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Transforming g Science Into Dreams: Taking A Closer Look by Agnes Meilhac

from the Greek kosmetikos or skilled at adornment d t

articles ti l intended i t d d to t b be rubbed, bb d poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, i t d introduced d iinto, t or otherwise th i applied li d to t the human body for cleansing, b beautifying, tif i promoting ti attractiveness, tt ti or altering the appearance

FD&C C Act

Part of Our Culture and Civilization


the Cosmetics Industry Today

The Worldwide Cosmetics Market 1993 2009 Average annual growth rate + 4.2%

Global Overview:

Source: LOreal estimates, September 2010

Market Structure and Size

Source: LOreal, 2008

Top 10 Global Cosmetics Companies:

55% Total Market Sales

Source: LOreal, June 2009

Main Business Segments

Source: LOreal estimates, 2008, excl. soap, toothpaste and razors

Defining Factors
External ltrade d



An Industry Geared Toward Exports

Size of exports in by country relative to the size of the domestic market (2006)

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

EU27 US Japan China Germany France UK Italy S i Spain

Cosmetics Industry: R & D and d Innovation I ti

8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2 000 2,000 1,000 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Source: European Patent Office (EPO)

Progression in the number of patents published

China Japan US EU27

Advertising Over Sales Ratio

25.00% 20.00% 15 00% 15.00% 10.00% 5 00% 5.00% 0.00%
ire les m s un ica ti o n so ftw se ar m ic e on du ct lif or ei ns ur an ce co m et ic fo od co sm m ac y
Cosmetic advertising expenditure = $2.2 bn (2005)

ph ar

Advertising / sales ratio across different industries in the US (2005)

What Innovation?
What Technology?
Waterproof mascara that does not run Anti-dandruff shampoos Face powder that eliminates shiny skin Light-reflecting pigments concealing shadows under the eyes Sun creams (protection against harmful UV rays) Self-tanning products

Todays y Brands Are Defined by INNOVATION

(Handout p. 4)

from Science to Language

Language of Cosmetics





Loan words Neologisms Verbs Verbal adjectives Buzzwords

Present tense Active vs. Passive Tone Impersonal Imperatives

Metaphors, similes and metonymy Personification Superlatives

S i ifi Technical, Scientific, T h i l Advertising Ad i i or Patchwork? P h k?

(Handout p. 1)

The Language of Cosmetics:

science i / technology


What Makes the Difference?

Lexical Features



Buzzwords & catchphrases

Role of verbs

Loan Words in Translation:

Intentional Strategy
1 From another language (culturally-bound 1. (culturally bound concepts difficult to translate) Last resort for want of a better solution or preserving elements of SL culture

-> flacon, ampoule, pipette, burette, crme, enfleurage, camouflage makeup, fondant (*)

2. From another field of expertise

Vinay y & Darbelnet ( (1958): )

Thesimplestofalltranslationmethodstoovercomealacuna (gap),usuallyametalinguistic one(e.g.anewtechnical process anunknownconcept) process,

-> stem cells, growth factor, DNA, free radicals, oxidative stress

Fondant UK co U ompa any web b site e

Buttery, B tt meltaway, lt vanishing, i hi rich and creamy, divinely luscious, , luxurious, , sumptuous? p
Moisturizing emulsion

Enrichedwithmoisturizingandinstant actionmattifyingagents,thisastonishingly freshtextured,fondant emulsionleaves skinlookingideallyshinefreeandfeeling moisturizedfromthemomentof application. Softfocuspigmentsworkto concealtheappearanceofskin irregularities. Theskinstexturelooksmore refined.

US co U ompa any w web b site e

MatChrono mulsion
Moisturizing Emulsion

Exclusivelyformulatedtopreventand treatshinyskinandenlargedpores, thiscreamforday ytimecontainsa TripleActionComplexthatimproves skinselasticity,regulatesthetzone andtightenspores.OilFree. $44.00 1.42OZ

Frenglish / Denglish / Spanglish?

Languageevolves overtimeasusage changes. h ...many borrowingsentera languagethrough translation...*
* Vinay & Darbelnet (1958)

Linguistic Mutation or

Loan Words in Translation:

Intentional Strategy
1. From another language (culturally-bound concepts difficult to translate) Last resort for want of a better solution or preserving elements of SL culture
-> flacon, ampoule, pipette, burette, crme, enfleurage, camouflage makeup, fondant

2. From another field of expertise

Vinay & Darbelnet (1958):

Thesimplestofalltranslationmethodstoovercomealacuna (gap),usuallyametalinguistic one(e.g.anewtechnical process,anunknownconcept)

-> stem cells, growth factor, DNA, free radicals, oxidative stress

Aquacurrent Science by P&G

Aquacurrent Science: Moving Moisture Where It's Needed. Water is the universal solvent - central to life on earth and essential to overall health, beauty and wellness. While skin care and hair care products have traditionally focused on "locking-in" water moisture, the recent discovery of microchannels underneath the skin's surface underscores the importance of releasing and channeling water to maintain healthy skin. The Nobel Th N b l Prize-winning Pi i i discovery di of f aquaporins i , proteins t i consisting i ti of f tiny ti micro-channels embedded in the skin cell walls underneath the skin's surface, is providing scientists with a new and better target to retain and enhance moisture in the skin. Aquacurrent Science, inspired by the discovery of aquaporins, is the basis of unique product formulations that utilize the natural properties of water to help move moisture where it's needed for the best possible results. Click below to learn more about b t applications li ti of f this thi iinnovative ti science. i =

