TH E MI N I S TRY FOR REFUGEE S , IMMIGR ATION & I NTEG R ATION AFFAI R S

Citizen in Denmark
Information to new citizens about Danish society

Citizen in Denmark is publsihed in 18 languages: Danish English Polish Russian Chinese French Arabic Spanish Thai Turkish Farsi Serbo-Croat Urdu Lithuanian Burmese Swahili German Phillipine

The publication can be purchased from: Schultz Distribution Herstedvang 4 2620 Albertslund Telephone: 43 22 73 00 Telefax: 43 63 19 69 E-mail: schultz@ schultz.dk Website: www.schultzboghandel.dk Or from your book store. Price: DKK 40 incl. VAT. The cost of shipment is not included in the price. An electronic version of the book is available from the website of Denmark's Ministry of Refugee, Immigration and Integration Affairs: www.nyidanmark.dk, where an audio version of the book is also available in selected langauges.

How to use this handbook
This handbook contains information about Danish society and provides practical information which you may need as a new citizen in Denmark. The handbook will be published in Danish and a number of other languages to ensure that as many people as possible can benefit from using it. Citizen in Denmark is a handbook you can refer to when you need information about a particular subject. But you can also choose to read the book from cover to cover. You can either use the index to find your way around the handbook or the keywords listed at the back of the book. A number of words are marked with an asterisk*. This means that you can find a more detailed explanation of the word at the back of the book. The handbook does not provide answers to everything. It does, however, provide references to websites where authorities and other bodies offer further information and help you to find what you are looking for. At the back of the book you will find a good deal of practical everyday information. Finally, the handbook provides a list of institutions and organisations that may be of particular interest to you as a new citizen in Denmark. Laws and regulations are constantly subject to change. For this reason they have not been reproduced in full, but merely outlined in general terms or using references to the applicable law. This means that you can not always use the book to find out what rights and duties you have. Depending on the nature of the subject, you may find it necessary to seek further information. An electronic version of the handbook is available from www.nyidanmark.dk. Here you will also find versions of the book recorded in selected languages. If you have any comments to this handbook, you are welcome to send them to medborgeridanmark@inm.dk. We will review all comments and suggestions when the book is updated in a few years’ time.

Contents

How to use this handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Welcome as a new citizen in Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

1 Geography and population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Most people live in towns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

2 How the country is governed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Representative democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Society founded on the rule of law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Denmark and the world. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 3 Entry and residence in Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Employment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Periods of study abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Asylum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Family reunification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Duration of residence permit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

Subletting and exchanging apartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Owner-occupied housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Electricity, heating and water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Joint expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Resident democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Tenant areas and common rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Housing and housing area regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53

6 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Family and society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Family life and partnerships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Having a baby. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Children and young people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Children and adults with a disability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Life for the elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 When life comes to a close. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

4 New citizen in Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Your new life. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Interpreter assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Danish and social studies for adults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Introductory programme and the integration contract . . . . .37 Danish citizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 5 Finding a place to live . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Renting or owning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Rented accommodation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Cooperative housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

7 School and education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Learning is a life-long process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 The Danish education system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Primary and lower secondary school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Outside school hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 After primary and lower secondary school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Further education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Special courses for adults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 Recognition of foreign qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96

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8 Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Most people work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Finding work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 If you become unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 The Danish labour market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Life in the workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Starting your own business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 9 Economy and consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Managing your personal finances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hiring and buying on credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumer rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Danish tax system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 113 114 115 117

Children’s examinations and vaccinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . At the hospital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dental care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Healthy diet and exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Good advice about health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

135 137 139 140 141 142

12 Public holidays and religious festivals . . . . . . . . . . . .144 Customs and red-letter days. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 13 Repatriation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Advice and financial aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Practical information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Places to find more information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organisations and institutions of special importance to new citizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Political parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation of words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colophon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 155 157 158 170

10 Culture and leisure time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
Lots of opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The media and public debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Active in your leisure time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Association activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parties and social togetherness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 122 123 125 127 129

11 Health and Sickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
The Danish health service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . At the doctor’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychological problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency doctor service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency 112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 132 133 134 134

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Welcome as a new citizen in Denmark
Dear new citizen
Beginning a new life in a new country often involves considerable upheaval. You will encounter new people and new ways of doing things. In particular, the initial period will provide numerous challenges and may seem a bit overwhelming. This handbook is intended to help you get started in your new life in Denmark and make your daily life that little bit easier. It outlines Danish society and provides practical information which you may require as a new citizen in Denmark. Naturally, it is impossible to give a complete overview of Danish society. Like most countries, Denmark is a diverse society comprising many different cultures and ways of life. Having said this, it is crucial that society agrees about certain fundamental values and ground rules in order to ensure the individual right of citizens. Denmark is a democratic society that offers freedom, responsibility and equal opportunity for all regardless of gender, race, cultural background and way of life. Everyone is free to think, speak and write what they feel, form associations, practise their religion or follow an alternative way of life. Personal freedom and equality are fundamental values in Danish society - limited only by the need to respect the personal freedom and equality of others. Dialogue and co-determination are important at all levels of society. Citizens are encouraged to participate in the democratic process - for example in your municipal authority, in a political party, in your local residential area, in a leisure association or your children’s school or nursery.

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In Denmark, everyone is, to the best of their ability, required to support themselves and contribute to society - through education, employment and paying taxes. By means of its tax system, society is able to perform a number of necessary tasks and offer its citizens numerous benefits and opportunities. All citizens are entitled to free education and in most cases financial support during their period of study. Similarly, all citizens are entitled to free medical and hospital treatment, and the elderly and those with disabilities are entitled to special help in their day-to-day lives. Citizens who are able to work but unable to find employment, can receive self-activating assistance so that they can resume an active life as quickly as possible. Denmark has a modern, well-developed economy and is a leading nation in terms of environmental and biotechnology, design and other areas where skills and know-how are crucial. Denmark is a country offering diverse opportunities to anyone willing to play their part. It is a challenge for one and all - for both new and native Danes - to retain and develop an open society offering freedom, progress and opportunity. The diversity which you and others bring from the outside can lead to increased dynamism and renewed innovation. In the hope that you will become actively involved in the society of which you are now a part, we warmly welcome you to Denmark. Good luck with your new life in Denmark.

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1

GEOGRAPHY AND POPULATION

Most people live in towns
G E O G R A P H Y A N D P O P U L AT I O N

Five million people The population of Denmark is barely in excess of 5.4 million people. Eighty five percent live in cities. Almost 1.6 million people live in the capital, Copenhagen, and the Greater Copenhagen area. With a population of approximately 300,000, Århus is Denmark’s second largest city. Danish is the language spoken throughout the country. Approximately 270,000 people, 5% of the population, are foreign nationals - particularly those from the Nordic countries, Central Europe, North America, the Middle East, Southern Asia and Africa. Many islands Denmark comprises the Jutland peninsula together with 406 islands. The two largest islands are Zealand and Funen. Many of the remaining islands are small with only few inhabitants. The capital, Copenhagen, is the largest city and is situated on Zealand. In Jutland, the largest cities are Århus, Aalborg and Esbjerg. Odense is the largest city on Funen. Most places in Denmark are situated near the coast. Denmark has approximately 7,300 kilometres of coastline. Denmark has no mountains, the highest point being 173 metres above sea level. The vast majority of the land is cultivated. Denmark has an extensive road and railway network. Trains and buses allow travellers to get about the country at most times of the day and night. Ferries provide transport to many islands. A system of bridges connects Jutland, Funen and Zealand. And there is a bridge connecting Copenhagen and Malmö in Sweden.

Part of the Nordic region Greenland and the Faroe Islands are part of the Kingdom of Denmark* but are self-governing. This means that these populations are Danish citizens who elect representatives to the Danish Parliament* in Denmark in addition to having their own democratic assemblies. Denmark is part of the Nordic region. The five Nordic countries are Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland, including the self-governing territories of Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Åland. Denmark is a member of the European Union (the EU*).

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G E O G R A P H Y A N D P O P U L AT I O N

The land of bicycles Denmark is one of the countries in the world with most cyclists. In city rush-hour traffic, you will see great numbers of cyclists - parents transporting children - on their way to and from work, childminders and nurseries.

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G E O G R A P H Y A N D P O P U L AT I O N

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HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

Representative democracy
HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

Denmark is a representative democracy*. The most important decisions are made by politicians democratically elected to the Danish Parliament*, regional councils* and municipal councils*. Legislative, executive and judicial power In Denmark, legislative, executive and judicial power are wholly independent of each other. Folketinget, the Danish National Parliament, passes the laws of the land. The government enforces these laws aided by the state administration. The courts - i.e. the district courts, high courts and the supreme court - pass judgement and determine sentences. Democracy was introduced in 1849 Danish democracy is based on the Danish constitution of 1849. The constitution has been amended throughout the years, in 1915, for example, when women were granted the right to vote. The current constitution dates from 1953, but many of its principles remain unchanged from the original. Constitutional rights The Danish constitution contains the fundamental rules relating to how the state is to be governed and ensures the country’s citizens a number of basic rights and liberties. The Danish constitution guarantees the right of private ownership, the freedom to practise all religions, the right to form associations, the right to demonstrate, and freedom of expression whether it be in written, oral, or any other form.

In Denmark, freedom of speech means a person is free to publish what they feel and think. With due regard, however, to the courts and legislation in general. You can be prosecuted for offending a person’s honour or for addressing others in a threatening or degrading manner, for example, on account of their beliefs or ethnic origin.

HRH Queen Margrethe II HRH Queen Margrethe II has been queen of Denmark since 1972. The Danish royal family is very popular amongst the population. Many people listen to her New Year’s speech which is broadcast on radio and television on 31 December at 18.00.

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HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

The royal family
The world’s oldest monarchy The Danish monarchy is the oldest in the world. For more than 1,000 years there have been kings, queens, princes and princesses in Denmark. The royal family wields no political power but takes part in public life in various ways and represents Denmark abroad.

Executive power
The state administration The government comprises ministers from one or more political parties. The government is led by the prime minister. Each minister has his own area of responsibility. Together with their relevant institutions, the ministries make up the state. Together with the various regions and municipal authorities, the state constitutes the executive power which is referred to as the state administration. The government and the state administration draw up and implement the laws of the land.

Legislative power
Folketinget, the Danish National Parliament, debates and enacts Danish legislation. Folketinget has 179 members who hail from different political parties. Members of Parliament are elected to serve for four years at a time. The Prime Minister, however, can dissolve parliament and call for a general election before the end of this four-year period. Two of Folketinget’s members are elected in Greenland and two in the Faroe Islands. Open to the public All parliamentary debates are open to the public and anyone is free to contact the politicians. Political debates are followed closely and discussed in the media.

Judicial power
Independent courts Danish courts are completely independent. Neither the government nor Parliament can decide how the courts should act in a given case. The judiciary comprises a supreme court, two high courts and 24 district courts. In addition, special courts deal with specific areas. This applies, for example, to the Danish Industrial Court* and the Danish Maritime and Commercial Court*. District courts* and high courts As a general rule, cases are first tried in the district courts. The decision of the district court can be appealed in the high court.

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HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

The supreme court The supreme court is the country’s highest court. The supreme court is a court of appeal. This means that it mainly deals with appeal cases from one of the high courts. The decisions of the supreme court cannot be appealed. The Special Court of Final Appeal It is possible to appeal a decision to the Special Court of Final Appeal if a person wishes to have a criminal case reopened. This might be because new evidence has come forward in a case that is already closed.

The Integration Council Municipal authorities can establish integration councils. The job of these councils is to advise municipal authorities about ways in which new citizens and ethnic minorities can actively participate in the local community. Your municipal authority can tell you whether it has an integration council. You can also encourage your municipal authority to set up an integration council. The local integration councils elect representatives to the nationwide council for ethnic minorities, which advises the government. Find out more by logging onto www.rem.dk

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“In my opinion, it is the duty of every immigrant to become actively involved to whatever extent they can and pass on the benefit of personal experience. There are great opportunities for gaining influence at local community level; it’s simply a question of using them. I, myself, became active back in the 80s because I wanted to comment on what was being said about immigrants in the media. The experience taught me a lot; I met lots of very different people and today I have many Danish friends. By taking an active part in discussions, I have helped to alter the perception of many Danes towards immigrants and influenced integration initiatives in Albertslund Municipal Authority.”

I think it is our duty to become involved

Perwez Iqbal left his native Pakistan in 1970 and settled in Denmark. He is co-founder of numerous immigrant associations. He has also been a member of both the integration council and district council in Albertslund Municipal Authority.

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HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

Municipal Authorities and Regions
Close to citizens Denmark is divided into 98 municipal authorities, each with its own democratically elected municipal council and mayor. Municipal council elections are held every four years. The municipal authorities perform a number of tasks in the local areas within the guidelines established by Parliament. For example, it is the job of municipal authorities to provide day-care centres, schools, care for the elderly, build roads and ensure a suitable framework for cultural activities in the local areas. The municipal authorities also help foreign nationals settling in Denmark to embark on their new life here - in part by offering Danish language lessons and providing information about Danish society. Find out more about Danish language tuition for new citizens in Chapter 4, New Citizen in Denmark. Regions Denmark is divided into five regions*. Each region is governed by democratically elected regional councils that are elected every four years. The regions are responsible for hospitals, collective traffic and regional development planning.

