responding to questions or prompt.

22 Greg Frost (2003) quoted that there are many ways of classifying the human mind and its ability to retain information. One of the most often used classifications are based on the duration of memory retention, specifically the sensory, short term and long term memory. Short term memory refers to the recent memory, and is usually only held for a very short period of time. A common example would be when you meet many new people, cursorily introduced at a party. Long term memory, on the other hand, can be thought of as a database where all the information that you have learnt is kept. Sensory memory is conveyed through your senses of sight and sound, where you keep these “images” in your mind. MJ Ryan (2002) remarked that so many of us think about creativity in the context of being an artist or musician. However I prefer the definition that resiliency expert Frederic Flach uses. Creativity is “a response to a situation that calls for a novel but adaptive solution, one that serves to accomplish a goal.” That’s why; when dealing with the challenges of our times, the best thing we can do is grow our creative capacity. We need to come up with thoughts and solutions that are different from ones we’ve used in the past. Otherwise we will be responding in habitual ways that may not serve us now. But the way to access our innovative thinking is not the same for everyone. It actually has to do with what stimulus triggers your right hemisphere. Without knowing your unique formula, you can mislabel yourself as uncreative. Foreign Studies.

23 David Rivera (2009) stated that here are some great memory improvement techniques you can learn, techniques that will help in turning numbers into words, memorizing names and remembering shopping lists. Let’s discuss how to memorize a list of grocery items. We will use 4 items only but you will see the size of the list does not matter. What we do in memory techniques is to take something we already know and associate it with something we want to remember. So we connect the 2 together or link them together. We can use what is called the “Roman Room” to link items together so we can bring them up in our mind later on. The reason this works is because there are certain things you will not forget. You know where you live. You know how your house looks and what rooms there are. Assume that you are going to buy the following items from the store: Bananas, soap, bread, paper towels. Pick any room in your house or apartment. Now we will associate the items in the list with something in the room you choose. Imagine you walk into your living room and this is what you see: Book shelf, table. These are the first 4 things you see in sequence when you enter your living room. Take each item you want to remember on your shopping list and place them with one of the items in your living room or replace the item in your room with one from the list. This is what you might see in your mind: You walk into your living room and Bananas are shooting out of your Book Shelf. Some Bananas fall onto your Table and are skating

24 on top of Soap. A bar of Soap slides off the Table and goes toward the TV, but the TV is not there. Instead there is a giant loaf of Bread. The giant Bread eats the Soap but throws it up all over your Couch. Out of your Couch come arms and they are holding Paper Towels and it starts to clean the mess on itself with the Paper Towels. Louis Richard (2008) noted that forgetfulness seems to be a harmless trait. After all, the human mind has its own limitations. But there's a price to pay for being forgetful about important things. Forget to pay your bills, and you'll soon end up in debts. Forget to turn off the oven before you leave, and your home might burn into ashes. Forget your fiancé’s birthday, and you're in for a major heartbreak. See how potentially dangerous poor memory is? Good thing, various techniques on how to improve memory power are available for people who tend to forget even the simplest things. The main advantage of the trivia quizzes is that the questions can be based on virtually any topic: history, geography, music, film stars and many others. These improve memory games can be played on a computer, but it is more fun when playing this in a group of friends. In children, such trivia quizzes have constructive effects. At the beginning, the children do not know the answers to the questions, but once they find them out, they memorize them. Therefore, the new questions, as well as old questions that are repeated, prove to help both grown-ups to improve their memory. children and

25 Now for the dreaded word - exercise- yes, your brain is just like the rest of your body, it requires exercise to stay in tip-top shape. Just as your muscles grow and develop when you do physical exercise, so does your brain when you do mental exercise. It strengthens the neural pathways in your brain, opening more and more areas of your brain. Exercising can involve, doing puzzles or riddles, learning a new language or a new musical instrument. Keeps it interesting and you will enjoy the 'exercise' while you're at it. Mental Exercise - Improve memory and concentration by memorizing techniques. You could draft a list of any items, memorize it, and then quiz yourself later. Another method is to read an article, analyze it, and then explain it to someone else. This helps keep your working memory in tact, which will improve even more over time. A final method to help with your memory is to work on puzzles. Working on crossword, Sudoku, or jigsaw puzzles will give your brain a tough workout. This is due to the various words, shapes, and colors that force your brain to work.

