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# Lecture 2: Exercise and Solution

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Rectangular steel cross-section, with constant thickness of 0.1 m. Numbers indicate height g measured in metres. Find end-deflection and compare. Analytical solution for 1) 23.126 mm

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## 1D elements with thickness 0.1 m and varying heights. 10 elements.

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2D elements with thickness 0.1 m. 20x4 elements.

## Lecture 2: Exercise and Solution

Problem
1) 1 Beam element with constant height equal 0.75 m.

23.221 mm

23.221 mm

## 2) 10 Beam elements with separately constant height.

17.696 mm

1 beam element with variable height going from 1 1.00 00 meter at fixed 17 17.176 176 mm end to 0.50 m at free end. Section: Tapered I (1.0;0.1;0.5;0.1;0.1;0.1;0.1) 3) 4 node elements meshed 4x4 elements (height x length). Load 15.815 mm applied at middle node at the free end. Deformation determined at the same node. 3) 4 node elements meshed 4x10 elements (height x length). Load applied at middle node at the free end. Deformation determined at the same node. 3) 4 node elements meshed 4x20 elements (height x length). Load applied at middle node at the free end end. Deformation determined at the same node. 16.010 mm

16.022 mm

Contents

Element stiffness matrix for beam element Assembling the global stiffness matrix from the element stiffness matrices How to investigate the design (e.g. the placement of reinforcement) of a concrete beam Exercise: Find the optimal placement of the longitudinal reinforcement in a concrete beam

Beam Element

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## Assembling Finite Elements into a Structure

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Structural Equation

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## Different Numbering of Nodes and Degrees of Freedom

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Boundary Conditions

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## Different Stiffness Matrices

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Local element stiffness matrix Independent of element placement in global coordinate system Dependent on material properties (e.g. elasticity modulus, E), section properties (e.g. area, A, moment of inertia, I) and element length, L Global element stiffness matrix Dependent on element placement in global coordinate system F Found d from f multiplying lti l i local l l element l t stiffness tiff matrix t i with ith transformation t f ti matrix Global system y matrix Dependent on degree-of-freedom numbering Found from assembling global element stiffness matrices according to the degree-of-freedom numbering

## Design of Concrete Structures

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A concrete structure is not in an elastic state at failure At failure, failure the cross section is cracked and only a part of the section contributes to the load-carrying capacity i.e. the part in compression The elastic section section-force force distribution gives large values over supports Too expensive to design according to the elastic section forces, because the pressure zone of the cross section becomes very p y small, hence, large g amount of reinforcement would be needed Instead a plastic section-force distribution is chosen according to the lowerbound theory Find a statically acceptable and safe section force distribution, then the section design is on the safe side

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## Example: Design of a Concrete Beam with Multiple Spans

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Example: p 2.66 m wide concrete T-beam, reinforced in the longitudinal direction with a maximum of 4 bars at the top and bottom of the section.

Positive Failure Moment Number of reinforcement bars Bars at the top Bars at the bottom z [mm] Failure moment 4 4 0 414.3 229.1 7 4 3 392.9 380.1 8 4 4 388.6 429.7

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75 kN/m 34 kN/m

451 kNm 476 kNm

98 kNm

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75 kNm k 34 kN/m

216 kNm

172 kNm

216 kNm

124 kNm

106 kNm

65 kNm

## Example: Design of a Concrete Beam with Multiple Spans

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Charniers are added left and right of the middle supports making the system statically determinate (fulfilling first part of the lower-bound theory)

In Staad.Pro, use the general/spec fan, choose beam then release and release Mz, both at the start and end location of the beam (two steps!)

## Example: Design of a Concrete Beam with Multiple Spans

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The chaniers model a failure point. Hence, the moment is known at this point. Over the supports the moment is negative (tension at the top of the beam. Be aware that Staad.Pro Staad Pro uses a different sign convention) convention). Hence Hence, the maximum negative failure moment in this example is +264.5 kNm (not -264.5 kNm). At the failure points the known moment (failure moment) is added as an external moment. In Staad.Pro this is done by choosing Member Load, Concentrated Moment GZ and applying a negative moment at right end of the e bea beam (d (d1 = L, ,d d2 = 0) a and d a pos positive e moment o e a at left e e end do of the e bea beam, , i.e. e (d1=0, d2 =0). The moment distribution from this load case should give the same sign of the moment at the failure points as the elastic analysis. Then the total moment distribution is found as a sum of the moment distribution from the external load applied to the statically determinate system and the moment distribution from the applied external moments at the failure points.

## Example: Design of a Concrete Beam with Multiple Spans

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Load case 1 Moment distribution for actual loading on statically determinate system
216 kNm

467 kNm

## Moment distribution for external applied failure moments

264 5 kNm 264,5 264 5 kNm 264,5

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## Total moment distribution for load case 1

264,5 kNm 264,5 kNm 98 kNm

362 kNm

397 kNm

392 kNm

264,5 , kNm

264,5 kNm

216 kNm

18,9 kNm

## Example: Design of a Concrete Beam with Multiple Spans

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Beam 1:

The moment distribution curve is moved 1/2zcot in the unfavourable direction. On the safe side cot=2.5 (DS411 p. 40)

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Beam 2:

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Beam 2:

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## Anchoring Lengths for Reinforcement in Concrete

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Anchoring factor, 0,3 : smooth reinforcement bars 0,8 0,9 : rough reinforcement bars

Output report

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Modify report file: "." to "," and insert failure moments at the node points

## Excel for plotting the moment curve

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Moment Curves
80 60 40 20 0 -2 -20 -40 40 -60 -80 -100 -120 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

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Today's Exercise

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Office house

Beam to be designed

Today's Exercise

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Today's Exercise

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Positive Failure Moment Number of reinforcement bars Bars at the top Bars at the bottom z [mm] Failure moment 4 2 2 300 50 6 2 4 300 100

## Negative Failure Moment 4 2 2 300 50 6 2 4 300 70

1/2zcot=375 mm , fyk y = 500 MPa , fck = 25 MPa Anchoring factor, = 0.8 anchoring length = 600 mm

Today's Exercise

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Question 1 Fi 1. Find d the h placement l of f the h bending b di reinforcement i f of the beam, i.e. make a moment diagram. Hint: Find the moment curves with Staad.Pro and use e.g. Microsoft Excel for drawing the curves. An Excel file with the failure moments has been put on the homepage of the course.