Voting and Elections
The right to vote Anyone who is 18 has the right to vote and stand for election at municipal elections. If you are a citizen from a country outside the European Union or the Nordic region, however, this only applies if you have held permanent residence in Denmark in the three years preceeding the election. You must be a Danish citizen in order to take part in general elections and national referendums*. EU nationals living in Denmark can vote in European Parliamentary Elections*, either here in Denmark or in their home country. Ballot paper All those eligible to vote receive a ballot paper in connection with general elections and national referendums. The ballot paper states where and when you can vote. By casting your vote you help to shape Danish society and everyday life in Denmark. Denmark has a tradition of high voter turnout at elections. The political parties Denmark has numerous political parties that field candidates at political elections. If you want to influence candidate selection, you have to become a member of a political party. At regional and municipal elections, cross-party lists and special non-party citizens lists* can also field candidates.

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Society founded on the rule of law
HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

Denmark is a democratic society founded on the rule of law*. This means that the government and the state administration, including the police, are subject to democratic control and that the courts act independently of the government. All citizens have certain fundamental rights and liberties, and are bound to respect the law. All citizens have the right to be treated properly and in accordance with the law by the administrative authorities and the courts. Duty of secrecy Public authority employees have duty of secrecy. As a general rule, this means that personal information may only be passed on to your employer or physician with your prior consent. Access to records* You have the right of access to your own records. Normally, if you apply for records access you will be told what information is contained in your document records. The Parliamentary Ombudsmand The Ombudsmand is elected by Parliament and deals with questions regarding mistakes or negligence on the part of the state administration. The Ombudsmand is independent of the government and can initiate his own inquiry. Anyone can contact the Ombudsmand if they feel that an authority is guilty of breaking a rule or of making an administrative error. However, all other avenues of complaint should first have been exhausted. The service provided by the Ombudsmand is free to all citizens.

Your right and possibilities to complain about the state administration The Danish Public Administration Act contains rules on how the public authorities are to treat citizens. Among other things, the Act states that the refusal of a request must be justified. And the Act further states that the state administration must advise you of the possibility of complaining to an alternative authority if such an authority exists.

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HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

Crime and punishment
If a person is believed to have committed a crime, the police will investigate the case. It is the public prosecutor who prosecutes the case. The courts decide whether a person is to be sentenced. Brought before a judge within 24 hours If you have been arrested for a crime, you have the right to be brought before a judge within 24 hours. The judge will decide whether a person is to be remanded in custody* while the police investigate the case. As the accused in a criminal proceedings, you have the right to remain silent. And you have the right to legal counsel from a lawyer. Fines, prison and other sanctions There are two kinds of punishment: fines and prison. Youths under the age of 18 and the mentally ill can be sentenced to treatment. Suspended and unsuspended sentences Prison sentences can either be suspended or unsuspended. If a person receives a suspended sentence, they will only be sent to prison if they commit a new crime. Other conditions, however, may accompany a suspended sentence, such as the need for the convicted person to follow a course of treatment. Life sentence is the severist punishment A life sentence is the severist sentence the courts can hand down. Denmark does not have the death penalty.

Youths under 15 Youths under 15 can not be prosecuted. However, suspects under the age of 18 can be detained by the police. Even though youths under the age of 15 can not be prosecuted, the social authorities can decide to send them on certain courses or place them in a closed, 24-hour care centre. Criminal record An employer can ask to see a person’s criminal record before deciding whether to employ them. A criminal record is a document that states whether a person has been convicted, the nature of their crime and the sentence they have received. If you require a criminal record, you can apply to the nearest police station.

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HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

Free Legal Aid
Help from the state If you are involved in legal proceedings and have a low income, you can apply for free legal aid. If you are granted free legal aid, the state will help to pay for a lawyer and cover your legal costs. Legal Aid If you have a legal problem, you can apply for legal aid or to the Legal Advice Bureau. Here, a jurist will provide anonymous legal counsel. This service is either free or extremely affordable. You can find out more about legal aid or the Legal Advice Bureau by logging onto www. advokatsamfundet.dk.

The Police
Anyone can go to the police. The task of the police is to maintain public order and prevent, investigate and solve crime. Anyone can go to the police for help and to report an offence. For example, you can go to the police if you have been robbed or attacked or if you have witnessed a crime. You can also call 112. The SSP scheme* In many areas, the police work with schools and social authorities in the so-called SSP scheme. This is a joint initiative to prevent crime amongst youths. Rules governing the police The police are required to follow a number of rules when arresting or questioning a suspect. They must not use or threaten to use violence. And they must inform the arrested party of his or her rights.

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Denmark and the world
HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

Great trust in the police By and large, Danes have great trust in the police. If a person is dissatisfied with police treatment, they can complain to the public prosecutor* who, among other things, deals with complaints regarding police behaviour. There are six regional public prosecutor offices. To find out more, log onto www.rigsadvokaten.dk. Self-redress It is forbidden to take the law into your own hands, for example, by hitting someone because they have annoyed you. This is known as self-redress and is a criminal offence.

Many international connections Denmark has many international connections. Denmark is a member of the European Union (the EU*), the Council of Europe, the United Nations (the UN), the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO*), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD*) and World Health Organisation (WHO*). International conventions Denmark has signed a number of international conventions regarding the protection of human rights. For example, the UN’s convention against torture, its convention against all forms of racial discrimination, all forms of discrimination against women and its convention regarding children’s rights. As a member of the Council of Europe*, Denmark has joined the European Human Rights Convention and incorporated it into Danish law. The EU* Denmark became a member of the European Union in 1973. Since then, EU influence has grown in many areas, considerably affecting the legislation of its member states. Among other things, member states collaborate on the environment, consumer issues and free trade in the common market. Some have a common currency, the Euro. Denmark is not part of the Euro zone. The UN* As a member of the United Nations (the UN), Denmark plays its part in helping those in need, securing peace and development in the world and promoting respect for human rights.

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HOW THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED

NATO* and OECD* Within the military alliance, NATO, and the economic organisation, OECD, Denmark works closely with Canada, the United States and numerous other countries. International development co-operation Denmark sends 0.8 percent of its GNP to development projects with poor countries in such continents as Africa, Asia and Latin America. Financial aid is given through the UN and other international organisations and by Denmark direct to the recipient country. Aid is given on the basis of close collaboration with recipient countries so they can take responsibility for their own development. Key words in Danish aid are help to the poorest people, equality of the sexes, strong government, democracy, human rights, consideration for the environment and sustainability. Help to refugees Denmark plays its part in helping the world’s refugees. This is done, for example, through international peace keeping missions, support for rebuilding war-torn areas, resettlement of refugees and the repatriation of refugees when conditions allow.

The resettlement of refugees takes place in communities close to the areas of conflict and in Denmark. Each year Denmark offers resettlement to 500 refugees in accordance with its agreement with the UN’s High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In addition to this number, Denmark receives a varying number of people who arrive in the country and are granted refugee status.

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3

ENTRY AND RESIDENCE IN DENMARK

ENTRY AND RESIDENCE IN DENMARK

Nordic passport-free zone If you are a citizen of Norway, Sweden, Finland or Iceland, you can freely enter Denmark and reside in the country for as long as you want. The reason for this is that Denmark has a special agreement with the other Nordic countries. The Schengen Agreement Most EU member states are part of the Schengen Agreement*. This means that citizens living in the Schengen countries can travel freely between the countries without any form of border control. Registration card for EU citizens If you are a Swiss national or come from a country which is a member of the EU or the EEA*, you can obtain a special registration card from the Danish state administration. Denmark is a member of the EU and therefore adheres to the Union’s rules regarding freedom of movement. For example, you can enter Denmark and seek employment. Others too, for example people with sufficient means and pensioners, can obtain a registration card and residence in Denmark. As an interim measure, special rules apply to citizens from certain EU countries seeking paid work in Denmark. We refer to the section on Employment. Visa If you come from a country outside Europe with the aim of participating in a cultural event, or if you are visiting Denmark as a tourist or because you have family here, or if you are on a business trip, it may be necessary to apply for a visa.

At www.nyidanmark.dk you will find a list of the countries whose citizens require a visa when visiting Denmark. You must apply for a visa before travelling to Denmark. This is done by applying to the Danish consulate or mission in your home country. A visa is valid for up to three months and does not give you the right to work in Denmark. Under normal circumstances, a visa is valid for the whole Schengen area.

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Employment
ENTRY AND RESIDENCE IN DENMARK

If you come from a country subject to EU regulation, you can seek and accept employment in Denmark in accordance with the special EU regulations. You have to apply for a registration card from the state administration no later than three months following your entry into the country. Find out more by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk As an interim measure, special rules apply to nationals of Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary seeking paid work in Denmark. You can find out more by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk. If you want to work in Denmark and come from a country which is not a member of the EU or the EEA, you must apply for permission prior to entering the country. You must apply to the Danish consulate or mission in your home country for a residence and work permit. You can obtain a residence and work permit if you have received an offer of work featured on the positive list. This is a list of employment areas where there is a shortage of qualified labour. The positive list includes IT specialists, engineers, doctors, pharmacists and nurses. For example, to work as a doctor, pharmacist or nurse in Denmark you must obtain Danish authorisation. You can view the entire positive list by logging onto www. nyidanmark.dk. You can also obtain a work permit in Denmark if you have been offered a job with a minimum annual salary of DKK 450,000 (approx. 60,000 Euros).

If you obtain a residence and work permit in Denmark, you can apply to have your family join you. It is a provision of the Danish Aliens Act that those seeking residence and work permits are able to provide for themselves. Special rules apply to EU citizens. You can find out more by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk. Residence permit to seek employment - green card Denmark also has a special green card scheme. A green card is a permit that allows you to come to Denmark for six months and look for work. To qualify for a green card you must obtain a sufficiently high score using a point system. You are awarded points for education, language proficiency and job experience. You can find out more about the green card scheme by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk.

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Periods of study abroad
ENTRY AND RESIDENCE IN DENMARK

As an EU citizen you are entitled to study in Denmark. If you intend to study in Denmark you will receive a registration card. To qualify you must be enrolled at an approved private or public institution. You must also be able to provide for yourself. You have to apply for a registration card from the state administration no later than three months following your entry into the country. Find out more by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk If you want to study in Denmark and come from a country which is not a member of the EU or the EEA, you must apply for permission prior to entering the country. You must apply to the Danish consulate or mission in your home country for a residence permit. You can obtain permission to study in Denmark if you are enrolled in basic education, youth education, a folk high school or further education. It is, however, a precondition that you are able to provide for yourself during your stay and understand the teaching language used on the course. You can find out more about general conditions by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk. If you have been granted a residence permit to follow a course of further education in Denmark, you can apply for permission to seek a part-time job.

Residence permit to seek employment - green card If you finish your further education in Denmark, you are allowed to remain in the country in the six months following the conclusion of your studies. You can thus obtain a green card that gives you the right to seek work in Denmark. If you have been offered employment, you must apply for a residence and work permit.

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Asylum
ENTRY AND RESIDENCE IN DENMARK

It is possible to seek protection as a refugee in Denmark if there is reason to fear that a person will be persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, social status or political convictions. Refugees can also seek asylum if they risk the death penalty, torture, inhuman or humiliating treatment or punishment by returning to their native country. When a person seeks asylum in Denmark, it is the Danish Immigration Service that decides whether the case is to be handled in Denmark or by another EU member state. The Immigration Service can also decide to refuse to provide asylum and refer the person to a safe third country outside the EU. The Immigration Service* The Danish Immigration Service is the name of a public department under the Ministry for Refugees, Immigration and Integration. The ministry administers the Danish Aliens Act and in this connection handles cases regarding immigrant access to residence in Denmark, including asylum, family reunification and visas. We refer to www.nyidanmark.dk. Yes to asylum If the Immigration Service assesses that an asylum seeker meets the requirements for obtaining asylum in Denmark, the person will be given refugee status. The municipal authority provides housing If you are recognised as a refugee, the Immigration Service will select the municipal authority where you are to live. Here you will be offered a special introductory programme which includes Danish language tuition and help to find employment. We refer to Chapter 4, New citizen in Denmark. The Immigration Service selects the municipal authority where you are to live based on your professional skills, family ties in Denmark and other factors. It is the authority’s job to provide you with housing. You can choose to move to another municipal authority. But it is a good idea to talk to your authority first if you move before completing the introductory programme. The reason for this is that your authority must consent to taking over responsibility for your introductory programme. If the authority fails to agree, you may risk losing your right to follow an introductory programme and with it the right to claim your introductory payment. The introductory payment is a special form of financial assistance which you are entitled to if you are unable to find work immediately. Find out more in Chapter 4, New Citizen in Denmark.

