Tanta University Faculty of Agriculture Plant protection

BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL FOR SOME PESTS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND ITS SIDE EFFECTS.
By
Sabry AbdEl-Monem Abd-ElAal Abd-AllAh. B.Sc. Agric., (Pesticides), Tanta Univ., 1991. M.Sc. Agric., (Pesticides ), Tanta Univ., 1998. Thesis Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Supervision's Committee 1-Prof. Dr. Tsamoh Khatab Abd El-Raof Emeritus Prof. of Pesticides, Faculty of Agric. Tanta University. 2-Prof. Dr. Helmy Aly Ibrahim Anber Prof. of Pesticides, and Dean of the Faculty of Agric. Tanta University. 3- Prof. Dr. Abd-ElRahim. S. Metwally Head of Field Crops Pests Department, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agric. Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. 4- Dr. El-Sayed A. Kishk Lecturer of Pesticides. Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University.

(2008)

Tanta University Faculty of Agriculture Plant protection

BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL FOR SOME PESTS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND ITS SIDE EFFECTS.
By
Sabry AbdEl-Monem Abd-ElAal Abd-AllAh. B.Sc. Agric., (Pesticides), Tanta Univ.,1991. M.Sc. Agric., (Pesticides ), Tanta Univ., 1998. Thesis Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Supervision's Committee 1-Prof. Dr. Tsamoh Khatab Abd El-Raof
Emeritus Prof. of Pesticides, Faculty of Agric. Tanta University.

2-Prof. Dr. Helmy Aly Ibrahim Anber
Prof. of Pesticides, and Dean of the Faculty of Agric. Tanta University.

3- Prof. Dr. Abd-ElRahim. S. Metwally
Head of Field Crops Pests Department, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agric. Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

4- Dr. El-Sayed A. Kishk
Lecturer of Pesticides. Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University.

Date:30/7/2008

Head of Department

Vice Dean for hight studies and researchers Prof. Dr. Ibrahim I. Mesbah

Prof. Dr. Ibrahim I. Mesbah

Tanta University Faculty of Agriculture Plant protection

BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL FOR SOME PESTS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND ITS SIDE EFFECTS.
Presented by Sabry AbdEl-Monem Abd-El-Aal Abd-AllAh For the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture Sciences (pesticides). Examiners committee 1-Prof. Dr. Tsamoh Khatab Abd El-Raof.
Emeritus Prof. of Pesticides, Faculty of Agric, Tanta University.

Approved by ------------------------------

2-Prof. Dr. Attiah Youssef Keratum
Prof. of Pesticides chemistry, Kafer El-Sheikh University

------------------------------

3- Prof. Dr. Helmy Aly Ibrahim Anber.
Prof. of Pesticides, and Dean of the Faculty of Agric. Tanta University.

------------------------------

4- Prof. Dr. Ibrahim I. Mesbah.
Prof. of Economic entomology, Head of the Plant Protection Dept. and Vice Dean of Faculty of Agric., Tanta University.

-----------------------------

Date 30 / 7 /2008

Name:Sabry AbdEl-Monem Abd-El-Aal Abd-Allah Title: BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL FOR SOME PESTS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND ITS SIDE EFFECTS. Degree:Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture Sciences (pesticides) Plant production Departments, Faculty of Agricultural, Tanta University.

Abstract
Series of field and laboratory experiments had been carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, for determination the efficiency of some substitute implement as a part of integrated pest management for European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.). The results obtained can be summarized as follows: The toxicity of the Biofly to the aphid species and red spider mite using leaf disk dipping technique could be arranged descendingly as follows: Tetranychus cinnabarinus > Rhopalosiphum maidis > Aphis craccivora > Aphis gossypii. While, the toxicity of the different oils against spider mite T. cinnabarinus using leaf-disc dipping technique could be arranged descendingly as follows: corn oil> cotton oil >caster oil > mineral oil>canola oil> paraffin oil. Most tested mixtures of corn and cotton oils with Beauveria bassiana (Biofly) were less toxic than the Biofly formulation. while, the mixtures which consists of 3 parts of Biofly and 1 part caster oil or canola or mineral and paraffin oils more toxic than Biofly formulation against T. cinnabarinus. All tested photostablizers and pigments mixtures with Biofly had increased the mixtures' toxicity to T. cinnabarinus mites. But when increasing the concentration ratio to 1% the toxicity decrease. Mixtures of Biofly + 0.1% acetophenon or 4-nitro acetophenon or 7-nitophenol or benzophenon, Biofly + 0.1% or 0.2% or 0.5%congo red and Biofly + 0.1% or 0.2% or 0.5% titan yellow mixtures had increased the toxicity of the Biofly formulation against adult T. cinnabarinus. The most persistence mixtures were 3Biofly:1paraffin oil, 3Biofly:1 castor oil, and Biofly+0.1% benzophenon, or +0.5% congo red or +0.1% 7-nitrophenol. Cultivars S.C.13 and T.W.C. 351 were the most tolerant cultivars against ECB infestation while, T.W.C.323 and 324 cultivars were the most susceptible cultivers. There are a positive relationship between %grain protein and the %damaged grain. The most potent insecticides against ECB infestation were diazinon and fenpropathrin but methomyl was the least toxic one. Diazinon followed by chlorpyrifos insecticides had the highest values in 100grain weight and grain yield/10plants. Spraying with diazinon, mixture No.4 [150ml Biofly + 50ml paraffin oil+ 0.1% benzophenon(0.2gm)+ 500ml diazinon] and mixture No.3 [(375gm Agrine + 125ml paraffin oil+ 0.1% benzophenon(0.5gm) + 500ml diazinon] had been reduced holes No./100internodes and cavities No./10plants. Diazinon, mixture No.4 and mixture No.3 had increase both 100 grain weight and grain yield/10plants Agerin (a Bacillus thuringiensis formulation), Agerin mixtures with oil or/with benzophenon and paraffin oil had no toxicity against adults of predator, Paederus alfierii. The toxicity of the rest biochemicals could be arranged descendingly as follows: mixture No.4 > mixture No.3 > diazinon. While mixture No.2 [150ml Biofly + 50ml paraffin oil+ 0.1% benzophenon(0.2gm)] were more toxic than Biofly.

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CO NTE NTS
CONTENTS ...................................................................................................1 List of Tables....................................................................................................5 List of figures...............................................................................................153 ACKNOWLEDGMENT.................................................................................1 I - INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................2 II - REVIEW OF LITERATURE.................................................................3 II.1 Pesticides efficiency against the European corn borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner). ..................................................................................3 II.2 Role of plant tolerance in corn borer control:.....................................11 II.3 The biological control of European Corn Borer.................................15 II.3.1 Role of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana in the biological control of corn borers.............................................................................15 II.3.1.a Efficiency of Beauveria bassiana against Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.).........................................................................................15 II.3.1.b Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana with oils..................21 II.3.1.c Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana with pesticides. .........28 II.3.1.d Effect of ultraviolet radiations (UV) on the Beauveria bassiana efficiency. ...............................................................................32 II.3.2 Efficiency of Beauveria bassiana against Aphis sp and two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus.............................................................35 II.3.3 Role of Bacillus thuringiensis on the biological control of European Corn Borers Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.)..............................................................36 II.4 Oils efficiency against spider mites Tetranychus spp.........................43 II.5 The side effect of bioinsecticides on some beneficial insects. ...........44 II.6 The side effect of diazinon on some beneficial insects........................47 III - MATERIALS AND METHODS.........................................................49 III.1 Rearing technique of aphids:.............................................................49

III.2 Rearing technique of the two spotted Spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval). ....................................................................49 III.3 Rearing technique of the predator, Paederus alfierii (Kock)..............50 III.4 Determination of the Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) potency . ........51 III.4.1 Slide dipping technique........................................................................51 III.4.2 Leaf-disc dipping technique:................................................................52 III.4.3 Determination the effect of ultra violet radiation on B. bassiana potency. 52 III.4.3.a Mixing Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) with different oils...........................................................................................53 III.4.3.b Mixing Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) with Photostablizers and pigments..................................................54 III.4.3.c Effect of Ultra Violet radiation (UV) on Beauveria bassiana .56 III.5 The side effect of bioinsecticides against the predator, Paederus alfierii (Kock). ..................................................................................................57 III.6 L.D.P lines and statistical analysis.....................................................57 III.7 Evaluation of some chemical insecticides efficiency against ECB on certain maize cultivatrs under natural infestation conditions................58 III.7.1 Chemical insecticides used :................................................................58 III.7.2 Soil analysis.........................................................................................60 III.7.3 Climatological elements.......................................................................61 III.8 Evaluation of some microbial insecticides efficiency against ECB on certain maize cultivars compared with chemical insecticide under natural infestation conditions.............................................................................62 III.9 Chemical analysis of Corn cultivars..................................................65 III.9.1 Total nitrogen content determination..................................................65 III.9.2 Phosphorus Determination. ................................................................66 III.9.3 Determination of cellulose contents.....................................................67 III.9.4 Determination of ash............................................................................67

III.10 Statistical analysis............................................................................68 IV - RESULTS AND DISCUSSION...........................................................71 IV.1 Determination of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) potency. ..............71 IV.2 Effect of ultra violet radiation on B. bassiana potency.......................75 IV.2.1 Effect of mixing Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) with different oils.........................................................................................................75 IV.2.1.a Effect of different oils against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus...........................................................................................76 IV.2.1.b Effect of Beauveria bassiana mixtures with oils against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus....................................................79 IV.2.2 Effect of Mixing Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) with photostaplizers.......................................................................................86 IV.2.3 Effect of Ultra Violet radiation (UV) on Beauveria bassiana mixtures.96 IV.3 Evaluation of some chemical insecticides efficiency against ECB on certain maize cultivatars under natural infestation conditions..............98 IV.3.1 Susceptibility of corn cultivars at the late season to infestation with ECB under natural infestation conditions......................................................99 IV.3.2 Insecticides efficiency against European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) infestation...................................................................................103 IV.3.2.a Holes No./100 internodes..................................................103 IV.3.2.b Cavities No./10 plant.........................................................104 IV.3.2.c Larvae No. /10plants.........................................................106 IV.3.2.d Holes No./10 ear stalks......................................................107 IV.3.2.e Damaged grains percentage..............................................109 IV.3.2.f Grains protein percentage..................................................110 IV.3.2.g Grains phosphorus percentage...........................................112 IV.3.2.h 100 grain weight (g.). ......................................................113 IV.3.2.i Grains yield/10 plants(Kg).................................................115

IV.4 Chemical analysis of Corn cultivars.................................................127 IV.5 Evaluation of some microbial insecticides efficiency against ECB on certain maize cultivators compared with chemical insecticides under natural infestation conditions...........................................................................130 IV.5.1 Holes No./100 internodes...................................................................130 IV.5.2 Cavities No./10plants.........................................................................132 IV.5.3 Larvae No./10plants...........................................................................134 IV.5.4 100 grain weight.................................................................................136 IV.5.5 Grains yield/10plants.........................................................................138 IV.6 The side effect of biochemicals against the predator, Paederus alfierii (Kock). ................................................................................................147 V - SUMMARY..........................................................................................147 VI - REFERENCES...................................................................................151

List of T ables

List of f igur es

ACKNO WLE DG MENT
I strongly owe my thanks to directing me across every success. The author wishes to express his deep thanks to Prof. Dr. Tsamoh Khatab Abd El-Raof Professor of Pesticides, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, for suggesting the problem and her supervision during the course of these studies and during revision of the manuscript. Sincere thanks, appreciation and deep gratitude to Prof. Dr. Helmy Aly Ibrahim Anber Prof. of pesticides, and Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, for his supervising in my committee and for his continuous support through the period of study. Deepest and sincere gratitude to Dr. Abd-ElRhim. S. Metwally Head of Field Crop Pests Department, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agric. Research Center, Cairo, Egypt for supervising the work, efforts in revising the manuscript and discussing data, providing technical help and valuable scientific assistance. The author wishes also to thank Dr. EL-Sayed A. Kishk Lecturer of Pesticides. Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, for of the work . I wish to express my deep gratitude to Prof. Dr. Ibrahim I. Mesbah Chairman of the plant protection Department and Vice Dean of Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, for his kind help and advice through this study. Deep thank are also to all members in pesticides Department Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, for their continuous encouragement and offering all facilities through out this work. his valuable supervision, scientific suggestions, guidance, and kind help during the period ALLAH for lighting me the way and

INT RODUCTI ON -I
Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important grains crops in Egypt. The amount of corn needs is far greater than that produced locally. To overcome this problem and increase production under limited arable lands in Egypt, it may be through cultivate corn in the early season (in the beginning of March) and in the late season (in the beginning of July) as well. But, European corn borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilials (Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae) infestation increases in the late season and become a limiting factor to increase the corn production, it causes a stalk damage that results in great grains yield reductions reached to 45 % (Lutfalla and Sherif 1992). Over use of insecticides led to increase problems of pest resistance, destruction of beneficial insects or non-target organisms, insecticides residues and human hazards. The increased public awareness and concern for environmental safety has directed research to the development of alternative control strategies such as the use of microbial control agents for controlling ECB by using Beauveria bassina and Bacillus thuringiensis formulations. One of the major challenges to use the microbial biopesticides is their lack of persistence in the field due to environmental factors such as sunlight, high temperature, and water stress. Sunlight particularly UVB (280-320 nm portion) is likely the most destructive of these environmental factors by the direct structural effects on DNA or indirect damage caused by the formation of reactive oxygen molecules (Ignoffo and Garcia, 1978, 1994; Ignoffo, 1992). The half- life of most entomopathogenic fungal conidia ranges from 1 to 4 hr in stimulated sunlight and 4 to 400 hours in natural sunlight on foliage. Many researchers have screened many additives materials to protect bioinsecticides from degradation by sunlight. A number of laboratory and field studies indicates that oil formulations and photo-protective agents

improve the efficacy of entomopathogenic formulations (Inglis et al. 2002; Moore et al 1993 and Alves et al 1998). So, the goal of this study is to achieve an integrated biocontrol for the European Corn Borer(ECB) especially in late season through the following: 1- Enhanced the persistence of bioinsecticides formulations against UV radiations by mixing them with some botanical oils, mineral oils, some photostablizer compounds and some pigments. 2- Selection of the most tolerant commercial corn cultivars to use as a major key of integrated pest management of ECB infestation. 3- Choose the most potent insecticides of the common insecticides used to control ECB in the late season. 4- Finally, use the mixtures of enhanced bioagents with the most effective insecticides (in a minimum concentration) and the most tolerant commercial corn cultivators to obtain the most effective biochemical control of ECB infestation under the field conditions.

I I - REV IE W OF LITE RATUR E.
II .1 Pest ici de s ef fic ie nc y aga in st the Eu r opea n co r n bo r er (EC B) Ostr ini a nu bi la li s ( Hu bn er ).
Barbulescu (1971), stated that endosulfan (Thiodan), diazinon (Basudin), bromophos, carbaryl (Sevon) and disulfoton (Solvirex) gave very good results in controlling the Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) larvae, while those afforded by trichlorphon (Dipterex) were less satisfactory. No significant differences in the effectiveness of the compounds were observed between the different hybrids. Berry et al. (1972), found that granules of diazinon at 1 libra (lb) toxicant/acre, Velsicol VCS-506 at 1.5 lb, carbofuran at 0.5 lb, Pennwalt TD5032 (hexamethylditin) at 0.75 lb, monocrotophos at 0.75 lb and DDT at 1 lb and sprays of DDD (TDE) at 1.5 lb, Bay 79845 at 1 lb, carbofuran at 1 lb, Chevron 9006 at 1 lb and DDT at 1 lb were the most effective against the first generation of ECB larvae. On the other hand, granules of Pennwalt TD5032 at 0.75 lb, carbofuran at 1 lb and Velsicol VCS-506 at 1.5 lb and sprays of Bay 79845 at 1 lb, carbofuran at 1 lb and Bay 93820 at 1 lb were the most effective against the second-generation larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis . Hills et al. (1972), studied the effect of insecticide applications timing for controlling larvae of Diabrotica virgifera Lec. and first generation larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) on maize. They found that, the most effective control of Ostrinia was given by the post-sowing treatments applied on 2 nd July. The timing of applications was particularly critical with diazinon,

4

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

which was about the most effective material, but not so critical with Dyfonate, fensulfothion or carbofuran, which also gave good results. McClanahan and Founk (1972), reported that in laboratory tests parathion was the most effective ovicide against Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.). The larvae were more susceptible than the eggs. In 1970 and 1971, heavy populations of the multivoltine strain of O. nubilalis were controlled on sweet maize and peppers [Capsicum] by twice-weekly sprays of carbaryl, methomyl (Lannate) and Phosvel. Carbofuran (Furadan) applied weekly provided good control, and several experimental compounds were effective. Gerginov (1973), investigated the effectiveness of some chemical preparations for the control of the maize stem borer Ostrinia (Pyrausta) nubilalis (Hb.). He found that, the best results were achieved with 5% endosulfan (Thiodan), 5% diazinon and 5% bromophos (Nexion) applied in granules manually at 1 g/plant, which gave 92.25, 81.79 and 77.91% mortality of first generation larvae and increased the yield by 833, 617 and 653 kg/ha, respectively. Also with two applications of 5% endosulfan at 0.5 g/plant, larval mortality was 96.8%. While it was 92.7% with one application of endosulfan in granules followed by a wettable powder spray of the same toxicant. Melia Masia and Almajano Contreras (1973), applied granular formulations containing 3% phosmet (Imidan), 2.5% diazinon or 5% monocrotophos at rates of 25, 25 and 20 kg/ha, respectively, to the upper part of the maize plants on 12th, 14th July, 2- 4 days after the adults flight peak. They showed that there were no significant differences between the treatments, on average yield, the populations of Ostrinia had been reduced

5

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

by 82.4% as compared with control. Harrison (1974), investigated the chemical control of ear-infesting insects of sweet corn Heliothis zea (Boddie), Ostrinia nubilalis(Hb.) and Carpophilus lugubris Murr, in field tests and indicated that (Lorsban) and leptophos were as effective as carbaryl. Hudon and Castagner (1976), tested 13 insecticides in the field for the control of a natural outbreak of Ostrinia nubilalis(Hb.) on maize. They indicated that only chlorpyrifos (as Lorsban 10G) gave good results, with only 4% of ears attacked. Chlorpyrifos, triazophos (Hostathion 5G), FMC 33297 4EC, N 2596 10G and carbaryl 85W gave satisfactory results. McWhorter et al. (1976), evaluated the effectiveness of the spray and granular formulations of some insecticides (toxaphene, diazinon, carbaryl, EPN, carbofuran and malathion) for the control of artificial infestations of the Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) first generation on maize in field plot tests. They made the infestations by placing egg-masses at the black-head stage on plants at the mid-whorl stage at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days after treatment. They indicated that, the granular formulations were effective for the entire eight day period, whereas the spray formulations were less effective than the granules after five days. Mustea (1977), studied the effectiveness of several different insecticides for the control of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) in maize fields. He found that the granules reduced attack by 58-71%, with a definite relationship between the amount of insecticide applied and the numbers of damaged plants. The best control of the borer was obtained with diazinon (Basudin), carbofuran (Furadan) and kelevan (Despirol), all in 5% granules, whereas the Dursban

6

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

highest maize yields were obtained with 5% granules of chlorfenvinphos (Birlane), carbofuran and gamma BHC (Lindatox) applied in two treatments each at 1 kg toxicant/ha. The lower yields recorded for some compounds such as diazinon, disulfoton (Disyston) and carbaryl (Sevin) were due to phytotoxic effects of the compounds. He attributed the generally poor results of the most insecticides to the long flight period of the pest, the late application of the compounds and their loss of toxicity with time and weathering. Straub (1977), studied the role of pre-silk applications and leaf feeding resistance. He found that insecticide spray applications to silks alone did not provide acceptable control. Multiple pre-silk applications were unnecessary when methomyl at 0.5 kg/ha or encapsulated methyl-parathion at 0.6 kg were used; a single late-whorl application of either insecticide followed by 3 silk sprays was sufficient. Carbaryl was ineffective. Use of B49XB68, a leaf- feeding resistant dent genotype, coupled with 3 silk sprays of any tested materials, provided a degree of control comparable to a full program (2 whorl and 3 silk sprays) with the best insecticides on susceptible sweet maize. Thompson and White (1977), carried out Field-plot tests to determine the effectiveness of several insecticides applied in granules or as sprays to whorls for the control of populations of Ostrinia nubilalis(Hb.) on silage maize. They assumed that all treatments significantly reduced the and number of larval cavities/plant recorded at the harvest. Carbofuran, parathion, diazinon, fonofos, permethrin (NRDC-143), WL 43775, N-2596 fensulfothion gave the best control. Silage yields were not significantly affected by any of the treatments, despite excellent larval control. However, a significant increase in the grain component of the silage was observed in 1974

7

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

from plots treated with carbofuran, parathion, carbaryl and diazinon. Martel and Hudon (1978), stated that only chlorpyrifos and permethrin of 14 insecticides laboratory tested against first instar larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis(Hb.), were more effective than DDT and carbaryl. Carbofuran and primidophos were only slightly less effective than DDT and carbaryl. Also they showed that carbofuran, diazinon, fonofos, N-2596, and chlorpyrifos were promising as granular treatments, but carbaryl was ineffective in greenhouse tests with commercial formulations applied to maize plants at the whorl stage. Raemisch and Walgenbach (1983), evaluated the effectiveness of emulsifiable concentrates of permethrin or cypermethrin and granular formulations of fonofos, carbofuran, phorate or chlorpyrifos at various rates for the control of 1st generation larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis(Hb.) on maize. They found that all the treatments significantly reduced borer damage, as measured by cavity counts within the stalk. The liquid treatments proved to be as effective as the granular treatments when both were applied over the row. Also they evaluated the impact of 1st generation larvae on silage yield in two tests; they found that, in each case, dry-matter yield was reduced by such infestations. The yield in untreated controls was 14.1 and 14.7% lower than in cypermethrin treated plots with 0.11 kg a.i./ha. Straub (1983), evaluated the effectiveness of granular whorl treatments with several insecticides for the control of 1st generation larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis(Hb.) on sweet maize fields. They showed that, when infestation pressure was light to moderate, a single granular application compared favourably with multiple foliar sprays of the standard treatment (

8

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

methomyl at 0.5 kg a.i./ha), but supplementary sprays were necessary under heavy infestation pressure. Terbufos at 1.12-2.24 kg, and chlorpyrifos, fonofos and isofenphos all at 1.12 kg were the best granular treatments. They concluded that, use of granular whorl treatments could effectively reduces the number of treatments and could fit well into pest management programmers for sweet maize. Khasan and D'Yachenko (1984), determined the effectiveness of the insecticides diflubenzuron (Dimilin), parathion-methyl (metaphos) and diazinon (Basudin), Lepidocide [ Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki formulation] and mixtures containing Lepidocide and parathion-methyl or diazinon against the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) on maize. They stated that, the most effective treatments were the mixtures of Lepidocide at 2 liters/ha with either parathion-methyl at 0.15 litre/ha or diazinon at 0.1 litre/ha. Mestres and Cabanettes (1985), investigated the target and non target effects of chemical control measures against the maize pyralid Ostrinia nubilalis in about 60 trials throughout France in about 1980-84. They reported that, a granular formulation of chlorpyrifos, (a reference compound) afforded a mean efficacy of 77% against larvae in the ears and 82% against those in the stems. Yields were only weakly correlated with the extent of larval infestation, but the results of treatment were strongly correlated with yields when yields exceeded 75 quintal(100kg)/hectare. Molinari and Mazzoni (1986), fulfilled investigations to determine the damage level caused by natural infestation of several maize hybrids by the pyralid Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) and also the effectiveness of a deltplane for

9

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

application of insecticide for the control of the ECB. They assessed the level of infestation by means of pheromone traps for the adults and visual counts of egg masses, entrance holes and (at the harvest) mature larvae of the 2nd generation. They assumed that yield losses were found to be significantly correlated with the numbers of entrance holes and not with the numbers of mature larvae; maize plants with 2-4 holes yielded 2.96% less and those with 5 or more holes yielded 14.8% less than uninfested plants. In control tests, applied a preparation containing Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, by deltaplane at 2.4×1010 International Unite/hectare (IU/ha) against the 2nd generation only, and chlorpyrifos at 470 g/ha either once against the 2nd generation alone or twice against the 1st and 2nd generations reduced the infestation significantly. Voinescu and Barbulescu (1986) tested the effectiveness of granules of eight insecticides, each applied at 2 kg a.i./ha, on maize plants artificially infested with Ostrinia nubilalis at higher rates than those likely to occur in nature. They declared that, the best results (in terms of stalk cavity length, number of larvae per plant, percentage of plants with cob damage, and grains yield) were afforded by diazinon, chlormephos, chlorpyrifos, carbofuran and profenofos. Aguilar et al. (1987), determined the optimum timing for insecticides applications to control the pyralid Ostrinia nubilalis and the noctuid Sesamia nonagrioides in maize. They applied Ethyl chlorpyrifos to maize at 3 sites as 17 applications throughout the crop growth period, 7 applications during the 1st generations of the pests, 10 applications during the 2nd generations of the pests and an untreated control. They found that, crops which applied with

10

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

insecticide against the 2nd generations of the pests contained significantly lower numbers of borers and fallen plants than the untreated control. They indicated that the 2nd generations of the maize borers are responsible for the greatest damage in maize. Felip et al. (1987), determined the efficacy and persistence of nubilalis and nine insecticides, against the maize stem borers Ostrinia

Sesamia nonagrioides. They found that, the granular insecticides tended to be less effective than liquid insecticides. Numbers of O. nubilalis larvae in lindane and B. thuringiensis treatments and also numbers of both species in these applications and methamidophos treatments were not lowered than those in untreated controls. Grain yields and numbers of fallen plants were not significantly different among treatments when compared with the untreated control. The best control of O. nubilalis was achieved using chlorpyrifos (granules and liquid), fenitrothion and trichlorfon liquid formulations and granular permethrin. Rinkleff et al. (1995), conducted field and laboratory studies using selected carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides to quantify their toxicity to Ostrinia nubilalis eggs and the residual mortality to neonate larvae. They reported that, insecticides with the greatest ovicidal activity in field trials, in decreasing order, included methomyl> encapsulated methyl parathion> permethrin> thiodicarb> zeta-cypermethrin and lambda-

cyhalothrin. With the exception of methomyl, significant larval mortality was also observed for each material. They conducted laboratory bioassays to estimate the LC50 for insecticides showing the greatest ovicidal activity in the field. Insecticides with the greatest ovicidal activity included, in decreasing

11

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

order, zeta-cypermethrin > lambda-cyhalothrin> permethrin> parathionmethyl> esfenvalerate and methomyl, with the exception of methomyl, all insecticides demonstrated high levels of residual toxicity to neonates. Mazurek and Hurej (1999), tested Biobit (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki) 0.5%, Karate kg/ha, (lambda-cyhalothrin) 0.015%, Larvin ( thiodicarb) 0.2%, Nomolt (teflubenzuron) 0.2% and Diazinon (diazinon) 15 for controlling the European corn borer larvae. They applied All products only once, at the same time on 10 July. They indicated that Karate was the most effective insecticide (the rate of damaged ears was 5.5%, compared to 23.7% on untreated plots). Musser and Shelton (2005), assessed the influence of post-treatment temperature on the toxicities of two pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin), a carbamate (methomyl) and a spinosyn (spinosad) to Ostrinia nubilalis(Hubner) larvae in laboratory tests. They found that, from 24 to 35 degrees °C, the toxicities of the pyrethroids decreased 9.5 and 13.6 fold while spinosad toxicity decreased 3.8-fold. The toxicity of methomyl was not changed significantly. They demonstrated that the most effective insecticide against a pest may vary with environmental conditions.

II. 2 Rol e of pla nt tole r anc e in bor er c on tr ol:

cor n

Kazymova and Khrolinskii, (1973), studied the resistance maize varieties to Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) infestation. They determined the foliar resistance of maize varieties, lines and hybrids by field tests and by laboratory assessments using the optical density of maize-leaf extracts, they

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found a correlation between the degree of foliar resistance and the optical density of the leaf extracts. Khrolinskii and Kazymova (1976), achieved a rapid method to determine the maize resistance for the stalk borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) infestation. It involved analysis of one particular leaf (the third leaf from the top on plants in the 9-10 leaf stage, cut it in the early morning when the temperature does not exceed 19ºC) by various analytical methods. They indicated that, the optical density of extracts appeared to be the most important characteristic. Optical densities of 0.5 or more indicated resistance, and those of 0.4 or less indicated partial but insufficient resistance. Rojanaridpiched (1983), studied the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)) resistance in maize. He found that the second generation of O. nubilalis resistance correlated with silica content of the leaf sheath collar (r = -0.84). Also, the resistance of the first generation O. nubilalis was highly correlated with DIMBOA in the "whorl" tissue. Rojanaridpiched et al. (1984), indicated that resistance to the second generation of Ostrinia nubilalis was significantly correlated with silica content in the sheath and collar tissues. A relatively high DIMBOA content was found in the leaf sheath and collar tissues of some lines. DIMBOA had a secondary role in resistance in some lines. Bergvinson et al. (1994), studied the putative role of photodimerized phenolic acids in maize resistance to Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). They grew a five genotypes of maize under three light regimes in the field. They reported that, artificial infestation with Ostrinia nubilalis, egg masses resulted in greater leaf feeding damage for plants grown under an

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Ultra Violet (UV) absorbing plastic (UV-) than for the same genotypes grown under UV transmitting (UV+) plastic or in the open. Leaf bioassays performed on tissue from the three different light regimes showed similar trends. Foliar nitrogen content was reduced as much as 15% for UV-plants. 2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one levels were consistently higher in UV-plants as were the levels of cell-wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA). Light-activated dimers of HCA called truxillic and truxinic acids were lower in UV-plants. They indicated that cell-wall-bound truxillic and truxinic acids are an additional resistance mechanism that provides an explanation for increased susceptibility of greenhouse grown plants to folivores. Abel et al. (1995), evaluated 1601 accessions of Peruvian maize maintained in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System for leaf-feeding resistance to O. nubilalis. They identified eleven resistant accessions, all of which originated from Peru's north coast. Then analyzed the 11 resistant accessions for MBOA, the degradation product of DIMBOA and an indicator of DIMBOA levels in the plant. They found that, all 11 resistant accessions contained low MBOA concentration, equivalent to that found in susceptible inbred WF9, this indicating that DIMBOA is not the basis of this resistance. Warnock et al. (1997), developed a laboratory bioassay incorporating ear tissues from field resistant and susceptible sweet corn genotypes into a nutritionally complete O. nubilalis larval diet as an initial step to facilitate the isolation and identification of potential chemical resistance factors in sweet corn. They found that, silk tissue from several sweet corn genotypes significantly reduced larval weight and increased total larval development

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time compared with kernel tissue. Silk tissues incorporated on a weight basis had volumes about 3X than that of an equal weight of kernel tissues. However, tissues incorporated into a specific diet volume on a weight or volume basis usually did not alter larval weight or time to pupation within a genotype. Incorporation on a weight basis was most time efficient. Binder et al. (1999), indicate that water-soluble factors from resistant Peruvian accessions inhibit the growth, development time, and survival of ECB. These resistance factors could be useful in the development of maize germplasm with insect-resistant traits. Raspudic et al. (2003), evaluated the resistance of some hybrids to the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis in field trials. They found that, If infestation intensity was lower than 40%, the greatest length of damage on maize stalk was, on average, 1.58 cm per plant. If the intensity of attack was more than 50%, the average length of damage on maize stalk was 5.78 cm per plant. Significant positive correlation was observed between the intensity of attack and length of damage. Martin et al. (2004), evaluated twelve cycles of bidirectional selection, which has resulted in increased and decreased stalk strength in the high and low directions of selection, respectively, for grain yield, stalk lodging, rind penetrometer resistance, first and second-generation ECB damage, leaf penetrometer resistance at the whorl stage and anthesis, and stalk traits including crude fiber, cellulose, lignin, and silica. They explicit that, there are a decrease in grain yield in both directions of selection. Selection for high rind penetrometer resistance was effective at providing resistance to second-generation ECB damage as well as resistance to stalk lodging. Leaf

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penetrometer resistance was higher in the high direction of selection at whorl stage, but reversed by anthesis where the low direction of selection had higher leaf penetrometer resistance. Crude fiber, cellulose, and lignin increased in the high direction of selection, but silica decreased in the high direction of selection. Significant correlations between the stalk traits analyzed demonstrated that stalk composition was important in providing rind penetrometer resistance, stalk lodging resistance, and second-generation ECB resistance.