Aquaporin Technology by DIOR

Dioraddsaluxurioushelpinghandtodry,parchedskinwiththeirlegendary HydrAction Collectiontheultimatemoisturizingarsenal fornormal,dry,and combinationskin.Fromsorbetlightcrmestoeffectiverefiningtreatments, gsecretweapon p Aquacapt q p Complex p helps p reinforce Dior'sskinsoothing yourcomplexion'snaturalmoisturereservestokeepitfeelingsoftandhydrated alldaylong.


5 phrases for talking about HYDRACTION ?

2 Aquaporin 3



in 1 second, encourages the passage of 1 billion water molecules

ON THE SURFACE: Immediate hydration y The cells are brimming with moisture DEEP WITHIN:

after only 1 application to the skin


+ 77% in immediate hydration y + 30% in 24-hour

D h d ti Dehydration li lines di disappear, the th skin ki feels suppler, refreshed, plumper, more luminous and comfortable.

Long-term hydration
Water circulation is activated, activated skin replenished with moisture

Borrowed from Science

hydrate moisturize i i

Loan Words:

scrub revitalize

exfoliate regenerate

dehydration,keratinization,detoxification,hyperpigmentation, comedogenicity, g y,p postinflammatory f yresponse, p , p phototoxic reaction,freeradicals,antioxidants,trophicity,dystrophy, collagensynthesis,cellularmetabolism,lipolysis,lipogenesis, sebumsecretion, secretion enzymatictrigger trigger,glycation, glycation keratolytic, keratolytic extracellularmatrix,dermis,epidermis,stratumcorneum,etc.

Vinay & Darbelnet (1958):

Aspecialkindofborrowing,resultingineither: A lexical calque (borrowedwordtranslated literally):dermocosmetics, d ti cosmeceuticals, ti l mattify, ttif

photoaging(shortforphotoinducedaging),destress, dewrinkle...

A structural calque (borrowedexpression witheachofitselementstranslatedintoTL):

opticalcorrectorpigments (pigmentscorrecteurs optiques,Nuxe), headnote(also:topnote),heartnote(also:middlenote), palpateandrollmassage(palper rouler), rouler) externalaggressions (stressfactors),cosmetoclinicaltrial,barrierfunction,...

Calques: Examples
de-stress (FR: dstresser):
Elemis Soothing Chamomile Cleanser is a hypoallergenic, cooling, cleansing milk that removes impurities and make-up whilst calming and de-stressing the most sensitive skins. It is i formulated f l t d with ith harmonizing h i i extracts t t of f German G Chamomile Ch il that soothe and de-stress the skin. Good for extra sensitive, delicate and hormonal skin.

de-wrinkle (FR: drider):

LOral Dermo Expertise p Age g Perfect Cleansing g Milk Enriched with magnesium, known for its revitalizing properties and vitamin C known for its energizing properties, the formula: --Helps to de-wrinkle the skin and reduce the signs of fatigue in mature skin. --Hydrates the skin

The Alternative: Paraphrasing

FR: dcongestionner

eliminate / remove / clear embedded impurities and toxins, calm swollen areas deep-cleanse (unclog the pores) revitalize invigorate, revitalize, invigorate stimulate eliminate li i t excess fluids, fl id reduce d puffiness, reduce edema/swelling by improved re-absorption and drainage of retained liquids and toxins, calm swollen areas (Nuxe)

FR: dsincruster FR: dfatiguer FR: d i filt dsinfiltrer dgonfler dsengorger drainer

N New Word W d Formations F i / New N M Meaning i

newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense (Newmark, 2001:140) Established: moisturizer / concealer More recent coinages: i bronzer, volumizer, i luminizer i i / luminizing (YSL), highlighter, complexion-brightener (Dior), booster, , corrector, , crepiness, p , glide-on, g , youth y grafter (Helena Rubinstein) cosmeceuticals, nanoparticulate, MYO-aging (L'Oral), photoaging, dermobiotic (LRP), ) Lipo-Hydroxy-Acid or LHA (LRP for capryloyl salicylic acid)


E Extensive i Use U in i English E li h Advertising Ad i i Language L

body-enhancing, body enhancing body-sculpting, body sculpting body-contouring, figure-slimming, skin-tensing, slimming shinefree acneprone
(insteadofacneic) FR: amincissant

Creative Compounding:

longerlasting quickabsorbing brushon musthave lightreflecting, naturallooking

bringalong takeanywhere onthego


wrinklefilling filmforming


radianceboosting skinlifting poreclarifying lipidreplenishing


touchup fatiguebusting
(dfatiguant) df )

a Question of Corporate Culture

Translating a sa gb brand-specific a d spec c co concepts cep s = translating a sa g culture-specific concepts (CSCs) Possibilities: Paraphrase: explain the meaning of the SL expression instead of translating it Modulation: use a TL term that seems similar to or has the same "relevance" as the SL term Loan / borrowing: preserve the SL term intact Neologism: make up a new word