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Family reunification
ENTRY AND RESIDENCE IN DENMARK

No to asylum If the Immigration Service is unable to approve an application for asylum, a complaint is automatically registered with the Refugee Board. The Refugee Board* The Refugee Board is an independent, court-like body. The decisions of the Board are final and can not be overturned or amended by others. The Refugee Board can either uphold the decision by the Danish Immigration Service to refuse asylum or overturn the decision and award asylum status. If the Refugee Board upholds the decision, the Immigration Service sets a deadline for the person to be out of the country. This deadline must be observed. If you leave of your own accord, you can seek help from the police and you may also be eligible for financial assistance. If you do not leave of your own accord, you will be expelled by the police.

Spouse, regular partner and children If you have permanent residence in Denmark, you can be joined here by your family if you meet certain conditions in the Danish Aliens Act. You may be joined by your spouse, your regular partner or children under 15. This is known as family reunification and it requires that you fulfil a number of conditions. In special cases, and where it is deemed in the best interests of the child, children over the age of 15 may be allowed to join their families. Housing, financial and co-habitation requirements In order for your spouse, for example, to obtain a residence permit in Denmark, you must have suitable housing, you must live together when your spouse arrives in the country and you must be able to provide for your spouse. Both of you must be over 24 and have stronger ties to Denmark than any other country. The aim of these requirements is to ensure the family a solid foundation in Denmark and to protect very young people from being forced into marriages they do not want. It is also a requirement that your marriage and co-habitation are genuine and are not merely a means of securing a residence permit for the person in question. Special conditions apply to the right to family reunification for EU citizens, for example, a citizen from another EU country working in Denmark. If you believe you are covered by EU regulations, it is important you draw attention to this fact when you apply for family reunification. You can find out more about family reunification in accordance with EU regulations and those of the Danish Alien Act by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk.

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Duration of residence permit
ENTRY AND RESIDENCE IN DENMARK

Permanent You can obtain a temporary residence permit or a residence permit with the option of permanent residency. If you have arrived in Denmark as a refugee or because you have joined your family, you will normally be given a residence permit that can later be extended to permanent residence. If you have a residence permit that can be extended to permanent residence, you can obtain a permanent residence permit after several years provided you fulfil certain conditions. Among other things, you must have made an effort to become integrated in Danish society. You must make an effort This might be that you have had a job or worked for a time, that you pass a Danish language proficiency test, that you do not owe the state more than a certain sum or that you have not committed a serious crime. Permanent residence permits for EU citizens In accordance with special EU regulations, EU citizens and their families may obtain permanent residence following five years’ legal residence in Denmark. You can find out more by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk. The Immigration Service and state administration can advise you about your rights in connection with permanent residence. We refer to www.nyidanmark.dk.

You can lose your residence permit The Immigration Service can revoke a temporary residence permit if the conditions for issue no longer exist. For example, if you have joined your spouse but no longer live together with this person, you can lose your right to a residence permit. You may, however, keep your residence permit if you have left your spouse because they have been physically violent towards you, and if you have been in Denmark so long that you have other strong ties with the country, or if you are unable to return to your native country because you have left your partner because of physical violence. If you have falsely obtained your residence permit or if you have been reported to the Schengen information system* as an undesirable, you risk losing your residence permit. This holds true regardless of whether the residence permit is temporary or permanent. An EU citizen’s temporary right to reside in Denmark can also cease to exist if a person no longer complies with EU regulations or if the person has abused their right. Safe repatriation If you have arrived in Denmark as a refugee, your residence permit may be revoked if conditions in your native country change so that it is safe for you to return. In this event, you can seek financial repatriation assistance. Read more in Chapter 13, Repatriation.

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ENTRY AND RESIDENCE IN DENMARK

If you leave the country If you travel home on holiday, this may affect your possibilities for continued residence in Denmark. Your residence permit will be cancelled if you relinquish your home in Denmark or remain outside the country for 6-12 months, regardless of whether your residence permit is temporary or permanent. Whether it is six or twelve months will depend on which type of residence permit you have and how long you have lived in Denmark. Expulsion If you are found guilty of committing a serious crime, you may lose your residence permit or be expelled from the country.

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4

NEW CITIZEN IN DENMARK

Your new life
Once you have obtained your residence permit you can embark on your new life and get to know Danish society. You can begin meeting your new fellow citizens where you live, in associations, at the library and not least at work when you begin working. You will be given a civil registration number Once you have obtained your residence permit you will be registered in the Danish national register. This will be done in the municipal authority where you live. If you have obtained a residence permit as a refugee, the municipal authority or Immigration Service will ensure that you are registered. Once you have been registered, you will automatically be assigned a civil registration number. This consists of your date and year of birth together with four numbers that are unique to each person. A civil registration number can look something like this: 23 (day) 04 (month) 54 (year) - 3476. For women, the last number is always an even number (in this case 6) and for men, an uneven number. You will need your civil registration number in your contact with civil authorities and institutions. You will be given a healthcare card Once you are registered with your municipal authority you will receive a healthcare card. This is a yellow plastic card which you will need to take with you if you visit the doctor or go to the hopsital. Read more about this in Chapter 11, Health and sickness

Interpreter assistance
NEW CITIZEN IN DENMARK

If you can not yet speak Danish, you may be able to obtain the services of an interpreter in many situations that involve contact with your municipal authority or other civil authority. It is the public authorities that assess whether there is a need for an interpreter. They are also responsible for procuring the services of the interpreter. The interpreter is neutral You will be given an interpreter, who will help you. The interpreter is responsible for translating everything that is said as accurately as possible, and the interpreter must not omit anything deliberately. The interpreter has a duty of confidentiality and must be neutral and unbiased. The interpreter may only become involved in the discussion in order to clarify a misunderstanding. Good advice - about using an interpreter: • Do not speak to the interpreter but to the person whom you are actually addressing. • Speak slowly and clearly. • Only say what you want the interpreter to communicate.

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Danish and social studies for adults
NEW CITIZEN IN DENMARK

If you are over 18, have a residence permit in Denmark and have been assigned a civil registration number, you have the right to receive three years’ education in Danish. Danish education includes Danish language tuition and Danish social studies. Your municipal authority is required to offer you Danish language tuition no later than one month following your application for this. Tuition can take place at a language centre or at an alternative approved Danish education centre. You have the right to receive Danish language tuition until you have passed a final Danish proficiency test. This must, however, take place within a three-year period. Can be combined with work Danish language tuition is there to help you quickly find work if you do not already have a job. You can combine tuition with work, practical training and other education. You can find out more about starting work in Chapter 8, Working life

Three Danish education programmes
There are three types of Danish education programmes. The language centre makes sure that you are enrolled with the programme that best suits your objectives and capabilities. Danish education programme 1 Danish education programme 1 is for people who have not learned to read and write in their mother tongue. This programme places special emphasis on oral Danish. But you will also learn to read and write simple texts. The aim is to enable you to find unskilled work so that you can provide for yourself as an active citizen in Denmark. Danish education programme 2 This programme is for people who have spent a short time at school or who have basic training skills from their native country. You will learn to understand, speak and read Danish so you can get by at work and on a daily basis. You will also practise writing simple texts in Danish. The aim is to help you find a job as quickly as possible so you can become an active citizen in Denmark. After completing the Danish education programme you will have learned sufficient Danish to follow a number of training courses on an equal footing with other Danes. Danish education programme 3 This programme is for the person who has completed medium to long-term education, for example, business training, upper secondary education or someone with a further education qualification. The speed and level are

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NEW CITIZEN IN DENMARK

higher than that of Danish education programme 2. The aim is to help you find a job as quickly as possible or for you to pursue further education so you can become an active citizen in Denmark. Culture and social conditions In all three programmes, students receive Danish language tuition as well as instruction in Danish culture and social conditions. Here, for example, you will find subjects like the welfare society, democracy, the labour market and seeking employment. Ends with test Danish education programmes 1 and 2 can end with Danish Proficiency Tests 1 and 2. Danish education programme 3 ends with the Danish Proficiency Test 3 or the Studies Test. A passed studies test is a prerequisite for beginning a number of programmes of higher education. How much does education cost? Your municipal authority pays for your education in Danish. Your authority may decide to ask for a participant fee. This, however, will not apply if you receive your Danish language tuition as part of your introductory programme. In that case, your authority may not ask for a fee. Read more about the introductory programme and the integration contract in the following section.

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“When you speak Danish, it opens an endless number of doors. You get out and about instead of sitting indoors and feeling that life is passing you by. No one wants to live that kind of life. At the language school, I didn’t just learn the language and pass Danish Proficiency Test 3. I also learned a lot about Danish society and went on lots of trips to museums and different places. And I also met one of my very best friends.”

Speaking the language opens a lot of doors

Amna Amin came to Denmark from Iraq in 1997 and was granted asylum in 1999. While she waited for asylum she worked as a Red Cross volunteer. Now, she works with women’s integration in a municipal authority.

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Introductory programme and the integration contract
NEW CITIZEN IN DENMARK

If you are a refugee or have joined your family and are a citizen of a country outside the EU and Nordic region, you will be offered an introductory programme by your municipal authority, and together you will agree on the introductory programme content. This must take the form of an integration contract. The introductory programme includes Danish language tuition - and if required - a number of other things that can help you find work or begin a programme of education that can provide you with the qualifications to enable you to find work. However, not all members of a reunified family are offered an introductory programme and sign an integration contract. If the person you have joined has a residence permit in Denmark in connection with a specific job or, for example, as a researcher, student, an embassy employee or missionary, you will not be offered an introductory programme and an integration contract. But you can take part in Danish language tuition and other ordinary social courses. It is up to the Immigration Service to decide whether you are covered by the Danish Alien Act and thus eligible for an introductory programme and an integration contract. The integration contract - a binding agreement The integration contract is a binding agreement between you and your municipal authority. For this reason you must draw it up together. The contract must contain a plan for your first three years in Denmark. This is why it is so important for you as a new citizen. Your contract must specify your introductory programme content. For example, this might be the level of your Danish education programme, which activities you need to commence your studies or begin working. The aim of the contract

is to make you an active part of Danish society as quickly as possible and ensure that you can provide for yourself. Before the first month The contract must be drawn up before the end of the first month from when your municipal authority assumes responsibility for your introductory programme. Make demands of your contract Your integration contract is a common tool for you and your municipal authority. This is why it is important that you make demands of your contract. Your contract should contain a list of activities to help you get started, whether you wish to begin an education, start a business or be employed by a company. If you have a job If you have a job, the contract must ensure that you can receive Danish language tuition while continuing to hold down your job. Tuition can take place in the afternoon or evening, for example, when you are not at work. The contract can be changed Your municipal authority must continually monitor the contract. As you gain new qualifications and experience or new aims for the future, you can suggest making changes to the activities agreed in the contract. Repatriation The contract can also make allowances for the fact that you may wish to return to your native country, if and when conditions allow. For example, the contract can stipulate that you acquire skills and qualifications that will prove useful if and when you return to home. Read more in Chapter 13, Repatriation.

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NEW CITIZEN IN DENMARK

Declaration regarding integration and active citizenship As part of the integration contract, you must sign a declaration regarding integration and active citizenship. The aim of the declaration is to inform you about a number of values and rules in Danish society. In this way you will know what society expects of you as a new citizen. This handbook is a supplement to and clarifies many of the topics listed in the declaration. Important to your residence in Denmark The introductory programme is an optional offer to you but it is important for your future ability to obtain a permanent residence permit that you comply wih the contract. Maximum of three years The integration programme, including the Danish education programme, is free but may only run a maximum of three years. Find out more You can find out more about the integration contract, the declaration on integration and active citizenship from your municipal authority. You can read more by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk.

Introductory benefit
If you come under the introductory programme scheme and do not find employment immediately or do not have a spouse who can provide for you, you are entitled to special financial assistance. This is called an introductory benefit. To claim the introductory benefit, you must participate in the introductory programme activities and be available for work. Being available for work means actively seeking employment and accepting a job if you are offered one. Otherwise your municipal authority can cease payment of your introductory benefit.

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Danish citizens
NEW CITIZEN IN DENMARK

Children are automatically granted Danish citizenship at birth if the parents are married and one of them is Danish. The same applies if the parents are not married but the mother is Danish. If only the father is Danish, the child will only be granted Danish citizenship automatically if it is born in Denmark. Or if the parents marry before the child reaches the age of 18. Applying for Danish citizenship Once you are 18, you can apply for Danish citizenship. You must apply to the police in the municipal authority in which you live. The police can tell you how long it normally takes to process an application. Parliament decides It is the Danish Parliament that decides whether a person can obtain Danish citizenship. This is done using a special law, which Parliament passes twice a year. In order to obtain Danish citizenship, you must meet with certain conditions established by Parliament.