Foods to improve memory include cantaloupe, blueberries, asparagus, black currants, kale and sweet potatoes. People can also use red foods to improve memory. These foods improve the circulation of the blood, the body temperature and boost the energy, while making depression easier. Such foods are watermelon, tomatoes, red cabbage, cherries, radishes and strawberries.

26 Singing enhances memory because most of the songs are complex and require prolonged thinking in order to be memorized. In addition, singing changes the mood, a fact that leads to a decrease of the depression level, in most of the cases. As it is known, depression represents the most frequent cause of memory loss. Martin Mak (2006) claimed that he key to improving short term memory is intention. Here are some tips and techniques to get you started. In any given situation, if you perceive the circumstance or information to be important and you intend to recall it later, you can then make your choice to focus on it, interact with it to make it personally meaningful to you. This will take less effort to remember later. Adding details and repetition are also some of the more usual ways to help you create a personal relationship with that piece of information or experience. You can add details through any of the five senses that are, adding visual, auditory, smell, taste or tactile cues to the information. By creating multiple links to the fact, you are adding a variety of access points to that which you want to remember. In other ways, repetition is like a well-worn path which you walk over and over again. For example, memorizing the multiplication tables or the alphabet, or even simple tasks that we take for granted, like telling the time. There was a time in our forgotten past that our parents or teachers helped us with telling the time or the alphabets by drilling the information into us, through repetition. Like learning to ride a bicycle,

27 the information is so ingrained in us that we do it on a subconscious level. Using Mnemonics can also help you remember information better, like the abstract. For example, to remember the "classic" named colors of the spectrum or rainbow (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet), it can be easier for some people to remember the mnemonics "Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain" or "Roy G. Biv" (a made-up name) instead. You can also use a method, in reverse "VIBGYOR" pronounced "vib-GYOr". Although we tend to remember less as we grow older, as the brain’s processing ability slows down, there is no reason we should not engage in mental activities like playing chess, scrabble, or solving puzzles to keep our mind’s sharp. Learning new strategies can also help the brain to cope with the slowing down and make you mentally-fit.

Theoretical Background. Preschool programs began in earnest in the United States during the first quarter of the twentieth century. The philosophical foundations for these programs can be traced to the belief, popularized during the seventeenth century, that early childhood is a unique period of life during which the foundation for all subsequent learning is established.

28 The early programs often began informally and involved the efforts of women who took turns caring for each other's children. The first public preschool program began at the Franklin School in Chicago in 1925 with the support of the Chicago Women's Club. The popularity of preschool as an option for young children increased dramatically after the 1970s. In 1970, for example, only 20 percent of three- and four-year-olds participated in organized education programs. In 1998, approximately half of all children in this age range attended a full-time pre-school program. The increasing popularity of pre-school has been fueled in part by an increase in the number of women entering the work force as well as by a belief among many parents and educators that children need early preparation for elementary school.

29 Conceptual Paradigm.

Synthesis of Related Literature and Studies. A collaborative study shows that in the past and present research, there were ways that are different in teaching strategies to help children in their scholastic performances to be able for them to increase their level of memory retention. Articles from the past literature emphasized that Memory Retention of children like preschool can affect from some other factors like Nutritional, Environmental and Psychological. Those factors can be the reason how children cope up in a particular subject, and can also be a hindrance in increasing their cognitive level. Likewise, present or current studies today, authors and psychologist like Piaget, Thorndike