II .3 T he bi ol og ic al co nt r ol of Eur ope an Co r n B or er.
II .3.1 Role of ent omo pa th og enic fun gi, Be auv eria bassian a in th e bi ologi cal co nt r ol of co r n b or er s.
II.3.1.a Ef ficienc y of Beauv eria bassiana Ost rinia nubilalis (Hb.). a gainst

Yashugina (1970), studied the usability of Boverin [a preparation of Beauveria bassiana] for the maize stem borer control. He found that, the percentage damage to the plants was reduced to 18.3 and 16.3 and to the ears was reduced to 3.7 and 4.3, as compared with 30.7 and 7.7 for no treatment, respectively. Riba et al. (1983), determine the susceptibility of the eggs, larvae and pupae of the maize pest Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) to numerous strains of the fungi Beauveria bassiana, Nomuraea rileyi, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium anisopliae in laboratory tests. They found that, Strain no. 139 of

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M. anisopliae and strain no. 40 of P. fumosoroseus were very pathogenic to the eggs, the lethal dose being <105 spores/ml. N. rileyi did not kill the eggs, and the pathogenicity of B. bassiana was low. In the tests with 5th instar nondiapausing larvae, the LT50 after treatment at 107 spores/ml ranged according to the strain from 8.4 to 28.2 days for B. bassiana. M. anisopliae, P. fumosoroseus and N. rileyi were not effective against the larvae. The LT50s after pupae had been treated with 107 spores/ml were 3-3.55 for P. fumosoroseus, 7.5 for a strain (no. 60) of M. anisopliae and 12.2-13.4 for B. bassiana. after a given period of time, mortality percentages for diapausing larvae were much higher than those for non diapausing 5th instar larvae treated with the same concentration of a spore suspension of M. anisopliae. When larvae in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instars were treated with a suspension of spores of B. bassiana, mortality was significantly higher on the 11th day after treatment among 5th instar larvae than among those in other instars. It was found in further tests that the susceptibility of the larvae to the fungi was increased by the addition of sublethal doses of chlorpyrifos to the suspension. Rosca and Barbulescu (1983), analyzed the biological factors causing the death of 31.8% of larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) hatching from egg-masses collected from maize fields in Romania in 1981 in the laboratory. They demonstrated that, 31.6% of the died larvae, were infected with Beauveria bassiana and 32.7% with Bacillus thuringiensis. Riba and Marcandier (1984), studied the effect of relative humidity on the virulence and viability of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin conidia, and of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin, hyphomycetes pathogenic to the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb in a laboratory

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test. They showed that Metarhizium anisopliae could not attack the eggs of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.) if the relative air humidity was less than 90%, even for a few hours. At low relative humidity (30-33%), Beauveria bassiana was able to penetrate larvae of O. nubilalis, but the LT50 was much increased over that at high humidity (90-100%) and the fungus did not sporulate on the surface of host cadavers. In addition, the viability of conidia of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae was reduced by relative humidity between 5 and 70%. After 25 days at 30% RH, only up to 20% of conidia of B. bassiana were able to germinate, while M. anisopliae exposed for 1 day to 30% RH at 25 °C could not attack eggs of O. nubilalis. Carruthers et al. (1985), studied the temperature-dependent development of Beauveria bassiana mycosis of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. They found that, in vivo incubation period of Beauveria bassiana mycosis of Ostrinia nubilalis was varied in response to incubation temperature, the level of initial exposure (dose) and the larvae age. Incubation Temperature was found to be the dominant factor affecting disease development within each of the host instars examined, while a dose produced significant effects only in the early instars. Guerin (1986), evaluated a granular formulation of Beauveria bassiana in 3 trials in France against the maize pyralid Ostrinia nubilalis. With infestation ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 larvae/stem, He found that, efficacy approached 70-90%. Bing and Lewis (1991), applied the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to whorl-stage maize plants by foliar application of a granular formulation of conidia and by injection of a conidial suspension.

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They found that, in season 1989, 98.3% of the foliar treated plants, 95.0% of the injected plants and 33.3% of the untreated plants were colonized by B. bassiana at harvest. In 1988, there were no significant differences between treatment effects on O. nubilalis tunneling in plants. In 1989, when environmental conditions were more conducive to fungal growth, tunneling was significantly greater in the control plants, followed by the injected and foliar treated plants. When applied to foliage, B. bassiana provided the greatest amount of O. nubilalis suppression. The entomopathogenic fungus colonized maize at the whorl stage, moved within the plant, and persisted to provide season-long suppression of O. nubilalis. Lewis and Bing (1991), placed a laboratory-reared O. nubilalis eggs or larvae on the plant during either the whorl stage (V6) or the pollenshedding stage (R1) to simulate 1st and 2nd generation O. nubilalis oviposition periods, respectively. They establish that, in the 1st year, first generation, and second generation (2nd year) Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana alone and in combination caused significant reductions in tunneling compared with that in control populations. There were no significant differences in tunneling between any treatments in the 2nd generation study of first year. Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana were independent of each other in their suppression of insects. They recorded tunneling by the naturally occurring second-generation larvae (year 2) to determine if Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana applied in the V6 stage persisted in the plant, excised with samples from nodal plates 7-10 of the maize stalk to determine the incidence of B. bassiana. They concluded that, there was a significant correlation between occurrence of B. bassiana in the maize plant

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and tunneling by 2nd generation larvae. B. bassiana placed in the whorl of maize plant may provide season-long suppression of O. nubilalis. Bing and Lewis (1992), applied the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to whorl-stage (V7) corn by foliar application of a granular formulation of maize grits containing conidia, or by the injection of a conidial suspension In the field . They infested all plants with larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis at the V7 (whorl), V12 (late-whorl) or V17 (pre tassel) stage of plant development. They stated that, plants infested at the whorl and late-whorl stages had significantly more tunneling O. nubilalis than did plants infested at the pretassel stage. The percentage of plants colonized by B. bassiana did not differ significantly among the whorl, late-whorl and pretassel stages. As the plants matured, B. bassiana was isolated from different plant areas, with the pith more frequently colonized by the fungus than the leaf collars. Foliar application of B. bassiana provided an immediate suppression of O. nubilalis in those plants infested at the whorl stage. Cagan et al. (1995), determine the injuriousness of Ostrinia nubilalis on maize and study the efficacy of various control measures, in field studies. They obtained that, there was a strong and positive correlation between the amount of rainfall and the level of damage caused by O. nubilalis. Pyrethroid insecticides gave the most effective level of control, with Bacillus thuringiensis giving only partial control. Larvae of O. nubilalis were infected by spores of Nosema pyrausta, and the entomogenous fungi Beauveria bassiana. Also, they tested the various maize hybrids and 18 inbred maize lines, for their susceptibility to O. nubilalis and found that, the highest level of resistance was found on B 85, B 85 and B 87 inbred.

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Labatte et al. (1996), evaluated the impact of 3 control methods on the population dynamics of larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis on corn under field conditions. The control methods studied were an insecticide (chlorpyrifos), Beauveria bassiana and a transgenic maize hybrid. They showed that B. bassiana control was similar to chemical control. The transgenic hybrid control was always very high throughout the maize cycle studied. A substantial decrease of B. bassiana and chemical control efficacy was observed with an increase in the delay between treatment and infestation. Agamy (2002), recovered the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana from soil samples from vegetable fields in El-Badrashin, Egypt, and prepared a spore suspensions in aqua distribution containing 0.01% Tween80 and 1% sunflower oil, and bioassayed their against Ostrinia nubilalis larvae. He found that, all tested concentrations induced 100% kill among treated larvae. The highest mortality (100%) was reached in shorter period by increasing the spore concentration. LC50 values of 1.58×104, 2×104 and 1.58×104 spores/ml were calculated for larvae of L1, L2, and L3, respectively. Meanwhile, LT50 values for L1 reached 12.29, 8.44, 7.34 and 5.48 days for the concentrations 10, 1×102, 1×103 and 1×104 spores/ml, respectively. For L2, these values recorded 10.96, 8.75, 7.61, 7.08 and 4.47 days compared to 16.06, 9.73, 7.72, 7.46 and 4.44 days for L3 at the concentrations 10, 1×102, 1×103, 1×104 and 1×105 spores/ml, respectively. Lewis et al. (2002), evaluated the efficacy of a Beauveria bassiana application, for season-long suppression of O. nubilalis. They reported that, whorl-stage application of B. bassiana in 1996 resulted in a significant reduction in centimeters of tunneling (46-55%) and the percentage plants not

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infested by O. nubilalis. In 1997, B. bassiana caused significant reductions in larval tunneling at all locations (20-53%); however, a significant increase in the percentage of plants not infested with O. nubilalis occurred at only one location. Treatment of plants with B. bassiana in 1997 did not significantly increase the percentage of plants with an endophyte; however, the trend, with the exception of one site, was for a greater percentage of endophytic plants in treated versus untreated plots. A whorl-stage application of a granular formulation of B. bassiana was most efficacious in reducing O. nubilalis larval damage. Sabbour (2002), tested the biological control effect of three bioinsecticides derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana and Verticillium lecanii; three chloroformic plant extracts from Melaleuca ericifolia and Melaleuca leucadendron leaves; and ursolic acid, a compound derived from M. ericifolia leaves against the three corn borer pests. In field trials. They found that, B. bassiana recorded the best results, followed by V. lecanii and B. thuringiensis. A significant reduction in infestation compared with the corresponding controls. Yield loss was significantly decreased when maize plants were treated with B. bassiana, V. lecanii, B. thuringiensis, M. leucadendron, M. ericifolia and ursolic acid. II.3.1.b
oils. Comp atibility of

Bea uv eria

ba ssia na

with

Batista-Filho, et al. (1994), tested two formulations of mineral oil (emulsifiable concentrate and emulsion concentrate) with Beauveria bassiana against Cosmopolites sordidus in the laboratory. They achieved the greatest mortality with 5% mineral oil and fungus, resulting in 77.5 and 100%

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mortality for the emulsifiable concentrate and emulsion concentrate, respectively. 16 days after treatment compared with fungus alone caused 38% mortality only. Batista-Filho, et al. (1995a), studied the effect of mineral oil on Beauveria bassiana and the mortality of Cosmopolites sordidus in the laboratory. They found that, mineral oil at 5% significantly reduced the production and germination of B. bassiana conidia. However, a mixture of mineral oil and fungus resulted in a significant increase of fungus efficacy: 85.0% for B. bassiana + 5% mineral oil and 27.5% for only fungus. Batista-Filho, et al. (1995b), studied the synergistic and additive effects of mineral oil on the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to Cosmopolites sordidus in the laboratory. They observed excellent mycelial growth on Banana pseudostems, A synergistic interaction eight days after application, with 88, 16 and 14% mortality for the combination, mineral oil and fungus, respectively. They also observed an enhanced activity of the fungus and oil after 12 days, with 96% mortality for the fungus, compared with 17 and 29% mortality for the oil and fungus, respectively. Mesquita-Paiva, et al. (1996), studied the morphogenesis of Beauveria bassiana strains stored for 7 years in mineral oil or more recently isolated from the field and maintained in agar media, with scanning electron microscopy. They hadn't detect any significant morphological alteration in the development of conidiogenesis in the strains conserved in mineral oil in relation to recently isolated strains. Carballo-V (1998), showed that solutions of water with more than 20% oil, or pure oil, led to adult insect mortality even without B. bassiana.

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With B. bassiana formulations of 10, 15 or 20% oil and 5×108 fungal conidia/ml, 100% mortality was observed. Evaluating increasing concentrations of B. bassiana from 1×107 to 5×108 conidia/ml in water with 15% oil gave a LC50 value of 4.4×107 and a LC95 value of 2.7×108 conidia/ml. With decreasing fungal concentration, the half lethal time (LT50) increased from 7.95 days (for 5×108 conidia/ml) to 29.6 days (for 1×107 conidia/ml). Hidalgo, et al. (1998), formulated Beauveria bassiana conidia as a dustable powder (DP), oil suspensions (OS) and a novel hydrogenated rape seed oil pellet. They found that, conidial viability was maintained well in the fat pellet formulation (84.7% germination after 45 days storage) and in the DP (83.3%), but less well in the OS formulation (55.3%). Mineral oil and (a mineral and maize oil mixtures), without conidia, or as OS with B. bassiana at a concentration of 109 conidia/ml (both at 20 ml/kg grain) showed the highest level of control in maize grains. The fat pellet formulation resulted in low levels of mortality (21-31%) when used in maize grains. It means that, oil formulation reduced the conidia viability, but the oil mixture formulations had the highest efficiency against the Sitophilus zeamais. Gurvinder et al. (1999), examined five vegetable oils, one mineral oil, three powders and a combination of both oils and powders for their effect on conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. bassiana. They showed that, there were a significant variation between different formulations in TG50 and the dry weight of the mycelium at 15 days. Sunflower oil and groundnut oil appeared to accelerate spore germination as well as growth rate, while some combinations showed additive effect. Kaaya (2000), tested aqueous and oil-based formulations of two

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entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for their efficacy against Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus apendiculatus, and Boophilus decoloratus. They observed that, both fungal species and formulations had induced high mortalities, especially in the larvae. The oilbased formulation was found to be more effective than the aqueous formulation. Monthly application of aqueous formulations of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae on vegetation in paddocks significantly reduced numbers of the tick R. appendiculatus on cattle. Shimizu and Mitani (2000), investigated the effects of temperature on the survival of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in oil formulations. They found that, high-temperature treatment killed conidia. Drying the conidia by adding silica gel to oil formulation greatly increased the temperature tolerance. Yasuda, et al. (2000), enhanced the infectivity of oil formulations of Beauveria bassiana to Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). They found that, formulations of Beauveria bassiana conidia in a 10% corn oil mixture showed more superior infectivity in both sexes of Cylas formicarius than the formulation of conidia only in laboratory assays. The 50% lethal density of conidia of the oil mixed formulation was lower than that of conidia alone. Mortality of uninfected females reared with males infected with the formulation of oil mixture was higher than that of females reared with males infected by conidia alone. Carballo-V, et al. (2001), evaluated several concentrations of the fungus in water and oil suspension to determine the (LC 50) against pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii). They found that, the suspensions of B.

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bassiana, both in water and in water mixed with oil at 3%, increased the weevil mortality and reduced the LT50 in accordance with the increased concentration. The LC50 in water was 1.2×106 conidia/ml while the corresponding value in oil was 2.2×104 conidia/ml, these indicating that the efficacy of the fungus increased upon adding oil to the suspension. Consolo, et al. (2003), studied pathogenicity, formulation and storage of insect pathogenic hyphomycetous fungi tested against Diabrotica speciosa. They found that, using different temperatures (4, 17 and 26°C) and vegetable oils (corn, sunflower and canola) for storage, did not significantly affect viability of conidia. A pathogenicity trial against D. speciosa larvae performed with the corn oil formulation (1×108 conidia/ml of oil) caused 65% of mortality. Hazzard, et al. (2003), evaluated vegetable and mineral oil, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner singly or in combinations for control of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) in sweet corn (Zea mays L.). Mineral oil alone provided equal (1993) or better (1994) control compared with corn oil. In both years, mineral or corn oil plus B. thuringiensis resulted in 93-98% marketable ears, compared with 48-52% marketable ears in untreated plots. In other hand, in three factorial experiments with B. bassiana, B. thuringiensis and corn oil, B. bassiana at 5 × 107 conidia per ear provided little or no control while B. thuringiensis and corn oil provided significant though not always consistent control of all three species. They concluded that, the combination of B. thuringiensis and corn oil provided the largest and most consistent reduction in numbers of larvae and

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feeding damage to ears. Manjula, et al. (2003), evaluated Beauveria bassiana against the different life stages of Bemisia tabaci in different oil formulations (1% each of groundnut, sunflower, coconut and castor oils). They found that, Beauveria bassiana with various oil formulations did not have any effect on the eggs of Bemisia tabaci. The first, second and third instars were heavily and readily infected by Beauveria bassiana formulated with coconut oil (3585%), followed by formulations with the groundnut, sunflower and castor oil. When the fourth instars were infected at 120 hours after inoculation with Beauveria bassiana formulated in every oil with more than 1.83 fungus growth development index values, the mortality of adults was maximum with groundnut oil formulation (65.6%) followed by coconut (75.6%), sunflower (43.3%) and castor (28.9%), even at 24 hours after inoculation. At 72 hours after inoculation, groundnut oil formulation recorded 100% mortality of the adults followed by coconut (97.8%), sunflower (85.6%) and castor oil (64.4%). They suggested that, Beauveria bassiana is a potent bioagent against Bemisia tabaci, when it was formulated with 1% coconut oil followed by the groundnut, sunflower and castor oils. Ramle, et al. (2004), studied the effects of oils on the conidial germination of four strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (F1, F5, F8 and F10) and their infectivity against the larvae of the oil palm bagworm, Metisa plana Walker. They reported that, of the five oils tested, soyabean oil and paraffin gave the highest germination for both two- and four-week-old conidia. Palm and corn oils completely inhibited the conidial germination.
Germination was influenced by the age of conidia with the mature conidia germinating better than the younger conidia. The pathogenicity of all the four strains of B.

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bassiana conidia formulated in soyabean oil against the larvae of M. plana revealed that more than 95% mortality at 10 days after treatment.

Akbar, et al. (2005), evaluated the carriers mineral oil and Silwet L77 and the botanical insecticides Neemix 4.5 and Hexacide for their impacts on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin conidia against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), larvae. They found that, the carriers mineral oil had highly significant effects on the efficacy of B. bassiana. The lower efficacy of conidia in aqueous Silwet L-77 may have been the result of conidia loss from the larval surface because of the siloxane’s spreading properties. Neemix 4.5 (4.5% azadirachtin) delayed pupation and did not reduce the germination rate of B. bassiana conidia, but it significantly reduced T. castaneum mortality at two of four tested fungus doses. Hexacide (5% rosemary oil) caused significant mortality when applied without B. bassiana, but it did not affect pupation, the germination rate of conidia, or T. castaneum mortality when used in combination with the fungus. Luz and Batagin (2005), monitored the development of Beauveria bassiana conidia when immersed in six concentrations of seven non-ionic and three anionic surfactants and 11 vegetable oils in vitro . They found that, With exception of DOS 75 and Surfax 220 germination of conidia on complete medium was >98% at 24 hours after exposure to surfactants up to 10%. Elevated rates of germination (>25%) were observed in 10% corn, thistle and linseed oil 8 days after incubation. Pure oils had a significant repellent effect to T. infestans. Repellency decreased generally at 10% of the oil and some oils showed some attractiveness for nymphs when tested at 1%. Nymphs were highly susceptible to oil-water formulated conidia, even at unfavorable moisture for extrategumental development of the fungus on the

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insect cuticle. Wekesa, et al. (2005), studied the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to the tobacco spider mite Tetranychus evansi. They found that, conidia formulated in oil outperformed the ones formulated in water. II.3.1.c
Comp atibility pestici de s. of

Bea uv eria

bassi an a

with

Foschi and Grassi (1985), tested the effectiveness of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, applied alone or together with low doses of chlorpyrifos-ethyl [chlorpyrifos], against Ostrinia nubilalis on maize . They found that, both fungi (applied at the rate of 1013 conidia/ha) significantly reduced the number of borer holes/plant, but B. bassiana spread much more rapidly through the pyralid population and remained effective for longer than did M. anisopliae. The addition of the chemical insecticide (applied at 0.9 kg/ha) to the fungal sprays increased the mortality of overwintering larvae but did not further reduce the number of holes/plant. Vanninen and Hokkanen (1988), investigated the effects of four insecticides, five fungicides, four herbicides and a nematicide on the entomogenous insecticides fungi diazinon, Metarhizium pirimicarb anisopliae, and Beauveria bassiana, and the Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and P. farinosus in vitro. They found that, the cypermethrin, nematicide/insecticide oxamyl did not affect the growth or sporulation of any of the fungi tested. Vainio and Hokkanen (1990), studied the side-effects of pesticides on the entomophagous nematode Steinernema feltiae, and the entomopathogenic

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fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in the laboratory. They found that, bentazone, ioxynil, hexaconazole, cyromazine and buprofezin did not affect N. feltiae, but quizalofop-ethyl, tralkoxydim, sulfur and potassium soap were toxic. Pirimicarb, cypermethrin, diazinon, simazine and metalaxyl plus mancozeb did not affect either fungus, but glyphosate, dimethoate, MCPA, vinclozolin, trifluralin, thiram and propiconazole inhibited at least one species. Puzari and Hazarika (1991), determined the effects of Beauveria bassiana mixed with different stickers and spreaders on adults of Dicladispa armigera, a pest of summer rice. Tween 80 and Hamam were the most compatible sticker/spreader with B. bassiana, with 96.3 and 93.26% mortality, respectively, as compared with 10% in the control. Batista-Filho, et al. (1996), carried out two experiments to evaluate the efficiency of fipronil against Cosmopolites sordidus Germar, and its compatibility with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. They found that, fipronil did not decrease spore production, although it slightly affected the average diameter of the colony. Fipronil and carbofuran did not affect the viability of the fungus. Marin, et al. (2000), evaluated the mixtures' compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and three insecticides incorporated in a fungus growth media and mixed in an aqueous suspension simulating a spray tank. They reported that diazinon WP and metacrifos had a heavy colony growth inhibition for isolate Bb9205 and BrocarilReg. Isazofos caused the lowest inhibition on Bb9205. Diazinon ES in mixture with BrocarilReg caused a reduction on growth from 17% at commercial dosage (CD) to 6.8%

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at 1/4 CD. Total inhibition of germination of B. bassiana Bb9205 and Bb9002 was achieved when using diazinon WE at CD when mixed in an aqueous suspension for a period of up to 6 hours ; however, diazinon ES did not cause inhibition which may be attributed to the solvents used in the formulations. Diazinon WP and metacrifos had the same inhibitory effect on germination as showed when the radial growth was measured. Isolate Bb9002 was more sensible to the insecticides. They demonstrates that there are differences among isolates of a same fungus and formulation in there effects. Batista Filho, et al. (2001), studied the compatibility of entomopathogenic microorganisms with some insecticides in vitro and under field conditions. They showed that: (1) the action of the pesticides on the vegetative growth and sporulation of the microorganisms varied as a function of the chemical nature of the products, its concentration and the microbial species; (2) thiamethoxam was compatible with all microorganisms studied; (3) the insecticides endosulfan, monocrotophos and deltamethrin were the most affected B. thuringiensis, B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and S. insectorum; (4) thiamethoxam did not affect the inoculum potential of B. thuringiensis, B. bassiana or M. anisopliae when applied to bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris); and (5) thiamethoxam did not affect the efficiency of the nuclear polyhedral virus of A. gemmatalis. Gupta, et al. (2002), tested the compatibility of Metarhizium anisopliae and B. bassiana with commonly used pesticides and organic substrates in vitro. They found that, copper oxychloride (Blitox-50) and azadirachtin (0.3% EC) were very well tolerated by Metarhizium anisopliae at 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations. Mancozeb + metalaxyl (Ridomyl MZ-

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72), chlorothalonil (Kavach 75 WP), mancozeb (Dithane M-45), TMTD [ thiram], monocrotophos and chlorpyrifos were found moderately tolerable to the same fungus. Metarhizium anisopliae showed higher tolerance than B. bassiana. However, both the pathogens were sensitive (70-100% growth inhabitation) to carbendazim and baynate (thiophanate methyl) even at lower concentrations (10 and 100 ppm). Nicast stimulated the growth of Metarhizium anisopliae by 40-50% and no growth inhibition was observed in B. bassiana. Sugar mill effluent was also found well tolerated by both the fungi to the extent of 5% in Czapek's agar medium. Xu, et al. (2002), showed that there are negative effects of the pesticides on the germination of B. bassiana conidia increased with the increasing pesticide concentrations. Two fungicides, chlorothalonil 75% WP and mancozeb 70% WP, killed almost all the conidia of B. bassiana at all concentrations. Five insecticides, including imidacloprid 10% WP, yashiling 22% WP (a mixture of imidacloprid and buprofezin), methomyl 20% EC, triazophos 20% EC, and fipronil 5% FF, exhibited high compatibility with B. bassiana conidia with germination rates exceeding 90% even at the highest concentration. The other two insecticides, chlorfluazuron 5% EC and fenvalerate 20% EC, greatly reduced the germination rate of B. bassiana at the field-spray concentrations recommended, however, at lower concentrations, the germination rates increased by a big margin. Abamectin 0.5% EC was highly incompatible with B. bassiana conidia at all the concentrations tested. Ashutosh, et al. (2005), assessed the compatibility between the different rates of chemical pesticides and multineem [Azadirachta indica]

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with Beauveria bassiana. Their treatments was comprised of : 0.05, 0.025 and 0.0125% endosulfan; 0.03, 0.0225 and 0.015% chloropyrefos 0.20, 0.15 and 0.10% mancozeb; 0.03 and 0.06 multineem and the control. They found that, an increase in the concentration of the chemicals decreased the radial growth of B. bassiana. However, the least toxic effect was mancozeb. Multineem showed similar results. II.3.1.d Ef fect of ultr aviolet radia tion s (UV) on the Beauv eria bassiana ef ficienc y. Inglis, et al. (1995), determined the effect of ultraviolet light (UV) protectants on the persistence of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. They found that, the survival of conidia applied in water onto glass coverslips or crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) leaves was reduced by >95% after 15 minute exposure to UV-B radiation. Substitution of oil and water increased the survival of conidia on both substrates. However, conidial survival in oil was more pronounced on glass (74% mortality after 60 min.) than on leaves (97% mortality after 60 min.). Also they found that, the water-compatible the fluorescent brightener, Tinopal LPW and a clay emulsion significantly increased the survival of conidia compared to the water control, whereas Congo Red and the optical brightener, Blankophor BSU, were ineffective. Conidial survival, in the field was not enhanced by the 3 oil-compatible adjuvants tested (oxybenzone, octyl-salicylate and ethylcinnamate). They concluded that, the use of UV-B protectants in formulations can increase conidial survival and may enhance the efficacy of B. bassiana for controlling insect pests in epigeal habitats. Velez and Montoya (1995), studied the effect of exposure to

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ultraviolet radiation on the germination of conidia of Beauveria bassiana in the laboratory, using oil and water suspensions. They hadn't observed any direct germination of conidia sprayed to coffee leaf discs and exposed to ultraviolet radiation for 0-60 minutes. However, B. bassiana sprayed on to leaf discs in a standard mixture of oils was viable after 60 minute exposure. They observed differences between different formulations of B. bassiana sprayed on coffee berries. An increase in exposure time to sunlight resulted in lower viability. Fargues, et al. (1996), irradiated conidia from 65 isolates of Beauveria bassiana, 23 of Metarhizium anisopliae, 14 of Metarhizium flavoviride and 33 isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus by artificial sunlight for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours. They found that, survival decreased with increased exposure to simulated sunlight. Overall, isolates of M. flavoviride were the most resistant to irradiation followed by B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. Conidia of P. fumosoroseus were most susceptible. There was also an intra species variation. Hu, et al. (1996), evaluated the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to the coreid Riptortus linearis in a series of laboratory tests. They found that, at 25 ° C and above, pathogenicity of B. bassiana decreased with increase in temperature. They due that to the adverse effect of high temperatures on the germination of conidia. Ultraviolet irradiation of conidia reduced pathogenicity of B. bassiana to R. linearis. Morley-Davies, et al. (1996), screened Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. conidia with exposure to simulated sunlight and a range of temperatures. They exposed the isolates to 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours UV light from a sunlight

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simulator at 40 °. They found that, conidial viability decreased markedly in all isolates with increasing UV exposure. Germination ranged between 10 and 50% after 24 hours exposure to UV. Varela-A and Morales-R (1996), studied the characterization of some Beauveria bassiana isolates and their virulence toward the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. They found that, the viability of conidia decreased between 45 and 50°C, with total mortality at 55°C for all isolates. There were significant differences in susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation and in daily lipase production. Tang, et al. (1999), found that, resistance to heat and ultraviolet radiation of conidia of Beauveria bassiana with different moisture contents varied significantly within different strains. The effects of radiation occurred more at higher (RH 85 and 93%) and the lowest (5%) moisture contents, while 10 and 55% RH had less effect on conidial viability. Edgington, et al. (2000), found that, unprotected B. bassiana spores were almost completely inactivated by exposure to 60 minutes of direct sunlight or 20 second of UV light of 302 nm wave length. Cagan and Svercel (2001), studied the influence of different doses of ultraviolet (UV) light on the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana against the European corn borer, O. nubilalis, and on the radial growth of the fungus under laboratory conditions. They found that UV light exposure significantly influenced the pathogenicity of B. bassiana isolates against O. nubilalis larvae. Variant SK99C showed the highest level of infectivity. There are a significant differences between these variants. Nong, et al. (2005), conducted laboratory experiments to study the

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UV-screen effect of 17 UV-protectants and 4 combinations for the conidia of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Verticillium lacanii [Verticillium lecanii]. They found that, UVP-2 (benzotriazole ) was confirmed to be the most effective protectant. Protective efficiency of UVP-2 to spores of entomopathogenic fungi was over 90%, and the other 4 UVPs (benzotriazole 3, oxybenzone 2, sodium uranine and Congo red) were approximately 60% after 30 minutes exposure of spores to UV. The mixture of UVPs did not show higher effectiveness compared to single UVPs. The mixture of groundnut oil and n-hexane was a suitable solute for UVP-2. The effective concentration of UVP-2 should be higher than 0.75% for the protection of fungal conidia. After 40 and 180 minute exposure of fungal conidia to UV light (at lambda 254 nm, lambda 312 nm or lambda 365 nm), the protective efficiency of UVP-2 could be increased over 90 and 56-77%, respectively.

II .3.2 Ef fi cien cy of Bea uv eria bassian a a gainst Aphis sp an d two-spo tt ed spide r mit e, Tetr any chus cinn aba rin us.
Feng, et al. (1990) bioassayed aphid-derived isolates of Beauveria against 6 bassiana (SGBB8601) and Verticillium lecanii (DNVL8701)

species of globally distributed cereal-infesting aphids. And they found that, B. bassiana was more virulent than V. lecanii. The LC50`s for B. bassiana and V. lecanii were 2.1×106 and 8.9×105 on Rhopalosiphum maidis. The LT50`s at all concentration varied between the pathogens and among the aphid hosts, with B. bassiana tending to kill aphids more rapidly. Saenz de Cabezon Irigaray Francisco, et al. (2003) determined the

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effects of the mycoinsecticide Naturalis-L (Beauveria bassiana conidial formulation) on the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. The lethal concentration to kill 50% (LC50) for the juvenile stages was 3184 viable conidia/ml and 1949 viable conidia/ml for adults. Simova and Draganova (2003) evaluated the virulence of four isolates of Beauveria bassiana (isolates 311, 312, 339 and 340) and one isolate each of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 17), Paecilomyces farinosus (isolate 112) and Verticillium lecanii (isolate 289) to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. They established that: The isolate 339 of B. bassiana was the most virulent in experiments with T. urticae. The calculated values of the median lethal time (LT50) varied within a narrow confidence interval with 95% confidence limits from 1.293 to 1.420 days; the average value was 1.355 days. Nirmala, et al. (2006) studied the pathogenicity of 12 fungal isolates belonging to Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Verticillium lecanii against Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii and Rhopalosiphum maidis using detached leaf bioassay technique. They found that, all 12 isolates of the three fungi were pathogenic to A. gossypii, Aphis craccivora and R. maidis. R. maidis was relatively less susceptible to the three fungi than A. craccivora and A. gossypii.

II .3.3 Role of Bacillus th uri ngie nsis on th e biol ogic al co nt r ol of Eur op ea n Cor n Bor er s Ostri nia nu bilalis (Hb.) .
Coppolino et al. (1984), found that granular formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki more effective than wettable powders, and more

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suitable for application in fields containing low densities of Ostrinia nubilalis and parasites populations (which are less affected by microbial than by chemical insecticides). Lokaj and Marek (1986), found that, Decis [deltamethrin] was highly effective against Ostrinia nubilalis on maize. Cymbush [cypermethrin] was also effective. Biological preparations based on Bacillus thuringiensis and insect growth regulators (Dimilin [diflubenzuron] and Nomolt [ teflubenzuron]) were less effective. They concluded that the success of treatments depends on the correct timing of applications. The importance of environmental considerations is emphasized. McGuire et al. (1990), tested an encapsulated Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki within maize-starch granules with the feeding stimulant Coax or the UV screen Congo red at 2 field sites against Ostrinia nubilalis feeding in whorl-stage maize. They found that, all treatments with B. thuringiensis significantly reduced tunneling by O. nubilalis. At one site, they observed a significant effects of addition of the phagostimulant. When they added the coax at 1 or 10% of starch dry weight with 400 IU B. thuringiensis/mg dry granule weight, the response of O. nubilalis was equivalent to that obtained with granules containing no feeding stimulant and 1600 IU/mg. Also, granules with the coax and 400 IU/mg gave a response similar to that obtained with the commercial product Dipel 10G formulated at 1600 IU/mg. At the other site, the effect of phagostimulants was not significant, primarily because O. nubilalis infestation levels were excessively low for precise discrimination among treatments. Mile (1993), studied the integrated pest management of European corn

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borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb) in maize. He reported that, in field trials in 1990-92, two preparations based on the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Biobit WP at 1.5 kg/ha and Biobit XL at 2.0 liters/ha) gave good results against the pest. Burgio et al. (1994), studied the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subsp. kurstaki based preparations against European corn borer infesting pepper Capsicum annuum in greenhouses. They reported that, in 1991, one- and three-week interval treatments using Delfin reduced damage caused by O. nubilalis compared with the untreated control. In 1992, both Lepinox and Delfin reduced damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no statistical difference between the two formulations. Two treatments against 2nd generation larvae were sufficient to reduce damage. When attacks by O. nubilalis were high, as in 1992, when the percentage damage ranged between 34.8 and 43.7, spray intervals of six - seven days were suggested for effective control. The spreader-sticker Vapor Gard (pinolene) did not affect the efficacy of B.t. subsp. kurstaki and/or its persistence. McGuire et al. (1994a), investigated residual insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis encapsulated in corn starch. In the 1st test, they stated that during a wet year (1990) insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis encapsulated in starch granules was greater than that of B. thuringiensis in a commercial formulation. In a dry year (1989), there were no significant differences in activity. In 1991, the commercial formulation had less activity than the two of the starch formulations. In the 2nd test, They examined the effect of an early (1st day of insect infestation) versus a late application (7th

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day of infestation) of toxicants when whorl-stage plants were infested with laboratory reared larvae of O. nubilalis over a period of 10 days. They found that, late application was significantly more effective than early application. Granules of B. thuringiensis consistently prevented damage by O. nubilalis as well as or better than a chemical insecticide for the length of the study. McGuire et al. (1994b), explored the survival of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner encapsulated in flour matrices. They found that, in the greenhouse and at all 3 field sites, 5 of these formulations were just as effective as Dipel 10G, a commercially available B. thuringiensis product, for control of larvae of the pest. In all greenhouse studies and at one of the three field sites, the dose of B. thuringiensis could be reduced by as much as 75% when a phagostimulant was added to flour granules without significant loss of control of O. nubilalis. The phagostimulant dose response was not observed at the other two field sites in which larval infestations were relatively low. Flour type had no significant effect on control of O. nubilalis under greenhouse and field conditions. Greenhouse evaluations provided results significantly similar to results from two of the field sites, indicating the usefulness of the technique. Ridgway et al. (1996), developed a low-cost, granular matrix formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, composed primarily of corn flour and containing a feeding stimulant composed of cottonseed flour and sugars, for use against Ostrinia nubilalis, on whorl-stage maize. In laboratory experiments, they indicated that a maize flour agricultural commodity product was a suitable carrier, that the feeding stimulant enhanced the activity of B. thuringiensis, and that the granular matrix protected B.