You must learn Danish and pass a special citizens test. • You must have obtained a certificate from a language centre or an alternative educational institution proving that you have passed Danish Proficiency Test 3 or an equivalent test. For example, this may be the final primary and lower secondary school exam, an upper secondary school education or a business education. You must learn enough about Danish culture, history and social conditions to pass a special test before obtaining Danish citizenship. This is called the citizen’s test. • If you are stateless or a refugee, you must have resided in Denmark for eight years. • If you are an immigrant, you must have a permanent residence permit and have resided in the country for nine years. • You must be able to provide for yourself and prove that you have been able to do so in four out of the past five years. You are allowed to have received smaller payments from the state which are not related to support. This might be special help towards transport costs, treatment of illness, medicine, dental treatment or relocation costs. Receiving a state education grant, early retirement pension, state pension or support from your spouse does not bar you from obtaining Danish citizenship.

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NEW CITIZEN IN DENMARK

• You must not have outstanding debt with the state. • You must declare that you have not committed crimes against the security of the state. • If you have committed a crime, you may have to wait before becoming a Danish citizen. This will depend on the nature of the crime. • If you are guilty of committing a very serious offence you can not become a Danish citizen. You can read all the conditions by logging onto www.nyidanmark.dk.

Citizen by declaration You can become a Danish citizen by declaration if you: • Are a citizen of one of the Nordic countries. • Have previously held Danish citizenship. You can find out more and obtain an application form from the state administration* in the municipality in which you live. Danish passport Once you have obtained Danish citizenship, you will be given a Danish passport and you will have the right to vote and stand in parliamentary elections.

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5

FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

Renting or owning
Different kinds of housing Most housing in Denmark consists of multi-storey apartments, terraced houses or detached houses. Housing comprises rented accommodation, cooperative housing and owneroccupied housing. The majority of rented accommodation is to be found in multi-storey buildings. Many are built in large blocks of flats grouped together in urban areas in the major cities. Rented accommodation is privately owned or owned by a subsidised housing association. Owner-occupied apartments and detached houses Owner-occupied apartments, terraced houses and detached houses can be purchased. Most detached houses are singlefamily homes which have been built on their own plot of land. In the larger towns and cities, owner-occupied housing is usually very expensive. Check the ads or ask around In many parts of the country, finding accommodation can be difficult. If you want to find accommodation, you can: • Consult your municipal authority housing office. • Put your name down on a building association waiting list. • Check the ads in the daily newspapers, local papers or special housing newspapers. You can also place an ad stating that you are looking for accommodation. • Search the Internet. Here, you can place a free ad. You can gain free access to the Internet at your local library. • Look up under the “Accommodation section” in the yellow pages of your telephone directory or log onto www.degulesider.dk. • Put a notice up at local supermarkets. • Ask family, friends and acquaintances.

Rented accommodation
FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

Social or private housing Rented accommodation is either privately owned or owned by a non-profit building association. You can put your name down on a waiting list for an apartment. This means that you can rent the apartment when your name appears at the top of the list. But this may take many years. Ask a housing association. Your municipal authority can refer you Your municipal authority has a number of subsidised housing apartments at its disposal. You might be able to find an apartment in this way. Ask your municipal authority. Privately-owned apartments rarely have waiting lists Privately-owned housing associations rarely have waiting lists. Here, it is the owner who decides who is to rent the vacant apartment.

Tenancy agreement
Rights and duties Both the tenant and the owner have rights and duties. These are set out in the Danish Rent Act. The Act includes the rules regarding termination of the lease. As a tenant, you normally have to give three months’ notice. And the landlord can not suddenly evict you onto the street for failing to fulfil your duties. The Danish Rent Act also contains rules relating to the level of rent, apartment maintenance and the number of people who are allowed to live in the apartment.

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FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

Many live in their houses In Denmark, 63% of the population live in single-family houses. This is particularly true of couples with children, the vast majority of whom own their own homes. Most single-family homes have adjoining land. Some are terraced houses. About 30% live in an apartment in a block of flats. Most blocks of flats are rented accommodation. Some live in community housing where each person has their own room and shares expenses, cooking and other domestic chores.

Many young people share apartments or rent rooms from private house owners. Students can rent rooms in a student residence. A student residence houses many students with each student having his own room. Usually, each room has its own toilet and bathroom, while residents share the kitchen and common room.

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FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

You are entitled to a tenancy agreement In accordance with the Danish Rent Act, it is your right to demand a tenancy agreement stating the conditions agreed by you and your landlord. Among other things, the tenancy agreement must state how much notice you have to give when terminating the lease. And it must state in what condition the apartment must be left when you vacate it. Be sure to have both names on the tenancy agreement If you are a husband and wife couple who are to live together in the same apartment, make sure that both your names are on the tenancy agreement. This will ensure that one of the parties can remain in the apartment if the other party leaves or the couple gets divorced. Check the apartment for faults and flaws Do not sign the tenancy agreement before you have read the small print. And not before you and the landlord have gone through the apartment to check for any flaws and faults. If the apartment has flaws and faults, write them down, either in the tenancy agreement or on an alternative piece of paper which should then be signed by you and the landlord. If you discover flaws and faults in the apartment after moving in, you should contact the building caretaker within the first 14 days. This will ensure that you will not have to pay for damage you have not caused.

Deposit or lease premium
Agree on the deposit with the landlord You should expect to pay a deposit or lease premium before or together with the first month’s rent. The size of the deposit or premium is to be decided by you and the landlord. The landlord can use the deposit or premium to cover the cost of damages to the apartment. However, if you leave the apartment in the same condition as you found it, the landlord must refund the full deposit or premium amount when you vacate the apartment.

How many tenants?
There may be certain limits In the tenancy agreement, some landlords stipulate the maximum number of tenants that can occupy an apartment. And municipal authorities can choose to adopt a policy restricting the number of people in each living room area to two people. Ask your municipal authority about what rules apply.

Rent subsidy
Apply to your local authority for a loan and a rent subsidy You can apply to your municipal authority for a deposit loan for your rented accommodation. The authority will assess your request on the basis of your financial and social situation. You are required to pay back the loan.

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Cooperative housing
FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

As a tenant, you can also apply to your municipal authority for a rent subsidy. This is called rent subsidy. The authority will calculate this on the basis of: • • • • The number of people living in the apartment. The size of the apartment. The amount of rent. The size of the total household earnings.

You have to pay a share as well as rent A cooperative dwelling consists of one or more houses or one or more apartments owned and administered by a cooperative housing society. The cooperative housing society owns the property. When you buy a share of the property, you gain the right of use to a part of the property owned by the association. In addition to the share, you must also pay rent to the housing society. Rules and activities As a cooperative member, you automatically become a member of the housing society. As a cooperative housing member you have the right to participate in and vote at the society’s annual meeting. At the annual meeting, the members decide what rules shall apply within the association. The annual meeting also decides when and how the building is to be maintained and improved.

Pensioners can apply for a special housing allowance. Complaints If you are dissatisfied with the municipal authority’s decision regarding a deposit loan or rent subsidy, you can complain. The letter from the municipal authority must contain complaint guidelines explaining where and when you can file your complaint.

Advice
Speak to a housing advisor Some large non-profit housing associations have their own housing advisors. Here you can get useful advice regarding your accommodation and help in understanding letters relating to your accommodation.

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Subletting and exchanging apartments
Letting from the tenant It is possible to rent an apartment from a tenant or a cooperative housing member. This is known as “subletting” and is allowed for a period of two years. Or longer, if the owner or the rules allow. Exchanging with a tenant In some rental properties and cooperative housing it is possible to exchange your apartment with other tenants or cooperative housing members. In other words, if you have an apartment you can exchange it with one that is smaller or larger. Or for an apartment in another neighbourhood. Enquire at the building’s administration office or ask the cooperative society board whether you can exchange your apartment.

Owner-occupied housing
FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

An owner-occupied dwelling can be a house or an apartment you buy. Permission to buy real property If you do not reside in Denmark or have not previously lived in the country for a minimum of five years, you will need permission from the Ministry of Justice to purchase an owner-occupied home. You must send an application to the Ministry of Justice, enclosing information about the property you wish to purchase together with a copy of your residence permit. You can expect to be granted permission if you intend to use the property as your permanent residence. If you are an EU citizen, you can purchase your owner-occupied property without permission from the Ministry of Justice if you intend to use the property as your permanent residence. Estate agents Most owner-occupied properties are sold through an estate agent. Check ads in the newspapers, on the Internet, or check with an estate agent in the area where you intend to buy the property. The estate agent is first and foremost the seller’s representative but can also advise the buyer about his purchase rights. Always use a lawyer It is a good idea to use a lawyer. This will ensure that your interests are safeguarded.

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Electricity, heating and water
FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

Loan - bank or mortgage credit You can borrow money from a mortgage lender* to buy your house or apartment. You can borrow money from a bank to buy your housing society dwelling. The mortgage lender or bank will assess your ability to repay the loan before approving it. It is important that you are employed and earn a regular salary.

In addition to rent, loan or mortgage payment, you will have to pay for electricity, heating and water. You pay according to the amount you use. There are meters on the property. Electricity is supplied by a private electricity company, while heating comes from a municipal or private heating plant. Large residential buildings may have their own heating plant. If you own your home, you will normally pay your water bill together with your property tax. Costs are high In Denmark, electricity, water and heating are expensive. This is because society wants to limit energy consumption in order to protect the environment. You can save on electricity, water and heating by: • Turning off the light when you leave a room. • Using low-energy light bulbs. They are more expensive than standard light bulbs but they last ten times as long. • Take a shower instead of a bath. • Wash up using a washing-up basin - instead of running water. • Buy refrigerators, freezers and washing machines that only use a small amount of water and energy. The appliance energy labelling will specify the amount of energy and water used as well as the efficiency of the appliance. Energy consumption uses a scale from A to G, where A stands for the lowest energy consumption. Read more about energy labelling in Chapter 9, Economy and consumption.

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Joint expenses
If you live in an apartment which you own or rent, or if you live in a cooperative housing society property, you and your neighbours jointly pay towards the cost of a caretaker and the maintenance of the building and the common areas. If you live in rented accommodation, the joint expenses are included in the rent. Caretaker Most rented accommodation and cooperative housing societies have a caretaker who is responsible for looking after practical tasks such as the maintenance of common areas. In subsidised housing, the caretaker may also carry out minor repairs to apartments or call in a tradesman to carry out the work.

Resident democracy
FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

In subsidised housing Subsidised housing operates a policy of tenant democracy. This means that the tenants elect representatives to a tenant committee or a tenants’ association* board. Tenant representatives can approve house rules and initiate common activities. They may also influence the design and appearance of common areas. Tenant influence in private buildings In large rental housing projects, tenants can elect representatives to represent their interests in relation to the landlord. Tenant representatives have the right to examine the property accounts and must be consulted before the landlord can increase the rent or begin carrying out major renovation.

You can play a part As a housing estate tenant, you can help elect representatives to different kinds of tenant groups. For example, it might be a tenant committee in a rental housing building, a board in a cooperative housing society or a homeowner’s association* for private homeowners. You can take part in meetings and activities arranged by the tenants. And you can be active, either as an elected tenant representative or by suggesting activities for children and adults. In this way you can get to meet your neighbours and help to shape your housing area.

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Tenant areas and common rooms
FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

Housing and housing area regulations
If in doubt, ask Most rental housing and housing societies have their own house rules. These are either established by the owner or by the tenants. House rules typically deal with such issues as the washing of stairs, pets, noise, parking of bicycles and prams. If you are in doubt about the rules, ask your caretaker or a neighbour. Conflicts can be resolved Wherever there are people, the potential exists for conflict. If you come into conflict with your neighbour, try and talk to them as soon as possible. If this does not work, speak to the caretaker or the board, if one exists. Or with the homeowner’s association or housing association, depending on the kind of building in which you live. Get help If you have a disagreement with your landlord regarding maintenance, property exchange or subletting, for example, try and seek help from your caretaker or board in resolving the conflict. If this does not help, you can register a complaint. If you live in subsidised housing, you can complain to a special tenants’ complaints board for tenants in subsidised housing societies. Ask your tenants’ association or your municipal authority. Municipal authorities have a rent control board*. Here you can register a complaint if you live in privately-owned housing and the conflict concerns rent or house rules. Ask your municipal authority.

For meetings and parties Some private and housing association projects and the majority of subsidised housing projects have their own tenant areas and common rooms where tenants can meet. Tenants can often rent these areas if, for example, they want to hold a party.

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FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

Cleaning and refuse
As a tenant, you are responsible for cleaning and tidying up. Make a note of the building’s or the residential area’s rules for cleaning and refuse. Standard refuse Your municipal authority sees to it that standard household refuse is collected from your residential area once a week. Garden waste and bulk scrap is also collected several times a year. Bulk scrap may be furniture and used white goods. Municipal waste recycling centres* Municipal authorities have waste recycling centres where residents can dispose of garden waste and bulk scrap. This is the place to dispose of environmentally hazardous waste such as paint, oil, batteries and electrical appliances. Ask your municipal authority about what rules apply.