30 and Skinner published and projected their theories “Cognitive Development” and “Cognitive Learning” as manifested in their literature and books, children’s learning process can affect their memory status. The methods or ways on how they will develop preschool cognitive abilities done by changes, as time goes and passes by. And from those studies we will know how Preschoolers can have a higher level of retention as significance in their related subjects, eventually to build their own future. Implications of Related Literature and Studies. We use a lot of authors in our study, but just to make it short, let’s just compare Piaget’s Theory and Marche’s Theory. The disadvantages that may arise here is about the difference of the way of teaching that they are going to imply. Piaget believed that children made moral judgments based on their own observations of the world. Thorndike introduced courses in educational psychology, tests and measurements, and the psychology of school subjects. It just simply said that Piaget wants to enhance the children’s intelligence through their own exploration than to Thorndike’s idea of giving some subjects wherein they will undergo in some test though it can help, we think it’s a bit complicated for those children to do such test. As far as we know, their theories are both helpful. The disadvantages that came up to us due to the difference of opinion was, having different way of teaching can lead to misunderstanding in

31 two different side, nevertheless, they can still both implicate their own methods. We therefore conclude that, any kinds of way of teaching will do as long as they know how to handle the situation among their preschoolers and of course, it is also a big help if they are going to guide their children fulfilling their task.

32 Chapter III

Methodology of Research

Research Design. Our study comes with the Quantitative, Non-experimental and Descriptive survey type of research. It aims to describe the study and the method used to it. It describes the respondents that are responsible or the scope of the research. In a survey type of methodology, it aims to capture a situation that occurs in a moment understanding of the respondents in the research. Instrumentation. Conducting survey questionnaires is the way we used in this research. It has a series of questions used to gather information that based in our study and prompts for the objective to collect information from the opinion and sides of respondents. The questions are arranged and categorized according in their advantages, disadvantages, benefits. Closed-ended questions are orderly answered by two, three options, the 5-1 scale of choices. Description of Respondents. Teacher/ advisers – this survey come up with the respondents of educators of preschoolers. With them, they know more how their children or students learned. Giving mnemonics, showing and the quantitative

33 demonstrations and doing recreational activities that he/she conducted for the children to increase their level of memory retention and for them to show their interest with their subjects. Data Gathering Procedure. 1. Selection of Data. The subjects are selected based on the scope of our research. Prior to the conduction of survey, we accumulate the important information in the topic that leads us to cite and describe the respondents we need in this study. We come up with the parents, children and the participation of advisers.
2. Dissemination of Research Instrument.

We disseminate the instrument by giving each of the preschool and asked the respondents if they can participate or cooperate in answering the following questions we prepared. We distribute the questionnaires to the subsequent respondents.
3. Tabulation and Analysis of Retrieval.

The tabulation and the analysis of the retrieval data is based on the answers of the respondents that we collected in the preschool we prefer. We tabulated it according to the question and got the percentage for each of the presenting questions.
4. Retrieval of Research Instrument.

34 We personally collected the questionnaires from the respondents who answered and participated to the study.
5. Presentation, Formulation of Conclusions.

Based on our tabulations, we have conducted our conclusions and recommendations based on the present questions that are concerning in assessing the level of memory retention of the preschoolers which answered by the respondents, the preschool advisers. Sampling Design Used in the Study. In this study, the appropriate design we will used is the nonprobability sampling which is the purposive sampling. A deliberate

selection of individual by the researcher based on predefined criteria. With this case we decided to obtain the advisers or the teachers of the preschoolers as our respondents because of the reason and purpose that as educators, by evaluating their students, they know how to assess their level of memory retention. Validity of the Research Instrument. We used criterion validity to validate the authenticity of the questionnaires that are worn to the study. It detects the presence and absence of one or more criteria believed to present characteristics or construct of interest. Concurrent validity, which is a type of criterion validity, that refers to the capability of the criterion to reflect the present status of the criteria.

35 It therefore has the capability to picture out the present characteristics of the subjects.

Statistical Treatment Used in the Study. In determining the level of measurement based on our gathered data, we used the measures of central tendency. By nominal measurement we classified it by its frequency, percentage and its weighted mean.