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thuringiensis from photo-degradation. In greenhouse test they showed that, there was a higher mortality of O. nubilalis on maize plants treated with the granular matrix than on plants treated with a standard commercial granular formulation of B. thuringiensis. Mortality with either treatment was increased by application of simulated rainfall. In a field test, They found that, the granular matrix applied at a rate of 5.5 kg/ha gave control comparable with that achieved by the commercial standard applied at a rate of 11 kg/ha. They indicated that, increased efficacy or reduction in costs of management of O. nubilalis with B. thuringiensis should be possible through the use of the granular matrix formulation. Hafez et al. (1998), reported that, inorganic salts, such as, calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, zinc sulphate and potassium carbonate at 0.1% potentiate the activity of the product Dipel 2X (B. t. var. kurstaki) against Chilo agamemnon and Ostrinia nubilalis in varying degrees. With regard to protein solubilizing agents, urea, sodium thioglycollate and EDTA enhanced the potency of B. t. against O. nubilalis with 1.4-2.3 fold increase . The lipid emulsifying agent Tween 80 (0.5%) caused 1.3 fold increase in the potency of B. t. With respect to C. agamemnon, sodium thioglycollate and EDTA (0.1%) were effective in potentiating the activity of B. t. with 3.1 and 1/2 fold increase, respectively, while urea caused a decrease in the potency of B. t. as compared with the control. The lipid emulsifying agent Tween 80 (0.5%) caused 1.3 fold increase in the potency of B. t. The potentiating effect of aromatic compounds is not obvious with respect to the tested insect species. With amino acids and amides, it appeared that some of the tested compounds enhanced the potency of B. t. against the tested insect species but in varying

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degrees. Ivezic et al. (1998), treated maize (in a field experiment) with 3 liters/ha of Biobit XL (Bacillus thuringiensis-based) for controlling Ostrinia nubilalis at the beginning and/or at the end of July, They found that, infestation levels had of 53, 35 and 37%, respectively, compared with 83% in the untreated control. Raspudic et al. (1999), carried out a biological control of ECB on silage maize with biological preparation Biobit XL (based on Bacillus thuringiensis) at a dose of 3 liters/ha. They reported that, intensity of attack was lower for 41%. The number of cavities and larvae/plant also decreased. On treated plots 0.64 cavities and 0.67 larvae/plant were found, whereas on the control plots there were 1.61 cavities and 1.79 larvae/plant. Both cavities and larvae were above the ear, because these were the larvae of the second generation. Length of damage of maize stems in the control plots was 4.11 cm, and on treated plots 1.28 cm/plant. Ridgway and Farrar (1999), compared five commercial granular formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner marketed for controlling the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner). They stated that, three formulations, Dipel 10G(R), Full-Bac ECBG(R), and Strike BT(R), were similar in terms of both mortality and speed of kill. A formulation containing a strain of B. thuringiensis developed by plasmid fusion, Condor G(R), caused mortality similar to the other three formulations, but the speed of kill was slower. A fifth formulation containing a B. thuringiensis toxin produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula, M-Peril(R), caused substantially less mortality than any of the other formulations. An experimental water

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dispersible formulation, based on a previously developed granular matrix formulation containing B. thuringiensis and a nutrient-based phagostimulant, caused significantly higher mortality of the European corn borer than a similar formulation without the phagostimulant. Tamez Guerra et al. (2000), found that, B. thuringiensis stability, after simulated sunlight (xenon light/8 h) and rain (5 cm/50 min), was improved using formulations based on lignin, corn flours, or both, with up to 20% of the active ingredient, when compared with technical powder or Dipel 2X in laboratory assays a lignin and lignin + pregelatinized corn flour (PCF) based formulation showed significantly higher residual activity than Dipel 2X, four and seven days after application. Pierce et al. (2001), determined the larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis for Nosema pyrausta infected and uninfected European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner). They disseminated that, LC50 values for N. pyrausta infected larvae were significantly lowered (P<0.0001) than for uninfected larvae and declined with increasing levels of infection. LC50 values for a 15 days bioassay using field colony first instar were 0.006 and 0.027 mg of Dipel ES/kg of diet for larvae moderately infected by N. pyrausta and uninfected larvae, respectively. Nosema pyrausta infected larvae reared on Dipel ES-amended diets produced 70-fold fewer spores (P<0.0001) than larvae reared on standard diet. Infected larvae also weighed less and failed to mature on Dipel ES-amended diets. They suggested that B.t corn will have a direct adverse effect on the survival and continual impact of N. pyrausta as a regulating factor on European corn borer populations.

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II .4 Oi ls ef fic ie nc y a ga in st mi tes Tet r an ychu s s pp

spi de r

Rock and Crabtree (1987) examined the activity of petroleum and cottonseed oils against adult females of Tetranychus urticae and P. ulmi. They found that, cottonseed oil was less effective against the mites than petroleum oil. Butler and Henneberry (1990a) found that, various mixtures of maize, coconut, palm, safflower, sunflower, groundnut and soyabean oils in combination with 5 different liquid detergents effectively reduced numbers of Tetranychus spp. on bush beans Phaseolus vulgaris, peppers and squash. Butler and Henneberry (1990b) evaluated the acaricidal activity of cottonseed oil, raw cottonseed oil and insecticidal soap against spider mites, Tetranychus spp. (on celery). They found that, cottonseed oil induced high levels of mortality on spider mites. Sawires (1992) carried out laboratory and field studies to evaluate the toxicity of maize and camphor oils on Tetranychus arabicus. They showed that maize oil was more toxic and repellent than camphor oil. El-Duweini and Sedrak (1997) studied the efficacy of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil (canola oil) against different stages of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus arabicus, and the adult female of the predaceous mite Euseius scutalis. They found that, the LC50 and LC90 for T. arabicus larvae, deutonymphs, adult females and eggs were 0.53 and 4.28, 1.21 and 5.17, 1.60 and 6.35, and 2.53 and 10.86, respectively. Amer, et al. (2001) tested the direct toxicity of some mineral and plant oils to the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch eggs and

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females. He found that KZ oil was toxic to the egg stage compared to adult female. In contrast, the vegetable oil Natur'l has a close toxic effect for both stages of T. urticae. Bio-dux oil was proved to be toxic to adult female and relatively in toxic to egg stage. Lancaster, et al. (2002) evaluated the summer sprays of soyabean oil for their efficacy against two spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) (TSSM) on burning bush (Euonymus alatus). They reported that, single sprays of 1, 2, or 3% soyabean oil or 1% SunSpray reduced TSSM populations by 97-99% compared to water-sprayed controls. In a second experiment, a single spray of 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5% soyabean oil reduced the TSSM population by >95%, compared to the water control. A second spraying of 0.25-1.5% soyabean oil resulted in <more or ≥ 93% control of TSSM compared to the water control. A third spray provided little additional TSSM control. Lee, et al. (2005) evaluated Bionatrol, specified emulsion nanoparticle soyabean oil, for it's insecticidal efficacy on two spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), aphids (Aphis gossypii), and white flies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) on greenhouse grown english cucumber (Cucumis subsp. Kasa). They found that, Bionatrol had a relatively high mortality rate against insects. Bionatrol reduced populations of the insects examined by 88-95%.

II.5 The side effect of bioinsecticides on some beneficial insects.
El-Husseini (1980), showed that treatment with Bactospeine (a formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis was harmless

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against

the

beneficial

insects

Labidura

riparia

and

Coccinella

undecimpunctata. Salama and Zaki (1984), studied the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. on the predator complex of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) in cotton fields. They found that the population curve of the coccinellids (Coccinella undecimpunctata L., Scymnus interruptus (Goeze) and S. syriacus Mars., the staphylinid Paederus alfierii Koch, the anthocorids Orius albidipennis (Reut.) and O. laevigatus (Fieb.) and the chrysopid Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) (Chrysopa carnea)) was slightly affected as a result of spraying; this effect was thought to be related to the population reduction of Spodoptera littoralis, and the predator populations affected could rebuild together with that of the host. Langenbruch (1992), determined the efficacy of B.t. subsp. when they had tenebrionis on young larvae of Coccinella septempunctata unaffected by the recommended dose in the field. Jayanthi and Padmavathamma (1996), studied the cross infectivity and safety of nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuille to pests of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.) and their natural enemies. They found that Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was highly effective against the larvae of lepidopterous pests but not against homopteran insects. B.t. was also safe to coccinellid predators and larval parasitoids of A. modicella, except adults of C. carnea. Beauveria bassiana was pathogenic to groundnut pests and coccinellid predators.

fed on contaminated aphids [Aphididae]. Larvae of the predator were

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Masarrat and Humayun (1997), showed that the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana was highly pathogenic to the predatory coccinellid Coccinella septempunctata. El-Hamady (1998), found that the commercial preparation of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana showed low acute toxicity against rats (LD50: 8.7×108 conidia/kg body weight ). The fungus was toxic to A. craccivora but not to C. undecimpunctata. Haseeb and Murad (1997) conducted a laboratory trial to evaluate the effect of entomogenous fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. on insect predators. They revealed that all the predator species were susceptible to the infection of B. bassiana. However, coccinelid beetles, Coccinella septempunctata and Coccinella spp. were highly susceptible while Coccinellid Brumoides suturalis (F.) and syrphid predators were least susceptible. Badawy and El-Arnaouty (1999) tested commercial insecticides in the laboratory for toxicity to eggs and larvae of C. carnea. They reported that, according to the percent cumulative mortality, the insecticides could be arranged descendlingly as profenofos, pirimiphos-methyl, methomyl, malathion, carbosulfan, abamectin, Biofly, pirimicarb, M-pede, MVP II (delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki encapsulated in dead cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens) and Dipel. Cagan and Uhlik (1999), tested B. bassiana strains isolated from O. nubilalis against the larvae of O. nubilalis and coccinellid beetles in laboratory conditions . They found that B. bassiana killed 50% of coccinellid larvae during 48 hours. After another 24 hours 83.3% (strain SK78), or 100%

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(strain SK99) coccinellid larvae were killed by the fungus. More than 50% of dead fungus. Sharma and Kashyap (2002), conducted a field experiment to investigate the impact of pesticides on pests of tea and their natural enemies. They found that, Neemark [Azadirachta indica] at 0.3%, Achook at 0.3% and Bacillus thuringiensis formulation (Dipel 8L at 0.3%) were quite safe to Syrphis sp. and Coccinella septempunctata. Bozsik (2006) examined five insecticides (pyriproxifen, imidacloprid, deltamethrin+heptenophos, lambda-cyhalothrin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subsp. tenebrionis) for their acute detrimental side-effects at field rates on adult Coccinella septempunctata L. They found that, pyriproxifen, imidacloprid and B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis seem to be safe for C. septempunctata adults. adults of Coccinella septempunctata L. and Propylea quattuordecimpunctata (L.) was found 72-120 hours after application of

II .6 T he sid e ef fec t of dia zi non on some be ne fi ci al in se cts
Mishra and Satpathy (1984), carried out a laboratory bioassay of 8 insecticides to determine their effects on adults of Brevicoryne brassicae and its coccinellid predator Coccinella repanda. They found that, demeton-Omethyl was the least harmful of the compounds tested to C. repanda and was most toxic to the aphid, followed by diazinon and endosulfan in descending order of selectivity. Salim and Heinrichs (1985) studied the relative toxicity of

48

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

monocrotophos, diazinon and deltamethrin to Sogatella furcifera and its predators Lycosa pseudoannulata, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Harmonia octomaculata and Paederus fuscipes They found that, diazinon was relatively safe to the 4 predators, causing significantly lower mortality of L. pseudoannulata, H. octomaculata and P. fuscipes than of S. furcifera. Bozsik, et al. (2002) investigated the enzyme activity of head homogenates from adults of Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and F. auricularia in the presence of insecticide active ingredients. They found that, the beneficial insects showed the least susceptibility to diazinon and the differences between their measured values were not remarkable. Omar, et al. (2002), evaluated the role of the insecticides profenofos, diazinon and thiamethoxam against Pegomya mixta [Pegomya cunicularia]. They found that, diazinon and profenofos demonstrated the highest toxic figures to the certain predators, where the reduction averages were 56.9 and 62.5%, 64.9 and 63.9% and 35.0 and 59.5% for Coccinella undecimpunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Paederus alfierii for the 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively. Thiamethoxam ranked next in this respect. The average reduction percentages were 27.7, 31.0 and 25.6% for Coccinella undecimpunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Paederus alfierii, respectively.

II I - MATE RI ALS A ND METH OD S
III .1 Reari ng tec hn iq ue o f aph id s:
The adult stage of cotton aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover), bean aphid Aphis craccivora (Kock) and corn aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae), were collected from okra, faba beans, and corn plants, respectively from different farms at El-Gharbia Governorate. The aphid cultures were maintained under laboratory conditions for six months. Kenaf plants Hibiscus cannabinus, broad bean Vicia faba and corn Zea mays (L.) Wliczek seedlings were used for rearing aphids' Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora and Rhopalosiphum maidis, respectively according to Zein, et al. (1982). After 7-15 days aphids were transferred from infested to healthy seedlings by cutting the heavily infested leaves and placed on the healthy seedlings. Contamination between cultures was prevented by placing the seedlings in special chambers 50×50×60 cm covered with muslin on their sides. These cultures were kept in a breeding room under the temperature of 25±2°C, 65±5 relative humidity (R.H) and 12 hours daily illumination by using two fluorescent bulbs of 40 watts each .

III .2 Reari ng techni que of the two sp otte d Sp id er mit e, Tetr any chus ci nnaba ri nu s (B oi sdu va l) .
Spider mite T. cinnabarinus (Boisduval) colonies were obtained from castor bean plants Ricinus communis (L.) at El-Gharbia Governorate and reared under laboratory conditions on castor bean leaves for about six months

50

MATERIALS AND METHODS

away from any contamination of pesticides before starting the experiments according to Zein, et al. (1987). About 6-10 seeds of castor bean were planted in one pot (30 cm. diameter) and left under the green house conditions for 710 days for germination. After 7-10 days, seedlings were infested by clean culture of red mites. Mites were always transferred from infested to healthy plants by cutting heavily infested leaves into small sections and placed on sound plants. Contamination was prevented by placing these seedlings in special chambers 50×50×60 cm covered with muslin. These cultures were maintained in a breeding room under of 25±2°C, 65±5 relative humidity (R.H) and 12 hours daily illumination by using two fluorescent bulbs of 40 watts each. Mites were collected by placing the infested castor-oil bean leaves on white paper, then the full mature individuals were chosen and transferred by a fine brush to leaves discs (1.5 cm diameter) for experimental tests .

III .3 Reari ng tec hn iq ue of the pr eda tor, Pae de r us al fi er ii (K oc k).
The tested predator P. alfierii (Kock) (Rove beetles) was collected from untreated vegetables fields at Elgharbia Governorate by using an insect trap. Predators were placed in glass jars (one litter) covered with muslin. Aphis sp and egg masses of cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littorals were offered every day to the predator as a constant supply of food. Predators were kept under laboratory conditions (temperature 25±2 °C and 65±5 RH and 12 hours daily illumination by fluorescent light) for at least 2 weeks before testing (Abd-Allah, 1998).

51

MATERIALS AND METHODS

III .4 De ter mi na ti on of the Be au ver ia ba ssi an a (B al sam o) p ot en cy .
To evaluate the effect of UV radiation on Beauveria bassina formulation (Biofly), the formulation potencies before and after UV radiation were determined. Cultures of aphids and spider mite were maintained under laboratory conditions. Many investigators found that Beauveria bassina had hight efficiency against spider mites and aphids (Feng, et al. 1990; Simova and Draganova 2003 and Nirmala, et al. 2006). This experiment aims to study the efficiency of Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) against three aphid species namely (Aphis gossypii (Glover), Aphis craccivora (Kock) and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and also its efficiency against spider mite T. cinnabarinus. Both of slid dipping and leaf-disc dipping techniques were used to determine the most susceptible species.

II I. 4.1 Slide d ippi ng te chni que.
The slide dipping technique described by El- Sayed, et al. (1978) was applied to assay the toxicity of Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) against aphids. A piece of double faced scotch tape was pressed tightly to the surface of a glass slide. Using a moist brush, ten adults of aphids (1-2 days old) were stuck to the tape on their backs so that their legs and antennae were kept free. The slides were then dipped in the Biofly dilutions (50 : 50000 conidia/ml) and gently agitated for five seconds. Any excess of the solutions was removed using a filter paper and kept under the same conditions of the breeding room. Three replicates were used for each concentration. Forty of insects were also dipped in water according to the above technique and considered as control check. Mortality counts were recorded after 24 and 48 hours following treatments. Aphids responding to touch of a fine brush were considered alive.

52

MATERIALS AND METHODS

II I. 4.2 Le af-d isc dip ping t ec hni qu e:
Four castor bean leaves discs (1.5 cm in diameter) were placed upside down on a filter paper and put over a wet cotton pad in petri-dish, 9 cm in diameter. Treatments were carried out by immersing the leaf disc in each pesticidal dilution for five seconds, and the treated discs were left to dry and returned to the petri-dishes. Ten adult mites were placed on the exposed surface of each disc and kept under the same conditions of the breeding room. Each dish contained four discs which considered as four replications for each dilution. Using microscopical examination, mortality percentages were counted after 24 and 48 hours, and mites responding to touch of brush were considered alive (Abo EL -Ghar and El-Rafie, 1961).

II I. 4.3 De ter mi na tion the ef fec t of ultr a violet r adia tion o n B. bassian a po te nc y.
Sunlight and ultra violet radiation significantly reduce the efficiency of the biological control agents (fungus, bacteria and virus). So, for obtaining a satisfy biological control, the effect of adding some chosen photostablizers and oils to the biological agents formulations were investigated. But this adding may be synergistic or inhibited their efficiency. So, the investigations divided into two parts as follow: a- Study agent. b-Study the stability of these mixtures under ultra violet radiation. the effect of mixing certain oils and photostaplizers with Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) on its efficiency as a biocontrol

53

MATERIALS AND METHODS

II I.4.3.a Mixing Beauv eria bassiana (Biofl y) with di f fer ent oils . III.4.3.a.aChemical used : CH2 (CH2)n CH2 1-Mineral oil (KZ oil)H2C CH2 CH2 (CH2)n CH2 Structural formula

for mula tion

Mixture of CH3CnH2nCH3 were n=13-39 atoms and cyclic paraffins
were n=3-17 atoms

Molecular Formula

: CnH2n+2 for alkanes and CnH2n for cyclic paraffins were n = 15:40 atoms. Called Volk oil, a refined grade colorless oil distillate on 350°F composed mainly of alkanes (15:40 carbons) and cyclic paraffins (15:40 carbons)

Formulations: :E.C. 95 %. Introduced by :Kafr El - Zayat Company. * Recommended rate of application : 750 cm3 / feddan. 2- Paraffin oil
Structural formula Molecular Formula Introduced by : the same structure of the mineral oil. : the same molecular formula of the mineral oil. :Elcabten company for oil extracting.

3- Botanical oils:
Corn and cotton oils Introduced by Castor oil Introduced by Canola oil Introduced from : Tanta Company for oils and soap. :Elkabten company for oil extracting. : National research center, Horticultural department.

4: Beauveria bassiana (Bio-fly) Formulations Introduced by
*

: E C. containing 30×106 conidia/ml of Beauveria bassiana. : El-Nasr for biopesticides and fertilizers Company. (Bio.)

Recommended rate of application : 200 ml/100L

* According to the Ministry of Agricultural technical recommendation for controlling agriculture pests (2001) * According to the Ministry of Agricultural technical recommendation for controlling agriculture pests (2001)

54

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Procedures: In the laboratory, Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) was mixed with four botanical oils (castor, canola, corn and cotton oil), mineral and paraffin oils by the ratios of (1 Biofly:1oil, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 v/v). The toxicities of different mixtures were tested against spider mites T. cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping method. Mortality percentages were recorded after 48 hours and corrected according to Abbott`s formula (1925), and LC50 values with their 95% confidence limits were estimated for all treatments and compared with the LC50 for the Biofly formulation alone.

II I.4.3.b Mixing Beauv eria bassiana for mula tion (Biofl y) with P hotos ta bliz er s and pigments. III.4.3.b.aChemicals used: Photostablizers :
O

A-

C

Benzophenon
O

B-

C

CH

3

Acetophenon

C- H O

N O

2

4, nitro phenol

55
O

MATERIALS AND METHODS

D- O N 2

C

CH3

4-nitro acetophenon

Pigments:
OH O S O CH2 N CH2 O S OH O N N N

A-

N

Titan yellow pigment Chemical Name: 7-Benzothiazolesulfonic acid, 2,2'-(1-triazene-1,3-diyldi-4,1phenylene)bis[6-methyl-, disodium salt
NH2 N N N N NH2

BO S OH O O S OH O

Congo red pigment Chemical Name: 4-Amino-3-[(4-{4-[(1-amino-4-sulfo(2naphthyl))diazenyl]phenyl}phenyl)diazenyl]naphthalenesulfonic acid

Procedures: In laboratory test, Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) was mixed with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1% of four photostablizers (benzophenon, 4nitophenol, 4-nitro acetophenon and acetophenon) and two pigments, titan yellow and congo red. All compounds were resolved in 1 ml methyl alcohol to prepare all the mentioned mixtures. All mixtures and Biofly formulation were tested against spider mite T. cinnabarinus by using leaf-disc dipping technique. Mortality percentages were recorded after 48 hours and the LC50

56

MATERIALS AND METHODS

were calculated and compared with the LC50 for the Biofly formulation alone. II I.4.3.c Ef fect of Ultr a Beauv eria bassiana . Violet radia tion (UV) on

Only the most efficient mixtures from the previous experiments were chosen to study the effect of UV radiation on B. bassiana in the laboratory. 25 ml of each mixtures and the Biofly formulation were placed in 50 ml pyrex flask. Flasks were stoppered and gently shaken, then kept under UV light radiation (λ= 254 nm) at 12 cm distance above flasks. Sample of 2.5 ml each was taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after exposure to UV light, placed in dark glass bottle. Samples were kept for bioassay test in a refrigerator (at 4º C). The LC84 values against spider mite T. cinnabarinus were calculated from previous experiments and prepared for all mixtures samples and Biofly formulation. Fifty adult mites were treated with corresponding concentration by using leaf-disc dipping technique. Mortality percentages was recorded after 48 hours and estimated the concentration corresponding to all % mortality to calculate the half life time T50 for each mixture following equation of Moye et al., 1987.
ln(2) 0.6932 T50 = = K K

using the

1 k = a t x .ln( b )
x

Where:
T50 = Half life time (the time needed to reduce the pesticide residue concentration to half ) k = Rate of decomposition . a = Initial residue of pesticide. tx = Time in days . bx = Concentration residue at x time.

57

MATERIALS AND METHODS

III .5 T he sid e ef fec t of bio in se cti ci de s a gai ns t the pr eda tor, Pae de r us alf ie ri i (K oc k).
Surface deposit technique was used to determine the toxicity of biochemicals, Agerin, Biofly and their mixtures with oils and photostaplizers compared with diazinon against the predator Paederus alfierii (Kock) as described by Moustafa et al., (1980) with slight modification. The dry film of mixtures was prepared by applying 1 ml methyl alcohol instead of acetone, containing the desired concentration of each mixtures on 9 cm diameter petri dish, after the solvent was evaporated, ten adults (previously exposed to low temperature 4°C for 10 min. to slow their movement) of the predators were transferred to treated petri dishes and each treatment was replicated four times. Mortality counts were recorded after 48 hours after treatment.

III .6 L. D.P an al ysis.

line s

an d

stati stic al

All insects' mortality percentages results were corrected according to Abbott`s formula (1925), and plotted on probit graph papers against insecticide concentrations. Results were statistically analyzed according to the method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon, (1949). The obtained data including slopes of the regression lines and LC50 values with their 95% confidence limits were calculated.

58

MATERIALS AND METHODS

III .7 Ev al ua ti on of some chem ic al in sec ti ci de s ef fic ienc y a gai ns t EC B on ce r tai n ma iz e cu lti vatr s un de r na tu r al inf es tatio n c on di tio ns .
II I. 7.1 Ch emical ins ecti cides us ed :
1- Diazinon ( Diazinox, Bausudin or Neocidal) Structural formula :
H3C N N (CH3)2CH S OP(OCH2CH3)2

Chemical name

:O,O-diethyl O- 2- isopropyl- 6- methylpyrimidin- 4- yl phosphorothioate. Molecular Formula :C12H21N2O3PS Formulation :60% E C. Introduced by : Kafr El - Zayat Company. * Recommended rate of application : 1L / feddan. 2- Methymoyl (Lannate)

Structural formula :
SCH3 CH3NHCO2N C CH3

Chemical name :S- methyl N- (methyl carbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate. Molecular Formula :C5H10N2O2S Formulation : 90% SP. Introduced by : Kafr El - Zayat Company. * Recommended rate of application : 300 gm./ feddan.

3-Fenpropathrin (Meothrin.)
Structural formula
CH3 CH3 CH3

:
CH3 CO2 H CH CN O

Chemical name

:(RS)-∝-cyano-3- phenoxybenzyl 2, 2, 3, 3 tetra methyl-

* According to the Ministry of Agricultural technical recommendation for controlling agriculture
pests (2001)

59

MATERIALS AND METHODS

cyclopropane, carboxylate . Molecular Formula :C22H23NO3 Formulation: :E.C. 20 %. Introduced by : Kafr El - Zayat Company. * Recommended rate of application : 750 cm3 / feddan.

4-Chlorpyrifos. (Pyriban M)
Structural formula
S Cl N OP(OCH2CH3)2 Cl

Cl

Chemical name

:O,O-diethyl O-3, 5, 6- trichloro- 2- pyridyl phosphorothioate. :C9H11Cl3NO3PS. Molecular Formula Formulation: :48% E C. Introduced by : El-Help for importing and exporting Co. * Recommended rate of application : 1L / feddan .

Procedures: Two field experiments were conducted at El-Gharbia governorate (Tanta Agriculture Faculty Farm) and El-Behira governorate (OmEl-Momnen village) during 2003 corn growing season, to evaluate the efficiency of certain chemical pesticides against ECB infesting different corn cultivars. Eight white corn cultivars: open pollinated variety (Giza 2), single cross 10 (S.C.10), S.C.13, S.C.123, three way cross 310 (T.W.C.310), T.W.C.321, T.W.C.323, T.W.C.324 and two yellow corn cultivars T.W.C.351 and T.W.C.352 were planted at 10th of July(2003) in El-Gharbia region and at 13th of July (2003) in El-Behira region. Seeds of corn cultivars were supplied from Agricultural Research Center (A.R.C.), Egypt. The experiment was designed as strip plot with three replicates. Vertical plots assigned to the four insecticide treatments plus an untreated one (control). All treatments were randomized distributed in each replication. Each vertical strip plot were
* According to the Ministry of Agricultural technical recommendation for agriculture pests (2001) controlling

60

MATERIALS AND METHODS

bordered on each side by two rows of untreated corn cultivars to minimize the insecticide drift to adjacent plots. The ten corn cultivars were allocated in horizontal plots which randomize distributed in each replication as well. Each plot was 10 rows. Each row (3 m long, 0.7 m apart) which consisted of 13 plants. All plots received regular agricultural practices. The pesticides were diluted with water at rate 200 liter/Fadden and sprayed using a knapsack sprayer (Model CP3) fitted with one nozzle. The spray was done twice 45 and 60 days after sowing (Metwally and Shehata, 1999). At harvest time, a random sample consists of 10 plants was taken from each plot to the laboratory for counting the total number of internodes and holes. Number of holes per 100 internodes were calculated and recorded. The stalks were dissected longitudinally to permit the counting of larvae and cavities. A larvae borrowing cavity represented 2.5 cm long was counted as one cavity. Also holes No./10 ear stalks and damaged grain percentages were recorded. The ears of each plot were shelled and weighted in the field. Grain yields were adjusted to 15.5% grain moisture and a random sample of 100 grains was weighted and recorded for each plot. 100g grain from each plot were grained into fine powder and stored in paper package to nitrogen, protein and phosphorus percentage. determinate

II I. 7.2 Soil an al ysi s.
Soil samples from the experimental sites were collected from different soil depth (30 and 60cm) and analyzed for soil texture and chemical properties (Table III.1). In general the soil of the first experimental site (Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agric., Tanta) was clay in texture, on the other hand, the texture of the second site (OmEl-Momnen village - Wady ElNetron, El-Behira Governorate) was sandy in texture, all soil had fairly uniforms without distinct changes in the texture and is not saline or sodic. The

61

MATERIALS AND METHODS

physical and chemical properties of soil samples were determined according to the outlined methods of Klute, (1986) and Page, (1982), respectively.

II I. 7.3 Clima tolo gic al el eme nts.
Climatological elements values were obtained from the Kotour (ElGharbia Governorate) and Wady El-Netron (El-Behira Governorate) meteorological stations. The maximum and minimum air temperature monthly means (°C) and averages of relative air humidity (RH%) at ElGharbia and El-Behira Governorate during the 2003 seasons are estimated and summarized in Table (III.2). Table III.1: Some physical and chemical characters of the experiment soils.
Location Soil characteristics 0-30 El-Gharbia site Soil depth (cm) 30-60 Chemical analysis E.C conductivity (paste extract) (dS/m) pH Organic matter % 2.6 7.82 0.91 2.1 7.94 0.53 Soil texture Sand% Silt% Clay % 16.19 40.14 43.48 9.13 42.14 48.20 92.29 2.4 3.43 94.46 1.34 2.78 2.3 7.9 1.88 2.2 7.8 1.42 0-30 El-Behira site Soil depth (cm) 30-60

Table III.2: The monthly average of temperature and relative humidity during 2003 season in both locations.
El-Gharbia site Month Max. July August September 35.14 35.72 33.59 Temperature º C Min. 24.91 24.54 22.18 Mean 30.03 30.13 27.89 RH% 66.47 66.18 64.55 El-Behira site Temperature º C Max. 35.4 35.8 33.2 Min. 21.7 22 20.2 Mean 28.55 28.9 26.7 RH % 48.5 52.2 50.5

62
October November 28.87 28.7 18.17 19.5 23.52 23.8 64.63 52.4

MATERIALS AND METHODS
30.7 26.1 17.8 14.9 24.25 20.5 54.2 60.8

III .8 Ev al ua ti on of some micr ob ia l in sec ti ci de s ef fic ienc y a gai ns t EC B on ce r tai n ma iz e cu lti var s com pa r ed with chem ica l in se cti ci de und er natur al inf es tatio n c on di tio ns .
Chemical used: Biopesticides 1-: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aegyptia.(Agerin)
Formulation : 6% Wettable power containing 32×106 IU/mg of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aegyptia. Introduced by : Bioagro-International-Egypt. It was used in Egypt by permission from Agriculture Genetic Engineering Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture. * Recommended rate of application : 500 gm/feddan

2-: Beauveria bassiana (Biofly) As previous described. Procedures: To evaluate the effect of the two bioinsecticides, the mixtures of bioinsecticide with some oils and photostaplizers and the bioinsecticide mixtures with oils and photostaplizers and half dose of the most efficient insecticide diazinon (which investigated from previous experiment) on the most tolerant corn cultivar and two susceptible cultivars, two field
* According to the Ministry of Agricultural technical recommendation for agriculture pests (2001) controlling

63

MATERIALS AND METHODS

experiments were carried out at the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agric., Tanta Univ. El-Gharbia Governorate seasons. The design of the experiments was a strip plot design with three replications as follows: Horizontal plots were allocated to three corn cultivars namely: 1. S.C. 10, single cross hybrid (white). 2. Susceptible corn cultivar T.W.C.310, three way cross hybrid (white). 3. Tolerant corn cultivar T.W.C.351, three way cross hybrid (yellow). Vertical plots were assigned to nine treatments (control and eight different treatments). Table III.3 shown the different mixtures used and their application rates. Seeds of corn cultivars were supplied from Agricultural Research Center (A.R.C.), Cairo. Seeds cultivars were sown on 10th of July in the two successive seasons (2004, 2005), all cultural practices were applied as recommended by the Egyptian Agricultural Ministry . The mixtures were sprayed after 45 and 60 days of planting as the first experiment. Holes No./100 internodes, cavities No. /10plants, larvae No./10 plants, 100 grain weight and grains yield/10plants were calculated for each plot. Climatological elements values, monthly relative humidity (RH%) at El-Gharbia temperature (°C) and Kotour Governorate during the two during 2004 and 2005 successive

successive seasons (2004 and 2005) were obtained from meteorological stations and presented in Table III.4.

64

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Table III.3 : The mixtures used in the field experiments and their application rates
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Control. Agerin. Biofly. Diazinon. Paraffin oil. Chemical mixtures used 500 gm/ feddan. 200 ml/200L. 1L/ feddan. 1L/ feddan. Rate/ fadden

Mixture No.1: Agerin + Paraffin oil + benzophenon 375gm Agerin + 125ml Paraffin oil +0.5 gm (1:3:0.1%). benzophenon. Mixture No. 2: Biofly + Paraffin oil + benzophenon 150ml Biofly+ 50ml Paraffin oil + 0.2gm (1:3:0.1%). benzophenon. Mixture No. 3: Agerin + Paraffin oil+ benzophenon 375gm Agerin + 125ml Paraffin oil + 0.5gm (1:3:0.1%) + Diazinon with ½ recommended dose. benzophenon + ½ L Diazinon. Mixture No. 4: Biofly + Paraffin oil +benzophenon 150ml Biofly + 50ml Paraffin oil + 0.2gm (1:3:0.1%) Diazinon with ½ recommended dose. benzophenon + ½ L Diazinon.