Aerial schemes
Communal aerial schemes in rented accommodation Most rented accommodation and housing society dwellings have a communal aerial scheme that you automatically subscribe to when you move in. This may either be cable TV or a common aerial installation. Usually, you pay for the aerial scheme together with the rent. You may only erect an aerial if you have obtained permission from the houseowner or the cooperative housing society. Some homeowner’s associations operate communal aerial schemes. If you live in owner-occupied accommodation, you may have access to cable TV, or it may be that the homeowner’s association operates a communal aerial scheme. Otherwise, you can erect your own aerial. Aerial associations decide the channels Many communal aerial schemes are set up by an aerial association. Here you can help to choose which TV channels you can view in your local area. Throughout the country it is possible to watch regional, national and a number of foreign TV channels. If you have a radio, TV or computer that can receive radio and TV, you have to pay a special fee known as a media licence* twice a year. Read more about media licences in Chapter 10, Culture and leisure time.

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FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

Converting property
Rules governing electricity, heating and water If you are a homeowner, you can convert the inside of your home as much as you want. There are, however, certain rules regarding electricity, heating and water. Some of these installations may only be carried out by authorised tradesmen. If you do not comply with regulations, your insurance will not cover you in the event of an accident. Ask your municipal authority If you want to convert the outside of your house by building an attic or a balcony, for example, or if you want to erect an outbuilding or build a carport, you must comply with a number of laws and regulations. Contact your municipal authority before you begin. Cooperative housing members must inform the board If you are a member of a cooperative housing project, you must find out whether cooperative housing society regulations contain special restrictions before commencing conversion work. Tenants must agree on changes with the landlord. If you are the tenant, you must make arrangements with the landlord or the building management office* before commencing any conversion work. You may plumb in a washing machine or dishwasher if the installations are approved.

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Insurance
Theft, fire and water damage If you take out a contents insurance policy, your furniture, books, clothes, stereo system, TV and many other personal contents will be covered in the event of theft or damage caused by fire or water, for example. Theft must be reported to the police immediately otherwise your insurance company will not pay out compensation. You can choose to take out a “family policy” which covers third party liability insurance, damage and theft. You can find the addresses of insurance companies in the telephone directory or by logging onto www.degulesider.dk. Even if you are a tenant occupying a room in a house or an apartment, you must insure your own personal contents.

Moving
FINDING A PLACE TO LIVE

Let people know when you move All municipal authorities have a registry of residents. If you move, you must therefore inform your municipal authority. This must be done no later than five days after moving. You can do this electronically by logging onto www.borger.dk. You can also obtain a special folder from your local post office containing all the necessary papers.

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6

FAMILY

Family and society
Danish society and the welfare state are founded on respect for the individual and responsibility for the community, both in relation to the family and society as a whole. Equal rights for men and women Men and women have the same rights and responsibilities, and participate in the labour market, economic and political life on an equal footing. The same applies to family life, where men and women have an equal right to make decisions about their lives, including divorce, for example. In most families, both the husband and wife hold down jobs and share the task of running the home. Joint responsibility for citizen and society Citizens and the public sector share responsibility for a number of tasks, for example, that children and young people receive a good upbringing and education and that the sick and weak receive care and treatment. By paying taxes, all citizens contribute towards the public sector, which is responsible for carrying out a number of important tasks. For example, the public sector provides day care facilities for children, schools and hospitals, as well as providing help for the sick, the elderly and others who are unable to look after themselves. Volunteers A number of voluntary and private associations help those in need. Often in close collaboration with the families and the public sector. We refer to www.frivillige.dk for further details.

Family life and partnerships
F A M I LY

Most families in Denmark consist of a father, mother and children. Many young people live on their own for a number of years until they get married or move in together and have children. Some adults live alone with their children. Many adults and elderly people live alone.

In 2006, Denmark numbered almost 2.5 million households with an average of 2.1 people living in each household. Roughly speaking, they fell into the following family types: Married couple with children Married couple without children Couple with children Couple without children Single parent with children Single parent without children Registered partnerships
Statistics Denmark, 2007

Percentage 13 21 4 6 5 49 1

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F A M I LY

Marriage
A couple are allowed to get married when both parties have reached 18. People under 18 must obtain special permission from their municipal authority. A person must not already be married, and it is against the law to marry siblings or close relatives such as children, parents or grandparents. It is up to the individual to decide whom he or she marries. Marriage is voluntary and it is against the law to force anyone into marriage. If you marry a person who lives in another country and want him or her to live in Denmark, you and your spouse must apply for a residence permit or family reunification. Find out more in Chapter 3, Entry and residence in Denmark. Registry or church A couple can be married at a registry or in a church. A civil marriage ceremony is performed by a registrar or another public official in your municipal authority. A church marriage ceremony is performed by a priest from the Danish National Church* or an alternative religious community where the priest has the power to marry couples. If you were married in another country, your marriage will probably be recognised in Denmark as well. Ask at the Danish national register in your municipal authority. Duty to provide for one another When you marry, it is your duty to financially provide for one another. And as a general rule, all belongings are joint property. When a married couple have children, the parents automatically have joint custody.

Registered partnerships Homosexuals can also enter into a registered partnership which is legally binding in the same way as marriage. Homosexuals have the same rights and duties as all other citizens. There are, however, certain exceptions. For example, homosexual couple do not have the right to adopt children.

Cohabitation
When two people decide to live together without being married it is called cohabitation. A couple who cohabit do not have the same duties and responsibilities towards one another as married couples. This is particularly important if the couple have children and decide to split up. Custody* If a couple have children and are not married, the mother automatically gets custody of the children. But the parents can have joint custody* if they agree to this. Disagreements can end up in court If a cohabiting couple decides to split up, it is up to them to sort out their possessions. Just as they should agree where the children are to live. If they can not agree, the matter must be settled in a court of law. If they can not agree about where the children should live, they can seek help from the state administration*.

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F A M I LY

Separation and divorce
A spouse who no longer wishes to live in a married relationship has the right to divorce. Separation is a kind of trial period, where the couple live apart but are still married. A married couple can get divorced if they have been separated for one year. If they agree, they can be divorced after six months. If divorce is due to infidelity or physical violence, it is possible to be divorced immediately without a trial separation. Sharing responsibility for the children. The parents themselves decide how to share responsibility for the children. If they can not agree, they can seek help from the state administration. If no agreement is reached, the matter can be settled by a court of law. A couple wishing to separate and divorce must apply to the state administration in the region* where they live. Here they can get advice about the conditions for separation, divorce, custody, division of property and maintenance payments. Child support payments. The parent not living with the child must make child support payments to the other. Child support payments are tax deductible.

Contraception and abortion You can always talk to your doctor about how to avoid becoming pregnant. There are many different kinds of contraception to choose from. In Denmark, a woman has the right to an induced abortion in hospital before the end of the twelfth week of pregnancy. In special circumstances it is also possible to have an abortion after this date. The right to an abortion is primarily founded on the woman’s right to decide over her own body. If you want an abortion, you must contact your doctor, who will refer you to the hospital. Normally, an induced abortion is a surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. It is also possible to have a medical abortion. In other words, an abortion induced by taking pills. We refer to www.sexlinien.dk for further details.

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Having a baby
F A M I LY

No one should be subjected to physical violence What happens within the four walls of the home comes under the heading of private life, and accordingly, neither the state nor the municipal authorities interfere. Having said this, no one, neither adult nor child, must be exposed to physical violence or abuse within the home. It is against the law to subject others to physical violence. This includes children and spouse. If you are beaten, threatened or forced into having sex, you can seek help either from your municipal authority, a crisis centre or an advisory centre. Violence and duress should be reported to the police. Seek help before it is too late If you need help and advice, you can contact your municipal authority or an advisory centre where you have the right to remain anonymous. Crisis aid and crisis centres If things go wrong and you need help here and now, you can move into a crisis centre. Here you will be given shelter until it can be determined what is to happen next. Crisis centres also offer social, physical and educational support. There are crises centres dotted around the country; both for men and women. It is possible to bring children with you to crisis centres. Most crisis centres are for women seeking protetction from violent husbands or someone else who abuses them. We refer to www.lokk.dk and www.social.dk for further details.

Examination by the doctor or midwife Pregnant women have the right to an examination by a doctor or midwife. The first check-up is with your own doctor when you have reached your ninth week of pregnancy. It is up to you to make this appointment. When you have entered your 10-12th week of pregnancy, you can go for an examination that will show whether there is any risk of the child having mongolism or certain hereditary diseases. Your doctor or midwife will talk to you about the examination. A case file follows you and the child The doctor opens a “case history” that you must take with you to all examinations by the doctor or midwife. In the file the doctor or midwife records the progress of the pregnancy. The purpose of examinations is to monitor how you and the baby are doing.

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Birth preparations You can go to antenatal courses and learn all about what happens to your body during pregnancy and the development of the baby. You will also learn how to do breathing and physical exercises that train the body and make giving birth easier and less painful. Ask your midwife about available courses. You can bring your husband or another person along to the courses. Birth In Denmark, most people give birth in a hospital maternity ward. You decide where and how you want to give birth. You can bring your husband or another person along to the birth. It is also possible to have the baby at home. Consult your midwife. On the maternity ward* If you have your baby in the hospital, you and the child will be moved to a room on the maternity ward. Here you can get help in looking after the baby and advice on breast feeding and care of the newborn. Birth certificate, naming and christening Once the baby is born, the parents must fill in a form which is to be sent to the Registrar of the State Church, who will issue a birth certificate. It is the Danish National Church* which registers all new births, irrespective of religion, on behalf of the state.

The Danish National Church registers everyone The Danish National Church also registers all newborn names. You therefore must inform the Registrar of the State Church of the baby’s name. This must be done before the child reaches six months. You can find a naming form at www.personregistrering.dk. The child will receive a birth certificate. The child can also be named in connection with a christening ceremony in the Danish National Church or another recognised religious community. The child will receive a birth certificate. The first name must be approved A child can have one or two first names. You can choose from a list of approved names by logging onto the Department of Family Affairs’ website at www.familiestyrelsen.dk. If you want a name that is not on the list, you can apply to have it approved. An application form is available from the Registrar of the State Church. Maternity and parental leave All pregnant women have the right to a period of maternity leave both before and after birth. The child’s father can also take parental leave for a fixed period. The public authorities and certain private companies have accords or agreements that ensure employees receive salaried maternity leave. Parents who do not receive a salaried maternity leave can receive maternity maintenance from their municipal authority. This also applies to self-employed people if they have had their business for a minimum of six months. Parents of small children are also entitled to parental leave. Ask your municipal authority for conditions.

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F A M I LY

The health visitor pays a visit You have the right to be visited by a health visitor. You can have the first visit a week after the mother and child have come back from the hospital. After that, you agree on future visits. Following the development of the child The job of the health visitor is to advise you so that you and the child get off to the best possible start. The health visitor examines the child and follows its development. The health visitor focuses on the welfare of the whole family and offers advice on any matters about which you may be in doubt. Examinations by your own doctor Your child can receive a number of free health examinations from your family doctor. Read more about children’s health examinations in Chapter 11. Mothers’ groups The health visitor can organise several women who have given birth at around the same time into mothers’ groups. The mothers meet at each other’s houses or in a place organised by the health visitor to talk and exchange experiences. Ask your health visitor if there are any mothers’ groups in which you can participate.

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F A M I LY

Children looked after outside the home
As both parents work during the day, most small children are looked after in day care centre or facility. Many schoolchildren attend an after-school care facility or an after-school centre. Parents stay in close dialogue with the institutions that care for their children. In this way they are able to influence the child’s childhood and upbringing - also when the child is not at home. Childminders, day care and nurseries The vast majority of children under the age of six are looked after by a childminder or at a day care centre or nursery every day. It is the task of municipal authorities to provide day care facilities, and the options vary from authority to authority. The most common are: • Day care. This means that together with other children, the child is looked after by a childminder approved by the municipal authority. This is particularly aimed at children from 0-3. • Day nursery - for children from six months up to the age of two. • Crèche - for children aged three and up to school starting age. • Outdoor crèche - where children spend the day in the countryside or the woods. • An integrated institution - for children aged six months and up to school starting age. • Private day care. Some municipal authorities award a grant to parents so their children can be put in private day care.

You must apply for a place It is your job to contact the municipal authorities to book a place for your child. If there are not any places immediately available, the child’s name will be placed on a waiting list. The earlier you put down the child’s name, the greater the chance of finding a place when you need it. If you would like your child to be looked after in childminding facilities, you should put down its name immediately after birth.

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If you move to another municipal authority If you move to another municipal authority before the child has begun at a day care centre, you must contact the new authority and have the child’s name placed on a waiting list there. Remember to tell them how long the child has been waiting so you are not put at the end of the queue. If you move to another municipal authority after the child has begun at a day care centre, you must contact the new authority and have the child’s name placed on a waiting list there. You can also keep the child at the day care centre in the authority from which you have just moved. Ring and make an appointment You are always welcome to visit several day care centres before deciding where you would like to place your child. Call and make an appointment so that you are sure that personnel have time to talk to you and give you a tour of the centre. Payment You must bear the cost of having your child looked after at a day care centre. The state, however, pays part of the cost. If you have several children in day care, you will receive sibling discount, and you can also apply to the municipal authority for a free or partially free place for your child. Ask your municipal authority. Duty to have the child looked after If you are out of work and receive cash benefit, unemployment benefit* or introductory benefit*, it is your duty to make yourself available to the job market. This means that you must be able to start work as soon as one becomes available or be ready to accept a job activation offer. This requires that your children be in day care.