Chapter IV

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Discussion of Results. According to the data that we obtained through survey, we found out that most of the teachers agree to eat a nutritional food to have a good memory. Moreover, teachers thinks that the best idea for a preschooler to easily remember things is his hands on experience. Table Title. Table 1.1 Giving mnemonics or techniques in teaching can be an advantage to increase their memory retention. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.1, 60% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 28% out of 100 were slightly agree and 10% out of 100 said that they just only agree. Category F % Weighted Mean

5 4 3 2 1

60 28 10 0 0

0.06 0.028 0.01 0 0

300 112 30 0 0


Table 1.2 Giving incentives or rewards in children can be an advantage in teaching them Explanation: Based on the Table 1.2, 60% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 28% out of 100 were slightly agree and 10% out of 100 said that they just only agree. Category 5 4 3 2 1 F 50 24 26 0 0 % 0.05 0.024 0.026 0 0 Weighted Mean 250 96 78 0 0

Table1.3 Eating a nutritional food could be a lead memory.

to have a good

Explanation: Based on the Table 1.3, 88% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 10% out of 100 were slightly agree and 2% out of 100 said that they just only agree.

Category 5 4 3 2 1

F 88 10 2 0 0

% 0.088 0.01 0.002 0 0

Weighted Mean 440 40 6 0 0

Table 1.4 Demonstration method in teaching is most efficient for preschooler.

38 Explanation: Based on the Table 1.4, 52% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 20% out of 100 were slightly agree and 20% out of 100 said that they just only agree. 8% out of 100 said that they disagree.

Category 5 4 3 2 1

F 52 20 20 8 0

% 0.052 0.02 0.02 0.008 0

Weighted Mean 260 80 60 16

Table 1.5 Showing of illustrations like images could be an effective way to help the students to retain the knowledge that being thought to them. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.5, 90% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 4% out of 100 were slightly agree and 6% out of 100 said that they just only agree. Category 5 4 3 2 1 F 90 4 6 0 0 % 0.09 0.004 0.006 0 0 Weighted Mean 450 16 18 0 0

Table 1.6 Recommending a tutorial for those student’s showing a below average intelligence quotient. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.6, 44% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 12% out of 100 were slightly agree and 30% out of 100 said that they just only agree,6% out of 100 were disagree and

39 8% out of 100 were strongly disagree. Category 5 4 3 2 1 F 44 12 30 6 8 % 0.044 0.012 0.03 0.006 0.008 Weighted Mean 220 48 90 12 8

Table 1.7 Giving brain boosters can be helpful in memory retention of children.

Explanation: Based on the Table 1.6, 42% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 20% out of 100 were slightly agree and 22% out of 100 said that they just only agree,12% out of 100 were disagree and 4% out of 100 were strongly disagree. Category 5 4 3 2 1 F 42 20 22 12 4 % 0.042 0.02 0.022 0.012 0.004 Weighted Mean 210 80 66 24 4

Table 1.8 Drinking gestational milk improves the performance of the preschoolers. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.8, 26% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 64% out of 100 were slightly agree and 10% out of 100 said that they just only agree.


Category 5 4 3 2 1

F 26 64 10 0 0

% 0.026 0.064 0.01 0 0

Weighted Mean 130 256 30 0 0

Table 1.9 The way of racing a child affect his/her performance in school. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.9, 66% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 30% out of 100 were slightly agree and 4% out of 100 said that they just only agree. Category 5 4 3 2 1 F 66 30 4 0 0 % 0.066 0.03 0.004 0 0 Weighted Mean 330 120 12 0 0

Table 1.10 Nutritional factor can affect the retention of children. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.10, 86% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 6% out of 100 were slightly agree and 8% out of 100 said that they just only agree. Category 5 4 3 F 86 6 8 % 0.086 0.006 0.008 Weighted Mean 430 24 24

41 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 1.11 Play time can have a disadvantage effects in the studying habits of a preschooler. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.11, 22% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 22% out of 100 were slightly agree and 50% out of 100 said that they just only agree, 6% out of 100 were disagree.

