System Analysis and design

• 1.Introduction 3 Hrs
– – – Systems & computer based systems, types of information system System analysis & design Role, task & attribute of the system analyst

• • • • • • • • • •

2. Approaches to system development 5 Hrs • SDLC • Explanation of the phases • Different models their advantages and disadvantages o Waterfall approach o Iterative approach o Extreme programming o RAD model o Unified process o Evolutionary software process model
• • • Incremental model Spiral model Concurrent development model

3. Analysis: investigating system requirements 4 Hrs • Activities of the analysis phase • Fact finding methods o Review existing reports, forms and procedure descriptions o Conduct interviews o Observe & document business processes o Build prototypes o Questionnaires o Conduct jad sessions • Validate the requirements o Structured walkthroughs

4. Feasibility analysis 4 Hrs Feasibility study and cost estimates Cost benefit analysis Identification of list of deliverables

5. Modeling system requirements 7 Hrs Data flow diagrams logical and physical Structured English Decision tables Decision trees Entity relationship diagram Data dictionary

6.Design 7 Hrs • Design phase activities • Develop system flowchart • Structure chart o Transaction analysis o Transform analysis Software design and documentation tools Hipo chart Warnier orr diagram Designing databases Entities Relationships Attributes Normalization

7. Designing input, output & user interface 4 Hrs Input design Output design User interface design 8.Testing 6 Hrs Strategic approach to software testing Test series for conventional software Test strategies for object-oriented software Validation testing System testing Debugging

9. Implementation & maintenance 2 Hrs Activities of the implementation & support phase

10.Documentation 3 Hrs Use of case tools, Documentation-importance, types of documentation

Books: “Analysis and Design of Information Systems”: Senn, TMH System Analysis and Design: : Howryskiewycz, PHI Syllabus for MCA First Year Semester – I (with effect from the academic year 2007-2008)

What is system
• A system is a group of elements working together to achieve a common goal. • These elements are related to each other in the work that they carry out. • They communicate with each other in order to coordinate and control the delivery of the total work of the system. Further a system is often a part of larger system.

Need of learning systems concepts
• To identify the objective of the system what the system is aimed at achieving • To identify the components of the system • To identify what are the roles each component is performing in helping the overall system to achieve common goal • To identify how these components communicate with each other to work as a team.

• To relate the knowledge of this system to a similar other system and thereby gain knowledge of that system faster • To identify the error in new systems much faster

Introduction to Software Systems Development
• Overview • Requirements of a good systems analyst • The software system development is different from other types of system development, the major factors which widen these differences are as follows: • The software is an intangible product . It is to be conceived only conceptually until a very later stage of system development i.e. Coding Stage.

• Almost every software system being developed in the world is differ from its predecessors in many aspects like business domain, technology domain, and process of software development • The technology evolutions are much faster in software systems development area , which has a major impact not only on number of new software architectures evolving each year, but also the underlying process of developing software.

Requirements of a Good System Analyst
• Skills required by a System Analyst are listed in different categories as follows: • Technical knowledge and skills. • Business Knowledge and skills. • People Knowledge and skills. • Integrity and ethics.

Technical knowledge and skills
• Though the systems analyst is not required to carry out programming, He needs technical expertise to guide and monitor the programming team on one side and to guide the user on selecting appropriate technological alternatives for the new software system on the other. • Fundamental knowledge about the computer hardware,software,operating systems, software development phase is required, recent trends and their comparisons.

• The system analyst should be well versed with the software system development techniques and tools • In order to complete specific system development activities, analyst need to know the techniques of project planning , system design, coding and testing, implementation and system support.

Business knowledge and skills
• System Analyst should understand the business organization to be able to solve business problem therefore he is required to know, the user organization’s activities and business processes, user organization’s structure, management styles and techniques of managing major functions of the organization such as Marketing, finance, manufacturing,etc.

• The System Analyst should have the knowledge of the industry sector and of the commercial characteristic of that industrial sector. • Analyst should understand the specific company as a user organization as a whole. The system analyst should know the business strength (what it can do better than its competitors?) , the organizations current strategies and policies • The specific information required is who are the users, their designations, primary responsibilities and role.

People knowledge and skills
• A good System Analyst should have very strong people skills, since he works with people of variety of profiles and his success at work depends a lot upon them • Analyst is required to be good at interpersonal skills, and communication skills to motivate people all over the project • Analyst is required to be influential personal working through various hierarchies of the user organization and development team.

Integrity and ethics
• The system analyst refers to very vital information sources while performing his work. It is important that he follows the user companies privacy policies and procedures very strictly

Characteristics of System
As per the definition of System we have following characteristics The system works to achieve a common Goal Eg. Goal of traffic system is to facilitate road with high safety and speed to all the road users equally in a fair manner. The system has several components working together to contribute their respective part to meet the overall objective of the system. Together they all, the system is said to be working. Eg. Traffic system has the vehicle driver signals, traffic police etc as element of system If any of the components is missing or not working as desired, it affects the performance of the system as a whole. thus one can identify all the necessary tasks that all the components together are required to perform, so that entire system meet its goal.

• The system components communicate with each other and you will be able to identify what they communicate with each other (DATA), when (EVENT), and what is purpose of the communication , such as co-ordinate the work or control the work etc.