F A M I LY

If you have not already found someone to look after your child, your municipal authority will offer you a place at a day care centre or in day care. You are obliged to accept this. Failure to do so can lead to a suspension of financial aid. Private day care grant The municipal authorities award a grant to parents who want to have their child in private day care, for example, by hiring a nanny. Some municipal authorities award parents a grant to look after their own children. The authority decides whether it will award such a grant. Help for language development If your child needs it, it can be given special help to learn Danish, so-called language stimulation, from the age of three. It is your municipal authority that provides this service, and a special language expert will assess whether your child requires language stimulation. If your child attends a nursery, language stimulation will take place there. If the child is looked after in the home, the child must receive 15 hours’ language stimulation a week. Language stimulation is mandatory. Ask your municipal authority.

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My son developed a large vocabulary playing together with Danish children.

“When our son began at school, his teachers commented on his large vocabulary. This was because he had mostly played with Danish children. For even though I speak Danish to him, there are words I don’t know but which he learns from other children. We grown-ups can learn from each other in the same way. We have always invited Danish children and their parents into our home. We have discussed a great many topics and this has proved educational for them and for us. A lot of prejudices have disappeared - on both sides.” Gülay Ciftci emigrated from Turkey to Denmark in 197 7. She work s a s a municipal integration and cash benefit consultant and is currently studying to be a social worker.

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Children and young people
F A M I LY

Contact between parents and personnel Positive contact between parents and day care personnel is crucial to the healthy development of the child. Personnel will inform you about what happens at the day care centre on a daily basis. They want to hear about your experiences with the child and changes in the family that affect the child. If you need more time to speak to personnel, you can arrange for a parent-teacher meeting. Many day care centres employ bi-lingual personnel who participate in the meetings. Otherwise you can be given an interpreter. Parent-teacher meetings and boards It is important that you take an active interest in your child’s daily life, also when your child is in the care of others. You can find out more about what is happening at your child’s day care centre and make suggestions at parent-teacher meetings held twice a year. At one of the parent-teacher meetings, parents elect representatives to the parent board. Representatives have a say in the centre’s finances, activities and the education that impacts on the daily lives of the children.

Between two cultures It can be difficult being a child or a young person if there is a great difference between the norms and values in Danish society and those you have grown up with at home. And it can be difficult being a parent, experiencing society’s norms and expectations of children and young people that are so different from those of your native country. Teenagers It does not get any easier when children reach their teenage years and experience important physical and emotional changes. Like all other children they must find themselves, learn to stand on their own two feet and prove that they are independent. At the same time, the parents are responsible for them and continue to set boundaries for their teenage children. Agreements and rules Most young people living at home reach agreement with their parents as to what rules apply to going to parties, what time they have to be home, and if they are allowed to spend the night away from home. Many young people - boys and girls - meet at cafés and discotheques in their spare time or hold private parties. Some spend the night at each other’s houses. Many parents discuss their attitudes towards smoking, drinking and parties, for example, at parent-teacher meetings. Individual families have very different attitudes towards the rules that should apply and the degree of free scope afforded their children. At parent-teacher meetings, parents can establish common rules for their children - for example, in connection with school parties.

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The body and sex Whether or not you approve, you will often come across sex and nudity in Danish society. Newspapers write articles about sex and sex life, and adverts and commercials visually exploit the human body. This reflects a general social trend towards a more liberal view of sexual life. In the last decade, new ways of living together have come into being as well as greater freedom to decide over one’s own body and improved conditions for homosexuals, for example. With this freedom, however, comes responsibility.

This means there are limits on what you can and can not do, and no one is allowed to force others to do things against their will. The assumption is that we respect each other’s personal and sexual boundaries. Semi-naked sunbathers in the park and on the beach or scantily clad or naked bathers, for example, should not be seen as an open invitation to sex. In the same way, neither a person’s body language nor provocative fashion should be interpreted as an open invitation to sex. Sexual assault must be reported to the police so that the offender(s) can be prosecuted.

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Legislation Danish legislation establishes clear boundaries for children’s rights and the protection of children. It is against the law to have sex with a minor, i.e. a person under the age of 15. Young people must be 16 before they are allowed to buy cigarettes and alcohol. Young people must be 18 before they are allowed to buy alcohol in restaurants and discotheques. Leaving home According to Danish law, people have full legal capacity at 18. This means the can take a driving test, borrow money and are legally responsible for themselves. Many young people leave home once they turn 18 to live on their own or together with others their own age. Advice and guidance It is possible to get professional help to solve difficult problems. Both parents and children can seek advice and guidance - together or own their own. Ask your municipal authority or contact a crisis line or a telephone helpline. These services are free and callers can remain anonymous.

Children and their rights Denmark has signed the UN convention on children’s rights which applies to all children under 18, regardless of origin. According to the convention, children have the right to food, good health and a place to live, the right to go to school, to play and to be protected from war, violence, abuse and exploitation. They also have the right to co-determination and influence. In Denmark, it is against the law to hit children; female circumcision is similarly against the law.

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Help for children and families with problems. It is the parents’ responsibility to care for their children and create a stable environment for their upbringing. Society does not interfere unless there is a suspicion that the child’s welfare is at risk. If there are problems, the municipal authority contacts the family and tries to help solve them. The family or a family member can also seek help. This is a collaborative effort between the authority and the family. Help consists of different forms of family support. If parents fail in their duty to such an extent that the child can not thrive or develop properly within the family, the child is placed in alternative care outside the family. This can happen with the parents’ consent or take the form of forced removal. The child can be placed in an institution or in foster care for a period of time. For example, this might be because the parents hit the child or because they are unable to care for the child properly. Young people with serious social problems or who have become involved in crime and whose parents are unable to care for them, can be placed in special institutions. Here, they get help to start an education or find a job.

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Children and adults with a disability
F A M I LY

As normal a life as possible Together with their families, children, teenagers and adults with special needs or with a physical or mental disability can get help so that their everyday lives are made easier. The aim is for people with a disability to live as active and normal a life as possible. Special services Most children with disabilities or children with special needs live with their parents and attend normal nurseries, schools and leisure activities. But some go to special nurseries and schools where children are trained and taught by specially trained personnel.

Young people and adults have access to remedial instruction, day and 24-hour centres, drop-in centres, sheltered workplaces and workshops. Some live in own accommodation and receive personal and practical help from the state. This may be a wheelchair or another auxiliary aid or a personal helper. Others live in a special institution or shared or sheltered accommodation where they receive the help they need.

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Life for the elderly
F A M I LY

Active elderly Elder citizens have numerous opportunities to pursue their interests and lead an active life. The Danish government’s ageing policy is founded on the principle that the elderly should have as much responsibility and say in their own lives as possible. As an elderly citizen, you therefore retain the right to be a part of the decision-making process. Both on a personal level and in relation to decisions affecting your local area. Municipal authorities have their own elderly councils whose members are locally elected elderly citizens who advise the authority on matters of special importance to the elderly in the local community. Ask your municipal authority about the possibilities and meeting places. Working life and retirement Danish society also needs its elderly citizens to make a contribution if they can. Some people work until they reach 70. Others retire when they reach 65 and have the right to draw a state pension. Others retire from the job market earlier still, taking pre-retirement benefit and early retirement pension. State pension Most people have the right to a state pension when they reach 65. The principle behind the state pension scheme is that a person earns the right to a pension as a citizen in Danish society. If you have lived in Denmark for 40 years from the age of 15 until you retire, you have the right to a full state psnsion. If you have lived in Denmark for a shorter time, you have the right to a smaller pension. It is the municipal pension office that calculates the size of the pension and can inform you of the amount to which you are entitled.

Pension savings Many people supplement their state pensions with other kinds of pension. Many employees subscribe to pension schemes. This means that each month the employer and the employee pay a fixed amount towards a pension held by a pension provider. You can also make direct payments to a private pension savings in a bank or a pension provider. If you pay to a private pension provider, the amount is tax deductible and you will end up paying less tax. Early retirement benefit Early retirement benefit enables people to retire or partially retire from work, as the scheme allows you to remain a salaried employee while receiving a reduced early retirement benefit. The earliest age you can take early retirement benefit is 60. You must have been a member of an unemployment fund for 30 years and have made special early retirement contributions. Early retirement benefit stops, at the latest, when you reach 65. Early retirement Some people suffer from such major physical or mental problems that they are unable to work and must take early retirement. A person must fulfil certain conditions in order to qualify for early retirement - one of them being their period of residence in Denmark. Ask your municipal authority

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In-home help Most elderly people live in their own homes for as long as possible. It is possible to get help for things like cleaning and shopping. If you are physically weak, you can also receive personal care. How much help will depend on how the municipal authority assesses the individual’s needs. Housing for the elderly If you are a senior citizen with special needs or physical problems, you can apply to your municipal authority for senior housing. Senior housing is specially designed to meet the needs of the elderly and those with disabilities. A lot of senior housing is linked to healthcare centres so that it is easy for residents to call for help. There may be waiting lists for senior housing. So it is a good idea to put your name down early. Sheltered housing or nursing home Elderly who are in need of a great deal of care can either be housed in sheltered accommodation or live in a nursing home. Here, personnel take care of practical things like cooking, laundry and cleaning and help residents with personal hygiene. Nurses are also on hand to administer medicine where needed and supervise elderly healthcare treatment. The elderly must pay for the help they receive. But prices are usually so low that the elderly can manage, even on a state pension.
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When life comes to a close
Death certificate When a person dies, a doctor writes a death certificate. If the death occurs at home, a relative must contact the doctor as soon as possible. The family receives the death certificate together with a death report which must be sent to the Registrar of the State Church. It is the Danish National Church* which registers all deaths, irrespective of the religion of the deceased or their family, on behalf of the state. When a person dies, the probate court* is automatically informed and summons the immediate family a short time after death. Here, it is decided what will become of the deceased’s possessions and personal effects. Burial Normally, the deceased is buried or cremated within eight days. An undertaker can assist with the practicalities. It is possible to obtain financial assistance, a funeral grant, from your municipal authority. If the deceased is to be buried in another country, the municipal authority must issue a special body passport to accompany the deceased. 2,100 cemeteries The Danish National Church* has about 2,100 cemeteries at its disposal, and all citizens in Denmark have the right to be buried in a cemetery. If you belong to another religious community you can not demand to have your traditions and customs respected. But you can inform the cemetery board of your wishes. Cemeteries for other religious communities Some cemeteries have burial sites for the Mosaic Religious Community, Catholics and Muslims. Religious communities outside the Danish National Church can also establish their own cemeteries. For example, there is a Muslim cemetery in the Municipality of Brøndby. This is owned and managed by the Danish Islamic Burial Foundation.

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7

SCHOOL AND EDUCATION

Learning is a life-long process
S C H O O L A N D E D U C AT I O N

General education Denmark has a tradition of general education* which is as old as Danish democracy itself. It goes together with a belief that a well-informed population is an important prerequisite for a well-functioning society. Everyone has access to life-long learning. Not just within the confines of the educational system but also by attending folk high school or night school*, following educational programmes on the radio or on TV, or by doing courses at work. Compulsory education Denmark has a policy of nine years’ compulsory education. Children are to be taught from the age of seven. Most children, however, start in a pre-school class when they are six. Most people continue their studies after the nine years of compulsory education. After nine years of primary and lower secondary school, it is up to the individual to decide whether they want pursue further education. Having said this, there are fewer and fewer jobs for people without an education so the vast majority of young people take a business education or upper secondary education. Followed by a short-, medium- or long-term period of further study.

Collaboration and participation The Danish education system is founded on a high degree of freedom and co-determination. From the earliest classes all the way through to university, students can participate in decision making relating to school and education. And teachers expect them to do so. Teaching not only places emphasis on academic knowledge but also on the student’s ability to develop communicative and collaborative skills. Right from pre-school class, teachers teach children in groups and encourage them to solve tasks together. At institutions of higher education, students often work together to solve assignments and meet privately in study groups.

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The Danish education system
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Approximate age 27 26 25

Year group
Adult education, e.g.Adult vocational training, Voluntary adult education, full-time adult education, general adult education, higher preparatory examination, further adult education, diploma degree programme and executive master's programme

20 19 18
Research education

Ph.d.

24 23 22 21
Careers advice centre

17 16 15 14 13
Long-cycle higher education Medium-cycle higher education Short-cycle higher education

20

19 18 17

12 11 10

Stx

1

Hf

2

Hhx

3

Htx

4

Youth guidance centre (UU)

Vocational education and training, social and health care training programme, etc. Vocational education and training

Basic vocational education and training, trainee, production schools, etc.