Table III.4 : The monthly average temperatures and relative humidity during the two growing seasons 2004 and 2005.
Average temperatures and relative humidity (A) Season 2004 Month July August September October November Temperature º C Max. 33.9 33.6 32.4 32.4 27.7 Min. 23.4 22.4 36.3 20.8 19.1 Mean 28.6 28.0 34.4 26.6 23.4 (B) Season 2005 July August September October November 32.3 32.0 31.6 27.9 23.7 21.5 21.9 19.3 17.1 13.5 26.9 26.9 25.5 22.5 18.5 85 84 89 87 89 35 45 40 38 42 60 65 64 63 66 Max. 90 78 86 78 74 Humidity % Min. 44 36 26 27 31 Mean 67 57 56 52 52

65

MATERIALS AND METHODS

III .9 Che mi ca l cu lti va r s.

an al ysis

of

Cor n

The present investigation was conducted at the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tanta, during 2003 growing seasons. The experimental designed was a factorial complete randomized plot with three replications and 10 treatments (the previous cultivers) . Each cultivers were planted in four row at 75 cm. apart and three m in length, and plant to plant distance in raw was kept at 30cm. The crop was sown at 10th of July 2003. After 45 days, ten plants from the middle row were harvested and the stems were cutting, air dried and grinding fine. Samples of 100g were kept for determinations cellulose contents and percent of ash. At tasseling stage, the cortex firmness of the internode below the ear was measured and expressed as Newton, using a dynamometer with (Ge1) an accessory plunger. Total soluble solid was measured by hand refractometer (model, ATAGO N-1E) in the stem cellular juice.

II I. 9.1

Total nit r ogen c on te nt d et er min ati on.

The total nitrogen content in corn grains was determined in all the mentioned treatments by Solorzano method (1969) with slight modification (solorzano method use to determined the total nitrogen contents in natural water and its reaction depended on mixture pH (pH = 9). But the digested solution (sample) had lower pH. So, we change the sample volume to 0.1ml only to keep the pH in the right value). After convert the nitrogen content to ammonium sulphate by digested 0.2gm ground corn grains with sulphuric acid and perchloric acid (4:1) for 4 hours. The digested solution (sample) was made up to 50ml with distillated water. 0.1ml of digested solution was mixed well with 2.5 ml phenol solution (110 mg phenol/ml ethyl alcohol 95%), 2.5 ml sodium nitroprusside (50 mg/ml distilled water) and 5 ml oxidizing

66

MATERIALS AND METHODS

solution {100ml alkaline citrate buffer [20gm trisodium citrate + 1gm sodium hydroxide resolved in 100ml distilled water] + 25 ml sodium hypochlorite commercial solution} in glass tubes. The glass tubes were leaved for at least one hour to develop a blue color which measured its optical density by Pharmacia LKB. Novaspec II colorimeter at a wavelength of λ = 640 nm against the blank solution. A standard curve prepared by plotting absorbent readings of known sample concentration range of ammonium sulphate ((NH 4)2SO4) dilution. Samples were computed by comparing sample absorbent with the standard curve. The total protein content of the samples was calculated as crud protein, by multiplying the nitrogen content by 6.25 according to Pirie, (1955). The results are presented as protein percentage on dry weight basis.

II I. 9.2

Ph osph or us De ter mi na tion.

Phosphorus was determined according to Chapman and Pratt, (1961), 0.2 gm of dried and ground samples were digested as previous mentioned in nitrogen determination. After digestion the solution made up to 50ml with distillated water. An aliquot of digested solution was placed in a 25 ml volumetric flask and then naturalized using ammonium hydroxide, and para-nitro-phenol (5% in ethyl alcohol) as indicator. Then 5 ml of the ammonium molybdate solution was added and mixed, the mixture was diluted to 22 ml by using distilled water. 1 ml of stannous chloride solution (25g dihydrate stannous chloride, (SnCl2.2H2O) in 50ml concentrated

hydrochloric acid (HCl), dilute to 1 L with distilled water) was added and mixed immediately then made the final volume to 25 ml and shacked, after 10 minutes the intensity of raised blue color was estimated (at λ = 640 nm) by using a spectrophotometer (Pharmacia LKB. Novaspec II).

67

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A

standard

curve

of

phosphorus

(potassium

di-hydrogen

orthophosphate) was used to calculate phosphorus percentage in the samples.

II I. 9.3 De ter mi na tion o f cellul ose co nt en ts.
Cellulose content were determined according to method(1969) Reagents : 1-Acetic acid 80% 2- Nitric acid conc. 3- Ethyl alcohol. 4- Diethyl ether Procedure: 1-15 ml acetic acid 80% and 1.5 ml nitric acid were added to one gram of dried sample, heated to boiling and leaved to cool. 2- 20 ml ethyl alcohol were added to the mixture sample, leaved a while and the contents were filtered on gosh pot. 3- The sediment was washed on gosh pot twice with ethyl alcohol and then with diethyl ether. 4-The sediment was dried in dried oven at 100 º C until dryness and cooled in glass discator and weighted many time until the stable. 5-The sediment sample burned in electrical oven at 550°C for 3 hours , cooled and weighted The cellulose percentages were calculated from the following equation: % cellulose = [( sediment weight after dryness – ash weight after burned) / sample weight ] × 100 weight become Updegroff,

II I. 9.4 De ter mi na tion o f ash.
A five grams weight of each predried sample was ashed in an electrical

68

MATERIALS AND METHODS

oven at 550°C until light gray ash was formed. The total ash was calculated as described in Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 1998.

III .1 0 Sta ti stic al a na l ys is.
Data were subjected to the proper statistical analysis as the technique of analysis of variance (ANOVA) of strip- split plot design as mentioned by Gomez and Gomez, (1984). Treatment means were compared using the New Least Significant Difference (NLSD) test as outlined by Waller and Duncan, (1969). In case of the error mean squares of strip-split plot design were homogenous (Bartlett’s test), the combined analysis were calculated for all parameters in both seasons or location. Computation were done using computer software MstatC version 3.4.

IV - RES UL TS AN D DIS CU SSI ON
IV.1 Dete r min atio n of Be au ver ia ba ssi an a (B al sam o) p ot en cy.
The efficiency of Beauveria bassiana formulations measured by Ostrinia nubilalis larvae (5th instar)(TL50 <4 days)Worthing, 1995. Using Ostrinia larvae requirer a lot of time and efforts. estimation, The efficiency of To simplified this Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly)

against three aphid species namely [Aphis gossypii (Glover), Aphis craccivora (Kock) and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch)] and two-spotted spider mite T. cinnabarinus (Acarina:Tetranychidae) was studied by using slid dipping and leaf-disc dipping technique to estimate the most susceptibility species, the suitable time and method for application. When the mortality percentage had been taken after 24 hours or leafdisc dipping technique used to evaluate the toxicity of the Biofly formulation to the aphid species, there were non liner relationship between the mortality percentages (probit values of the mortality percentages) and the concentrations logarithm. So, the slide dipping technique was adopted to evaluate the toxicity of the Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) to the adults of different aphid species and leaf-disc dipping technique to the adults of Tetranychus cinnabarinus mites and the mortality percentages taken after 48 hours. Results are recorded in Table (IV.1) and shown in Fig. (IV.1). The obtained data show that, The toxicity of the Biofly formulation to aphid species and red spider mites could be arranged descendingly as follows: Tetranychus cinnabarinus > Rhopalosiphum maidis > Aphis craccivora > Aphis gossypii (LC50`s:9.1×103, 5.65×104, 2.20×105, and 2.67×105 conidia/ml,

72

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

respectively. From previously mentioned results it could be concluded that: the most susceptible species against Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) and suitable to use as an indicator to Beauveria bassiana potency is the adults of Tetranychus cinnabarinus mite. These results are accordance with many investigators who had found that Beauveria bassiana had hight virulence against two-spotted spider mite Tetranchus cinnabarinus and many aphid species such as Nirmala, et al., 2006; Simova and Draganova, 2003; Saenz de Cabezon Irigaray Francisco et al., 2003 and Feng, et al., 1990.

73

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.1: Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana against some aphid species and two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using slide dipping and leaf-disc dipping technique respectively.
Concentrations (condia/ml) Organism 10
2

10

3

2×10

3

5×10

3

10

4

10

5

10

6

Calculated Calculated

Confidence limits Lower 5 5 4 Upper 5 5 4 Slop values.

LC50

(condia/ml) (condia/ml)

LC84

Mortality % Aphis gossypii Aphis craccivora Rhopalosiphum maidis Tetranychus cinnabarinus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
27.27

0 4.54 0
36.36

0 4.97 4.545
63.63

13.63 9.09 68.18
72.72

27.27 18.18 77.27 77.27

68.18 77.27 95.45 100

5 2.67×10 5 2.20×10 4 5.65×10 3 9.1×10

6 63.41×10 17.23 ×10 6

1.97×10 1.32×10 3.53×10 4.9×10

3.62×10 3.68×10 9.03×10

3.84 6.37 3.32 0.92

5 9.48×10 5 1.105×10

3

4 1.71 ×10

74

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig IV.1: Probit regression lines for the toxicity of Biofly to some Aphis spp and two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

75

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.2 Ef fect of ul tr a vio let radi ati on on B. bas si ana poten cy.
Among the fractions of spectrum that reach to the surface of the earth, UV-B which has great harmful effect on the micro-organisms particularly at wavelengths between 295-315 nm (Braga et al., 2001 a, b; Goettel et al., 2000; Goettel and Inglis, 1997 and Inglis et al., 1995). Ultraviolet light has detrimental effects on conidial culturability, conidial germinability, germinates and affectivity of entomopathogenic fungi (Braga et al., 2002, 2001 a, b and Fargues et al., 1997). Many attempts have been made to reduce the negative effects of UV radiation on entomopathogens by adding photo-protective agents to the formulations (Alves et al., 1998 and Moore et al., 1993). Many investigators had been improved the efficiency of thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana formulations by Bacillus adding

photostaplizers and/or oils. But this adding may be synergistic or inhibited the efficiency of the biological agents. So, our investigation dived to two parts: 1- Study the effect of mixing some photostaplizers and oils with Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) to obtained the most enhanced compound to the Beauveria bassiana efficiency. 2- Study the stability of these mixtures under ultra violet radiation to obtain the most efficient compound that protect the bioinsecticide from the detrimental effect of the UV.

IV.2. 1 Ef fec t of mixi ng Bea uv eria bassian a for mula tion ( Biofl y) w it h dif fer en t oils.
Oils and wetting agents have been extensively investigated and adopted as means of enhancing the delivery, persistence, and efficacy of

76

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

mycoinsecticides. Oil based formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin were introduced by Prior et al., 1988, who reported that coconut oil was more efficient as a carrier of B. bassiana conidia than 0.01% aqueous Tween 80 for the weevil Pantorhytes plutus (Oberthur). More recently, oil based formulations of mycopesticides have been tested against various insect pests with positive results (Maranga et al., 2005; Wekesa et al., 2005; Kaaya, 2000; Batista-Filho et al., 1994;Ma et al., 1999 and Huang, 1995). Because of the lipophilic nature of phialo-conidia that do not bear a mucus coating, they can be easily suspended in oils to achieve greater efficacies than when used in water (David-Henriet et al., 1998 and Bateman et al., 1993). Also, the need for high relative humidity and dosage could be reduced if its conidia were formulated in oil. So, The toxicity and potentate effect of some botanical oils (castor, canola, corn and cotton), mineral and paraffin oils had been evaluated against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

IV.2. 1.a Ef fect of dif fer ent oils a gainst tw ospo tt ed spid er mi te Tetr any chus cin na bari nus.
The leaf disc dipping technique was adopted to evaluate the toxicity of the certain oils on the adults of Tetranychus cinnabarinus mites. Results are recorded in Table (IV.2) and shown in Fig.(IV.2) . The obtained data show that, The toxicity of the different oils could be arranged descendingly as follows:corn oil> cotton oil >caster oil > mineral oil>canola oil> paraffin oil (LC50`s:99.8, 472.2, 666.7, 1085.7, 1559.2, and 2525.2 ppm respectively. Many authors had reported that mineral and botanical oils had hight efficiency against spider mite either in laboratory or under field conditions Lee et al., 2005; Lancaster et al., 2002; Amer et al., 2001; El-Duweini and Sedrak, 1997; Sawires, 1992; Butler and Henneberry, 1990a,b and Rock and Crabtree, 1987.

77

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.2: Toxicity of some botanical oils and mineral oil by using leaf disk dipping technique.
Concentrations (ppm) Oils 50 102 2×102 5×102 103 2×103 5×103 104

against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus

Calculated

2×104 5×104

Mortality % Corn oil Cotton oil Castor oil Mineral oil Canola oil Paraffin oil 29.17 29.17 83.00 99.00 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 99.00 99.00 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

LC50 (ppm) 99.79 472.19 666.67 1085.69 1559.19 2558.57

CalculatedLC84

Confidence limits Lower 86.2 365.35 501.06 778.86 1339.3 1505.51 Upper 115.24 610.27 887.00 1513.4 1815.17 4348.23

(ppm)

Slop values. 3.13 2.03 2.23 1.36 4.2 1.10

208.05 1467.95 1869.02 5917.66 2699.21 356159.55

8.33 39.58 41.67 60.42 8.33 10.42 33.33 45.83 0 0 0

27.08 29.17 37.50 41.67 93.75 0 0 31.25 47.92 99.00

13.99 15.87 33.33 56.25 64.58 70.83 85.42 91.67

78
100

CONTENTS
8

    

1-Corn oil 2-Cotton oil 3-Castor oil 4-Mineral oil 5-Canola oil 6-Paraffin oil (1)

 
(2)

7

% Mortality.

  
50

(3)

(5)

(4)

(6)

6

     

Probit.

        

 

5

4

3

0 10 100 1000 ppm 10000 100000

2 1000000

Fig IV.2: Probit regression lines for the toxicity of some botanical oils and mineral oil to two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

79

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.2.1.b Ef fec t of Be auv eria bassian a mi xt ur es with oils agai nst tw o-sp ot te d spid er mit e Tetr any chus cinn aba rin us.
The toxicity of Beauveria bassiana mixtures with certain botanical oils, mineral oil and parraffin oil on the adults' spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (TablesIV.3:IV.7) Show that: When Biofly mixed with oils by the ratio 1Biofly:3oils, 1Biofly:2oils, and 1Biofly:1 oil, the mixtures` toxicities decreased compared with the Biofly formulation alone (Tables IV.3-IV.5). On the other hand in case of mixing Biofly with oils by the ratio 2Biofly :1 oils (Table IV.6), all mixtures were more toxic than the Biofly formulation alone except the mixture of corn oil which was less toxic than Biofly formulation alone. In case of mixing Biofly with oils by the ratio 3Biofly :1 oils (Table IV.7), the mixtures` toxicities increased compared with the Biofly formulation alone except the mixture of cotton oil which was less toxic of Biofly formulation alone. From the previous data it could be concluded that: in all tested oils, there are of a negative relationship between oil ratio in the mixtures the and mixtures toxicities. Most tested mixtures of corn and cotton oils had decreased the toxicity Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) against Tetranychus cinnabarinus adult mites. On the other hand, mixture No.5 (3Biofly:1oil) of caster, canola, mineral and paraffin oils had increased the toxicity of the Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) against Tetranychus cinnabarinus adult mites. Several working including Maranga et al., 2005;Wekesa et al., 2005; Manjula et al., 2003; Kaaya, 2000; Ma, et al., 1999; Huang, 1995 and BatistaFilho et al., 1994 found that conidia formulated in oil outperformed the ones

80

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

formulated in water. These findings may be due to that oil had synergistic effect to Beauveria bassiana (Batista-Filho, et al., 1995). That synergistic effect may be due to enhanced the conidia germination ( Ramle et al., 2004 and Gurvinder et al., 1999). Also, oil formulations had many advantages compared with water formulations. Oil could protect the fungal conidia from the UV of sunlight (Moore et al., 1993) and can give some protection to the conidia from heat (Scherer et al., 1992). Oil formulations spread rapidly over the hydrophobic surface of leaves (Burges, 1998) and oil drift evaporates more slowly than water, thus giving the conidia more time to germinate and infect. Oil formulations also enhances adhesion of the conidia to the insect cuticle, spreading of oil on the cuticle may carry conidia into niches on the host cuticle (e.g., inter-segmental folds) that provide moisture for germination and gave more protection from solar radiation (Ibrahim et al., 1999). The other advantages of oil over water formulation include the ready suspension of the lipophilic conidia of B. bassiana in oil (Prior et al., 1988). But in case of corn oil the results disagree with the findings of Yasuda et al., 2000, who found that, formulations of Beauveria bassiana conidia in a 10% corn oil mixture showed more superior infectivity in both sexes of Cylas formicarius than the formulation of conidia only in laboratory assays. Also, (Grimm, 2001; Batista-Filho et al., 1995a, b; Smart and Wright, 1992) reported that cottonseed, soybean, and mineral oils do not adversely affect the viability of B. bassiana. The antagonism between B. bassiana, corn and cotton oil may be due to their contents of fatty acids myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidic which inhibited both growth and lipase production (Hegedus and Khachatourians, 1988).

81

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.3: The toxicity of Biofly mixtures with different oils by the ratio (1:3 v/v) on two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
Calculated LC84 (condia/ml) Biofly conc. (condia/ml) : oil conc. (ppm).
150000/13950 375000/34875 37500/3487.5
7500000/69750

(condia/ml)

Confidence limits Slop values. 1.32 2.00 1.12 1.91 1.76 0.92

3750/348.75

15000/1395

Calculated LC50

Mixtures of 1Biofly : 3Oil v/v

75000/6975

7500/697.5

Lower

Upper

Mortality %

Biofly : Corn oil Biofly : Cotton oil Biofly : Castor oil Biofly : Mineral oil Biofly : Canola oil Biofly : Paraffin oil

0
10.42 16.67

0
20.83 25

33.33 35.42 14 47.92 27.08

39.58 47.92 59.97 27.08 70.83 41.67

43.75 75 75 39.58 95.83 52.08

81.25 99 91.67 64.58 95.83 -

89.58

100 100
99

4.90×104 2.16×104 2.18×104 7.45×104 1.52×104 7.55×104

2.80×105 6.81×104 1.70×105 2.48×105 5.61×104 9.16×105

3.03×104 1.66×104 1.37×104 5.67×104 1.06×104 4.63×104

7.94×104 2.00×104 3.47×104 9.78×104 2.18×104 1.23×105

100
97.92 95.83 99 72.92

0 0 0

0 0
16.67

100 100 100

82

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.4: The toxicity of Biofly mixtures with different oils by the ratio (1:2 v/v) on two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
(condia/ml) Biofly conc. (condia/ml ): oil conc. (ppm).
133000/82379 330000/20394 33000/2039 66000/4078 13300/821 3300/203 6600/407

(condia/ml)

Confidence limits Slop values. 1.63 1.13 1.92 1.61 0.81 0.92

Calculated LC50

Calculated LC84

Mixtures of 1 Biofly : 2Oil v/v

Lower

Upper

Mortality %

Biofly : Corn oil Biofly : Cotton oil Biofly : Castor oil Biofly : Mineral oil Biofly : Canola oil Biofly : Paraffin oil

35.42 0 16.67 0 0 0

43.75 0 27.08 6.25 -

43.75 25 33 27.08 52.08 25.0

75 56.25 60.42 66.67 60.42 56.25

87.5 75 81.25 70.83 72.92 75.0

99 99 70.83 72.92 -

100 83.33 100 93.75 89.58 75.0

9.35×103 3.16×104 1.57×104 3.74×104 1.40×104 3.32×104

3.85×104 2.42×106 5.21×104 1.57×105 2.44×105 4.03×105

7.09×103 1.24×104 2.12×104 1.13×104 1.24×104 1.99×104 2.83×104 4.96×104 8.02×103 2.45×104 2.03×104 5.41×104

83

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.5: The toxicity of Biofly mixtures with different oils by the ratio (1:1 v/v) on two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
Calculated LC84 (condia/ml) Biofly conc. (condia/ml) : oil conc. (ppm). 250000/7750 50000/1550 10000/3100 10000/310 25000/775 5000/155 2500/77 500/15 (condia/ml) Confidence limits Slop values. 1.77 1.64 1.61 1.85 1.01 1.64

Calculated LC50

Mixtures of 1 Biofly : 1Oil v/v

Lower

Upper

Mortality %

Biofly : Corn oil Biofly : Cotton oil Biofly : Castor oil Biofly : Mineral oil Biofly : Canola oil Biofly : Paraffin oil

0 0
10.42

0 0
25

10.42

31.25

52.08

-

56.25

99

2.59×104 1.09×104 5.49×103 1.05×104 1.00×104 1.09×104

9.49×104 4.44×104 2.29×104 3.67×104 9.92×104 4.44×104

1.93×104 8.25×103 3.97×103 8.26×103 6.41×103 8.25×103

3.48×104 1.64×104 7.59×103 1.35×104 1.57×104 1.43×104

27.08 56.25 70.83 83.33 93.75
45.83 75 97.92 99

99 100 100
87.5 99.00

0 0 0

14.58 0 0

25 0
27.08

50
35.42 56.25

75
77.08 70.83

87.5
83.33 83.33

97.92
85.42 93.75

84

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.6: The toxicity of Biofly mixtures with different oils by the ratio (2:1 v/v) on two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
Calculated LC84 (condia/ml) Biofly conc. (condia/ml) : oil conc. (ppm). 166000/2556 66000/1016 16600/255 33000/508 6600/101 1600/24 3300/50 (condia/ml) Confidence limits Slop values. 2.59 1.90 2.85 1.86 1.80 1.896

Calculated LC50

Mixtures of 2 Biofly : 1Oil v/v

Lower

Upper

Mortality %

Biofly : Corn oil Biofly : Cotton oil Biofly : Castor oil Biofly : Mineral oil Biofly : Canola oil Biofly : Paraffin oil

0 0 0 18.75
22.92

6.25 0 31.25 37.5
-

45.88 45.83 64.58 52.08
39 45.83

64.58 64.58 93.75 41.67
56.25 64.58

75 87.5 98 93.75
83.33 87.50

98 97.92 100 98٫6
99 97.92

100 98.6 100 100 100
99.00

1.12×104 8.44×103 4.95×103 6.33×103 7.06×103 8434.968

2.72×104 2.84×104 1.11×104 2.18×104 2.54×104 28412.07

9.14×103 6.03×103 3.96×103 4.96×103 5.49×103 6.65×103

1.37×104 1.90×104 6.19×103 8.06×103 9.07×103 1.1×104

0

0

Table IV.7: The toxicity of Biofly mixtures with different oils by the ratio (3:1 v/v) on two-spotted spider mite

85

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
(condia/ml) Calculated LC84 (condia/ml) Biofly Conc. (condia/ml) : oil conc. (ppm).
125000/1287 12500/128 25000/257 50000/515 1250/12.8 2500/25 5000/51 250/2.5

Confidence limits

Calculated LC50

Mixtures of 1Biofly : 3Oil v/v

Lower

Upper

Mortality %

Biofly : Corn oil Biofly : Cotton oil Biofly : Castor oil Biofly : Mineral oil Biofly : Canola oil Biofly : Paraffin oil

0 0 0 6.25 0 0

0 0 0 8.33 0 29.17

29.17 0 45.83 18.75 33.33 37.50

33.33 29.17 68.75 56.25 75 87.50

85.42 37.5 95.83 99 85.42 91.67

93.75 87.5 99 100 99 99.00

99 91.67 100 100 100 100

100 99 100 100 100 100

5.35×103 1.09×104 1.70×103 2.93×103 3.47×103 2.44×103

1.42×104 3.11×104 1.18×104 8.44×103 8.58×103 6.76×103

4.09×103 8.14×103 9.89×102 2.19×103 2.70×103 1.99×103

7.01×103 2.19×104 2.90×103 3.93×103 4.46×103 2.98×103

2.36 2.19 1.19 2.18 2.54 2.77

Slop values.

86

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.2.2 Ef fect of Mixi ng Bea uv eria bassia na for mul atio n (Bio fl y) wi th ph ot ostapliz er s.
All photostaplizers and pigments had no toxicity effect against adults of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus up to 104 ppm. The toxicity of the Biofly/photostaplizers mixtures to the adults of Tetranychus cinnabarinus, LC50 values and their confidence limits are recorded in Tables (IV.8:IV.12). In case of mixing Biofly formulation with the acetophenone (Table IV.8): results reveled that, The most toxic mixture was mixture No.1 (Biofly+0.1% acetophenone) with LC50 value =6.45×103 conidia/ml while the lowest toxic one was mixture No.4 (Biofly + 1% acetophenone) with LC50 value =2.68×105 In case of mixing Biofly formulation with the 4−nitro acetophenon conidia/ml.

(Table IV.9), mixture No.1(Biofly + 0.1% acetophenon) was the most toxic one (LC50 =2.48×102), on the other hand mixture No.4 (Biofly+1% acetophenon) was the lowest toxic one (LC50 =9.68×104). In case of mixing Biofly formulation with the 7−nitophenol (Table IV.10), results revealed that: adding 0.1% 7−nitophenol (mixture No.1) to Biofly

formulation reduced the Biofly LC50 value to 5.57×103 conidia/ml, while adding 1% 7−nitophenol to Biofly formulation (mixture No. 4) make the mixture almost non toxic to Tetranychus cinnabarinus mites (LC50 more than 107 conidia/ml). In case of mixing Biofly formulation with the benzophenon(Table IV.11), the mixture No.1(Biofly + 0.1% benzophenon) was the most toxic mixture where LC50 value = 1.21×104 conidia/ml and the lowest toxic one was mixture No.4 (Biofly + 1% benzophenon) LC50 value = 3.07×104conidia/ml.

87

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In case of mixing Biofly formulation with the titan yellow pigment (Table IV.12), data showed that, increasing of titan yellow pigment percentage enhanced the toxicity of Biofly mixtures. There are a negative relationship between pigment concentration in the mixture and the mixture toxicity . The most toxic mixture was mixture No.1(Biofly + 0.1% Titan yellow pigment) (LC50 value=4.89×102) and mixture No.4 (Biofly + 1% Titan yellow pigment) was the lest toxic one (LC50 value =2.02×104 conidia/ml). When congo red pigment mixed with Biofly formulation (Table IV.13), also the mixtures` toxicities enhanced compared with the Biofly formulation alone but with the increase of pigment ratio the LC50 values increased. Where, mixture No.1 (Biofly + 0.1% congo red pigment) had LC50 value = 3.55×103 conidia/ml while mixture No.4 (Biofly + 1% congo red pigment) had LC50 value = 9.90×104 conidia/ml. Generally. All compound had increased the mixtures toxicities to Teteranychus cinnabarinus mites, but when increasing the compound ratio to 1% the toxicity decrease. Similar results were obtained by Nong et al., 2005 and Inglis et al., 1995.

88

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.8: Toxicity of the Biofly mixtures with the acetophenone (photostabilizer) against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
(condia/ml)Calculated LC84 Conc. (condia/ml) 2×104 5×104 2×105 5×105 102 103 104 105 106 (condia/ml) Confidence limits Slop values. 1.64 1.06 0.75 1.29

Calculated LC50

Biofly mixtures Mortality %

Lower

Upper

1-Mixture No. 1 (Biofly+0.1% acetophenone) 2-Mixture No. 2 (Biofly+0.2% acetophenone 3-Mixture No. 3 (Biofly+0.5% acetophenone ) 4-Mixture No. 4 (Biofly+1% acetophenone

6.25 64.58 0 0 0 0 0

-

91.67 93.75 95.83 99.00

100

100 100

6.45×103 2.62×104 4.37×103 9.51×103 9.39×103 8.27×104 5.74×103 1.54×104

47.92 56.25 87.50 89.58 91.67 95.83 0 0

23.00 33.00 41.00 50.00 61.00 70.00 1.94×105 4.19×106 5.83×104 6.46×105 8.33 18.75 25.00 47.92 100 2.68×105 1.59×106 1.63×105 4.39×105

89

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.9: Toxicity of the Biofly mixtures with the 4-nitro acetophenon (photostabilizer) against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
(condia/ml)Calculated LC84 Conc. (condia/ml) 2×104 5×104 2×105 5×105 103 104 105 106 (condia/ml) Confidence limits Slop values. 0.76 0.79 2.13 1.00

Calculated LC50

Biofly mixtures Mortality %

Lower

Upper

1-Mixture No. 1 56.25 93.75 95.83 (Biofly+0.1% 4-nitro acetophenon) 2-Mixture No. 2 47.92 56.25 (Biofly+0.2% 4-nitro acetophenon) 3-Mixture No. 3 8.33 (Biofly+0.5% 4-nitro acetophenon) 4-Mixture No. 4 (Biofly+1% 4-nitro acetophenon) 0 87.5

99

100

100 100 99

100 100 100 75

100 100 100 100

2.48×102 1.73×103 4.25×103 9.68×104

5.09×102

76

8.11×102

89.58 91.67

3.17×104 8.98×102 3.34×103 1.25×105 3.52×104 5.14×104 9.61×105 6.48×104 1.45×105

18.75 77.17 79.17 85.42 27.08 37.5

43.75 70.83

90

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.10: Toxicity of the Biofly mixtures with the 7-nitophenol (photostabilizer) against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
(condia/ml) Conc. (condia/ml) 2×104 5×104 2×105 5×105 103 104 105 106 Calculated LC84 (condia/ml) Confidence limits Slop values. 1.17 1.82 0.96 0.51

Calculated LC50

Biofly mixtures Mortality %

Lower

Upper

1-Mixture No. 1 (Biofly+0.1% 7-nitophenol ) 2-Mixture No. 2 (Biofly+0.2% 7-nitophenol ) 3-Mixture No. 3 (Biofly+0.5% 7-nitophenol ) 4-Mixture No. 4 (Biofly+ 1% 7-nitophenol )

35.42 0 0

39.58 45.83 0 0

68.75 64.58 14.58 0

79.17 70.83 39.58 0

93.7 93.75 41.67 0

99 99 47.92 12.5

100 100 66.67 20.83

100 100 20.83

5.57×103 4.01×104 3.78×103 8.19×103 1.43×104 5.05×104 1.07×104 1.90×104 1.84×105 2.02×106 1.21×105 2.80×106 3.56×107 3.23×109 1.29×107 9.88×107

91

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

92

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.11: Toxicity of the Biofly mixtures with the benzophenon (photostabilizer) against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
(condia/ml) Conc. (condia/ml) 2×104 5×104 2×105 5×105 103 104 105 Calculated LC84 (condia/ml) Confidence limits Slop values. 1.01 0.96 0.48 3.48

Calculated LC50

Biofly mixtures Mortality %

Lower

Upper

1-Mixture No. 1 (Biofly+0.1% benzophenon) 2-Mixture No. 2 (Biofly+0.2% benzophenon) 3-Mixture No. 3 (Biofly+0.5% benzophenon) 4-Mixture No. 4 (Biofly+1% benzophenon)

27.08 39.58 43.75 56.25 66.67 8.33 62.5 60 64.58 70.83

99 -

100 100 100 100

1.21×104 1.17×105 8.39×103 1.73×104 1.56×104 1.74×105 9.74×103 2.50×104 1.85×104 2.29×106 8.56×103 4.00×104 3.07×104 5.94×104 2.56×104 3.69×104

31.25 41.67 47.92 58.33 64.58 72.92 0 10.03 18.75 52.08 99 100

93

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.12: Toxicity of the Biofly mixtures with the titan yellow pigment against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
(condia/ml)Calculated LC84 Concentrations (condia/ml) 10 Biofly mixtures Mortality %
3

(condia/ml)

Confidence limits Slop values. 1.34 1.98 1.33 1.1

10

4

2×10

4

5×10

4

10

5

2×10

5

5×10

5

Calculated LC50

Lower

Upper

1-Mixture No. 1 (Biofly+0.1% titan yellow pigment) 2-Mixture No. 2 (Biofly+0.2% titan yellow pigment) 3-Mixture No. 3 (Biofly+0.5% titan yellow pigment) 4-Mixture No. 4 (Biofly+1% titan yellow pigment)

68.75 22.92 39.58 0

93.75 47.92 47.92 31.25

99 99 81.25 47.92

100 100 95.83 70.83

100 100 99 85.42

100 100 100 89.52

100 100 100 99

4.89×102 2.74×103 2.49×102 9.61×102 3.27×103 1.05×104 2.37×103 4.52×103 1.01×103 1.86×104 2.21×103 4.86×103 2.02×104 1.64×105 1.26×104 3.24×104

94

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.13: Toxicity of the Biofly mixtures with the congo red pigment cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
Conc. (condia/ml) 10 Biofly mixtures Mortality %
4

against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus
(condia/ml)

Calculated LC84 (condia/ml)

Confidence limits Slop values. 0.73 0.95 1.50 1.56

2×10

4

5×10

4

10

5

2×10

5

5×10

5

Calculated LC50

Lower

Upper

1-Mixture No. 1 (Biofly+0.1% congo red pigment) 2-Mixture No. 2 (Biofly+0.2% congo red pigment) 3-Mixture No. 3 (Biofly+0.5% congo red pigment) 4- Mixture No. 4 (Biofly+1% congo red pigment)

43.75 41.67 14.58 0

70.83 81.25 39.58 10.42

79.17 91.67 60.42 18.75

99 99 72.92 83.3

100 100 99 87.5

100 100 100 89.58

3.55×103 8.23×104 1.75×103 7.23×103 4.04×103 4.52×104 2.34×103 6.98×103 9.07×103 4.21×104 5.92×103 1.39×104 9.90×104 4.35×105 6.57×104 1.49×105

95

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

96

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.2.3 Ef fect of Ultr a Viol et radi ati on (UV) Bea uv eria bassia na mix tu r es.