Category 5 4 3 2 1

F 22 22 50 6 0

% 0.022 0.022 0.05 0.006 0

Weighted Mean 110 88 150 12 0

Table 1.12 The environment and life style of a children affects their learning abilities. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.12, 74% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 14% out of 100 were slightly agree and 4% out of 100 said that they just only agree, 8% out of 100 were disagree. Category 5 4 3 2 1 F 74 14 4 8 0 % 0.074 0.014 0.004 0.008 0 Weighted Mean 370 56 12 16 0

42 Table 1.13 Treatment of teachers in their students, have an effect on how children learn and retain information in a long term period of memory. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.13, 72% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 14% out of 100 were slightly agree and 4% out of 100 said that they just only agree, 10% out of 100 were disagree.

Category 5 4 3 2 1

F 72 14 4 10 0

% 0.072 0.014 0.004 0.01 0

Weighted Mean 360 56 12 20 0

Table 1.14 Tutorial is a necessity. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.14, 22% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 18% out of 100 were slightly agree and 24% out of 100 said that they just only agree, 30% out of 100 were disagree and 6% out of 100 were strongly disagree. Category 5 4 3 2 1 F 22 18 24 30 6 % 0.022 0.018 0.024 0.03 0.006 Weighted Mean 110 72 72 60 6

Table 1.15 Teachers can help in motivating the preschooler in their

43 studies. Explanation: Based on the Table 1.15, 32% out of 100 who took the survey were strongly agree, 38% out of 100 were slightly agree and 30% out of 100 said that they just only agree.

Category 5 4 3 2 1

F 32 38 30 0 0

% 0.032 0.038 0.03 0 0

Weighted Mean 160 152 90 0 0

Chapter V

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary of Findings.

44 Problem no. 1. How does the teacher encourage the preschoolers to have a better performance in school activities? Answer: It is the heart of being a preschool teacher, to show the children the real essence of studying in a very creative and simple way that the children cannot notice but they learn. They can encourage the children by making them excited in the next day of school specifically by doing new activities, showing new images and creating different objects. Problem no. 2. What are the effective ways that can be used by the parents to review their children after the hours of school? Answer: Many ways can be used by he parents to review their children. It starts in helping doing their assignments, repeating the numbers and let them speak and repeat after you.

Problem no. 3. Do genetic influences affect the child’s learning strategies? Answer: Some parents teach their children the way they want it. Sometimes they adjust, sometimes they do not. In some cases, highly educated

45 parents are expected to have a child that is more capable in achieving what their parents has achieve. Otherwise if the parents have an average level in education but they want their child to achieve higher than them. They will make time and effort in developmental years of a child. They make large time and so much effort to achieve what they want from their child. It can be noticed by the teacher how parents spend their time to teach their children. Conclusions. Based on the study in researchers have drowned the ff. conclusions: • The environment can affect more the child, because if their parents are more dependent with the teacher they will not teach their children at home and when the environment are more positive as parents thinks, they will more excited than their child. Then their

parents can be more advanced in teaching their child knowing that the help of a teacher’s are present. And if both parents are willing to raise their children the way they want it to be they will find ways to be successful first in their own, then it follows.

There are more ways to improve child’s memory retention, one of them is demonstrating to them how things are made and let them do things simple and small with the supervision of a teacher. And it helps more the child to remember easily what they have studied.

46 It’s the responsibility of a parent to remind and review the preschool to retain what they have studied in that day. • Giving mnemonics & techniques are commonly used in higher level of education and for pre-school they may not appreciate those things. More on strategies and creativity are needed for preschoolers for them to appreciate and to enjoy what they are doing in everyday of their studying. Equip with it the excitement of a child while learning. • Creativity is more needed because it helps the preschoolers to learn with enjoyment and it shows how the preschooler participates in the activity. It is effective to assess the knowledge gained by the child. • There is a significant correlation between memory retention and academic performance because it will shows the effectiveness of the strategies that the teachers taught to them. If they really learned or gained knowledge through the activities they have, they will not definitely forget what they have learned.

Recommendations. • We recommend using of illustrations and different objects in helping them to remember letters and numbers.

47 • We recommend applying different strategies which they can show their talents like singing, while making actions. • We recommend showing that they are loved by giving much time and effort by their parents in studying. • We recommend acknowledging their good deeds in school to make them feel that they are well appreciated. • We recommend encouraging the parents to have their children a nutritious food.