Upper secondary education

Special courses

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1 2 3 4

Primary and lower secondary school

Pre-school class Stx: Upper secondary school leaving examination Hf: Higher preparatory examination Hhx: Higher commercial examination Htx: Higher technical examination

Primary and lower secondary school
S C H O O L A N D E D U C AT I O N

Municipal primary and lower secondary school and private schools All children are entitled to free tuition at Danish municipal primary and lower secondary school. This tuition includes a one-year, pre-school class followed by nine years of primary and lower secondary school and a tenth class which is optional. In addition to municipal primary and lower secondary school, there are also independent primary and lower secondary schools and private schools where tuition is paid for by the parents. The private independent primary and lower secondary schools may have a different conceptual framework than municipal primary and lower secondary schools, but from an academic and social point of view, children learn exactly the same. We refer to www.friskoler. dk for further details. You must enrol the child at school Children automatically attend a municipal primary and lower secondary school in the area where the family lives. When the child nears school age, the parents will receive a letter from the school stating when you should enrol the child at school and an offer to visit the school. You can also choose another municipal primary and lower secondary school or a private independent primary and lower secondary school. In that case, it is up to you to contact the school of your choice. What to remember when starting school Before the child begins in school, you will receive a letter listing the practical things your child will need in school, such as a school bag, writing implements and a lunchbox. The aims of municipal primary and lower secondary school Danish primary and lower secondary education is based on the Danish Education Act. In its introduction, it states the following about the aims of primary and lower secondary education: “ § 1. “Section 1. Together with parents, primary and lower secondary school shall provide pupils with knowledge and skills that: prepare them for further study and give them the desire to learn more, make them familiar with Danish culture and history, provide them with an understanding of other countries and cultures, contribute towards their understanding for man’s interaction with nature and promote the individual student’s all-round development. Section 2. Primary and lower secondary school must develop working methods and create a framework that promotes experience, absorption and enterprise so that students develop their imagination, sense of recognition and self-belief, thus enabling them to take a position and act. Section 3. Primary and lower secondary school shall prepare the students towards participation, joint responsibility, rights and duties in a free and democratic society. School activities must thus be characterised by intellectual liberty, equality and democracy*.

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Parents have influence Regardless of whether a child attends a municipal primary and lower secondary school or a private independent school, parents can gain influence at school level and become jointly responsible for their child’s education. Private independent schools are self-governing institutions which are run by a parent-elected board. Primary and lower secondary schools have a board that includes school representatives and representatives elected by the parents themselves. Municipal authorities also cooperate with the teachers and parent representatives. The municipal authorities have the overall responsibility for school matters. School-home cooperation Schools also stress positive contact with the parents of every student in order to give the child the best opportunities for doing well at school. Each year, you will be invited to attend school-home meetings which may focus on how the child is doing at school, how the child is managing academically, the child’s homework and paying attention in class. Parents can elect parent representatives or contact parents who work closely with teachers regarding parent-teacher meetings or other events, for example. School-parent collaboration may also take the form of theme evenings or workshops. This differs greatly from school to school. The purpose of collaboration is to give parents the opportunity of contributing towards the child’s well-being and education.

Teaching
Pre-school class In pre-school class, children learn the alphabet and numbers. They develop a vocabulary, concepts and working methods within a number of compulsory themes, and through play and teaching they become familiar with school routines and a community spirit. As a rule, children from the pre-school class will continue together in the first class. Children stay together in the same class Danish education is comprehensive by nature. This means that children can continue in the same class throughout their school education.

S C H O O L A N D E D U C AT I O N

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“It’s important to attend parent-teacher meetings and take part in school-parent collaboration in order to stay abreast of developments and build a bridge between Danish and Arab society. It’s about securing our children’s future. You get to know other parents and have the opportunity of influencing your children’s education. You have to be open and prepared to tell people what you think and let them know what you are capable of. You mustn’t become isolated. And most important of all, you have to learn the language so you can get to know Danes better, and vice versa.”

It’s all about securing our children’s future

Sabah Elawi emigrated to Denmark from Palestine in 1990. She is a primary and lower secondary school teacher and the mother of two children.

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Maths, languages, society and natural science The law stipulates that students must learn certain things at school. In addition, it is up to each school to decide how it will organise teaching. At primary and lower secondary school, children learn maths, languages, social studies and natural science. They also learn about Danish culture and history and about other countries and their cultures. School also aims to strengthen the pupil’s development and stimulate their imagination and desire for learning. National tests Throughout their school education, all pupils sit a series of tests in different subjects. These tests are divided into classes and subjects: 2nd class: 3rd class: 4th class: 6th class: 7th class: 8th class: Danish/reading Maths Danish/reading Danish/reading and maths English Danish/reading, geography, biology and physics/chemistry

Written pupil plans The pupil plan must contain information about how the benefit derived by the pupil from the syllabus has been evaluated and assessed throughout the year. The pupil plans must also state how the teacher and pupil will follow up on the achieved results. The pupil plan must be prepared at least once a year and must address all subjects in which the pupil is taught. The pupil plan must be sent to the parents. The plan may also contain agreements about ways in which parents can contribute towards the pupil’s positive education and information about the child’s behaviour and well-being at school. Grades in the oldest classes Only pupils in the 8th, 9th and 10th classes get grades. At least twice a year, pupils get grades in those subjects in which they will have final tests. These subjects are: • • • • • • • Danish Maths English German French Physics/chemistry Biology • • • • • • • Geography History Social science Christian studies Needlework Woodwork Domestic science

There is also a voluntary test in Danish as a second language in the 5th and 7th classes. The aim of the tests is to assess what the pupils get out of teaching. The results are used to plan the teaching syllabus so that it is in keeping with the abilities of the individual pupil.

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Both sexes have the same subjects Boys and girls are taught the same subjects. This applies equally to the academic subjects such as Danish, English, social science and maths and the creative subjects. Both sexes learn to sew, cook and use tools. Boys and girls do sport together but change and shower separately. Christian science and other religions Christain science deals with ordinary questions about Christianity as well as other religions and outlooks on life. Teaching does not preach religion but merely informs about Christianity and other religions. Tuition helps to give children an understanding of the importance of religion in modern society. Your child can be exempted from Christian science tuition. Ask at your child’s school.

Sex education Children receive sex education at school. Here, they learn about how the body works. They talk about love and falling in love. And they hear about how to conceive children and contraception. Sex education is not a subject on the school timetable. Nevertheless, health, sex education and family life are mandatory subjects. The same is true of the highway code and education and business orientation.

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Co-determination and democracy School must prepare children for a life in a free, democratic society that offers responsibility and equality. This is why they learn to participate in decision making and to take responsibility. Pupil councils are listened to Children learn to express their opinions. They can form pupil councils which are consulted when it comes to making important school decisions. School camp A school camp is a class trip with an academic content. School camp always lasts for several days. Together with some of their teachers, pupils leave their school and live together for several days, for example, in a scout hut or similar surroundings that offer room for teaching, social gathering and an overnight stay. School camp forms part of the school syllabus. It also plays an important role in the social life of the class and pupil cameraderie. Before leaving, the children prepare for the trip by reading texts, gathering information, completing assignments and essays on academic subjects that are relevant to the trip. At school camp, children will cook together, go on bus and bike rides, visit museums, sights and companies, make bonfires, go on walks and play together. Boys and girls sleep in separate dormitories.

School camp in a safe setting School camp is part of school education, providing pupils with the opportunity to gain concrete experiences. The teachers teach, advise and keep an eye on the children. The teachers discuss practical questions like food and sleeping away from home with the parents so they can feel safe about their children going on the trip.

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The frequency and duration of school camps differs from school to school. Trips, however, always include several overnight stays. Danish as a second language From the age of three, bilingual children can get help to learn Danish, where needed. This is a service provided by the municipal authority following an assessment of the child’s linguistic development by a language specialist. The service consists of special nursery or day care activities. Children who are looked after at home are offered 15 hours of language stimulation a week. When a bilingual child begins primary and lower secondary school, an assessment is carried out to determine whether the child needs help with Danish as a second language. If it is necessary, the child can receive special tuition in Danish as a second language at its own or another school. This is available to children from the pre-school class right through to the 10th class, if needed. Mother-tongue teaching The municipal authorities must provide mother-tongue teaching to pupils from Greenland and the Faroe Islands and to pupils whose parents are EU or EEA citizens. Teaching will only be undertaken, however, if there is a sufficient number of registered pupils. Municipal authorities can provide voluntary mother-language teaching to pupils from other countries. Municipal authorities can charge a fee for this service.

If the child has difficulty keeping up If your child finds it very difficult to keep up in school, it can receive extra or remedial instruction. This can take place during or immediately after school hours. Speak to the class teacher about the possibilities. Final tests Pupils finish primary and lower secondary school with an exam in the 9th class. They may also choose to continue on to the 10th class, which also ends with a final exam. After this, pupils can enrol for a course in business training or continue in upper secondary education.

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Continuation school
Pupils live at the school Many young people opt for one or more year at continuation school in the 8th, 9th or 10 class. Continuation schools are free boarding schools where pupils reside. Continuation schools offer pupils an alternative way of finishing primary and lower secondary education. Many young people choose continuation school because they want to try something new or because they need to get away from home for a while. You have to pay to go

Human development By means of teaching and social togetherness, continuation schools must strengthen the pupils’ knowledge of life, general knowledge and democratic development, and teaching therefore aims to address the pupils’ general upbringing, human development and maturation. For this reason, many continuation schools focus on creative and practical subjects such as drama, music, sport, photography, farming and different kinds of handicrafts. But their teaching aims are the same as those of municipal primary and lower secondary schools, and at the majority of continuation schools pupils can sit their final 9th and 10th class exams. Some special continuation schools offer remedial instruction, for example, to dyslexic pupils. A stay at a continuation school can promote a pupil’s academic development. They can get homework assistance and extra tuition in Danish, for example. A stay at a continuation school is also a good way of preparing for youth education and building up a social network. Find out more by logging onto www.efterskole.dk

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Outside school hours
S C H O O L A N D E D U C AT I O N

After-school centres and the after-school care scheme Children can be looked after at after-school centres or in after-school care schemes (SFO) until they begin in the 3rd or 4th class. Here, children can play with their friends, do homework and take part in various other activities. After-school centres and SFO are open daily until five or six o’clock in the afternoon. You must apply to your municipal authority for a place in an after-school centre or SFO scheme. You must bear some of the costs for this care service, unless you are given a free place. You can apply to your municipal authority for a free place. Homework assistance In many municipalities, schools, libraries and local organisations work together to provide homework assistance to children who need help. Ask at your school, library or municipal authority. Clubs for the older children Some municipal authorities also have recreational clubs. Children can come to the clubs when they have outgrown after-school centres or SFOs. Youth schools All municipal authorities have youth schools for children aged 14 to 18. Youth schools are a way of supplementing school education in your free time. Enrolment is voluntary and tuition is free. Youth schools are open in the afternoon and evening, and here it is possible to take academic and creative subjects such as music, photography and ceramics, learn about IT and receive instruction on how to ride a moped. You can also simply meet other young people and hang out together. Many schools organise parties on Fridays.

A youth school can have a full-time school timetable with the option of sitting the same exams as those of primary and lower secondary school. Some also have clubs and other recreational activities, some of which must be paid for by participants. Ask your municipal authority, a youth school or consult the Youth Education Guidance Service.

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After primary and lower secondary school
S C H O O L A N D E D U C AT I O N

Youth education Once you have completed your basic school education in the 9th or 10th class, you can apply for enrolment in a youth education programme. Youth education programmes are courses of preparatory study or professional qualification programmes usually lasting three or four years. These programmes are free and students can apply for SU, the state education grant and loan scheme, once they have reached 18. The state education grant and loan scheme The state education grant and loan scheme, SU, is a form of financial assistance given to students while they are studying. SU consists of a free grant which is, however, taxable. In addition to the grant, students can take out a loan which must be repaid when they have finished their education. In order to qualify for SU, the education you have enrolled for must be approved for a state education grant, and you are not allowed to receive any other forms of state support to cover living expenses. If you are a non-Danish citizen If you are a non-Danish citizen, you can apply to the Danish Educational Support Agency and ask to be put on an equal footing with Danish citizens before you apply. This is possible if, for example, you have moved to Denmark with your parents before your 20th birthday and still reside here, if you are married to a Danish citizen and have lived in the country for at least two years, or if you have had paid employment in Denmark prior to beginning your education. If you are an EU or EEA citizen, you can apply to be placed on an equal footing with Danish citizens in accordance with

EU regulations. Find out more by logging onto www.su.dk. Most SU rules are the same regardless of education. But there are, however, certain differences for youth education programmes and those of further education. We refer to www.su.dk for further details. Everyone can influence educational content At all educational institutions, pupils and students can organise themselves into various bodies - student academic councils, student councils or pupil councils. These bodies look after the students’ interests and make demands with regard to education content and quality. Everyone has the possibility of influencing their education by standing for election to a pupil or student council.