on

The most efficient mixtures from the previous experiment (which had no adverse effect on Beauveria bassiana potency), had been subjected to study it's stability under UV radiation. The chosen mixtures had been exposed to UV radiation for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 hours and after that, their potency against twospotted spider mite T. cinnabarinus had been evaluated by leaf disk dipping technique and the half life T50 had been estimated from the corresponding concentration (Tables IV.14 and IV.15). In case of Biofly/oils mixtures(Table IV.14): based on the obtained data, The most persistence mixtures were 3Biofly:1paraffin oil and 3Biofly:1 castor oil (spider mites mortality % had 36 and 12 after 6hours of exposure to UV radiation and T50= 1.47 and 1.74 hours respectively) while, 3 Biofly:1mineral oil had the lowest value in this respect ( mortality % was 14% after exposure to radiation for 3 hours and the T50 =0.90 hour). Table IV.14: The effect of exposure to UV radiation interval on the efficiency of Beauveria bassiana mixtures with botanical and mineral oils against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
Oils Castor oil Canola oil Mineral oil Paraffin oil Mixing ratio (v/v) 3Biofly :1 oil 3Biofly :1 oil 3Biofly :1 oil 3Biofly :1 oil 0 86 86 86 86 1 84 84 70 74 UV irradiation time (hours) 2 3 Mortality percentage 56 50 24 64 54 22 14 52 12 36 6 12 T0.5 (hours) 1.47 1.23 0.90 1.74

UV

In case of Biofly/photostablizers mixtures: from Table IV.15 , it could be concluded that, the most persistence mixtures had Biofly + 0.1 % benzophenon, Biofly +0.5% congo red and Biofly+0.1% 7-nitrophenol mixtures (which had

97

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

64, 54 and 34 mortality percentage and T50 were 5.71, 4.981 and 3.141 hours respectively) while acetophenon had the lowest values in this respect which had lost there efficiency against the spider mites after exposure to UV radiation for two hours of. These findings in somewhat agree with those of Nong, et al. (2005) and Inglis, et al. (1995). Table IV.15: The effect of exposure to UV radiation interval on the efficiency of Beauveria bassiana mixtures with some photostabilizers against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus by using leaf disk dipping technique.
Additive conc. UV radiation time (hours) 0 1 2 3 6 12 T0.5 (hours)

Mixtures

Mortality percentage 84 84 88 86 82 84 86 84 84 84 88 88 16 42 84 82 78 44 46 52 84 82 80 82 2 78 82 74 10 16 36 82 74 88 80 58 78 70 80 62 66 86 46 56 52 72 52 58 64 32 44 34 64 46 52 54

Biofly Biofly + Acetophenon Biofly + 4-nitro acetophenon Biofly + 7-nitophenol

0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%

0.32 0.32 1.66 2.30 3.14 0.35 0.57 0.58 5.71 2.39 3.03 4.99

Biofly + Titan yellow

0.2% 0.5%

Biofly + Benzophenon

0.1% 0.1%

Biofly + Congo Red

0.2% 0.5%

98

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.3 Ev al ua ti on of some chem ic al inse ct ic id es ef fi ci enc y aga in st ECB on cer ta in ma iz e cul tiva ta r s und er na tu r al inf esta ti on co nd iti on s.
The use of insecticides alone as a major method to control the ECB lead to a serious problems contamination. Another approach is the use of resistant cultivars that exploit the natural defenses of the plant against ECB beside the most effectiveness insecticides as a key of integrated pest management programs. Field experiment had carried out in two locations, (the experimental farm of Faculty of Agric., Tanta El-Gharbia. and OmEl-Momnen village - Wady ElNetron at El-Behira Governorate) during the season 2003, to evaluate the effect of insecticides treatments and resistance maize cultivars on ECB infestation under field conditions. To choose the most effective insecticides and the most tolerant cultivars against ECB. The insecticides' efficiency and the tolerance of commercial cultivars against ECB infestation were estimated by ECB holes No. /100 internodes, cavities No./10plants, ECB larvae No./10 plants, holes No./10 ear stalks, damage grains percentage, 100 grains weight and grains yield/10 plants. Also, the total nitrogen, protein and phosphorus percentage in corn grains were determined in all treatments. such as ECB insecticides resistance, and environmental

99

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.3.1 Sus cep tibility of co r n cultivar s at the late se ason to in fes ta tio n wi th ECB und er natur al in fes ta tio n co ndi tions.
Susceptibility of ten corn cultivars to infestation with ECB in El-Gharbia and El-Behira governorates under natural infestation conditions is presented in Table (IV.16). In all locations and from average data it could be concluded that: single cross hybrid 13 (S.C.13) and three way cross 351 (T.W.C. 351) were the most tolerant cultivars while, T.W.C.323 and T.W.C.324 were the most susceptible cultivers when ECB infestation evaluated by holes No./100 internodes, cavities No./10plants and larvae No./10plants. In case of holes No./10 ear stalks, the most susceptibility cultivers were S.C10 and T.W.C.324 while S.C.13 and T.W.C. 351 were the most tolerant cultivers in this regard. In case of damaged grains percentage, cultivars T.W.C.324, T.W.C.310 and S.C.10 had recored the highest values in this respect T.W.C.351 and S.C.13 had recored the lowest values. There is a positive relationship between grain protein percentage and the damaged grain percentage, while there is no relationship between phosphorous percentage and damaged grains percentage. Generally: The most tolerant cultivars against ECB infestations were S.C.13, T.W.C. 351 and S.C.123 cultivars but the rank between them differed from location to another and between studied parameters, also cultivars S.C.10 and T.W.C. 324 had the highest values of holes No./10 ear stalks and damaged grain percentage, because of S.C.10 cultivar has the longest ear stalk, a hight protein percentage in the grains, also cultivar S.C.10 had been planted for a long time in while, cultivars

100

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Egypt which break down there tolerance to ECB infestation. Cultivars T.W.C 310, T.W.C .324 and T.W.C. 321 had the highest values in damaged grains percentage that because of the ear shelling did not cover the top of the ears this allow the ECB larvae to tunneling the ears beside the hight protein content of the cultivers grains. Cultivars T.W.C 351 had tolerant to ECB infestations because of it's early mature, hardest grains and well ears shelled. Cultivar S.C.13 had tolerant to ECB infestations due to low protein content in the grain and its thin stem (lowest diameter between all cultivers). Table (IV.17) shows the data of 100 grains weight, grains yield and grains yield reduction as a result of natural infestation with ECB on ten corn cultivars at El-Gharbia and El-Behira governorates. Cultivars S.C.10, T.W.C324 and Giza 2 had the highest values of 100 grain weight while T.W.C. 351, S.C.13 have the lowest values, in both locations. Cultivars S.C10 and T.W.C324 had the highest values in grain yield/10plants while T.W.C 323 and SC.13 had the lowest values in this respect. From the obtained data we can conclude that: The rank of cultivars differed from location to another, but within locations data, S.C.10 has the highest values of 100 grain weight and grains yield/10 plants. Similar results were reported by other researchers including Metwally and Barakat, 2003; Sadek et al., 1997 and Lutfallah et al., 1991, who found that tested maize cultivars show different responses to corn borer infestation. Cultivars S.C.10, 123, 129, S.C.161 and T.W.C.321 expresses resistant to Ostrina nubilalis infestation and has less grain reduction T.W.C.310, cultivars. 323, 324, S.C.122, 124 and 155 express susceptible to ECB infestation and have as much loss in yield as did other

101

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.16: Susceptibility of ten corn cultivars to infestation with ECB in El-Gharbia and El-Behira governorates under natural infestation conditions(2003 season).
El-Gharbia site Holes No./100 Cavities Larvae Holes No./ 10 Cultivars internods No./10plants No./10plants ear stalks Giza 2 22.4d* 26.3 b 17.7 c 8.67 cd S.C.10 23.2cd 30.0 b 22.7 b 13.00 a S.C.13 8.4g 9.0 e 7.0 de 5.00 f S.C.123 13.7ef 16.0 cd 11.3 d 6.33 d-f T.W.C. 310 17.3e 19.0 c 17.0 c 8.00 c-e T.W.C. 321 26.6bc 30.0 b 27.0 ab 8.33 cd T.W.C. 323 32.9a 37.0 a 29.7 a 10.00 bc T.W.C. 324 30.2ab 35.7 a 30.0 a 11.33 ab T.W.C. 351 11.4fg 10.3 e 6.0 e 5.00 f T.W.C. 352 14.3ef 13.3 de 9.0 de 5.67 ef L.S.D (0.05) 3.796 3.796 4.828 2.414 El-Behira site Giza 2 10.7 e 13.3 e 11.3 d 7.67 de S.C.10 18.2 cd 24.0 cd 24.7 b 15.67 a S.C.13 6.7 f 8.7 e 6.0 e 7.00 e S.C.123 9.1 ef 13.0 e 10.3 de 5.67 e T.W.C. 310 18.3 cd 26.7 c 24.7 b 10.33 cd T.W.C. 321 15.3 d 20.0 d 18.0 c 10.67 c T.W.C. 323 25.4 ab 32.7 b 28.0 b 12.33 bc T.W.C. 324 26.5 a 38.7 a 34.3 a 13.67 ab T.W.C. 351 10.4 ef 10.3 e 8.3 de 4.67 e T.W.C. 352 22.1 bc 24.3 cd 18.0 c 7.67 de L.S.D (0.05) 3.880 5.496 4.546 2.819 **Averaged data Giza 2 16.6 d 19.8 c 14.5 c 8.17 de S.C.10 20.7 bc 27.0 b 23.7 b 14.33 a S.C.13 7.5 f 8.8 e 6.5 e 6.00 f S.C.123 11.4 e 14.5 d 10.8 d 6.00 f T.W.C. 310 17.8 cd 22.8 bc 20.8 b 9.17 d T.W.C. 321 21.0 b 25.0 b 22.5 b 9.50 cd T.W.C. 323 29.1 a 34.8 a 28.8 a 11.17 bc T.W.C. 324 28.4 a 37.2 a 32.2 a 12.50 ab T.W.C. 351 10.9 e 10.3 de 7.2 e 4.83 f T.W.C. 352 18.2 b-d 18.8 c 13.5 cd 6.67 ef L.S.D (0.05) 3.177 4.213 3.566 1.926 ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars. Damaged grains% 4.46 cd 7.51 a 2.26 g 4.39 de 9.01 a 7.58 b 3.48 ef 9.17 a 3.16 fg 5.33 c 0.1935 4.37 d 6.71 b 2.29 f 4.40 d 8.95 a 7.33 b 3.47 e 8.61 a 2.89 ef 5.54 c 0.8840 4.42 d 7.11 b 2.27 f 4.40 d 8.98 a 7.46 b 3.47 e 8.89 a 3.02 e 5.43 c 0.6886 Grains protein % 3.96 b 3.33 de 3.27 ef 4.50 a 3.83 bc 3.08 ef 3.04 f 3.58 cd 4.02 b 3.76 bc 0.2625 4.17 a 3.28 c 3.22 c 4.31 a 3.71 b 3.24 c 3.05 c 3.57 b 3.81 b 3.61 b 0.2675 4.06 b 3.31 e 3.25 ef 4.41 a 3.77 cd 3.16 ef 3.04 f 3.57 d 3.92 bc 3.68 d 0.2122 Grains phosphorus% 0.48 a 0.49 a 0.43 b 0.50 a 0.35 d 0.48 a 0.37 cd 0.40 bc 0.50 a 0.51 a 0.0515 0.49 a 0.50 a 0.42 bc 0.49 a 0.35 de 0.47 ab 0.40 cd 0.34 e 0.52 a 0.50 a 0.05147 0.49 bc 0.50 ab 0.42 d 0.50 ab 0.35 f 0.48 c 0.38 e 0.37 e 0.51 a 0.51 a 0.01628

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level)

102

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.17: 100 grain weight, grains yield and grains yield reduction as a result of natural infestation with ECB on ten corn cultivars at ElGharbia and El-Behira governorates.
El-Gharbia site Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 L.S.D (0.05) 100grains weight(g) 29.0 ab* 31.4 a 23.0 c 26.0 bc 29.6 ab 29.5 ab 25.7 bc 28.7 ab 27.0 b 27.7 ab 3.894 El-Behira site 35.3 ab 36.7 a 31.0 ef 32.8 de 33.2 cd 33.6 b-d 32.0 d-f 35.0 a-c 30.8 f 31.0 ef 1.914 **Averaged data 32.15 a 34.05 a 27 d 29.4 bc 31.4 b 31.55 b 30.4 b 31.8 ab 28.9 bc 29.95 b 2.032 1.31 ab 1.47 a 1.11 cd 1.34 a-c 1.20 b-d 1.41 ab 1.01 d 1.47 a 1.34 a-c 1.33 a-c 0.252 26.72 29.93 29.73 26.12 30.00 23.40 24.75 31.97 19.40 27.82 1.37 d 1.42 bc 1.18 e 1.22 de 1.24 c 1.44 bc 1.05 a 1.47 a 1.30 b 1.35 de 0.283 23.36 26.76 33.90 20.49 33.87 19.44 21.90 27.89 16.92 20.74 Grains yield /10plants (kg) Mean Reduction%*** 1.26 a 28.57 1.51 a 33.77 1.05 bc 22.86 1.46 a 30.82 1.16 a-c 25.86 1.38 ab 28.26 0.97 c 27.84 1.47 a 36.05 1.37 ab 22.63 1.30 a-c 36.15 0.366

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars. *** Reduction%=(Grain yield in diazinon treatments-Grain yield in control treatment)/ Grain yield in control×100

103

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.3.2 Ins ec ticid es ef fi cie nc y a gainst Eur ope an Cor n Bo r er Ostri nia nu bilalis (H b.) in fes ta tio n.
IV.3.2.a Holes No ./100 inter nodes. Efficiency of four chemical insecticides against ECB infestation on ten corn cultivars evaluated by holes No./100 internodes at two different locations are presented in Table (IV.18). At the two locations there are a significant differences between the insecticides treatments. At El-Gharbia site: diazinon treated cultivatar S.C.13 and S.C.123, and chlorpyrifos treated cultiver S.C.13 internodes. Holes No./100 internodes values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers ascending order as follows: S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C. were in 351<T.W.C. had the lowest value in holes No./100

310<T.W.C.352< Giza 2<T.W.C. 324<T.W.C. 323<S.C.10<T.W.C. 321.While diazinon treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows: S.C.13< S.C.123< Giza 2< T.W.C. 310< S.C.10< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C.321<T.W.C. 351< T.W.C. 352 <T.W.C. 323. Methomyl treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows: S.C.13< T.W.C. 351< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 310< S.C.123< Giza2< S.C.10< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 323< T.W.C. 321. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:Giza 2< T.W.C. 351< S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 352< S.C.10< T.W.C. 323. Diazinon and fenpropathrin were the most efficient insecticides treatments against ECB infestation [ infestation reduction percentage(R%) = 77.05 and 71.10 respectively]. At El-Behira site: diazinon treated cultivars S.C.123 have the lowest value in this regard. and T.W.C.351

104

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Holes No./100 internodes values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers 321< T.W.C. 323< S.C.10< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 310<

were

in ascending order as follows: T.W.C. 351< S.C.123< Giza 2< S.C.13< T.W.C. T.W.C. 324. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows: S.C.123< T.W.C. 351< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C. 310< S.C.10< Giza 2< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 324. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows: S.C.123< T.W.C. 351 < S.C.13< Giza 2< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C. 323< S.C.10< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 324. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:S.C.13< Giza 2< S.C.123< T.W.C. 351< T.W.C. 323< T.W.C. 310< S.C.10< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 352. Diazinon and fenpropathrin were the most efficient insecticides treatments against ECB infestation (R% = 81.51 and 77.51 respectively). From averaged data it could be concluded that: diazinon was the most potent insecticides treatments and the methomyl was the lest effective one(R%= 79.05 and 40.88 respectively). The degree of infestation at Elgharbia site more than that in El-Behira site. IV.3.2.b Ca vi ties No ./10 plant. ECB cavities No./10 plants as effected by insecticides treatments and corn cultivers are sited in Table (IV.19). A significant differences were detected between the insecticide treatments and corn cultivars. At El-Gharbia site: diazinon treated cultivars T.W.C.351 treatments had the lowest value in this regard. Cavities No./10 plants values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows: S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C. 351< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 310< Giza 2< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C.323< T.W.C. 324< S.C.10. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows: S.C.13< S.C.123< Giza 2< S.C.13, S.C.123 and were

105

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

T.W.C. 310< S.C.10< T.W.C. 351< T.W.C.321<

T.W.C.

324<

T.W.C.352<

T.W.C.323. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows: T.W.C. 351< S.C.13< Giza 2< T.W.C.324< S.C.123< T.W.C.310<T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 323< S.C.10. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows: T.W.C. 351< S.C.13< Giza 2< T.W.C. 324< S.C.123< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C.323< S.C.10. Diazinon was the most efficient insecticide treatments towered ECB infestation followed by fenpropathrin(R%= 79.49 and 73.68 respectively). At El-Behira site:diazinon treated cultivar T.W.C.351 and S.C.13 had the lowest value in this regard. Cultivers cavities No./10 plants values of chlorpyrifos treated values were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 351< S.C.123< Giza2< diazinon treated cultivers were in T.W.C.351< T.W.C. 323< Giza 2< ascending order S.C.13< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.352< S.C.10< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C. 324. While as follows:S.C.123< could be arranged T.W.C. 310< S.C.13< S.C.10 < T.W.C. 321<

T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 324. Methomyl treated cultivers

ascendingly as follows:S.C.13< T.W.C. 351< Giza 2< S.C.123< T.W.C. 323< S.C.10< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 352. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:S.C.13< T.W.C. 351<Giza 2< S.C.123<T.W.C.323< S.C.10< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 352. All insecticides had the same potency against ECB in spit of methomyl which had the lowest effective one. The ECB infestation was much more in Elgharbia than in El-Behira.

106

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

From the averaged data it could be concluded that: diazinon followed by fenpropathrin effective one. IV.3.2.c Lar vae No . /10plants. ECB larvae No./10 plants as effected by insecticides treatments and corn cultivars exhibited in Table (IV.20) .In both location there were a significant differences between insecticides treatments. At El-Gharbia site: diazinon treated cultivars S.C.10, S.C.123 and S.C.13 treatments had the lowest values in this regard. Larvae No./10 plants values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C.351< Giza 2< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C. 352< S.C.10< T.W.C. 323< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 321. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:S.C.10< S.C.123< S.C.13< Giza 2< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C.324< T.W.C. 351< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C.323. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows:T.W.C. 351< Giza 2< S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 321< S.C.10< T.W.C.352<T.W.C.323. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.351< Giza 2< S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C.324< T.W.C. 321< S.C.10< T.W.C.352< T.W.C. 323. Diazinon and fenpropathrin were the most potent insecticides treatments against ECB infestation (R%= 85.84 and 76.50 respectively). At El-Behira site: diazinon treated cultivar S.C.13 had the lowest values in this regard. Larvae No./10 plants values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 351< Giza 2< S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C. 323< T.W.C.351, S.C.123 and was the most potent insecticides treatments against ECB infestation(R%= 80.50 and 75.97 respectively) and methomyl was the lowest

107

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 324< S.C.10< T.W.C. 310. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows: S.C.123< T.W.C.351< S.C.13< S.C.10< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C.321 follows:T.W.C. 323 < T.W.C. 323< Giza 2< T.W.C.

352<T.W.C.324. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as < Giza 2< T.W.C.351< S.C.13< S.C.10< T.W.C.324< T.W.C. 310< S.C.123< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 352. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 323< Giza 2< T.W.C. 351< S.C.13< S.C.10< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 310< S.C.123< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C.352. Diazinon and fenpropathrin were the most potent insecticides treatments against ECB infestation (R%= 85.84 and 76.50 respectively). Generally, from averaged data: Diazinon and fenpropathrin were the most potent insecticides against ECB(R%= 88.43 and 77.93 respectively). IV.3.2.d Holes No ./10 ear stalk Table (IV.21) show the effect of s. insecticides

treatments and corn

cultivers on ECB infestation decided by holes No./ 10 ear stalks. At El-Gharbia site :a significant differences were detected between the insecticides treatments. Diazinon treated cultivar S.C.13 and T.W.C.352, and chlorpyrifos treated cultivar T.W.C.351 had the lowest values in this regard. Holes No./ 10 ear stalks values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 351< S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 323< T.W.C.321< T.W.C. 324< Giza 2< treated cultivers were in T.W.C. 310< S.C.10. While diazinon as follows:S.C.13< T.W.C.352< ascending order

S.C.123< T.W.C.323 < T.W.C. 351< Giza2< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C.324< S.C.10< T.W.C. 321. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows:T.W.C.351< S.C.123< T.W.C. 352< S.C.13< T.W.C. 321< Giza2< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.324< S.C.10. Methomyl treated cultivers were in

108

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

ascending order as follows:T.W.C.351< S.C.123< T.W.C. 352< S.C.13< T.W.C. 321< Giza2< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.323< T.W.C. 324< S.C.10. Diazinon was the most effective insecticides treatments against ECB while methomyl had the lowest effective one in that respect (R%= 61.06 and 13.52 respectively). At El-Behira site :a significant differences were detected between the insecticides treatments. Diazinon treated cultivar S.C.123 and T.W.C.351, and fenopropathrin treated cultivar T.W.C.351 had the lowest values in this regard. Ten ear stalks values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 351< S.C.123< T.W.C. 321< S.C.13< T.W.C. 352< Giza2< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.324< S.C.10.While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:S.C.123< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.310< T.W.C. 323< Giza2< S.C.13< T.W.C.352< S.C.10< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.324. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows:T.W.C.351< S.C.123< S.C.13< Giza2< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.310< S.C.10. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 351< S.C.123< S.C.13< Giza2< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.310< S.C.10. Diazinon and fenpropathrin were the most effective insecticides treatments against ECB(R%= 48.25 and 22.75 respectively) while there are no significant differences between methomyl and control treatments . Generally from average data it could be concluded that: a significant differences among insecticides treatments were detected. Diazinon was the most effective insecticides treatments against ECB while methomyl had the lowest effective one in this respect (R%= 54.15 and 14.72 respectively).

109

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.3.2.e Dama ged g rains per centa ge. Table (IV.22) show the effect of insecticides treatments and corn the cultivers on ECB infestation decided by damaged grains percentage. In both location, a significant differences were detected between insecticides treatments. In all location and from the averaged data: Cultivar S.C.13 treated with diazinon or fenpropathren and T.W.C.351 treated with diazinon treatments had the lowest values in this respect. Diazinon followed by fenpropathrin were the most effective insecticides treatments against ECB (R%= 55.16 and 40.83 respectively) while methomyl had the lowest effective one in that respect. At El-Gharbia site:damaged grains percentage values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows: S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C. 351< Giza 2< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.321< S.C.10< T.W.C.324< T.W.C. 310. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:S.C.13< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.323< S.C.123< Giza2< T.W.C.352< S.C.10< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.310. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows:S.C.13< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.351< Giza2< S.C.123T.W.C. 352< T.W.C.321< S.C.10< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.324. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:S.C.13< T.W.C. 323< T.W.C. 351< Giza2< S.C.123< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.321< S.C.10< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.324. At El-Behira site :damaged grains percentage values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows: S.C.13< T.W.C. 351< T.W.C.323< S.C.123< Giza2< T.W.C.352< S.C.10< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C.310< T.W.C. 324. While the diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:S.C.13< S.C.123< T.W.C. 351< Giza 2< T.W.C. 323< T.W.C.352< S.C.10< T.W.C. 321< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 310. Methomyl treated cultivers could

110

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

be arranged ascendingly as follows:S.C.13< Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 310.

T.W.C.351< T.W.C.323< Giza ascending order as follows:S.C.13<

2< S.C.123< T.W.C.352< T.W.C. 321< S.C.10< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C.310. T.W.C.351< T.W.C. 323< Giza2< S.C.123< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.321< S.C.10<

IV.3.2.f Gr ains pr otein per centa ge. Data presented in Table (IV.23) show the effect of insecticides treatments and corn cultivars on grains` protein percentage. In both location, a significant differences were detected between the corn cultivars only and no significant difference had been observed between pesticides treatments. In all location and from the averaged data it could be concluded that, diazinon had the highest effect of grain protein percentage. Also, there were a significant positive relationship between the reduction of the ECB infestations and the grain protein percentage. At El-Gharbia site: the untreated cultivar T.W.C.323 and methomyl treated cultivars T.W.C.321and T.W.C.323 had the lowest values in this regard while cultivar S.C.13 treated with fenopropathrin or chlorpyrifos or diazinon had the highest values in this regard. Grains protein percentage values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.323< T.W.C.321< S.C.10< S.C.13< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.351< Giza2< S.C.123. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 321< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< S.C.10< T.W.C. 324< T.W.C. 352< T.W.C. 310< Giza2< T.W.C. 351< S.C.123. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows:T.W.C.323< T.W.C. 321< S.C.13< S.C.10< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.352< Giza2< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.351< S.C.123. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in

111

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

ascending order as follows:T.W.C.323< T.W.C.321< S.C.13< S.C.10< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.352< Giza2< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.351< S.C.123. At El-Behira site: the untreated cultivars T.W.C.323, methomyl treated cultivar T.W.C.321 and T.W.C.323 had the lowest values in this respect while cultivar S.C.13 treated with fenopropathrin or chlorpyrifos or diazinon had the highest values in this respect. Grains protein percentage values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.323< T.W.C.321< S.C.13< S.C.10< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.310< Giza2< S.C.123. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 323< T.W.C.321< S.C.13< S.C.10< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.351< Giza2< S.C.123. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows:T.W.C. 321< S.C.10< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.351< T.W.C. 310< Giza2< S.C.123. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 321< S.C.10< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.310< Giza2< S.C.123. From averaged data it could be concluded that: a significant differences were detected between the pesticides treatments. Untreated cultivars T.W.C.323 and T.W.C.321, methomyl treated cultivar T.W.C.321 and T.W.C.323 had the lowest values in this respect while S.C.13 treated with fenopropathrin or chlorpyrifos or diazinon had the highest values in this respect.

112

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.3.2.g Gr ains phosphor us per centa ge. Data presented in Table (IV.24) show the effect of insecticides treatments and corn cultivars on grains phosphorous percentage. In both location and from averaged data, a significant differences were detected between the corn cultivars only while, there are no significant differences between the pesticides treatments. In all location and from the averaged data it could be concluded that, diazinon had the highest effect of grain phosphorous percentage. Also, there were no significant relationship between reduction ECB infestations and the grain phosphorous percentage. At El-Gharbia site: diazinon treated cultivar T.W.C.310 and methomyl treated cultivar T.W.C.324 had the lowest values in this regard while, fenpropathrin treated cultivar Giza2 and diazinon treated cultivar T.W.C.352 had the highest values in this regard. Grain phosphorous percentage values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.310< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.351< S.C.123< T.W.C.352< Giza2< S.C.10. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 310< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< Giza2< T.W.C.321< S.C.123< T.W.C.351< S.C.10< T.W.C.352. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as

follows:T.W.C.324< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.310< S.C.13< T.W.C.321< S.C.10< S.C.123< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.351< Giza2. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.324< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.310< S.C.13< T.W.C.321< S.C.10< S.C.123< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.351< Giza2. At El-Behira site: fenopropathrin treated cultivar T.W.C.324 and diazinon treated cultivar T.W.C.324 had the lowest values in this respect while chlorpyrifos

113

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

treated cultivar T.W.C.351 and diazinon treated cultivar T.W.C.351 had the highest values in this respect. Grain phosphorous percentage values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.310< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C.321< S.C.10< Giza2< T.W.C.352< S.C.123< T.W.C.351. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.324< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C.321< S.C.123< S.C.10< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.352< Giza2. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows: T.W.C.324< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.352< Giza2< S.C.123< S.C.10. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in

ascending order as follows:T.W.C.324< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.351< Giza2< S.C.123< S.C.10. IV.3.2.h 100 g rain w eight (g. ). Data presented in Table (IV.25) show the effect of treatments and corn cultivars on 100 grain weight. At El-Gharbia site: a significant differences between insecticides treatments only had been observed. Untreated cultivars S.C.10 or treated with diazinon or chlorpyrifos had the highest values in 100 grain weight, while the untreated S.C.13 and T.W.C321 cultivers weight. 100 grain weight values of chlorpyrifos ascending order as follows:T.W.C.321< treated cultivers S.C.123< were in S.C.13< T.W.C.323< had the lowest value in this respect. Diazinon followed by chlorpyrifos treatments had the highest value in 100 grain

insecticides

T.W.C.351< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.310< Giza2< T.W.C.324< S.C.10. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.323< T.W.C.352< S.C.123< S.C.13< T.W.C.310< Giza2< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.321<

114

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

S.C.10. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows: T.W.C.323< S.C.123< T.W.C.351< S.C.13< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.321< Giza2< S.C.10. Methomyl treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.323< S.C.123< T.W.C.351< S.C.13< T.W.C.352 < T.W.C.310< T.W.C.321< Giza2< S.C.10. At El-Behira site: there were a significant differences between insecticides treatments. Cultivar S.C.10 treated with diazinon or fenopropathrin treated and S.C.13 with fenopropathrin treatments had the highest values in 100 grains Diazinon followed by were in T.W.C.324<

weight. While T.W.C.351 treated with fenopropathrin or methomyl and untreated T.W.C.351 had the lowest values in this respect. 100 grain weight values of chlorpyrifos chlorpyrifos treatments had the highest values in 100 grains weight. treated cultivers ascending order as follows:T.W.C.351< Giza2< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.321< S.C.123< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.324< S.C.13< T.W.C.352< S.C.10. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.351< Giza2< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.321< S.C.123< S.C.13< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.324< S.C.10. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows:T.W.C.351< Giza2< T.W.C.321< S.C.123< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.352< S.C.10< S.C.13. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.351< Giza2< T.W.C.321< S.C.123< T.W.C.323< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.324< T.W.C.352< S.C.10< S.C.13. From the averaged data it could be concluded that: a significant differences were found between weight. the insecticides treatments. Cultivar S.C.10 treated with diazinon or fenopropathrin had the highest values in 100 grains While methomyl treated cultivar T.W.C.323, T.W.C.351 and S.C.13 treatments had the lowest values in this respect. Diazinon and chlorpyrifos

115

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

treatments had the highest values in 100 grains weight. IV.3.2.i Gr ains yield/10 plants(Kg). Table (IV.26) show the effect of insecticide treatments and corn cultivars on grain yield/10plants. A significant differences were found between the insecticides treatments in both locations. At El-Gharbia site: grains yield/10 plants values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C. 323< S.C.13< Giza2< T.W.C. 310< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.321< S.C.123< S.C.10< T.W.C.324. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C. 310< Giza2< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.351< S.C.123< T.W.C.324< S.C.10. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows:T.W.C. 323< S.C.13< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.352< Giza2< S.C.23< T.W.C.324< S.C.10. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.323< S.C.13< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.351< T.W.C. 352< Giza 2< S.C.123< T.W.C.324< S.C.10. At El-Behira site: grains yield/10 plants values of chlorpyrifos treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:S.C.13< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.323< S.C.123< T.W.C.310< S.C.10< Giza 2< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.324. While diazinon treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.323< S.C.123< T.W.C.352< S.C.13< T.W.C.351< T.W.C.310< Giza2< T.W.C.321< S.C.10< T.W.C.324. Methomyl treated cultivers could be arranged ascendingly as follows:T.W.C. 323< S.C.123< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.352< T.W.C.351< S.C.13< Giza2< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.324< S.C.10. Fenpropathrin treated cultivers were in ascending order as follows:T.W.C.323< S.C.123< T.W.C.310< T.W.C.352< T.W.C. 351< S.C.13< Giza2< T.W.C.321< T.W.C.324< S.C.10.

116

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In all locations and from averaged data it could be concluded that: diazinon treated cultivar S.C.10 and T.W.C.324, and chlorpyrifos treated cultivar T.W.C.324 treatments had the highest values in grain yield/10plants while untreated T.W.C.323 and S.C.13 and methomyl treated cultivars T.W.C.323 had the lowest values in this respect. Diazinon followed by chlorpyrifos treatments had the highest value in grains yield/10plants, while the control and methomyl treatments had the lowest values in this regard. From the previous data we can conclude that:

The most potent insecticides against ECB infestation were diazinon followed by fenpropathrin. Which reduced the holes No./100 internodes, cavities No./10plants, holes No./10 ear stalks and larvae No./10plants in all locations, while methomyl was the least toxic one. In case of yield and yield component :Diazinon insecticide had the highest values in 100grain weight and grains yield/10plants followed by chlorpyrifos in both locations. These findings are in accordance with those obtained by Barbulescu 1971 ;

Hills et al., 1972; Martel and Hudon, 1978; Melia Masia and Almajano Contreras, 1973; Mustea, 1977; Thompson and White, 1977 and Voinescu and Barbulescu, 1986 who is found that diazinon was the most potent insecticides against ECB infestation. This results may be due to that diazinon had high vapor pressure (1.2×10-2 Pa at 25° ), stomach and respiratory actions, long half life (Sattar, 1991; Gonzalez and Aravena-C, 1990 and Smith et al., 1998). On the other hand, Rinkleff et al., 1995 found that methomyl had a low residual toxicity to Ostrina nubilalis neonates. That maybe due to that methomyl had shortest half life (T50 =0.91days) (Wilwam and Sundararajan, 1986) and low stability at room temperature in

117

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

aqueous solutions and the rate of decomposition increase in higher temperature, in presence of sunlight and on exposure to air.

