Animals are characterized based on certain characteristics − Tissues − Symmetry − Radial − Bilateral − Body Cavity − Acoelomates − Pseudocoelomates − Coelomates

− Patterns of Development − Segmentation

− − − −

Epithelial-endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm Connective-mesoderm Muscle- mesoderm Nerval- ecotderm

EctodermNervous system and epidermis MesodermSkeleton and muscles Endoderm digestive organs and intestines

Parazoa − Lack definite symmetry − Lack tissues − − − − − I. Phylum Porifera (Sponges) Radial symmetry Colonial Grow on all types of surfaces Both sexual and asexual reproduction Sponge body composed of choanocytes (collar cells) − Cells help circulate water through the sponge

Eumetazoa Radial Symmetry I. Phylum Cnidaria − Two major body forms − Polyps (cylindrical and attached to a firm surface) − Medusae (free floating and umbrella shaped tentacles) − Internal extracellular digestion of food − No blood vessels, respiratory or excretory organs 1. Class Hydrozoa − Most are marine and colonial − Exist in polyp form − Nematocysts which are stinging cells that act like harpoons and inject toxins 2. Class Scyphozoa − The Jellyfish − Transparent and translucent marine organism − Exist in the medusae form 3. Class Cubazoa − The box-jellies − Exist in medusae form − Bites are fatal to humans 4. Class Anthozoa − Sea anemones and corals

II. Phylum Ctenophores − Comb Jellies − Exist in medusae form Bilateral Symmetry Acoelomates I. Phylum Platyhelminthes − The flatworms − Incomplete GI − Only one opening 1. Class Tubellaria − Planaria, simplest 2. Class Monogenera − Parasitic flat worms 3. Class Trematoda − The liver flukes − Live and insect bile passages of liver of humans, cats, dogs, and pigs − Escape into the water and get ingested by fish and bore into the muscles o Schistosoma  Cause Schistosomiasis, which is also called bilharzia • Chronic disease that causes damage to the internal organs 4. Class Cestoda − The tapeworms (genus Taenia) − Parasitic creatures that ‘hang out’ on the inner walls of their hosts − Live in intestines of mostly vertebrates and can cause malnutrition II. Phylum Nemrtae − Compact body  Possess complete GI  Closed circulatory system III. Phylum Cyliophora − Lobster symbyionts − Tiny organisms (.) − Circular mouths covered with cilia Pseudocoelomates I. Phylum Nematoda Endo/Meso

− Roundworms − Both sexual and asexual reproduction 1. Genus Enterobius − Pin worms − Infect mainly childrenform cysts − Controlled easily by drugs 2. Genus Wucherria − Filaria cause severe inflammation and swelling of the lymph nodes − Bancrofiti causes most severe Elephantiasis 3. Genus Trichinella − Causes most common and serious disease Trichinosis − Form resistive cysts 4. Genus Ascaris − Intestinal round worm − Live in intestines − Could lead to malnutrition II. Phylum Rotifera − Aquatic animals that propel themselves through the water by beating their cilia, like boats with ores Coelomates I. Phylum Mollusca − Have a coelomates surrounding a heart − Digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs concentrated in a visceral mass − Muscular foot used for locomotion − Mangle is a thick, epidermal sheet of skin. − Ctenidia are specialized portions that contain many blood vessles Increase surface area for gas exchange − Nitrogenous wastes are removed via a nephridia − Open circulatory system with a three chambered heart − Distinct male and female parts − Head, visceral mass, foot 1. Class Poluplacophora − Eight overlapping plates − Chitons 2. Class Gastropoda − Snails, slugs 3. Class Bivalvia

− Clams, oysters, scallops 4. Class Cephalopoda − Squids, octopus II. Phylum Annelida − Bodies broken down into distinct ring like segments running the body looking like a sac of donuts − Serial segmentation in which segments are divided by septa and each segment contains excretory and locomotor organs in a repeating fasion (E|L|E|L…) − Front segments contain specialized sensory organs and a brain − Closed circulatory system that carries blood from one segment to another − Move by contracting segments − Chaetae (segments of chitin) that help anchor 1. Class Polychaeta − Marine worms 2. Class Oligochaeta − Earthworms 3. Class Hirudina − Leaches III. Phylum Lophorates − Characterized by a lophophore, a circular U-shaped ridge around the mouth 1. Bryozoans- small and live in colonies that look like moss patches 2. Lamp shells that superficially resemble clams IV. Phylum Anthropoda − Joined appendages − Tagmatization- the joining of segments − Exoskeleton made out of chitin − Compound eye made up of units called ommatida − Open circulatory system − Nervous system that is double chain of segmented ganglia running along ventral side − Respiratory system consists of small branched cuticle air ducts called trachea, which branch into tracheoles − Spiracles allow air to enter − Malphagian tubules are projections of the digestive system which function as removers of nitrogenous wastes − Sacum- near the intestines function as the pancrease 1. Class Arachnids − Mites, ticks (Acari), and spiders (Araneae) 2. Class Myriapods − Centipedes and millipedes