Brand-Specific Concepts:

The Never-Ending Struggle:

Finding the Right Balance
(Handout p. p 5) Venuti (1995):

peau intolrante

hypersensitive skin

i t l intolerant t skin

The Never-Ending Struggle:

Finding the Right Balance
Venuti (1995):

fixer la lumire



Chaque harmonie se compose de six teintes, parmi trois familles de couleurs, spcifiquement choisies pour recrer un clat sur mesure : -- Des couleurs correctrices pastel pour rectifier la tonalit de la peau. Le vert attnue le trop de rose des teints clairs ; le rose d i lles t dgrise teints i t t ternes ; le l bl bleu dj djaunit it les l teints t i t fatigus f ti ; le l mauve fixe la lumire et claircit les zones dombres de tous les teints.

Each color harmony is comprised of six shades, from three different color families, which were specially chosen to recreate customized radiance: - Corrective pastel colors to even out skin tone. Green diminishes the excessive pink hue in fair skin; pink adds a healthy glow to a dull complexion; blue takes the yellow tone out of tired skin; mauve reflects / sets or holds light and adds brightness to shadowed areas in all complexions.

Combinations vs. Consistency

puffiness and swelling g puffy bags under eyes

Brand-Specific Choices:

dark [(under)eye] circles/ shadows

undereye bags

puffy, baggy eyes

Buzzwords and Catchphrases:

Dynamic Equivalence in Action
Translation approach based on the principle of equivalent effect and tailoring the message to the receptors receptor s linguistic needs and cultural expectations expectations (Nida, 1964) anti aging: age anti-aging: age-decelerating decelerating (Clinique), age-defying, age-reversing, age-perfecting, age-deflecting, de-aging anti-aging, the Baby Boomer version: pro-youth, pro-age, preserving, image extending, youth extending

LOr de Vie e by Dio or

Product Benefits and Results:

V b and Verbs dV Verbal b l Adjectives Adj ti
Customers do not buy a product; they buy the benefits and results it affords
Up Up verbs activate,boost, accelerate,energize


Downverbs Down verbs


ease,alleviate,soothe,appease,relieve attenuate,minimize,soften,erase fortify,strengthen,nourish,nurture stimulate, invigorate smooth,evenout,plumpup,firm improve,enhance,emphasize illuminate,brighten,suffusewith rid/free(theskin), eliminate,remove relax,destress,dewrinkle mask, hide,conceal,disguise, fight,combat,battle deemphasize

Product Benefits and Results:

V b and Verbs dV Verbal b l Adjectives Adj ti
redesign the facial outlines restructure the intercellular cement, replenish moisture reserves, renew collagen fibers, rejuvenate, reactivate the skins repair process, retexturize / refinish the skins surface, refine the skins texture, regenerate damaged cells, rebalance deep hydration,

V b with Verbs ith the th prefix fi re

(intention to produce a better result):

Product Benefits and Results:

Verbs and Verbal Adjectives
Participal/verbal adjectives
(same form as the participle of a verb)

ing (properties/qualities):relaxing, stimulating, invigorating,

exfoliating, nourishing, deep-cleansing, brightening, whitening, skin-lifting, pore-clarifying

ed (beautyresults): relaxed, stimulated, reinvigorated,

exfoliated, lifted, plumped up, enhanced in appearance, replenished

Spotlight on Adjectives and Adverbs:

E t Extensive i use of: f
Evaluative /comparative adjectives: For the first time, theres a remarkable gel that can give your hair any look you want sleeker, fuller, straighter, curlier, more natural even wet without a drop of alcohol or oil. natural, oil Adverbs (adjective or verb modifiers): th thoroughly hl moisturized i t i d / ideally id ll hydrated h d t d skin, ki carefully f ll selected l t d ingredients, expertly formulated skin care products, beautifully youthful complexion, lastingly nourished, flawlessly smoothed, intensely replenished, genuinely more even-toned, etc.

Terminology Choices (Register)

Distinguishing features of language associated with variations in context and relating to the language user (jargon) and/or language use: 1. field = subject matter 2. tenor = writer-reader relationship 3. mode = formal/informal efficacy (FR: efficacit) technicity (FR: technicit) superfatting
(FR: agent surgraissant, gel surgras)

effectiveness technical expertise technical sophistication extra rich, high-lipid, lipid-enriched

What Makes the Difference?

For Future Discussion Discussion

Syntactic Features

Present tense, active voice

Imperative, Imperative interrogative and cond. sentences

Avoidance of negatives

Ellipsis (elliptical sentences)

What Makes the Difference?

For Future Discussion Discussion

Rhetorical Features

Metaphor, M t h simile, metonymy

P Personification ifi ti

Superlatives S l ti (hyperbole)

Euphemisms, E h i semantic ambiguity

Thank you for your attention!

Agnes Meilhac

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