118

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.18: Efficiency of four chemical insecticides against ECB infestation on ten corn cultivars evaluated by holes number/100 internodes in the two locations.
El-Gharbia Treatments Diazinon Methomyl Mean R% Mean R% 3.57 abc 84.09 15.17 b 32.30 4.23 abc 81.80 16.14 b 30.54 1.92 c 77.07 4.36 d 47.91 2.94 bc 78.44 9.88 c 27.63 4.09 a-c 76.30 8.39 c 51.35 5.30 a-c 80.10 24.57 a 7.80 7.10 a 78.42 16.75 b 49.12 5.16 a-c 82.92 16.52 b 45.35 5.33 a-c 53.32 7.65 cd 33.04 6.35 ab 55.62 8.27 c 42.24 4.60 D 77.05 12.77 B 36.29 for interactions =3.796 El-Behira 2.65 b 75.23 7.39 bc 30.96 2.60 b 85.76 9.03 ab 50.50 2.37 b 64.45 5.93 bc 10.99 1.55 b 82.89 4.92 c 45.87 2.45 b 86.59 8.67 a-c 52.59 3.05 b 80.08 11.65 a 24.01 2.33 b 90.82 8.85 ab 65.09 7.38 a 72.15 12.44 a 53.04 1.71 b 83.63 5.86 bc 43.75 3.98 ab 81.95 12.22 a 44.59 3.01 C 81.51 8.69 B 46.53 for interactions =3.880 Average data** 3.11 ab 81.23 11.28 cd 31.87 3.41 ab 83.54 12.59 bc 39.32 2.14 b 71.48 5.15 g 31.56 2.25 b 80.22 7.40 e-g 34.92 3.27 ab 81.60 8.53 d-f 51.99 4.18 ab 80.09 18.11 a 13.72 4.71 ab 83.82 12.80 bc 56.07 6.27 a 77.89 14.48 b 48.94 3.52 ab 67.78 6.75 fg 38.15 5.17 ab 71.58 10.24 c-e 43.66 3.80 D 79.05 10.73 B 40.88 for interactions =3.177

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05)

Control Chlorpyrifos Mean Mean R%*** 22.41 d* 8.23 abc 63.30 23.24 cd 10.77 a 53.65 8.38 g 1.96 e 76.56 13.65 ef 3.41 de 75.05 17.26 e 5.15 c-e 70.15 26.65 bc 10.85 a 59.30 32.92 a 9.79 ab 70.27 30.23 ab 9.57 ab 68.33 11.42 fg 3.54 de 69.03 14.32 ef 6.01 b-d 58.01 20.05 A 6.93 C 65.45 for pesticides treatments =1.246 10.70 d 3.54 a 66.94 18.24 bc 5.32 a 70.81 6.66 e 3.65 a 45.19 9.09 de 2.46 a 72.91 18.28 bc 5.69 a 68.90 15.33 c 3.69 a 75.94 25.36 a 4.17 a 83.56 26.49 a 5.78 a 78.20 10.42 de 2.24 a 78.54 22.05 b 5.65 a 74.38 16.26 A 4.22 C 74.06 for pesticides treatments =1.525 16.56 d 5.88 ab 64.48 20.74 bc 8.05 a 61.19 7.52 f 2.81 b 62.66 11.37 e 2.93 b 74.19 17.77 cd 5.42 ab 69.51 20.99 b 7.27 a 65.38 29.14 a 6.98 a 76.06 28.36 a 7.67 a 72.94 10.92 e 2.89 b 73.57 18.18 b-d 5.83 ab 67.93 18.15 A 5.57 C 69.30 for pesticides treatments =1.191

Fenpropathrin Mean R% 3.82 b 82.97 8.87 a 61.85 4.11 b 50.91 4.36 b 68.06 5.11 b 70.38 6.43 ab 75.87 9.59 a 70.87 4.46 b 85.25 3.87 b 66.10 7.33 ab 48.83 5.79 CD 71.10

2.77 ab 3.64 ab 1.92 b 3.03 ab 3.59 ab 4.28 ab 3.52 ab 4.21 ab 3.50 ab 6.10 a 3.66 C

74.13 80.02 71.14 66.70 80.35 72.06 86.10 84.11 66.39 72.35 77.51

3.29 bc 6.25 ab 3.02 c 3.69 a-c 4.35 a-c 5.36 a-c 6.56 a 4.33 a-c 3.69 a-c 6.71 a 4.73 CD

80.11 69.84 59.87 67.52 75.51 74.48 77.50 84.72 66.23 63.09 73.97

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars. ***R%= ( control-treatment)/ control×100

119

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.19: Efficiency of four chemical insecticides against ECB infestation on ten corn cultivars evaluated by cavity number/10plants in the two locations.
El-Gharbia Treatments Diazinon Methomyl Mean R% Mean R% 4.00ab 84.81 18.00b 31.65 4.67ab 84.44 19.00b 36.67 2.15b 76.13 4.67d 48.15 2.33ab 85.42 11.00c 31.25 4.00ab 78.95 8.33cd 56.14 5.33ab 82.22 20.00a 33.33 7.00a 81.08 19.00b 48.65 5.33ab 85.05 19.67b 44.86 5.00ab 51.61 6.67cd 35.48 6.67ab 50.00 8.67cd 35.00 4.65B 79.49 13.50AB 40.44 for interactions =3.7.96 El-Behira 3.00b 77.50 9.67c 27.50 4.00b 83.33 12.00a-c 50.00 3.67b 57.69 5.67c 34.62 1.67b 87.18 7.33c 43.59 3.00b 88.75 11.33a-c 57.50 4.00b 80.00 15.33ab 23.33 2.67b 91.84 10.00bc 69.39 10.67a 72.41 16.33a 57.76 1.67b 83.87 7.00c 32.26 4.67b 80.82 12.00a-c 50.68 3.90C 81.57 10.67B 49.61 for interactions =5.496 Average data** 3.50b 82.35 13.83b-d 30.25 4.33ab 83.95 15.50b 42.59 2.91b 67.09 5.17e 41.51 2.00b 86.21 9.17e 36.78 3.50b 84.67 9.83de 56.93 4.67ab 81.33 17.67a 29.33 4.83ab 86.12 14.50bc 58.37 8.00a 78.48 18.00b 51.57 3.33b 67.74 6.83e 33.87 5.67ab 69.91 10.33c-e 45.13 4.27D 80.50 12.08B 44.87 for interactions =4.213

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05)

Control Chlorpyrifos Mean Mean R%*** 26.33b* 9.00ab 65.82 30.00b 13.00a 56.67 9.00e 2.07c 76.95 16.00cd 3.00c 81.25 19.00c 6.00bc 68.42 30.00b 10.00ab 66.67 37.00a 11.00a 70.27 35.67a 11.00a 69.16 10.33e 3.67c 64.52 13.33de 5.67bc 57.50 22.67A 7.44BC 67.17 for pesticides treatments =1.246 13.33 d 4.33a 67.50 24.00bc 7.00a 70.83 8.67e 4.67a 46.15 13.00de 3.00a 76.92 26.67bc 7.33a 72.50 20.00c 4.67a 76.67 32.67a 5.00a 84.69 38.67a 8.00a 79.31 10.33de 2.67a 74.19 24.33b 6.67a 72.60 21.17A 5.33C 74.80 for pesticides treatments =1.494 19.83c 6.67a-c 66.39 27.00b 10.00a 62.96 8.83e 3.37bc 61.84 14.50d 3.00c 79.31 22.83bc 6.67a-c 70.80 25.00b 7.33ab 70.67 34.83a 8.00a 77.03 37.17a 9.50a 74.44 10.33de 3.17bc 69.35 18.83c 6.17a-c 67.26 21.92A 6.39 C 70.86 for pesticides treatments =1.358

Fenpropathrin Mean R% 4.33b 83.54 10.33a 65.56 4.00b 55.56 4.67b 70.83 5.00b 73.68 6.67ab 77.78 9.00a 75.68 4.33b 87.85 3.00b 70.97 8.33ab 37.50 5.97CD 73.68

3.67a 4.33a 3.00a 4.00a 4.33a 6.00a 4.00a 6.00a 3.33a 7.00a 4.57C

72.50 81.94 65.38 69.23 83.75 70.00 87.76 84.48 67.74 71.23 78.43

4.00ab 7.33ab 3.50ab 4.33ab 4.67ab 6.33ab 6.50ab 5.17ab 3.17b 7.67a 5.27CD

79.83 72.84 60.38 70.11 79.56 74.67 81.34 86.10 69.35 59.29 75.97

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars. ***R%= ( control-treatment)/ control×100

120

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.20: Efficiency of four chemical insecticides against ECB infestation on ten corn cultivars evaluated by larvae number/10plants in the two locations.
El-Gharbia Treatments Diazinon

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05)

Control

Chlorpyrifos

Methomyl R% 26.42 36.76 52.38 26.47 68.63 6.17 48.31 54.44 27.78 29.63 38.35

Fenpropathrin Mean 3.00 b 6.00 a 3.00 b 3.33 b 3.33 b 4.00 ab 7.00 a 3.33 b 2.33 b 6.33 ab 4.17 CD R% 83.02 73.53 57.14 70.59 80.39 85.19 76.40 88.89 61.11 29.63 76.50

Mean Mean R%*** 17.67 c* 4.67 ab 73.58 22.67 b 8.00 a 64.71 7.00 de 1.37 b 80.42 11.33 d 2.33 b 79.41 17.00 c 5.00 ab 70.59 27.00 ab 8.67 a 67.90 29.67 a 8.00 a 73.03 30.00 a 8.33 a 72.22 6.00 e 2.33 b 61.11 9.00 de 5.00 ab 44.44 17.73 A 5.37 C 69.72 for pesticides treatments =2.028 11.33 d 3.00 a 73.53 24.67 bc 5.33 a 78.38 6.00 e 3.00 a 50.00 10.33 de 3.33 a 67.74 24.67 bc 6.00 a 75.68 18.00 c 5.00 a 72.22 28.00 a 4.67 a 83.33 34.33 a 5.00 a 85.44 8.33 de 2.00 a 76.00 18.00 b 4.67 a 74.07 18.37 A 4.20 C 77.13 for pesticides treatments =0.922 14.50 c 3.83 a-c 73.56 23.67 b 6.67 a 71.83 6.50 e 2.19 c 66.38 10.83 d 2.83 bc 73.85 20.83 b 5.50 a-c 73.60 22.50 b 6.83 a 69.63 28.83 a 6.33 ab 78.03 32.17 a 6.67 a 79.27 7.17 e 2.17 c 69.77 13.50 cd 4.83 a-c 64.20 18.05 A 4.79 C 73.49 for pesticides treatments =1.191

Mean R% Mean 2.00 a 88.68 13.00 bc 1.33 a 94.12 14.33 b 1.44 a 79.37 3.33 e 1.33 a 88.24 8.33 cd 2.00 a 88.24 5.33 de 2.67 a 90.12 25.33 a 4.67 a 84.27 15.33 b 2.67 a 91.11 13.67 b 2.67 a 55.56 4.33 de 4.33 a 51.85 6.33 de 2.51 D 85.84 10.93 B for interactions =4.828 El-Behira 2.00 a 82.35 10.67 b-d 1.67 a 93.24 13.67 ab 1.33 a 77.78 4.00 b-d 0.33 a 96.77 8.67 cd 1.67 a 93.24 10.67 b-d 1.67 a 90.74 15.67 a 1.67 a 94.05 11.00 b-d 3.33 a 90.29 13.00 a-c 0.33 a 96.00 7.33 d 2.67 a 85.19 8.67 cd 1.67 D 90.93 10.33 B for interactions =4.546 Average data** 2.00 a 86.21 11.83 bc 1.50 a 93.66 14.00 b 1.39 a 78.63 3.67 d 0.83 a 92.31 8.50 cd 1.83 a 91.20 8.00 d 2.17 a 90.37 20.50 a 3.17 a 89.02 13.17 b 3.00 a 90.67 13.33 b 1.50 a 79.07 5.83 d 3.50 a 74.07 7.50 d 2.09 D 88.43 10.63 B for interactions =3.566

5.88 44.59 33.33 16.13 56.76 12.96 60.71 62.14 12.00 51.85 43.74

2.67 a 3.33 a 3.00 a 4.67 a 4.33 a 5.33 a 2.33 a 4.00 a 2.67 a 5.67 a 3.80 CD

76.47 86.49 50.00 54.84 82.43 70.37 91.67 88.35 68.00 68.52 79.31

18.39 40.85 43.59 21.54 61.60 8.89 54.34 58.55 18.60 44.44 41.09

2.83 a 4.67 a 3.00 a 4.00 a 3.83 a 4.67 a 4.67 a 3.67 a 2.50 a 6.00 a 3.98 C

80.46 80.28 53.85 63.08 81.60 79.26 83.82 88.60 65.12 55.56 77.93

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars. ***R%= ( control-treatment)/ control×100

121

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.21: Efficiency of four chemical insecticides against ECB infestation on ten corn cultivars evaluated by holes number/10 ear stalks in the two locations.
El-Gharbia Treatments Control Chlorpyrifos Diazinon Methomyl Mean Mean R%*** Mean R% Mean R% 8.67 cd* 5.00 abc 42.31 3.33 ab 61.54 7.67 b 11.54 13.00 a 6.67 a 48.72 5.00 a 61.54 12.00 a 7.69 5.00 f 2.67 cd 46.67 1.67 b 66.67 4.67 de 6.67 6.33 d-f 3.00 b-d 52.63 2.67 ab 57.89 5.67 de 10.53 8.00 c-e 5.33 ab 33.33 3.33 ab 58.33 6.67 cd 16.67 8.33 cd 4.00 b-d 52.00 5.00 a 40.00 8.33 bc 0.00 10.00 bc 3.67 b-d 63.33 2.67 ab 73.33 8.33 bc 16.67 11.33 ab 4.67 a-c 58.82 3.33 ab 70.59 8.67 bc 23.53 5.00 f 2.00 d 60.00 2.67 ab 46.67 4.00 e 20.00 5.67 ef 3.00 b-d 47.06 2.00 b 64.71 4.33 de 23.53 8.13 A 4.00 C 50.82 3.17 D 61.07 7.03 B 13.52 for pesticides treatments =0.564 for interactions =2.414 El-Behira 7.67 d 6.67 b-d 13.04 4.33 a-c 43.48 7.00 cd 8.70 15.67 bc 10.00 a 36.17 6.33 ab 59.57 13.00 a 17.02 7.00 e 6.33 cd 9.52 5.00 a-c 28.57 4.67 b-d 33.33 5.67 de 5.67 d 0.00 3.00 c 47.06 4.67 e 17.65 10.33 bc 8.33 a-d 19.35 4.00 a-c 61.29 6.33 ab 38.71 10.67 c 6.00 cd 43.75 6.67 a 37.50 10.00 bc 6.25 12.33 a 7.33 a-d 40.54 4.00 a-c 67.57 10.00 bc 18.92 13.67 a 9.33 ab 31.71 6.67 a 51.22 13.33 a 2.44 4.67 de 4.33 cd 7.14 3.67 bc 21.43 4.67 cd 0.00 7.67 b 6.33 a-c 17.39 5.67 a-c 26.09 6.67 de 13.04 9.53 A 7.03 B 26.22 4.93 C 48.25 8.03 A 15.73 for pesticides treatments =1.206 for interactions =2.819 **Average data 8.17 de 5.83 b-d 28.57 3.83 b-d 53.06 7.33 c 10.20 14.33 a 8.33 a 41.86 5.67 ab 60.47 12.50 a 12.79 6.00 f 4.50 d 25.00 3.33 cd 44.44 4.67 d 22.22 6.00 f 4.33 d 27.78 2.83 d 52.78 5.17 d 13.89 9.17 d 6.83 a-c 25.45 3.67 cd 60.00 6.50 c 29.09 9.50 cd 5.00 cd 47.37 5.83 a 38.60 9.17 bc 3.51 11.17 bc 5.50 b-d 50.75 3.33 cd 70.15 9.17 bc 17.91 12.50 ab 7.00 ab 44.00 5.00 a-c 60.00 11.00 b 12.00 4.83 f 3.17 d 34.48 3.17 cd 34.48 4.33 d 10.34 6.67 ef 4.67 b-d 30.00 3.83 b-d 42.50 5.50 d 17.50 8.83 A 5.52 C 37.55 4.05 D 54.15 7.53 B 14.72 for pesticides treatments =0.565 for interactions =1.926

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05)

Fenpropathrin Mean R% 3.67 b 57.69 6.67 a 48.72 3.33 b 33.33 2.67 b 57.89 4.33 b 45.83 3.33 ab 60.00 4.67 a 53.33 5.00 b 55.88 2.33 b 53.33 3.00 ab 47.06 3.90 CD 52.05

7.00 c 13.33 a 6.33 c 4.00 c 10.33 b 7.33 c 7.00 c 8.00 bc 3.33 c 7.00 c 7.37 B

8.70 14.89 9.52 29.41 0.00 31.25 43.24 41.46 28.57 8.70 22.73

5.33 cd 10.00 a 4.83 cd 3.33 d 7.33 b 5.33 cd 5.83 b-d 6.50 bc 2.83 d 5.00 cd 5.63 C

34.69 30.23 19.44 44.44 20.00 43.86 47.76 48.00 41.38 25.00 36.23

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars.***R%= ( control-treatment)/ control×100

122

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.22: Efficiency of four chemical insecticides against ECB infestation on ten corn cultivars evaluated by damage grains% in two locations.
El-Gharbia Treatments Chlorpyrifos Diazinon Mean R%*** Mean R% 2.35 cd 47.26 1.76 c 60.49 3.94 b 47.48 2.58 bc 65.71 1.49 d 33.90 0.74 d 67.47 2.31 cd 47.45 1.75 c 60.08 5.89 a 34.59 4.20 a 53.35 3.62 b 52.19 3.06 b 59.65 2.36 cd 31.99 1.72 c 50.64 5.74 a 37.42 4.17 a 54.50 2.34 cd 25.81 1.50 a 52.62 3.20 bc 39.98 2.30 bc 56.79 3.33 C 40.97 2.38 D 57.80 for pesticides treatments =0.3053 El-Behira 2.53 d 42.13 1.71 de 60.86 4.05 bc 39.66 2.94 bc 56.15 1.64 e 28.35 0.84 e 63.12 2.49 de 43.37 1.60 de 63.69 5.28 a 40.97 4.52 a 49.55 4.34 b 40.83 3.33 b 54.51 2.32 de 33.17 2.31 cd 33.54 6.00 a 30.28 4.35 a 49.49 2.10 de 27.42 1.68 de 41.78 3.45 c 37.71 2.68 bc 51.66 3.42 C 37.32 2.60 D 52.42 for pesticides treatments =0.1796 **Average data 2.44 c 44.72 1.74 e 60.67 4.00 b 43.79 2.76 bc 61.20 1.57 d 31.11 0.79 f 65.28 2.40 c 45.40 1.68 e 61.89 5.59 a 37.77 4.36 a 51.46 3.98 b 46.61 3.20 b 57.12 2.34 c 32.58 2.01 de 42.10 5.87 a 33.97 4.26 a 52.07 2.22 cd 26.58 1.59 e 47.44 3.32 b 38.83 2.49 cd 54.18 3.37 C 39.18 2.49 D 55.16 for pesticides treatments =0.2054

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05)

Control Mean 4.46 cd 7.51 b 2.26 g 4.39 de 9.01 a 7.58 b 3.48 ef 9.17 a 3.16 fg 5.33 c 5.63 A

Methomyl Fenpropathrin Mean R% Mean R% 3.29 cd 26.28 1.98 de 55.49 5.41 b 27.98 4.17 b 44.45 1.79 e 20.88 1.21 e 46.66 3.15 d 28.21 2.56 cd 41.58 7.22 a 19.87 5.30 a 41.17 5.28 b 30.37 4.15 b 45.28 2.61 de 25.07 1.78 de 48.73 7.32 a 20.12 5.47 a 40.28 2.60 de 17.50 1.86 de 41.04 4.11 c 22.95 3.33 bc 37.56 4.28 B 24.08 3.18 C 43.52 for interactions=0.9135 3.41 d 5.01 bc 1.96 e 3.37 d 7.88 a 5.75 b 2.69 de 7.04 a 2.25 e 4.73 c 4.41 B 21.96 2.17 cd 25.33 4.45 b 14.33 1.51 d 23.41 2.91 c 11.93 5.92 a 21.61 4.31 b 22.41 2.07 cd 18.17 4.73 b 22.21 1.84 d 14.60 3.89 b 19.18 3.38 C for interactions=0.8840 24.14 2.08 de 26.73 4.31 b 17.58 1.36 f 25.81 2.74 d 15.91 5.61 a 26.06 4.23 bc 23.74 1.93 ef 19.17 5.10 a 19.75 1.85 ef 18.70 3.61 c 21.67 3.28 C for interactions=0.6886 50.26 33.62 34.17 33.96 33.92 41.24 40.35 45.09 36.23 29.70 38.05

4.37 d 6.71 b 2.29 f 4.40 d 8.95 a 7.33 b 3.47 e 8.61 a 2.89 ef 5.54 c 5.46 A

4.41 d 7.11 b 2.27 f 4.40 d 8.98 a 7.46 b 3.47 e 8.89 a 3.02 e 5.43 c 5.54 A

3.35 d 5.21 b 1.87 g 3.26 de 7.55 a 5.51 b 2.65 ef 7.18 a 2.42 fg 4.42 c 4.34 B

52.90 39.34 40.38 37.77 37.56 43.29 44.54 42.61 38.74 33.55 40.83

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars. ***R%= ( control-treatment)/ control×100

123

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.23: Effect of chemical insecticides treatments and corn cultivars on grains protein percentage.
El-Gharbia Treatments Control Chlorpyrifos Diazinon 3.96 b 4.02 b 4.10 bc 3.33 de 3.36 d 3.49 ef 3.27 ef 3.39 d 3.41 f 4.50 a 4.59 a 4.55 a 3.83 bc 3.95 b 3.87 cd 3.08 ef 3.25 d 3.30 f 3.04 f 3.21 d 3.37 f 3.58 cd 3.66 c 3.70 de 4.02 b 3.97 b 4.14 b 3.76 bc 3.81 bc 3.84 cd 3.64 BC 3.72 AB 3.78 A for pesticides treatments =0.09784 El-Behira 4.17 a 4.15 a 4.23 ab 3.28 c 3.46 cd 3.45 d 3.22 c 3.42 cde 3.41 d 4.31 a 4.35 a 4.46 a 3.71 b 3.87 b 3.99 bc 3.24 c 3.25 de 3.35 d 3.05 c 3.17 e 3.32 d 3.57 b 3.58 bc 3.88 c 3.81 b 3.80 b 3.99 bc 3.61 b 3.69 bc 3.73 c 3.60 A 3.67 A 3.78 A for pesticides treatments =0.2831 Average data** 4.06 b 4.09 b 4.16 b 3.31 e 3.41 ef 3.47 e 3.25 ef 3.40 fg 3.41 e 4.41 a 4.47 a 4.50 a 3.77 cd 3.91 bc 3.93 cd 3.16 ef 3.25 fg 3.33 e 3.04 f 3.19 g 3.35 e 3.57 d 3.62 de 3.79 d 3.92 bc 3.89 bc 4.07 bc 3.68 d 3.75 cd 3.79 d 3.62 BC 3.70 AB 3.78 A for pesticides treatments =0.09414

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05)

Methomyl Fenpropathrin 3.96 b 4.02 b 3.30 e 3.45 de 3.32 de 3.40 e 4.49 a 4.59 a 3.71 bc 4.05 b 3.08 e 3.30 e 3.10 e 3.28 e 3.57 cd 3.68 cd 3.90 b 4.11 b 3.79 bc 3.90 bc 3.62 C 3.78 A for interactions=0.2625 3.67 bc 4.26 a 3.24 e 3.30 d 3.28 de 3.39 cd 4.35 a 4.43 a 3.67 bc 3.94 b 3.08 e 3.22 d 3.15 e 3.37 cd 3.52 cd 3.61 c 3.84 b 3.91 b 3.61 bc 3.62 c 3.54 A 3.71 A for interactions=0.2675 3.81 b 4.14 b 3.27 de 3.38 d 3.30 d 3.39 d 4.42 a 4.51 a 3.69 bc 4.00 b 3.08 e 3.26 d 3.12 de 3.32 d 3.54 c 3.65 c 3.87 b 4.01 b 3.70 bc 3.76 c 3.58 C 3.74 A for interactions=0.2122

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars.

124

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.24: Effect of chemical insecticides treatments and corn cultivars on grains phosphors percentage.
El-Gharbia Treatments Chlorpyrifos Diazinon 0.52 a 0.48 ab 0.52 a 0.52 a 0.42 b 0.44 b 0.50 a 0.50 a 0.34 c 0.32 c 0.48 a 0.48 ab 0.41 b 0.37 c 0.34 c 0.35 c 0.49 a 0.51 a 0.51 a 0.53 a 0.45 A 0.45 A for pesticides treatments =0.0010 El-Behira 0.50 ab 0.52 a 0.49 ab 0.51 a 0.42 cd 0.45 bc 0.51 a 0.49 ab 0.34 e 0.35 de 0.45 bc 0.48 ab 0.38 de 0.40 cd 0.34 e 0.33 e 0.54 a 0.51 a 0.50 ab 0.51 a 0.45 A 0.45 A for pesticides treatments =0.0059 Avareg data** 0.51 a 0.50 bc 0.51 a 0.52 a 0.42 c 0.44 e 0.51 a 0.49 cd 0.34 e 0.34 g 0.46 b 0.48 d 0.40 d 0.39 f 0.34 e 0.34 g 0.51 a 0.51 ab 0.50 a 0.52 a 0.45 A 0.45 A for pesticides treatments =0.0059

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05)

Control 0.48 ab 0.49 a 0.43 bc 0.50 a 0.35 d 0.48 ab 0.37 d 0.40 cd 0.50 a 0.51 a 0.45 A

Methomyl Fenpropathrin 0.46 ab 0.53 a 0.50 a 0.49 ab 0.42 bc 0.43 cd 0.51 a 0.50 ab 0.35 de 0.38 de 0.48 a 0.47 bc 0.39 cd 0.37 e 0.33 e 0.34 e 0.49 a 0.52 ab 0.50 a 0.50 ab 0.44 A 0.45 A for interactions=0.05147 0.52 a 0.50 a 0.51 a 0.51 a 0.42 c 0.43 bc 0.49 ab 0.50 a 0.35 d 0.38 c 0.44 bc 0.47 ab 0.41 c 0.39 c 0.34 d 0.32 d 0.53 a 0.49 a 0.50 a 0.47 ab 0.45 A 0.45 A for interactions=0.05147 0.49 b 0.52 a 0.51 a 0.50 b 0.42 d 0.43 d 0.50 ab 0.50 b 0.35 f 0.38 e 0.46 c 0.47 c 0.40 e 0.38 e 0.33 g 0.33 f 0.51 a 0.50 b 0.50 ab 0.48 c 0.45 A 0.45 A for interactions=0.01628

0.49 a 0.50 a 0.42 bc 0.49 a 0.35 de 0.47 ab 0.40 cd 0.34 e 0.52 a 0.50 a 0.45 A

0.49 bc 0.50 ab 0.42 d 0.50 ab 0.35 f 0.48 c 0.38 e 0.37 e 0.51 a 0.51 a 0.45 A

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars.

125

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.25: Effect of chemical insecticides treatments and corn cultivars on 100 grains weight (g.).
El-Gharbia Treatments Chlorpyrifos Diazinon 29.81 a 29.70 a-c 31.36 a 32.79 a 28.18 ab 28.09 bc 27.64 ab 27.63 bc 29.25 ab 29.25 a-c 25.58 b 31.29 ab 25.65 b 26.16 c 31.18 a 30.86 ab 28.42 ab 29.81 a-c 28.58 ab 27.54 bc 28.57 AB 29.31 A for pesticides treatments =1.659 El-Behira 32.29 ef 33.42 d 37.11 a 38.99 a 36.23 ab 36.24 bc 34.57 b-d 34.65 cd 35.72 a-c 33.82 d 34.01 c-e 33.94 d 33.76 de 33.90 d 35.80 a-c 37.39 ab 31.02 f 30.94 e 36.31 ab 37.33 ab 34.68 AB 35.06 A for pesticides treatments =1.085 Avarage data** 31.05 bc 31.56 c-e 34.24 a 35.89 a 32.21 ab 32.16 b-d 31.11 bc 31.14 c-e 32.48 ab 31.53 c-e 29.80 c 32.61 bc 29.71 c 30.03 e 33.49 a 34.12 ab 29.72 c 30.38 de 32.44 ab 32.44 bc 31.62 A 32.19 A for pesticides treatments =0.9383

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05)

Control 28.99 *ab 31.44 a 23.00 c 26.00 bc 29.48 ab 29.55 ab 25.69 bc 28.74 ab 27.93 b 27.73 ab 27.86 AB

Methomyl Fenpropathrin 27.63 ab 29.63 b 30.08 a 30.81 a 25.76 bc 27.79 b 27.68 ab 27.00 b 27.47 ab 28.70 b 29.53 ab 29.17 ab 23.12 c 25.21 a 28.53 ab 28.62 b 26.53 a-c 27.44 b 25.88 bc 28.08 ab 27.22 B 28.24 CD for interactions=3.894 30.33 e 31.41 gh 37.03 a 37.93 ab 31.54 de 38.30 a 32.68 cd 32.55 e-g 34.27 bc 34.44 c-e 31.24 de 32.06 f-h 32.45 cd 33.66 d-f 34.13 bc 34.47 cd 30.36 e 30.34 h 36.02 ab 36.15 bc 33.01 C 34.13 B for interactions=1.914 28.98 c-e 30.52 c-e 33.56 a 34.37 a 28.65 de 33.04 ab 30.18 b-d 29.78 de 30.87 bc 31.57 b-d 30.38 b-d 30.62 c-e 27.79 e 29.43 e 31.33 b 31.55 b-d 28.44 de 28.89 e 30.95 bc 32.11 bc 30.11 C 31.19 AB for interactions=2.032

31.04 35.34 35.04 32.77 33.60 30.97 31.96 33.20 30.82 36.68 33.14

d bc e de bc c a a de b A

30.02 c-e 33.39 a 29.02 de 29.39 de 31.54 a-c 30.26 b-e 28.83 e 30.97 b-d 29.37 e 32.21 ab 30.50 BC

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars.

126

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.26: Effect of chemical insecticides treatments and corn cultivars on grains yield/10plants (kg.).
El-Gharbia Treatments Control Chlorpyrifos Diazinon 1.26 a* 1.44 b-d 1.62 b-d 1.51 a 1.87 a 2.02 a 1.05 bc 1.40 cd 1.29 de 1.46 a 1.77 ab 1.91 ab 1.16 a-c 1.46 d 1.46 c-e 1.38 ab 1.63 a-c 1.77 a-c 0.97 c 1.20 d 1.24 e 1.47 a 1.92 a 2.00 a 1.37 ab 1.59 a-c 1.68 a-c 1.30 a-c 1.48 b-d 1.77 a-c 1.29 C 1.58 B 1.68 A for pesticides treatments =0.1427 El-Behira 1.37 d 1.66 a 1.69 a-c 1.42 bc 1.65 a 1.80 ab 1.18 e 1.35 b 1.58 bc 1.22 de 1.59 ab 1.47 cd 1.24 c 1.61 ab 1.66 a-c 1.44 bc 1.66 a 1.72 a-c 1.05 a 1.50 ab 1.28 d 1.47 a 1.69 a 1.88 a 1.30 b 1.42 ab 1.52 cd 1.35 de 1.42 ab 1.63 cd 1.30 A 1.55 A 1.62 A for pesticides treatments =0.09641 Average data** 1.31 ab 1.55 b-e 1.66 bc 1.47 a 1.76 ab 1.91 a 1.11 cd 1.37 e 1.44 cd 1.34 a-c 1.68 a-c 1.69 a-c 1.20 b-d 1.54 de 1.56 bc 1.41 ab 1.64 a-d 1.74 ab 1.01 d 1.35 e 1.26 d 1.47 a 1.81 a 1.94 a 1.34 a-c 1.51 c-e 1.60 bc 1.33 a-c 1.45 c-e 1.70 bc 1.30 D 1.57 B 1.65 A for pesticides treatments =0.08857

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05) Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352 Mean L.S.D (0.05)

Methomyl Fenpropathrin 1.43 ab 1.59 b 1.52 a 1.66 a 1.22 a 1.38 b 1.47 a 1.60 b 1.32 a 1.40 ab 1.45 a 1.51 b 0.98 b 1.08 a 1.48 a 1.64 b 1.35 a 1.52 b 1.54 a 1.58 ab 1.38 C 1.50 CD for interactions=0.3687 1.38 a-c 1.54 ab 1.47 a 1.66 a 1.19 d 1.51 a-c 1.31 a-d 1.36 bc 1.25 b-d 1.41 a-c 1.45 ab 1.59 a-c 1.11 cd 1.23 c 1.50 a 1.62 ab 1.33 b-d 1.47 a-c 1.30 a-d 1.42 bc 1.33 C 1.48 B for interactions=0.2828 1.41 a 1.57 a 1.50 a 1.66 a 1.21 ab 1.44 a 1.39 a 1.48 a 1.28 ab 1.41 ab 1.45 a 1.55 a 1.05 b 1.15 b 1.49 a 1.63 a 1.34 ab 1.50 a 1.42 a 1.50 a 1.35 D 1.49 C for interactions=0.1289

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of location factor the table reflect tolerance of different cultivars.

127

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.4 Ch em ic al a na l ysi s o f Co r n c ul tiv ar s .
The aim of this investigation is identify the mechanisms of resistance in previous corn cultivars through determination of some chemical and physical parameters ( cellulose contents , percent of ash , total soluble solid TSS and stem Rigidity). The present investigation was conducted at the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tanta. The experiments were made in 2003 growing seasons. The experimental design was a factorial complete randomized plot with three replications and 10 treatments (the previous cultivers). Table(IV.27) show the chemical and physical parameters of the previous corn cultivars. Cultivars S.C.123 and Giza 2 had the lowest values in ash% (6.89 and 6.92 respectively) while, T.W.C. 352 and T.W.C. 324 cultivars had the highest value in this respect ( 7.59 and 7.28 respectively). Cultivars S.C.10, T.W.C. 352 and T.W.C. 351 had the highest values in %Celluloses (34.73, 31.63 and 31.57 respectively). On the other hand Giza 2 and T.W.C. 323 cultivars had the lowest value in this regard ( 22.93 and 24.20 respectively). Cultivars T.W.C. 351 and S.C.13 had the lowest values in TSS ( 3.63 and 3.73 respectively) while, T.W.C. 321,T.W.C. 324, T.W.C. 352 and T.W.C. 323 had the highest value in this respect ( 5.47,5.27, 5.20 and 5.20 respectively). Cultivars S.C.13, T.W.C. 352 and S.C.123 had the lowest values in stem rigidity which had 2.93, 3.00 and 3.00 Newton, while S.C.10 and T.W.C. 323 had the highest values in this respect which had 5.38 and 4.83 Newton respectively.