3. Class Crustaceans − Lobsters, crab, shrimp 4. Class Insects − Largest class − Undergo metamorphosis − Simple- the young look similar to the adults and simply increase in size − Complex- the young look nothing like the adults, usually in the larvey form i. ii. iii. iv. Order Coleo[hidden] ptera[wing]-beetles Order Diptera- the flies Order Lepidoptera- butterflies and moths Order Hymenoptera- bees, wasps, and ants

V. Phylum Echinodermata − Deuterostomes development − Body structure discussed by location of their mouths (ventral, dorsal) − Endoskeleton composed of movable plates called ossicles − Water-vascular system in which water enters through the madreporite − Respiration and waste removal occurs through the skin through fingerlike projections called paupulae − Able to regenerate lost body parts (asexual respiration, but mostly do sexual) − Cardiac stomach and pyloric stomach 1. 2. 3. 4. V. Phylum Chordata − Coelomates − Deuterostomes − Joined appendages − Segmentation − Notochord − Postanal tail − Hollow, dorsal nerve chord − Pharyngeal pouches Class Asterodia- the starfish Class Ophiruodia- brittle star fish Class Holothuroidea- sea cucumber Class Crinoidea- sea lilies and feather stars

-Sub-Phylum Urochordata (chordates with no spinal chord, tunicates) -Sub-Phylum Cephalochordate (lancelets) -Sub-Phylum Vertebrata − Vertebral column − Headcranial vertebrate − Neural crest(ectoderm)Neural tube(CNS) − Complex internal organs − Endoskeleton of cartilage or bone 1. The Fish − Gills located in the back of the pharynx that extract oxygen from water − Counter-current flow − Single loop, closed blood circulation − Nutritional deficiencies (can’t synthesize aromatic A.A) − Started out as ostracoderms shell-skinned, jawless fish)Agnathans, modern day jawless fish (the lampreys and hagfish) 1. Class Chondrichytes − Cartilage fish, sharks, and rays − No swim bladders 2. Class Actinopterygii − Ray-finned fish − Swim bladder − Gill cover − Lateral line system 3. Class Sarcoptergii − Lobe-finned fish that gave rise to amphibians 2. The Amphibians − Both livesLand (developed legs and lungs)  Sea (reproduction − Cutaneous skin allowed for skin respiration − Partially divided heart and pulmonary veins 1. Order Anura − Frogs/toads − No tails 2. Order Caudata − Salamander/newts − Visible Tail 3. Order Apoda

− Caecilian (resemble earthworms and snakes)

3. The Reptiles − Dry, watertight skin with scales − More complex lungs for thoracic breathing − Amniotic Egg − Amnion- the liquid in which the embryo develops − Chorion- outer covering, right beneath the shell − Allantois- waste removal…placenta − Yolk Sac- provides food 1. Order Squamata − Suborder Squaria- Lizards − Suborder Serpentes- Snakes 2. Order Chelonia − Turtles and Tourtise 3. Class Crocydylia − Alligators/crocodiles 4. Order Rychocephaila − Tuataras Only four groups have evolved the ability to fly − Insects − Pterosaurs − Birds − Bats 4. The Birds (Class Aves) − Feathers − Provide lift for flight − Insulation of body heat − Light-weight skeleton − All bones are hallow allowing support for fly muscles − Warm-blooded (endoderm) keeps bird active − Four chamber heart − Counter-current circulation 1. Order Passeriformes- the song birds (about 60%) 5. Mammals − Hair

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Mammary glands Endothermy Placenta Teeth-heterodont definition 1. Order Monotremes − Egg-laying mammals (Duck-Bill Platypus) 2. Order Marsupials − Pouched mammals, mostly Australian) 3. Order Placental − 17 major species including humans 1. Order Rodentia- Rodents 2. Order Chiroptera- Bats 3. Order Insectivora- Insect-eaters (moles, shrews) 4. Order Carnivora- dogs, cats, bears 5. Order Primate- apes, humans, monkeys

Hox genes determine front from back, top from bottom Involved in segmentation Taken major directions, a unit group of tissues working together evolved about three times If we understand how and why they are turned off then we can turn them back onstem cells