128

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.27: Some chemical and physical parameters of ten corn cultivars.

129
Chemical parameters %Ash 6.92 6.95 6.97 6.89 7.24 7.31 7.16 7.28 7.19 7.59 %Celluloses 22.93 34.73 26.97 27.08 30.89 26.17 24.20 25.01 31.57 31.63

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Physical parameters TSS 4.13 4.60 3.73 4.33 4.73 5.47 5.27 5.20 3.63 5.20 Rigidity 3.11 5.38 2.93 3.00 4.37 4.35 4.83 4.36 3.84 3.00

Cultivars Giza 2 S.C.10 S.C.13 S.C.123 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C. 321 T.W.C. 323 T.W.C. 324 T.W.C. 351 T.W.C. 352

130

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.5 Ev al ua ti on of some micr ob ia l inse ct ic id es ef fi ci enc y aga in st ECB on cer ta in ma iz e cul tiva to r s com pa r ed with che mi cal ins ec tic id es und er natur al inf esta ti on co nd iti on s.
Two field experiment were carried out at the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agric., Tanta Univ. during 2004 and 2005 successive seasons. To evaluate some biocide (Agrine and Biofly), mixtures of biocides with some protective agents (oil and photostaplizer which enhanced the bioicide persistence against sunlight and UV) and bioicide mixtures with protective agents and the half the field application rate of diazinon (the most efficient insecticide). That on the most tolerant corn cultivar and two of the highest production caltivars and also hight susceptible to ECB infestation . To achieve the most integrated chemical & biological control of the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis).

IV.5.1 Holes No ./ 100 i nter no des.
Data presented in Table (IV.28) show the effect of bioicide treatments and corn cultivars on ECB infestation assessed by holes No./100 internodes. A significant differences among corn cultivars and biocides treatments were detected in the two seasons. At season 2004: cultiver S.C. 10 treated with mixture No.4 or diazinon treatments had the lowest value in holes No./100 internodes. Holes No./100 internodes values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows:Diazinon< mixture No.4< mixture No.3< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Biofly< Agerin< paraffin oil < control. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows:mixture No.4<

131

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

diazinon< mixture No.3< mixture No.2< Biofly< mixture control<paraffin oil. T.W.C351 treatments were in Biofly< Agerin< paraffin oil < control.

No.1<

Agerin< as

ascending order

follows:mixture No.4< diazinon< mixture No. 3< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< From biocides treatments means: mixture No.4 and diazinon were the most effective treatments against ECB infestation evaluated by holes No./100 internodes (reduction %(R%)=82.72 and 79.99 respectively). There are no significant different between the three cultivars in susceptibility against ECB infestation . At season 2005: cultivars S.C. 10 treated with paraffin oil and untreated S.C. 10 treatments recored the highest values in holes No./100 internodes while T.W.C.310 treated with diazinon and T.W.C.351 treated with mixture No.4 treatments had the lowest values in this respect. Holes No./100 internodes values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows:Biofly< diazinon< mixture No.4< mixture paraffin oil. While No.3< mixture No.2< Agerin< mixture No.1< control <

T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows:diazinon< mixture No. 3< mixture No.4< Biofly< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Agerin< paraffin oil < control. T.W.C351 treatments were in Agerin< mixture No.1< paraffin oil< control. Diazinon and mixture No.4 were the most effective treatments against ECB infestation evaluated by holes No./100 internodes (R%= 79.12 and 78.45 respectively). The most susceptibility cultivar was S.C10, while the T.W.C.351 and ascending order as follows:mixture No.4< mixtureNo. 3< Diazinon< mixture No.2< Biofly<

132

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

T.W.C.310 cultivars had the same tolerant potency toward ECB infestation . From the averaged data it could be concluded that: a significant differences were detected between the insecticides treatments and corn cultivars. Untreated S.C. 10 cultivar recored the highest value in holes/ 100 internodes, while T.W.C. 351 treated with mixture No.4 and S.C. 10 treated with diazinon recorded the lowest values in this regard. Holes No./100 internodes values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows:diazinon< mixture No.4< mixture No.3< mixture No.2< Biofly mixture No.1< Agerin< paraffin oil < control. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows:diazinon< mixture No.3< mixture No.4< Biofly< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Agerin< paraffin oil< control . T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows: mixture No.4< diazinon< mixture No.3< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Biofly< Agerin< paraffin oil < control. Mixture No.4, diazinon and mixture No.3 (R%=81.03, 79.65 and 75.20 respectively). The most susceptible cultiver was S.C10 while T.W.C.351 cultivars had the most tolerant potency against ECB infestation determined by holes/100 internodes. were the most effective treatments against ECB infestation evaluated by holes No./100 internodes

IV.5.2 Ca vi ties No./1 0pla nts.
Data presented in Table (IV.29) show the effect of biocides treatments and corn cultivars on ECB infestation evaluated by cavities No./10plants A significant differences were found between the biocides treatments and corn cultivars in the two seasons.

133

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

At season 2004: T.W.C.351 treated with mixture No.4 had the lowest value in this respect. Cavities No./10plants values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows: diazinon< mixture No.4< mixture No. 3< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Biofly< Agerin<control < paraffin oil. ascending order as follows: While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in

mixture No.4< mixture No. 3< diazinon< mixture No.2< Biofly< mixture No.1< Agerin< control <paraffin oil. T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows: mixture No.4< diazinon< mixture No.3< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Biofly< Agerin< paraffin oil< control. Mixture No.4 and diazinon were the most effective treatments against ECB infestation evaluated by cavities No./10plants (R%= 87.00 and 83.01 respectively). The most susceptible cultivars were S.C10 and T.W.C.310, while the T.W.C.351 had the most tolerant cultivar against ECB infestation determined by cavity /10plants. At season 2005: T.W.C.310 treated with diazinon , T.W.C. 351 treated with mixture No.4 and T.W.C. 351 treated with mixture No.3 had the lowest values in this respect. Cavities No./10plants values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows: diazinon< Biofly< mixture No.4< mixture No.3< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Agerin< paraffin oil < control. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in follows: diazinon< ascending order as mixture No.3< mixture No.4< Biofly< mixture No.2<

mixture No.1< Agerin < control <paraffin oil. T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows: mixture No.3< mixture No.4< diazinon< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Biofly< Agerin< paraffin oil< control.

134

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Diazinon and mixture No.4 were the most effective treatments against ECB infestation evaluated by cavity No./10plants (R%=78.93 and 78.25 respectively). The most susceptible cultivar was S.C10 ,while T.W.C.351 and T.W.C.310 cultivars had the same tolerant trend determined by cavities No./10plants. From the averaged data it could be concluded that: a significant difference were observed between the insecticides treatments and corn cultivars . T.W.C.351 treated with mixture No.4 and T.W.C.310 treated with diazinon treatments had the lowest values in this respect . Cavity No./10 plants values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows:diazinon< mixture No.4< mixture No.3< mixture No.2< ascending order as follows:diazinon< Biofly< No.3< mixture mixture No.1< No.4< Agerin< paraffin oil< control. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in mixture Biofly< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Agerin<control < paraffin oil. T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows: mixture No.4< mixture No. 3< diazinon< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Biofly< Agerin< paraffin oil < control. Mixture No.4, diazinon and mixture No.3 were the most effective treatments against ECB infestation evaluated by cavities No./10plants (R%=83.29, 81.28and 76.31 respectively). The most susceptible cultivar was S.C10, while the T.W.C.351 had the most tolerant cultiver No./10plants. against ECB infestation determined by cavities against ECB infestation

IV.5.3 La r vae No ./ 10 plan ts.
Data presented in Tables (IV.30) show the effect of biochemicals

135

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

treatment and corn cultivars on ECB infestation evaluated by larvae No./10plans. In the two season there were a significant differences between the bioicide treatments, while, there were no significant difference between cultivar treatments . At season 2004: T.W.C.351 and S.C.10 cultivars treated with mixture No.4 treatments had the lowest values in this respect. Larvae No./10plans values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows: mixture No.4< diazinon< mixture No. 3< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Biofly< Agerin< paraffin oil < control. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows:mixture No.4< mixture No. 3< diazinon< Biofly< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Agerin< paraffin oil< control. T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows: mixture No.4< diazinon< mixtureNo.3< paraffin oil< control. At season 2005: T.W.C. 310 treated with diazinon and T.W.C.310 treated with mixture No.3 treatments had the lowest values in this regard. Larvae No./10 plans values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows:mixture No.4< diazinon< Biofly< mixture No.3< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Agerin< paraffin oil< control. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows:diazinon< No.3< mixture No.4< mixture No. 3< mixture Biofly< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Agerin< mixture No.4< diazinon< Biofly< mixture No.1< Agerin< Biofly< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Agerin<

paraffin oil< control. T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows: mixture No.2< paraffin oil< control. ECB infestation evaluated by larvae No./10plants had lowest values in case

136

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

of diazinon, mixture No.4 and mixture No.3 treatments. The most susceptibility cultivars was S.C10, while the T.W.C.351 and T.W.C.310 had the same tolerance tendency against ECB infestation . From the averaged data it could be concluded that: a significant differences was found between the insecticides treatments and corn cultivars. T.W.C. 351 treated with mixture No.4 and S.C.10 treated with mixture No.4 had the lowest values in this respect. Larvae No./10plans values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows: mixture No.4< diazinon< mixture No. 3< mixture No.2< Biofly< mixture No.1< Agerin< paraffin oil< control. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows: mixture No. 3< diazinon< mixture No.4< Biofly< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Agerin< paraffin oil< control. T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows:mixture No.4< diazinon< mixture No. 3< Biofly< mixture No.1< mixture No.2< Agerin< paraffin oil< control. From the means values: ECB infestation evaluated by larvae No./10plants had the lowest values in case of mixture No.4, diazinon was S.C.10. and mixture No.3 treatments(R%=80.88, 77.45 and 74.40 respectively).The most susceptible cultivar

IV.5.4 10 0 g rain w eig ht.
The effect of biochemicals treatments and corn cultivars on 100 grain weight seasons. At season 2004: cultivar S.C.10 treated with Diazinon treatment recorded the highest value in 100 grain weight followed by S.C.10 treated with mixture are presented in Tables (IV.31). There were a significant difference the insecticides treatments and corn cultivars in the two detected between

137

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

No.4. 100 grain weight values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows: control<Agerin< paraffin oil< mixture No.2< Biofly< mixture No.1< mixture No.3< mixture No.4< diazinon. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows: paraffin oil<control <Biofly< Agerin< mixture No.2< mixture No.3< mixture No.1< mixture No.4< Diazinon. T.W.C351 treatments were in No.4< mixture No. 3< control< diazinon. 100grains weight had the highest value in case of diazinon and mixture No.4 treatments . The highest value of 100grains weight was recorded by S.C.10 cultivar which superior the other cultivars. At season 2005: cultivar S.C.10 treated with diazinon or treated with mixture No.4 recorded the highest value in 100grains weight. 100 grain weight values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows: control < paraffin oil< Agerin< Biofly< mixture No.1< mixture No.2< mixture No.3< mixture No.4< diazinon. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows: mixture No.3< Agerin< Biofly< paraffin oil< mixture No.1 < control< mixture No.2< diazinon< mixture No.4. T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows:paraffin oil< Agerin< Biofly< mixture No.1 < control< mixture No.2< mixture No. 3< mixture No.4< diazinon.The highest values of 100 grain weight was recorded by S.C.10 cultivar. From the averaged data it could be concluded that: a significant differences among corn cultivars and biochemicals treatments were detected. ascending order as follows: mixture No.1< mixture No.2< paraffin oil< Biofly< Agerin< mixture

138

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Cultivar S.C.10 treated with diazinon or

treated with mixture No.4

treatments recorded the highest value in 100grains weight. 100 grain weight values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows: control < paraffin oil< Agerin< Biofly< mixture No.1< mixture No.2< mixture No.3< mixture No.4< diazinon. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows: paraffin oil<control < mixture No. 3< Agerin< Biofly< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< diazinon< mixture No.4 . T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows:paraffin oil< Agerin< mixture No.1< Biofly< mixture No.2<control< mixture No.3< mixture No.4< diazinon. S.C.10 cultivar had the highest value in 100 grain weight compared with other cultivar T.W.C.310 and T.W.C.351

IV.5.5

Gr ains yield/ 10pl an ts.
treatments and corn

Tables (IV.32) show the effect of biochemicals cultivars on grains yield /10plants.

In both seasons there were a significant differences observed between the insecticides treatments and corn cultivars in season 2005 . While there were no significant difference between corn cultivars in season 2004. At season 2004: the highest values of grains yield/10plants were recorded with T.W.C.310 treated with mixture No.4 treatment and S.C.10 treated with diazinon. Grains yield /10plants values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows:control< paraffin oil< Agerin< cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows:control< paraffin Biofly< oil< mixture No.1< mixture No.2< mixture No.3< mixture No.4. While T.W.C.310 Agerin< Biofly< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< mixture No.3< diazinon.

139

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

T.W.C351 treatments were in

ascending order

as follows:control< Agerin<

paraffin oil< mixture No.2< mixture No.1< Biofly< mixture No.3< diazinon. Mixture No.4 and diazinon treatments had the highest values in grain yield /10plants.There are no significant differences between the three cultivar in grain yield /10plants. At season 2005: the highest value of grains yield /10plants were recorded with S.C.10 treated with diazinon or treated with mixture No.4. Grains yield /10plants values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows:control< mixture No.2< paraffin oil< Agerin< mixture No.3< Biofly< mixture mixture No.1< No.4. While

T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows:paraffin oil< control< Agerin< mixture No.1< Biofly< mixture No.3< mixture No.2< mixture No.4. T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows:paraffin oil< control< Agerin< Biofly< mixture No.1< mixture No.2< mixture No.3< mixture No.4. Diazinon followed by mixture No.4 treatments had the highest values in grains yield /10plants, while control treatments and paraffin oil treatments had the lowest values. S.C.10 cultivar had the highest value of grains yield /10plants while T.W.C.351 cultivars had the lowest value in this respect. From the averaged data it could be concluded that: a significant differences were observed between the insecticides treatments and corn cultivars . The highest values of grains yield/10plants were recorded with S.C.10 treated with diazinon treatment followed by S.C.10 treated with mixture No.4. Grains yield /10plants values of S.C.10 cultiver treated with biocides were in ascending order as follows:control< paraffin oil< Agerin< Biofly< mixture

140

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

No.1< mixture No.2< mixture No.3< mixture No.4. While T.W.C.310 cultivers treatments were in ascending order as follows:control< paraffin oil< Agerin< Biofly< mixture No.1< mixture No.2< mixture No.3< diazinon. T.W.C351 treatments were in ascending order as follows:control< paraffin oil< Agerin< mixture No.2< Biofly< mixture No.1< mixture No.3< mixture No.4. S.C10 cultivar had surpassed the other cultivars T.W.C.310 and T.W.C.351 in grains yield /10plants . From the previous data it could be concluded that:

In case of infestation parameter (holes No./100internodes and cavities No./10plants, ) it could be concluded that: In all cultivars (S.C.10, T.W.C.310 and T.W.C351) control, paraffin oil and Agerin treatments had the highest values in this parameters, while diazinon, mixture No.4 and mixture No.3 had the lowest values in this regard but the ranke between them differ from cultivar to anther. The cultivars rank in this parameters had S.C10, T.W.C310 and T.W.C351. In case of productivity parameters (100 grains weight and grains

yield/10plants), the trend differ from parameters to another. But, it could be concluded that:

In case of 100 grain weight: control, paraffin oil and Agerin treatments had the lowest values in this respect, while diazinon, mixture No.4 and mixture No.3 had the highest values, either But, the cultivars rank of in these parameters were S.C10, T.W.C310, and T.W.C351. In case of grains yield/10plants: control, paraffin oil and Agerin treatments had the lowest values in this respect, while diazinon, mixture No.3, mixture No.2 and mixture No.4 had the highest values٫ But, the cultivars

141

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

rank of these parameters were S.C10, T.W.C310, and T.W.C351. Generally:

There are no

significant differences between control and paraffin oil

treatments in most studied parameters.
  

Agrine was the lowest effective treatments against ECB infestation. Biofly had a moderate effect in this respect and superior Agrine. Mixing Biofly or Agrine with oil and photostablizer had enhanced the activity of the compounds but was more effective in case of Biofly Beauveria bassiana. Adding the half dose of the pesticides diazinon had enhanced the activity against ECB infestation and there are no significant difference between the mixture and the original pesticide in activity in most cases. Diazinon, mixture No.4 and respect was S.C.10 mixture No.3 the only treatments that

effecting the stalk holes No/10plants. The most susceptible cultivars in this The most susceptibility cultivars was S.C.10 followed by T.W.C.310 (when take all parameters in consideration).

S.C.10 had superior other cultivars in all productivity parameters Many investigators reported that Bacillus thuringiensis had a low efficacy had superior

against ECB infestation. Also, Beauveria bassina formulation

Bacillus thuringiensis formulation in activity against ECB infestation (Sabbour, 2002; Cagan et al., 1995; Chiuo and Hou,1993 and Lewis and Bing, 1991). On the other hand, our finding disagree with, He, et al.(2002) who, found that Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t) spray and B.t granules were more effective than Beauveria bassiana formulation in reducing the damage from ACB on sweet corn.

142

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.28: Efficiency of biocides treatments against ECB infestation on three corn cultivars evaluated by holes number/100 internodes, during 2004 and 2005 seasons.
Treatments Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Season 2004 Cultivars Means S.C. 10 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C 351 Mean % R.*** Mean % R. Mean % R. Mean % R. 20.09 a 16.80 a 15.45 a 17.45 a 19.53 a 2.80 17.25 a -2.68 15.48 a -0.19 17.42 a 0.15 13.28 b 33.90 12.48 b 25.69 12.05 b 22.01 12.60 b 27.76 10.30 c 48.72 7.67 c 54.34 7.56 c 51.08 8.51 c 51.22 7.59 d 62.23 7.90 c 52.95 6.76 c 56.28 7.41 cd 57.50 5.25 de 73.85 7.05 cd 58.03 5.93 cd 61.59 6.08 de 65.15 3.24 ef 83.86 4.64 de 72.36 5.13 cde 66.83 4.34 ef 75.14 2.13 f 89.38 3.90 e 76.79 3.02 e 80.48 3.02 f 82.72 2.07 f 89.67 4.36 de 74.03 4.04 de 73.88 3.49 f 79.99 9.28 A 9.12 A 8.38 A 8.92 for cultivars treatments=1.976 for biocides treatments=1.981 for interactions=2.711 Season 2005 14.37 a 10.52 a 9.29 a 11.39 a 14.56 a -1.32 9.42 ab 10.49 8.55 a 8.01 10.84 a 4.85 9.18 b 36.11 8.19 bc 22.18 5.31 b 42.82 7.56 b 33.65 2.84 d 80.21 4.50 e 57.27 5.09 b 45.17 4.14 cd 63.63 9.55 b 33.52 6.83 cd 35.07 5.80 b 37.61 7.39 b 35.11 5.58 c 61.20 5.40 de 48.62 3.87 bc 58.34 4.95 c 56.55 4.90 cd 65.93 1.63 g 84.52 1.92 cd 79.29 2.82 de 75.29 3.44 cd 76.08 2.64 f 74.89 1.29 d 86.16 2.46 e 78.45 3.30 d 77.05 1.22 g 88.42 2.62 cd 71.79 2.38 e 79.12 7.52 A 5.59 B 4.86 B 5.99 for cultivars treatments=0.8803 for biocidestreatments=1.511 for interactions=2.271 **Averaged data 17.23 a 13.66 a 12.37 a 14.42 a 17.04 a 1.08 13.33 a 2.39 12.01 a 2.89 14.13 a 2.01 11.23 b 34.83 10.33 b 24.34 8.68 b 29.82 10.08 b 30.08 6.57 d 61.85 6.08 c 55.47 6.33 c 48.86 6.33 cd 56.12 8.57 c 50.26 7.37 c 46.06 6.28 c 49.27 7.40 c 48.65 5.41 de 68.57 6.23 c 54.41 4.90 cd 60.37 5.51 d 61.76 4.07 ef 76.39 3.14 d 77.04 3.53 de 71.51 3.58 e 75.20 2.79 f 83.83 3.27 d 76.06 2.15 e 82.61 2.74 e 81.03 2.69 f 84.41 2.79 d 79.57 3.33 de 73.09 2.94 e 79.65 8.40 A 7.35 AB 6.62 B 7.46 for cultivars treatments=1.205 for biocidestreatments=1.636 for interactions=1.755

**Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of seasons factor the table reflect efficacy of different biocides. ***R%= (control -treatment-)/ control×100

143

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.29: Efficiency of biocides treatments against ECB infestation on three corn cultivars evaluated by cavity number/10 plants, during 2004 and 2005 seasons.
Season 2004 Cultivars Means S.C. 10 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C 351 Mean % R.*** Mean % R. Mean % R. Mean % R. 27.00 a* 21.67 a 18.00 a 22.22 a 27.70 a -2.61 23.33 a -7.69 18.33 a -1.85 23.12 a -4.06 17.33 b 35.80 16.67 b 23.08 14.00 b 22.22 16.00 b 28.00 14.07 b 47.87 9.00 c 58.46 8.33 c 53.70 10.47 c 52.89 9.67 c 64.20 10.67 c 50.77 7.93 c 55.97 9.42 cd 57.61 6.30 cd 76.68 8.67 c 60.00 6.67 cd 62.96 7.21 de 67.56 4.59 d 82.99 4.48 d 79.32 5.00 cde 72.22 4.69 ef 78.89 2.67 d 90.12 3.67 d 83.08 2.33 e 87.04 2.89 f 87.00 2.66 d 90.16 4.67 d 78.46 4.00 de 77.78 3.77 f 83.01 12.44 A 11.42 A 9.40 B 11.09 for cultivars treatments=1.912 for biocides treatments=2.737 for interactions=3.900 Season 2005 22.67 a 13.04 ab 13.33 a 16.35 a 18.67 b 17.65 15.33 a -17.61 10.33 ab 22.50 13.44 b 17.75 14.33 c 36.76 11.33 b 13.07 9.00 bc 32.50 12.89 b 21.15 5.00 e 77.94 5.33 de 59.09 7.26 bcd 45.56 5.86 de 64.12 14.00 c 38.24 10.67 bc 18.18 6.26 cd 53.06 10.31 c 36.93 9.67 d 57.35 7.67 cd 41.19 4.67 de 65.00 7.33 d 55.14 9.00 d 60.29 2.33 e 82.10 2.00 e 85.00 4.44 ef 72.81 5.33 e 76.47 3.33 e 74.43 2.00 e 85.00 3.56 ef 78.25 4.67 e 79.41 1.33 f 89.77 4.33 de 67.50 3.44 f 78.93 11.48 A 7.82 B 6.58 B 8.63 for cultivars treatments=1.352 for biocides treatments=2.386 for interactions=3.567 **Averaged data 24.83 a 17.35 b 15.67 a 19.28 a 23.19 a 6.64 19.33 a 0.11 14.33 a 8.51 18.28 a 5.19 15.83 b 36.24 14.00 c 7.79 11.50 b 26.60 14.44 b 25.10 9.54 cd 61.60 7.17 d 58.70 7.80 c 50.24 8.17 cd 57.65 11.83 c 52.35 10.67 c 38.53 7.09 c 54.73 9.86 c 48.85 7.98 de 67.86 8.17 d 52.93 5.67 cd 63.83 7.27 d 62.29 6.80 e 72.63 3.41 f 80.36 3.50 de 77.66 4.57 e 76.31 4.00 f 83.89 3.50 f 79.83 2.17 e 86.17 3.22 e 83.29 3.66 f 85.25 3.00 f 82.71 4.17 de 73.40 3.61 e 81.28 11.96 A 9.62 B 7.99 C 9.86 for cultivars treatments=1.171 for biocides treatments=2.212 for interactions=2.577

Treatments Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05)

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of seasons factor the table reflect efficacy of different biocides. ***R%= (control -treatment-)/ control×100

144

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.30: Efficiency of biocides treatments against ECB infestation on three corn cultivars evaluated by larvae No./10 plants, during 2004 and 2005 seasons.
Season 2004 Cultivars Means S.C. 10 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C 351 Mean % R.*** Mean % R. Mean % R. Mean % R. 15.33 a* 10.33 a 13.67 a 13.11 a 15.19 a 0.97 10.00 ab 3.23 13.00 a 4.88 12.73 a 2.92 11.33 b 26.09 7.33 bc 29.03 9.33 b 31.71 9.33 b 28.81 7.85 c 48.79 5.67 cd 45.16 5.00 cd 63.41 6.17 c 52.92 5.00 cd 67.39 7.00 c 32.26 5.85 c 57.18 5.95 c 54.61 4.07 de 73.43 5.67 cd 45.16 5.33 cd 60.98 5.02 cd 61.68 2.85 de 81.40 3.11 de 69.89 4.00 cde 70.73 3.32 de 74.67 2.00 e 86.96 2.67 e 74.19 1.67 e 87.80 2.11 e 83.90 2.61 de 82.97 3.67 de 64.52 2.67 de 80.49 2.98 e 77.26 7.36 A 6.16 A 6.72 A 6.75 for cultivars treatments=1.330 for biocides treatments=1.843 for interactions=2.881 Season 2005 11.00 a 7.26 a 8.67 a 8.98 a 9.67 ab 12.12 6.33 a 12.76 8.33 a 3.85 8.00 ab 10.87 8.67 ab 21.21 6.00 ab 17.35 4.67 bc 46.15 6.56 bc 26.96 4.00 de 63.64 3.00 cd 58.67 3.07 bcde 64.53 3.36 ef 62.59 8.00 bc 27.27 5.67 ab 21.94 4.19 bcd 51.71 5.95 cd 33.70 5.67 cd 48.48 3.67 bc 49.49 5.00 b 42.31 4.78 de 46.77 4.00 de 63.64 1.33 cd 81.63 1.67 e 80.77 2.33 f 74.00 2.00 e 81.82 2.33 cd 67.86 2.00 de 76.92 2.11 f 76.48 2.67 e 75.76 1.00 d 86.22 2.33 cde 73.08 2.00 f 77.72 6.19 A 4.07 B 4.44 B 4.90 for cultivars treatments=1.287 for biocides treatments=1.482 for interactions=2.352 **Averaged data 13.17 a 8.80 a 11.17 a 11.04 a 12.43 a 5.63 8.15 ab 9.05 10.67 a 4.48 10.36 a 6.15 10.00 b 24.05 6.67 b 22.32 7.00 b 37.31 7.94 b 28.06 5.93 c 54.99 4.33 de 50.74 4.04 cd 63.85 4.77 c 56.85 6.50 c 50.63 6.33 bc 28.00 5.02 c 55.06 5.95 c 46.12 4.87 cd 63.01 4.67 d 46.95 5.17 bc 53.73 4.90 c 55.62 3.43 de 73.98 2.22 f 74.74 2.83 de 74.63 2.83 d 74.40 2.00 e 84.81 2.50 ef 71.58 1.83 e 83.58 2.11 d 80.88 2.64 e 79.96 2.33 f 73.47 2.50 de 77.61 2.49 d 77.45 6.77 A 5.11 B 5.58 B 5.82 for cultivars treatments=0.8611 for biocides treatments=1.341 for interactions=1.896

Treatments Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05)

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of seasons factor the table reflect efficacy of different biocides. ***R%= (control -treatment-)/ control×100

145

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.31: Effect of biocides treatments and corn cultivars on 100 grain weight(g.), during 2004 and 2005 seasons.
Season 2004 Cultivars S.C. 10 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C 351 Mean Mean Mean 29.69 d* 28.56 a 28.30 a 30.38 cd 28.23 a 27.63 a 30.36 cd 28.96 a 27.80 a 31.71 bcd 28.92 a 27.70 a 31.81 bcd 29.61 a 27.45 a 31.52 bcd 29.09 a 27.60 a 32.12 bc 29.32 a 28.28 a 32.84 ab 30.07 a 28.11 a 34.84 a 30.31 a 29.24 a 31.70 a 29.23 b 28.01 b for biocides treatments=1.392 for cultivars treatments=1.565 Season 2005 29.52 c 28.27 ab 27.82 ab 30.67 bc 28.92 ab 26.86 b 30.68 bc 28.43 ab 27.07 b 30.72 bc 28.89 ab 27.60 ab 31.25 abc 29.16 ab 27.79 ab 31.67 abc 29.30 ab 28.19 ab 32.05 ab 27.65 b 28.21 ab 32.66 ab 30.62 a 28.68 ab 33.54 a 30.05 ab 29.70 a 31.42 a 29.03 b 27.99 b for biocides treatments=1.591 for cultivars treatments=1.873 Averaged data** 29.60 d 28.41 c 28.06 ab 30.53 cd 28.57 bc 27.24 b 30.52 cd 28.69 bc 27.44 b 31.21 bcd 28.90 abc 27.65 b 31.53 bc 29.38 abc 27.62 b 31.59 bc 29.20 abc 27.89 ab 32.09 bc 28.48 c 28.25 ab 32.75 ab 30.34 a 28.40 ab 34.19 a 30.18 ab 29.47 a 31.56 a 29.13 b 28.00 b for biocides treatments=1.132 for cultivars treatments=1.594

Treatments Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05)

Means 28.85 c 28.75 c 29.04 bc 29.44 bc 29.62 bc 29.41 bc 29.91 bc 30.34 ab 31.46 a 29.65 for interactions=2.390 28.54 c 28.82 c 28.73 c 29.07 bc 29.40 bc 29.72 abc 29.30 bc 30.66 ab 31.10 a 29.48 for interactions=2.514 28.69 c 28.78 c 28.88 c 29.26 c 29.51 bc 29.56 bc 29.60 bc 30.50 ab 31.28 a 29.56 for interactions=1.648

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of seasons factor the table reflect efficacy of different biocides.

146

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.32: Effect of biocides treatments and corn cultivars on grains yield/10plants (kg.), during 2004 and 2005 seasons .
Season 2004 Cultivars S.C. 10 T.W.C. 310 T.W.C 352 Mean Mean Mean 1.29 c* 1.19 e 1.15 c 1.33 c 1.23 de 1.30 bc 1.39 bc 1.39 c-e 1.24 c 1.60 a-c 1.41 c-e 1.47 a-c 1.62 a-c 1.54 b-d 1.42 a-c 1.72 ab 1.53 b-e 1.33 bc 1.74 a 1.71 a-c 1.62 ab 1.87 a 1.89 a 1.71 a 1.87 a 1.87 ab 1.70 a 1.60 A 1.53 A 1.44 A for cultivars treatments=260.7 for biocidestreatments=233.8 Season 2005 1.31 d 1.27 b 1.21 bc 1.37 d 1.24 b 1.20 c 1.45 cd 1.35 ab 1.26 a-c 1.52 b-d 1.46 ab 1.34 a-c 1.52 b-d 1.44 ab 1.48 a-c 1.67 a-d 1.56 ab 1.48 a-c 1.77 a-c 1.55 ab 1.57 a-c 1.87 ab 1.71 a 1.59 ab 1.96 a 1.71 a 1.63 a 1.60 A 1.48 AB 1.42 B for cultivars treatments=161.1 for biocidestreatments=286.7 Averaged data** 1.30 d 1.23 e 1.18 d 1.35 cd 1.24 e 1.25 cd 1.42 cd 1.37 de 1.25 cd 1.56 bc 1.44 c-e 1.41 b-d 1.57 bc 1.49 cd 1.45 a-c 1.70 ab 1.54 b-d 1.40 b-d 1.75 ab 1.63 a-c 1.59 ab 1.87 a 1.80 a 1.65 ab 1.91 a 1.79 ab 1.67 a 1.60 A 1.50 AB 1.43 B for cultivars treatments=146.9 for biocidestreatments=177.9

Treatments Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05) Control Paraffin oil Agerin Biofly Mixture No. 1 Mixture No. 2 Mixture No. 3 Mixture No. 4 Diazinon Means L.S.D (0.05)

Means Mean 1.21 d 1.29 cd 1.34 cd 1.50 bc 1.53 bc 1.53 bc 1.69 ab 1.82 a 1.81 a 1.52 for interactions=340.4 1.26 d 1.27 d 1.35 cd 1.44 b-d 1.48 b-d 1.57 a-c 1.63 a-c 1.72 ab 1.77 a 1.50 for interactions=386.6 1.24 e 1.28 e 1.35 de 1.47 cd 1.50 b-d 1.55 bc 1.66 ab 1.77 a 1.79 a 1.51 for interactions=249.3

*Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level) ** In spite of seasons factor the table reflect efficacy of different biocides.

147

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

IV.6 T he side ef fect of bioc hem ical s agains t the pr eda tor , Paede r us alf ier ii ( Koc k).
Surface deposit technique was used to determine the toxicity of the previous biochemical to the adults of predator, P. alfierii. LC50 values and there confidence limits are recorded in Table (IV.33). From the previous data it could be concluded that, Agerin ( Bacillus thuringiensis formulation), mixture No.1(Agerin mixture with oil) and paraffin oil exhibited no toxicity against adults of predator, P. alfierii. The toxicity of the rest biochemicals could be arranged descendingly as follows: mixture No.4 > mixture No.3 > diazinon (LC50`s: 33.4, 66.1, 78.34 ppm respectively). While mixture

No.2 > Biofly (LC50`s:9.3×104 conidia/ml and 1.48×105 conidia/ml respectively). Based on the obtained data, Beauveria bassiana formulation Biofly had relative toxicity to the predator and that toxicity had been enhanced by adding oil and photostaplizer. Diazinon had more toxicity against adults predator, P. alfierii than Biofly but this toxicity had been enhanced by mixing the diazinon with Biofly or Agerin, oil and photostaplizer. Many investigators had been reported that Bacillus thuringiensis had no to low toxicity to many predators species (Bozsik, 2006; Sharma and Kashyap, 2002; Badawy and El-Arnaouty, 1999; Jayanthi and Padmavathamma, 1996; Langenbruch, 1992; Salama and Zaki, 1984 and El-Husseini 1980). In contrast, many researchers had been reported that Beauveria bassiana had some toxicity aginest several predetors (Cagan and Uhlik, 1999; El-Hamady, 1998; Haseeb and Murad, 1997 and Haseeb and Humayun, 1997). Also, many investigators mentioned that, diazinon had a low relative

148

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

toxicity against some predators species compared with the other synthetic pesticides (Omar et al., 2002; Salim and Heinrichs, 1985; Mishra and Satpathy, 1984). The low toxicity of diazinon to predators may be due to that diazinon had low inhibition capacity to predators AchEs (Bozsik, et al., 2002)

149

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table IV.33: Toxicity of biochemicals against adults of the predator, P. alfierii exposed to surface deposit technique.
Calculated LC50 ppm

Conc. ppm Biochemicals
5 10 20 30 40 60 80 120 160 240 104
5×104

Calculated LC99 ppm

Confidence limits Slop values.s
1.32 3.08 1.38 3.31 2.19

105

5×105

106

Lower

Upper

% Mortality Agerin* Biofly ** Diazinon Paraffin oil Mixture No. 1* Mixture No. 2 ** MixtureNo. 3 Mixture No.4 • 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 33 5 0 12 0 57 18 0 45 0 78 71 0 84 100 0 93 0 96 0 6 0 0 9 0 27 0 0 36 0 42 0 54 0 75 0 81 0 86 0 93 -

>106 1.48×105 78.34 >10000 >106 9.3×104 66.1 33.4 4.7×106 337.2 397.54 5.1×104 51.6 24.6 1.6×105 84.61 45.4 9.01×106 454.3886 9.6×104 60.0 2.3×105 102.3

* Concentration (unit/ml.), **concentration (conidia/ml.).

SU MMA RY -V
BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL FOR SOME PESTS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND ITS SIDE EFFECTS.
Series of field and laboratory experiments had been carried out for determination the efficiency of some substitute implement as a part of integrated pest management for one of the most destructive corn pests European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.). This study included the following : 1- Laboratory determination of LC50 of Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly) against some aphid species and the spider mite T. cinnabarinus (Boisduval). 2-Study the toxicity of mixing (Biofly) with Beauveria bassiana formulation some botanical oils, paraffin and mineral oil. Also the

mixtures of Biofly with some photostablizers and pigments. 3- Study the Effect of U.V radiations on the most effective mixtures. 4-Determination of the ECB infestation percentage for ten corn hybrids, different in tolerant potency at the field to declared the most tolerant cultivars against ECB infestation and the least tolerant one. 5- Chemical control for diazinon and methomyl). 6- Field evaluation of ECB infestation for the most tolerant hybrid and also for two susceptible hybrid which treated with the most persistence mixtures and the most persistence mixture + ½ the recommended concentration of the most effective pesticides. Also bioinsecticides (Biofly and Agrine) and paraffin oil, alone. 7- These mixtures and bioinsecticides had been tested on the adult ECB infestation by using some recommended and common pesticides (chloropyrifos, fenpropathrin,

148

SUMMARY

of the predator Paederus alfierii to evaluate there side effects (toxicity) on the predator. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: 1-Toxicity of the Biofly to the aphid species and red spider mite using slid dipping technique and leaf disk dipping technique respectively, could be arranged descendingly as follows: Tetranychus cinnabarinus > Rhopalosiphum maidis > Aphis craccivora > Aphis gossypii (LC50`s: 9.1×103, 5.65×104, 2.20×105,and 2.67×105 conidia/ml, respectively). 2-Toxicity of the different oils against spider mite Teteranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) using leaf-disc dipping technique could be arranged descendingly as follows: corn oil> cotton oil >caster oil > mineral oil>canola oil> paraffin oil (LC50`s: 1.0×102, 4.72×102, 6.67×102, 1.09×103, 1.56×103, and 2.56×103 ppm respectively. 3-Most tested mixtures of corn and cotton oils with Beauveria bassiana (Biofly) were less toxic than the Beauveria bassiana formulation (Biofly). On the other hand, the mixtures which consists of three parts of Biofly and one part caster oil or canola or mineral and paraffin oils more toxic than Biofly formulation against T. cinnabarinus. 4-All tested photostablizers and pigment with Biofly had increased the mixtures' toxicity to Teteranychus cinnabarinus mites. When increasing the concentration ratio to 1% the toxicity decrease. Mixture of Biofly + 0.1% Acetophenon or 4-nitro acetophenon or 7-nitophenol or benzophenon, Biofly + 0.1% or 0.2% or 0.5%congo Red and Biofly + 0.1% or 0.2% or 0.5% titan yellow mixtures had increased the toxicity of Beauveria bassiana (Biofly formulation) against adult Teteranychus cinnabarinus. 5- The most persistence mixtures were 3:1 Biofly:paraffin oil and 3:1 Biofly: castor oil mixtures ( T50 : the time consumed to reduce the pesticides concentration to half =1.47 and 1.74 hours respectively ) while,

149

SUMMARY

3:1 Biofly:mineral oil mixture had the lowest value in this respect ( T50= 0.90 hour). While, in case of Biofly + photostablizers mixtures, the most persistence mixtures were Biofly + 0.1 % benzophenon, Biofly +0.5% congo red and Biofly+0.1% 7-nitrophenol mixtures ( T50 were 5.71, 4.981 and 3.14hours after 12 hours UV radiation exposure respectively) while Biofly +0.1%acetophenon had the lowest values in this respect which had lost there efficiency against the adult spider mites T. cinnabarinus after two hour exposure to UV radiation. 6-Cultivars S.C.13 and T.W.C. 351 were the most tolerant cultivars against ECB infestation while, T.W.C.323 and T.W.C.324 cultivars were the most susceptible cultivers. There are a positive relationship between grain protein percentage and the damaged grain percentage. There are no grain relationship between phosphorous percentage and damaged

percentage. In case of yield and yield component:S.C.10 ( single cross hybrid 10) had the highest values in 100 grain weight and grain yield/10 plants . 7- The most potent insecticides against ECB infestation were diazinon followed by fenpropathrin but methomyl was the least toxic one (which reduced the holes No./100 internodes, cavity No./10plants, holes No./10 ear stalk and larvae No./10plants). In case of yield and yield component, diazinon followed by chlorpyrifos insecticides had the highest values in 100grain weight and grain yield/10plants( total yield/fadden = 3.3tons) . 8-From the chemical and physical analysis of corn cultivars we can conclude that: cultivars T.W.C. 352 and T.W.C. 324 had the highest value in ash%, cultivars S.C.10, T.W.C. 352 and T.W.C. 351 had the highest values in %cellulose, cultivars T.W.C. 351 and S.C.13 had the lowest values in TSS and cultivars S.C.10 and T.W.C. 323 had the highest values in stem

150

SUMMARY

rigidity. The total soluble solids and %cellulose may be relation with plant resistance. From the field experiments it could be concluded that: spraying with diazinon, mixture No.4 [150ml Biofly + 50ml paraffin oil+ 0.1% benzophenon (0.2gm)+ ½ the recommended field concentration (500ml diazinon)] and mixture No.3 [(375gm Agrine + 125ml paraffin oil+ 0.1% benzophenon(0.5gm) + ½ the recommended field concentration (500ml diazinon)] had been reduced the ECB infestation parameters (holes No./100internodes and cavities No./10plants ). Diazinon, mixture No.4 and mixture No.3 had increase both 100 grain weight and grain yield/10plants (total yield/feddan= 3.82 tons). Agerin ( Bacillus thuringiensis formulation), Agerin mixtures with oil or/with benzophenon and paraffin oil had no toxicity against adults of predator, Paederus alfierii. The toxicity of the rest biochemicals could be arranged descendingly as follows: mixture No.4[150ml Biofly + 50ml paraffin oil+ 0.1% benzophenon (0.2gm)+ ½ the paraffin oil+ 0.1% benzophenon (0.5gm)+ ½ the recommended field recommended field concentration (500ml diazinon)] > mixture No.3 [(375gm Agrine + 125ml concentration (500ml diazinon)] > diazinon. While mixture No.2 [150ml Biofly + 50ml paraffin oil+ 0.1% benzophenon (0.2gm)] were more toxic than Biofly.

VI - RE FERE NCES
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Informativo de Plagas.(103): 53-60. Mesquita-Paiva, L.; I. Pereira-Padovan and E. A. d. Luna-Alves-Lima (1996). Scanning electron microscopy of vegetative and reproductive structures from Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. strains stored in mineral oil. Boletin Micologico. 11(1/2): 81-86. Mestres, R. and J. P. Cabanettes (1985). Intentional and unintentional effects of chemical treatments for the control of the pyralid. Phytoma.(369): 19-21. Metwally, A. S. and A. A. Barakat (2003). Distribution of European corn borer larvae within - maize plants of some single cross hybrids. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ. 28(6): 5053-5060. Metwally, A. S. and A. M. Shehata (1999). Efficacy of timing and frequency of spraying application with Nuvacron 40 % for European corn borer control in maize. J . Agric . Sci . Mansoura Univ . 24(12): 7701 7705. Mile, L. (1993). Integrated pest management of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn) in maize. Integrovane systemy hospodarenia na pode Zbornik z Medzinarodnej konferencie konanej. 220-223. Mishra, N. C. and J. M. Satpathy (1984). Selective toxicity of some insecticides against cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. and its coccinellid predator, Coccinella repanda Th. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 12(1): 13-17. Molinari, F. and E. Mazzoni (1986). Studies for the evaluation of damage caused by Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. (Lepidoptera Pyraustidae) to maize

168

‫الملخص العربي‬

hybrids. Redia. 69: 65-82. Moore, D.; P. D. Bridge; P. M. Higgins; R. P. Bateman and C. Prior (1993). Ultra-violet radiation damage to Metarhizium flavoviride conidiaand protection given by vegetable and mineral oils and chemical sunscreens. Annual Applied Biology. 122: 605-616. Morley-Davies, J.; D. Moore and C. Prior (1996). Screening of Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. conidia with exposure to simulated sunlight and a range of temperatures. Mycological Research. 100(1): 31-38. Moustafa Fatahia, I.; A. H. El-Sebae; S. El-Hawashi Nadia and M. I. Zeid (1980). Toxicity of seven organophosphorus insecticides to the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum (Duv.) Applied by two different methods. Alex. J. Agric. Res. 28(3): 273-277. Moye, H. A.; J. Y. Malagodi; G. L. Leibee; C. C. Ku and P. G. Wislocki (1987). Residues of avermectin B1 a rotational crops and soils following soil treatment with (14C) avermectin B1 a. J. Agric. Food Chem. 35: 859-864. Musser, F. R. and A. M. Shelton (2005). The influence of post-exposure temperature on the toxicity of insecticides to Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Pest Management Science. 61(5): 508-510. Mustea, D. (1977). Effectiveness of several insecticidal products in the control of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.). Probleme de Protectia Plantelor. 5(2): 163-172. Nirmala, R.; B. Ramanujam; R. J. Rabindra and N. S. Rao (2006). Effect

169

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‫ا لملخص العربي‬
‫الم كاف حة ال بيو لوج ية و الك يمي ائ ية لب عض آ فا ت الم حاص يل‬ ‫ا لزراع ية و تأ ثير ات ها الج انب ية‬
‫أجر يت سلسلة من التجارب الحقل ية و المعمل ية لتقد ير كفاءة ب عض الو سائل البديلة كجزء‬ ‫ية و ه ي ثاقب ة الذرة الوربي ة )‪Ostrinia‬‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي ي‬ ‫م ن برنام ج المكافح ة المتكاملة لح د آفات الذرة الشامي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫‪.)nubilalis. Hb‬‬ ‫وتشمل الدراسة ما يلي:‬ ‫1- تقديير التركييز النصيفي الممييت 05‪ LC‬لمسيتحضر ‪Beauveria bassiana‬‬ ‫البيوفلى ضد بعض أنواع المن و العنكبوت الحمر ( ‪. )T. cinnabarinus biosduval‬‬ ‫2- درا سة سمية خلط م ستحضر البيوفلى مع ب عض الزيوت النبات ية , ز يت البراف ين و‬ ‫الزيت المعدني . و أيضا مخاليط البيوفلى مع بعض المثبتات الضوئية و الصبغات.‬ ‫3- دراسة تأثير الشعة الفوق بنفسجية على أكثر المخاليط فاعلية .‬ ‫4- تقد ير ن سبة ال صابة بآ فة ثاق بة الذرة الورب ية لع شر ه جن مختل فة في قوة الحتمال‬ ‫بالحقل لتقدير أكثر الهجن تحملً للصابة و أيضا أقلها تحمل .‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ية لثاقب ة الذرة الوربي ة باس تخدام بع ض الم بيدات الموص ى به ا و‬ ‫ي ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫5- المكافح ة الكيميائي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫شائعة الستخدام ( ‪ chloropyrifos, fenpropathrin , diazinon‬و ‪.) methomyl‬‬ ‫لكثر الهجن تحملَ للصابة و‬ ‫6- التقييم الحقلي للصابة بثاقبة الذرة الوربية بالنسبة‬ ‫أي ضا الهجين ين الح ساسين لل صابة و ال تي سيتم معاملت ها بأك ثر المخال يط ثباتا و أك ثر المخال يط‬ ‫ثباتا + نصيف معدل التطيبيق الحقلي لكثير الميبيدات فاعليية( الديازينون) و أيضا بأكثير الميبيدات‬ ‫فاعل ية( الديازينون) , ال مبيدات الحيو ية (بيوفلى و الجر ين) و ز يت البراف ين وحده ما و ذلك‬ ‫على ثاقبة الذرة الوربية.‬ ‫7- اختبار المخال يط ال سابقة , ز يت البراف ين , ال مبيدات الحيو ية بيوفلى , الجر ين و‬ ‫يا الجان بي أو‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ة و ذلك لتقيييم مدى تأثيره‬ ‫كذلك الديازينون على الحشرات البالغية لمفترس الرواغي‬ ‫السمية للمفترس.‬

‫ويمكن تلخيص النتائج المتحصل عليها كما يلي:‬ ‫1- س مية البيوفلى على أنواع الم ن المختلف ة و العنكبوت الحم ر يمك ن ترتيبه ا تنازلي ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫كالتي: العنكبوت الحمر > من الذرة > من الفول > من القطن (قيم التركيز النصفي المميت 5‪LC‬‬ ‫و 76.2×015 كونديا/مل على الترتيب).‬
‫5‬

‫هي 1.9×013 , 56.5×014 , 02.2×01‬

‫0‬

‫ير ‪Teteranychus‬‬ ‫ية على إناث العنكبوت الحمي‬ ‫يب يمية الزيوت المختلفي‬ ‫2- ترتيي سي‬ ‫‪ cinnabarinus‬تنازليا كالتيي : زييت الذرة>زييت القطين> زييت الخروع> الزييت المعدنيي‬ ‫>ز يت الكانول> ز يت البراف ين ( قي مة الترك يز الن صفي المم يت ,012 ×27.4 ,012×0.1=05‪LC‬‬ ‫013×65.1 ,013 ×90.1 ,012×76.6 و 65.2×013 جزء في المليون على الترتيب).‬ ‫3- معظيم المخالييط المختيبرة لزييت الذرة و زييت القطين ميع كانيت أقيل سيمية مين‬ ‫المستحضر الصلي. و في الجانب الخر فان المخاليط المكونة من 3أجزاء من البيوفلى: جزء‬ ‫وا حد من ز يت الخروع أو الكانول أو الز يت المعد ني أو ز يت البراف ين كا نت أك ثر سمية من‬ ‫مستحضر مستحضر البيوفلى الصلي وذلك ضد العنكبوت الحمر.‬ ‫4- كيل المركبات المختيبرة مين المثبتات الضوئيية و الصيباغ قيد زادت مين سيمية‬ ‫المخاليط على العنكبوت الحمر و لكن عند زيادة نسبة المركبات إلى 1% فان السمية تقل. مخاليط‬ ‫البيوفلى +1.0% اسييتوفينون أو 4-نيترواسييتوفينون أو 7-نيتروفينول أو بنزوفينون و مخالييط‬ ‫يو و البيوفلى +1.0 % أو 2.0% أو‬ ‫ير الكونغي‬ ‫البيوفلى +1.0% أو 2.0% أو 5.0% أحمي‬ ‫5.0% تيتان الصفر زادت من سمية مستحضر البيوفلى ضد العنكبوت الحمر.‬ ‫يط 3 بيوفلى :‬ ‫5- ير المخالي ط ثباتا ت حت تأثي ر الشع ة فوق البنفس جية كان ت مخالي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أكث‬ ‫1زيت برافين و 3 بيوفلى :1زيت خروع (كان قيمة الزمن اللزم لفقد نصف التركيز هو 74.1‬ ‫و 47.1 ساعة على الترت يب) بين ما, خل يط 3 بيوفلى : 1ز يت معد ني كان له ا قل قي مه في هذا‬ ‫يط البيوفلى والمثبتات الضوئي ة يمكنن ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫المجال (عم ر النص ف = 9.0س اعة) . أم ا يي حالة مخالي‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫تلخ يص الت ي: أكث ر المخال يط ثباتا كان ت بيوفلى +1.0% بنزفينون و بيوفلى +5.0% احم ر‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫الكونغو و بيوفلى +1.0%7-نيتروفينول ( حيث كان عمر النصف 17.5, 189.4 و 41.3 ساعة‬ ‫بعد 21 ساعه من التعريض للشعة الفوق بنفسجية وذلك على الترتيب ) بينما كان خليط بيوفلى‬ ‫+1.0% أ سيتوفينون ا قل المخال يط ثباتا ح يث ف قد فاعلي ته ضد العنكبوت الح مر ب عد ساعتين من‬ ‫التعرض للشعة فوق البنفسجية.‬

‫6- أ صناف فردى 31 و ثل ثي 153 كا نت أك ثر ال صناف تحمل بين ما كا نت ال صناف‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ثل ثي 323 و 423 أك ثر ال صناف ح ساسية ع ند تقي يم ال صابة بثاق بة الذرة الورب ية بوا سطة عدد‬ ‫الثقوب/001عقلة, عدد النفاق /01نباتات و عدد اليرقات /01نباتات. كانت هناك علقة إيجابية بين‬ ‫نسبة البروتين في الحبوب و نسبة الصابة بها بينما لم يوجد علقة بين نسبة الفوسفور في الحبوب‬ ‫و ن سبة ال صابة ب ها. في حالة النتاج و مكونات النتاج : ف قد أع طى هج ين فردى 01 أعلى الق يم‬ ‫في وزن الي 001 حبة و النتاج لي 01نباتات.‬ ‫7- أك ثر ال مبيدات فاعل ية ضد ال صابة بثاق بة الذرة الورب ية هو الديازينون ثم الفي نبروباثرين و‬ ‫الكلوربيرفوس بينما كان الميثوميل اقل المبيدات سمية . حيث أنها خفضت عدد الثقوب/001عقدة ,‬ ‫يل كوز و عدد اليرقات/01نباتات. يا يي حالة‬ ‫أمي في‬ ‫عدد النفاق/01نباتات , عدد الثقوب/01حوامي‬ ‫المح صول و مكونا ته: ف قد أع طى كل من الديازينون يل يه الكلوربيرفوس ثم الفي نبروباثرين أعلى‬ ‫القيم في وزن الي 001حبة و كذلك إنتاج الحبوب/01نباتات (النتاج بالطن/فدان =3.3 طن).‬ ‫8- من التحاليل الكيمائية لصناف الذرة يمكننا أن نلخص التي:كان الهجين ثلثي 253 و 423‬ ‫أعلى ال صناف في ن سبة الرماد . الهج ين الفردي 01, الهج ين الثل ثي 253 و 423 كا نت أعلى‬ ‫الصناف في نسبة السليلوز. الهجين الفردي 31 والثلثي 153 كانت اقل الصناف في نسبة المواد‬ ‫الصلبة الذائبة بينما الهجين فردى 01 و الهجين الثلثي 323 كانت اكثر الصناف صلبة في قشرة‬ ‫ال ساق. رب ما يكون هناك ارتباط ب ين ن سبة المواد ال صلبة الذائ بة الكل ية و كذلك ن سبة ال سليلوز في‬ ‫المقاومة النباتية.‬ ‫من التجارب الحقلية يمكننا أن نلخص التي:‬ ‫•الرش بمب يد الديازينون أو خل يط ر قم 4 ]051 مل بيوفلى+05 مل ز يت بارف ين‬ ‫+1.0% بنزوفينون (2.0 جم بنزوفينون) + ½ معدل الترك يز الحقلي(005 مل‬ ‫ديازينون)[ أو خليط رقم 3 ] (573 جرام أجرين + 521 مل زيت برافين +‬ ‫يز الحقلي ين الديازينون ( 005 يل‬ ‫مي‬ ‫مي‬ ‫1.0% بنزوفينون + ½ معدل التركيي‬ ‫قيا سات ال صابة ( عدد الثقوب/001عقدة و‬ ‫ديازينون) [ قد أدى إلى خ فض‬

‫عدد النفاق /01نباتات) . بين ما أدى الرش بمب يد الديازينون أو خل يط ر قم 4 أو‬ ‫خلييط رقيم 3 إلى زيادة كيل مين وزن اليي001 حبية و إنتاج الحبوب ليي 01‬ ‫نباتات( النتاج طن/فدان =28.3 طن) .‬

‫ين (تجهيزه‬ ‫يد الحيوى الجريي‬ ‫•لم ين هناك أي يمية للمبيي‬ ‫سي‬ ‫يكي‬ ‫‪ ) Bacillus thuringiensis‬أو خليط الجرين مع زيت البرافين‬ ‫أو ميع زييت البرافيين و المثبيت الضوئي على مفترس الرواغية.‬ ‫بين ما يم كن ترت يب سمية با قي ال مبيدات الحيو ية تنازليا كال تي:‬ ‫خلييط رقيم 4 ]051ميل بيوفلى+05ميل زييت بارفيين +1.0%‬ ‫بنزوفينون (2.0 جم بنزوفينون) + ½ معدل الترك يز الحقلي(005‬ ‫ميل ديازينون)[ > خلييط رقيم 3 ]573 جرام أجريين +521ميل‬ ‫زيييت بارفييين +1.0% بنزوفينون (5.0 جرام) + ½ معدل‬ ‫الترك يز الحقلي من الديازينون(005 مل ديازينون)[ > ديازينون‬ ‫. بين ما كان الخليط رقم 2 ] 051 مل بيوفلى +05 مل برافين +‬ ‫1.0% بنزفينون(2.0 جرام) [ اكثير سيمية مين مسيتحضر‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي ي‬ ‫البيوفلى .‬

‫اسم الطالب:صبرى عبد المنعم عبد العال عبدال‬ ‫عنوان الرسالة:المكافحة البيولوجية و الكيميائية لبعض آفات المحاصيل الزراعية و تأثيراتها الجانبية‬ ‫الدرجة:الدكتوراه في العلوم الزراعية (مبيدات) قسم وقاية النبات-كلية الزراعة – جامعة طنطا.‬

‫المستخلص‬
‫أجريت سلسلة من التجارب الحقل ية و المعمل ية في كل ية الزرا عة جام عة طن طا و ذلك لتقد ير كفاءة ب عض‬ ‫الوسائل البديلة كجزء من برنامج المكافحة المتكاملة لحد آفات الذرة الشامية و هي ثاقبة الذرة الوربية‬ ‫‪ )Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb‬ويمكن تلخيص النتائج المتحصل عليها كما يلي:‬

‫• سمية البيوفلى على أنواع المن المختلفة و العنكبوت الحمر يمكن ترتيبها تنازليا كالتي: العنكبوت‬ ‫الح مر > من الذرة > من الفول > من الق طن. بين ما كان ترت يب سمية الزيوت المختل فة على إناث‬ ‫العنكبوت الح مر ‪ Teteranychus cinnabarinus‬تنازليا كال تي : ز يت الذرة>ز يت الق طن>‬ ‫زيت الخروع> الزيت المعدني >زيت الكانول> زيت البرافين .‬ ‫•مع ظم المخال يط المخ تبرة لز يت الذرة و ز يت الق طن مع م ستحضر البيوفلى كا نت أ قل سمية من‬ ‫المسمتحضر الصملي. و بينمما المخاليمط المكونمة ممن 3أجزاء ممن البيوفلى: 1 جزء ممن زيمت‬ ‫من كانمت أكثمر ممية من مسمتحضر البيوفلى‬ ‫م‬ ‫س‬ ‫الخروع أو الكانول أو الزيمت المعدنمي أو زيمت البرافي‬ ‫ال صلي وذلك ضد العنكبوت الح مر. كل المركبات المخ تبرة من المثبتات الضوئ ية و ال صباغ قد‬ ‫زادت من سمية المخاليط على العنكبوت الحمر و لكن عند زيادة نسبة المركبات إلى 1% فان السمية‬ ‫تقل. مخاليط البيوفلى +1.0% اسيتوفينون أو4-نيترواسيتوفينون أو 7-نيتروفينول أو بنزوفينون و‬ ‫5.0% تيتان الصفر زادت من سمية مستحضر البيوفلى ضد العنكبوت الحمر.‬ ‫مخاليمط البيوفلى +1.0% أو 2.0% أو 5.0% أحممر الكونغمو و البيوفلى +1.0% أو 2.0% أو‬ ‫•أك ثر المخال يط ثباتا ت حت تأث ير الش عة فوق البنف سجية كا نت مخال يط 3 بيوفلى :1ز يت براف ين , 3‬ ‫1.0% 7-نيتروفينول .‬

‫بيوفلى :1زيت خروع و بيوفلى +1.0% بنزفينون , بيوفلى +5.0% احمر الكونغو , بيوفلى +‬

‫•أ صناف فردى 31 و ثلثي 153 كانت أك ثر ال صناف تحملً بين ما كانت الصناف ثلثي 323 و 423‬ ‫أكثر الصناف حساسية عند تقييم الصابة بثاقبة الذرة الوربية بواسطة عدد الثقوب/ 001عقلة, عدد‬ ‫النفاق /01نباتات و عدد اليرقات /01نباتات. كانمت هناك علقمة إيجابيمة بيمن نسمبة البروتيمن فمي‬ ‫الحبوب و نسبة الصابة بها. أعطى هجين فردى 01 أعلى القيم في وزن الم001 حبة و النتاج لم‬ ‫01نباتات.‬ ‫•أكثمر الممبيدات فاعليمة ضمد الصمابة بثاقبمة الذرة الوربيمة همو الديازينون ثمم الفينمبروباثرين و‬ ‫الكلوربيرفوس بينمما كان الميثوميمل اقمل الممبيدات سممية. كذلك أعطمى كمل ممن الديازينون يليمه‬ ‫الكلوربيرفوس ثم الفينبروباثرين أعلى القيم في وزن الم001حبة و كذلك إنتاج الحبوب/01نباتات.‬

‫•الرش بمبيد الديازينون أو خليط رقم4 [051 مل بيوفلى+05 مل زيت بارفين +1.0% بنزوفينون (‬ ‫[ (573 جرام أجريمن + 521 ممل زيمت برافيمن +1.0% بنزوفينون (5.0جمم بنزوفينون) + ½‬ ‫001عقدة و عدد النفاق /01نباتات) . بينمما أدى الرش بمبيمد الديازينون أو خليمط رقمم 4 أو خليمط‬ ‫معدل التركيمز الحقلي ممن الديازينون ( 005ممل ديازينون) ] قمد أدى إلى خفمض عدد الثقوب/‬ ‫2.0جم بنزوفينون) + ½ معدل التركيز الحقلي من الديازينون (005 مل ديازينون) ] أو خليط رقم 3‬

‫•لم يكن هناك أي سمية للمبيد الحيوى الجرين (تجهيزه ‪ ) Bacillus thuringiensis‬أو خليط الجرين مع‬ ‫ز يت البراف ين أو مع ز يت البراف ين و المث بت الضوئي على مفترس الروا غة. بين ما يم كن ترت يب سمية با قي‬ ‫المبيدات الحيوية تنازليا كالتي: خليط رقم 4 > خليط رقم 3 > ديازينون . بينما كان الخليط رقم 2 [051 مل‬ ‫بيوفلى +05مل زيت برافين +1.0% بنزفينون (2.0جم بنزوفينون)] اكثر سمية من مستحضر البيوفلى.‬

‫رقم 3 إلى زيادة كل من وزن الم001 حبة و إنتاج الحبوب لم 01 نباتات.‬

‫جامعة طنطا‬ ‫كلية الزراعة‬ ‫قسم وقاية النبات‬

‫المكافحة البيولوجية و الكيمائية لبعض أفات المحاصيل‬ ‫الزراعية و تأثيراتها الجانبية‬
‫رسالة مقدمة من‬ ‫صبرى عبد المنعم عبد العال عبدال‬ ‫بكالوريوس العلوم الزراعية ( مبيدات )كلية الزراعة م كفر الشيخ جامعة طنطا 1991م‬ ‫ماجستير العلوم الزراعية (مبيدات) كلية الزراعة م كفر الشيخ جامعة طنطا 8991م‬

‫للحصول على درجة دكتوراة الفلسفة‬ ‫فى‬ ‫العلوم الزراعية‬ ‫( المبيدات )‬ ‫قسم وقاية النبات‬ ‫كلية الزراعة‬ ‫جامعة طنطا‬

‫8002م‬

‫جامعة طنطا‬ ‫كلية الزراعة‬ ‫قسم وقاية النبات‬

‫المكافحة البيولوجية و الكيميائية لبعض أفات المحاصيل الزراعية‬ ‫و تأثيراتها الجانبية‬
‫رسالة مقدمة من‬

‫صبرى عبد المنعم عبد العال عبدال‬
‫بكالوريوس العلوم الزراعية ( مبيدات )كلية الزراعة ي كفر الشيخ جامعة طنطا 1991م‬ ‫ماجستير العلوم الزراعية (مبيدات) كلية الزراعة ي كفر الشيخ جامعة طنطا 8991م‬ ‫كجزء من متطلبات الحصول على درجة الدكتوراة فى العلوم الزراعية (المبيدات)‬

‫لجن ة ال شراف‬
‫الستاذ الدكتور / حلمى على إبراهيم عنبر‬ ‫أستاذ المبيدات و عميد كلية الزراعة - جامعة طنطا‬ ‫دكتور/ السيد عبد العزيز كشك‬ ‫مدرس المبيدات كلية الزراعة - جامعة طنطا‬ ‫الستاذ الدكتور / تسامح خطاب عبد الروؤف‬ ‫أستاذ المبيدات المتفرغ كلية الزراعة - جامعة طنطا‬ ‫الستاذ الدكتور / عبد الرحيم سلطان متولى عبد الرحيم‬ ‫أستاذ الحشرات القتصادية و رئيس قسم حشرات‬ ‫المحاصيل الحقلية مركز بحوث وقاية النبات‬

‫وكيل الكلية لشئون الدراسات العليا و البحوث‬
‫أ.د / إبراهيم إبراهيم مصباح‬

‫رئيس مجلس القسم‬
‫أ.د / إبراهيم إبراهيم مصباح‬

‫جامعة طنطا‬ ‫كلية الزراعة‬ ‫قسم وقاية النبات‬

‫المك افحة ا لب يول وجية و ال كيم يائية ل بعض أف ات‬ ‫الم حاصيل ال زر اعية و تأث ير ات ها ال جان بية.‬
‫رسالة مقدمة من‬

‫صبرى عبد المنعم عبد العال عبدال‬
‫بكالوريوس العلوم الزراعية ( مبيدات )كلية الزراعة ي كفر الشيخ جامعة طنطا 1991م‬ ‫ماجستير العلوم الزراعية (مبيدات) كلية الزراعة ي كفر الشيخ جامعة طنطا 8991م‬

‫كجزء من متطلبات الحصول على درجة الدكتوراة فى العلوم الزراعية (المبيدات)‬

‫8002م‬

‫لبعض أفات‬

‫المكافحة البيولوجية و الكي ميائية‬ ‫المحاص يل ا لزراعية و ت‬

‫أثيراتها الج انبية‬

‫رسالة مقدمة من‬ ‫صبرى عبد المنعم عبد العال عبدال‬
‫لدرجة‬ ‫الدكتوراة فى العلوم الزراعية مبيدات الفات‬ ‫بكالوريوس العلوم الزراعية م كلية الزراعة- كفرالشيخ م جامعة طنطا1991م‬ ‫ماجستير العلوم الزراعية م كلية الزراعة- كفرالشيخ م جامعة طنطا8991م‬ ‫لجنة المناقشة والحكم على الرسالة‬
‫------------------------------‬

‫1 ي الستاذ الدكتور / تسامح خطاب عبد الرؤوف‬ ‫أستاذ المبيدات المتفرغ كلية الزراعة - جامعة طنطا‬ ‫2 ي الستاذ الدكتور / عطية يوسف قريطم‬ ‫أس متاذ كمياء الم مبيدات- كلي مة الزراع مة-جامع مة‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫كفر الشيخ‬ ‫3 ي الستاذ الدكتور /حلمى على إبراهيم عنبر‬ ‫أستاذ المبيدات و عميد كلية الزراعة - جامعة طنطا‬ ‫4ي الستاذ الدكتور / إبراهيم إبراهيم مصباح‬ ‫أسمتاذ الحشرات القتصمادية و وكيمل كليمة الزراعمة‬ ‫-جامعة طنطا‬

‫------------------------------‬

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