Upper secondary school education
Two to three years Upper secondary school educations last two to three years and provide access to programmes of higher education. Upper secondary school educations comprise: • Danish general upper secondary school (stx), which is a three-year course and ends with the university entry examination. At some schools (student courses), the programme can be completed with two years of full-time study. The aim of the programme is to prepare students for higher education. The programme also seeks to provide a general education. This means that pupils must learn to relate to the outside world, their fellow man, nature, society and to their own development. To be accepted, as a minimum requirement you must have passed the munici-

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pal primary and lower secondary school 9th-class final exam. You may be asked to sit an entrance exam, or the upper secondary school can accept you on the basis of an academic assessment. • The Higher Preparatory Exam, HF,which is a twoyear course. The aim of the programme is to prepare students for higher education. The programme also seeks to provide a general education. This means that as a result of their education, pupils must learn to relate to the outside world, their fellow man, nature, society and to their own development. To be accepted, you must have completed the 10th class of the municipal primary and lower secondary school or similar. Or you must pass a special entrance exam.

• Business college education: The Higher commercial examination (hhx) and Higher technical examination (htx),are both three-year courses. The aim of the programme is to prepare students for higher education. The programme also seeks to provide a general education. This means that as a result of their education, pupils must learn to relate to the outside world, their fellow man, nature, society and to their own development. To be accepted, as a minimum requirement you must have passed the municipal primary and lower secondary school 9th-class final exam. You may be asked to sit an entrance exam, or the school can accept you on the basis of an academic assessment.

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Business training
125 different courses to choose from There are 125 different programmes of study, for example, carpenter, plumber, mason, sales assistant, electrician, chef and data technician. The courses are held at vocational colleges and are free. To be accepted, you must have an education that corresponds to nine years of primary and lower secondary school. Throughout the course, both the student and the training must achieve predefined goals. Danish exam If you have not attended a Danish school or have Danish citizenship, the college might ask you to pass a special Danish exam in order to be accepted. 1½ to 5½ years It takes anywhere from 1½ til 5½ years to complete vocational training, all depending on the specialist area you are studying. Training ends with a completed apprenticeship or final vocational test, which is the final exam. School and practical training A few training courses are limited to the college. Most, however, alternate between college and practical business training. New apprenticeship If you would prefer to begin your practical training immediately, most vocational training courses offer an apprenticeship agreement with a company where students complete most of their training. This is called the craft apprenticeship. It is up to you to find a company willing to

enter into an apprenticeship agreement with you. You must prepare a training plan. The college and the company will help you with this. SU and salary Vocation college training is free. You can apply for SU for the part of the course that takes place at college. When you are in vocational training, you will receive an apprentice salary. The amount will depend on the chosen subject and your age. Social and healthcare helper A social and healthcare helper looks after the elderly, the sick and disabled who are in need of special personal care and practical assistance. The work is carried out in private homes, nursing homes and in co-housing schemes. The course takes one year and two months. The sandwich course is divided into approx. six months at vocational college and eight months in practical training. For enrolment, you must apply to a social and healthcare college in your municipal authority. If you are accepted, you will be given an apprenticeship at a hospital or municipal authority. You can choose whether to begin at college or with practical training. The course is free and you will receive an apprentice salary throughout your training. Social and healthcare assistant Once you have graduated as a social and healthcare helper, you can go on to train as a social and healthcare assistant. Social and healthcare assistants work in hospitals, nursing

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homes and institutions for the physically and mentally disabled. The course takes one year and eight months. You will receive an apprentice salary throughout your training. Production colleges If you are under 25, have not completed a youth education programme and need time to think about your future career, you can be accepted into a production college. There are about 100 production colleges dotted around the country. They are very different in nature but comprise various workshop activities and general subject tuition. Students work in production and solve assignments with the aim of selling what they produce. You have to apply to the college to be accepted, and your municipal authority Youth Education Guidance Service* has to approve your stay there. Basic vocational education and training scheme (egu) Municipal authorities must provide a special basic vocational education and training scheme for young people under 30 living in the authority who have experienced difficulty finding employment or education. Egu is a practical training scheme aimed at helping participants find work or pursuing further education. The course normally lasts two years and consists of college tuition and practical training. It is tailored to the needs and preferences of the individual and the employment and practical training opportunities in the local area. Following agreement with municipal authorities, production and vocational colleges can provide egu courses.

Ask an education counsellor - At the individual colleges and educational institutions, education counsellors are on hand to advise you as to which course best suits your needs. You can also seek advice from the Youth Education Guidance Service in your municipal authority. Find out more by logging onto www.borger.dk or www.uddannelsesguiden.dk

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“My father is an engineer so at first I thought of following in his footsteps. But then I decided to train as a craftsman. I like my job and working on different building sites. I am very happy with the training programme and have no regrets about my choice; there is no differential treatment between myself and the other students. It doesn’t matter whether you train to be an engineer or a craftsman. The salary is the same and you earn the same respect.”

I earn a good salary and respect

Mohsin N. Rashad is a Turk who formerly lived in Iraq. In 2001, he emigrated to Denmark. He is now training to be a plumber.

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Trainee or on-the-job learning session In some trades, young people aged between 15 and 18 can enter into a 3-6-month trainee employment agreement with a company where they receive a trainee salary. The aim of the trainee scheme is for both parties to subsequently enter into an actual training agreement. Ask the Youth Education Guidance Service.

Youth education counsellor (UU) The Youth Education Guidance Service provides help and advice regarding education and employment to all young people under 25. The UU works with schools to provide information that helps young people choose an education. The UU can be contacted at your local UU centre. Guidance at school At school, it is the class teacher and the UU counsellor who advises pupils and parents. The UU counsellor offers personal guidance. In other words, the counsellor talks to youngsters about education and employment. The counsellor also helps pupils in 6-10th classes compile an education booklet. In the 9th and 10th classes, pupils finish their education booklets by drawing up an education plan in which they write down the education they have chosen. It is important that parents show an interest in the minds of their children during their school education. Parents can read the education booklet and the education plan, and discuss content with their children. Counsellors know a great deal, but parents and pupils can also look into the various possibilities themselves. This can be done by searching the Internet, for example, or by visiting the various educational institutions or public libraries. After-school guidance Young people who are pursuing further education can receive guidance from their educational institution. The counsellor can help with choice of subject, course planning and SU (the State Education Grant Scheme).

Advice about education and employment
Today there are more education opportunities than ever before. Some education programmes are theoretical, while others focus on trades. It is important to find an education that matches the needs and interests of the individual. At school, children are offered careers counselling which aims to introduce them to the Danish education system and job market. The counsellor A counsellor is a person who speaks to young people and parents about choice of profession and education. The counsellor helps to find information about different educational programmes and explains the educational requirements. In this way, students are helped to choose programmes for which they are qualified - and able to complete. There are different types of counsellors. At primary and lower secondary school, the counsellor is known as a UU counsellor (Youth education counsellor), while at other educational institutions he is referred to as a careers advisor or an education and vocational guidance counsellor.

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Young people under 25 who left school after the 9th or 10th class can receive guidance from their local UU centre. This applies to young people, for example, who have not started an education or who have started but failed to finish. The address and telephone number of your local UU centre can be obtained from your school, the town hall or by logging onto www. uddannelsesguiden.dk. Further education counselling Spread across the country are seven education and guidance centres that offer higher education counselling. You can find the address and telephone number of the nearest education and guidance centre by logging onto www.ug.dk. Most educational institutions have a curriculum counsellor who can advise about educational programme content, entrance requirements, applications and future career opportunities. Adult education and job counselling There are various resources open to adults seeking advice about education and employment. Anyone seeking employment can apply to municipal authority job centres.

Language centres and VUCs (Adult learning centres) provide counselling on courses and education programmes that lead to further education. Counselling about vocational training courses and education programmes can be obtained from vocational and social and healthcare colleges. Some day high schools and folk high schools provide counselling as part of their syllabus. Higher education counselling takes place at the country’s seven education and guidance centres or at the educational institution at which you are planning to enrol. Find out more by logging onto www.borger.dk, www.uddannelsesguiden.dk and www.vidar.dk

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Further education
S C H O O L A N D E D U C AT I O N

Short-, medium-, and long-term higher education If you have completed upper secondary education, you can undertake a programme of higher education. There are three types of higher education programmes: • The short programmes of higher education normally take two years. Here you can study to become a laboratory technician, market economist, certified electrician or mechanical engineer. Both vocational education and training and general upper secondary education provide access to short programmes of higher education. • The medium-term, professional bachelor programmes take between three and four years. Here you can study to become a teacher, social educator, nurse, engineer or social worker. • The long-term programmes of higher education which are studied at university or higher education institutions. Here you can study to become a doctor, dentist, engineer or upper secondary school teacher. The university education programmes take between five and six years and can be supplemented by a PhD programme where students receive a salary and work on research and teach for about three years. Find out more about your education possibilities at www. uddannelsesguiden.dk. Entry requirements Each programme has its own entry requirements that typically ask for specific exams and sometimes other qualifications. Some education programmes operate a policy of restricted admission because there are more qualified applicants than

available places. Most education programmes have a quota system with two quotas. This means that they accept applicants in two quotas. In the first quota, applicants are accepted on the basis of their qualification examination grades. In the second quota, students are accepted on the basis of other selection criteria specific to the programme. Coordinated enrolment system (KOT) Nearly all higher education programmes require students to seek enrolment through the coordinated enrolment system (KOT). You can obtain application forms by logging onto www.optagelse.dk. Entrance examinations Some education programmes require entrance exams. This typically applies to creative or craft-oriented study programmes such as acting, film directing, journalism and design. Foreign qualifications Special admission rules apply to applicants holding a foreign qualification. You can read more about these rules in the examination handbook at www.ciriusonline.dk. Familiarise yourself with the programme and meet fellow students At most universities and higher education institutions, programmes begin with an orientation course for new students. Here, new students are introduced to each other and the programme by means of academic presentations, discussions and festive activities. Often, new students will go off on a short cottage trip together.

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At Copenhagen University, new students are welcomed by the rector.

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Special courses for adults
S C H O O L A N D E D U C AT I O N

All levels As a mature student, there are a great many education and tuition opportunities. You can take a course in general education, take a full-time education programme or continuing training. Nearly all levels of adult learning are represented in the Danish education system. At adult learning centres (VUC), adults can participate in preparatory adult education (FVU), courses for dyslexic adults, general adult education (AVU) and higher preparatory single subject courses. Log onto www.vuc.dk or www.vidar.dk to find the address of the adult learning centre closest to your home or place of work. You can also find out more about education and your possibilities for receiving financial assistance while you study. Preparatory adult education (FVU) FVU is for adults who want to improve their reading, writing, spelling and mathematic skills. Tuition is divided into three levels, and you start on the level that best suits your abilities and needs. You can take a final test after each level. FVU is free. To gain an overview, log onto www.vidar.dk. Here you can see where tuition takes place. Adult learning centres (VUC), night schools and private teachers are typically found throughout the country. Courses for dyslexic adults Courses for dyslexic adults are aimed at adults who have difficulty reading and writing due to dyslexia. Tuition is free. Log onto www.vidar.dk to see an overview of institutions offering tuition. Adult learning centres (VUC), night schools and private institutions are typically found throughout the country.

Remedial instruction Remedial instruction is individualised as is instruction and counselling to adults with physical or mental disabilities. The aim is to help participants pursue an active and independent adult life. You can apply to your municipal authority if you would like to be given an assessment to determine whether remedial instruction is relevant for you.

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General adult education (AVU) General adult education is tuition in a number of general subjects such as Danish, Danish as a second language, maths, computer subjects, English and social science. These subjects are not aimed at any particular trade but may be necessary for further training or for getting on better in your job. The course can end with tests that correspond to the final exam in the 9th or 10th class of primary and lower secondary school. You can take classes during the day, in the evening, use distance learning, or be an independent student where you study by yourself and sit the final exam. You have to pay a small fee to participate in classes. HF - higher preparatory single subject course HF, the higher preparatory examination, is an upper secondary education. At VUC, tuition is planned as a single subject course so that you can take the subjects you need. You can take classes during the day, in the evening, use distance learning, or be an independent student where you study by yourself and sit the final exam. You have to pay a small fee to participate in classes.

Further adult education (VVU)
Adults with an education and experience have excellent prospects for further education. Many educational institutions offer courses and programmes for adults wishing to improve their skills, for example while holding down full-time jobs. Depending on the programme and your experience, you can take classes that correspond to short-, medium- and long-term higher education. Find out more by logging onto www.vidar.dk and www.uddannelsesguiden.dk.

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Adult vocational training (AMU)
Short training programmes: Adult vocational training programmes are short courses for skilled and unskilled workers employed in private or public companies. Adult vocational training programmes can also form part of the job activation* initiatives offered by job centres to the unemployed. 2,500 different courses There are roughly 2,500 different adult vocational training courses available in a number of areas, for example, commerce and clerical, social and healthcare, construction, agriculture, the metal working industry, the service industries and the transport industry. For further details, we refer to the overview at på www.vidar.dk. Here you can also see where the courses are held. These courses are held at adult vocational training centres, technical colleges, business schools, social and healthcare colleges, national institutes for social educators and private institutions around the country.

Payment There is a tuition fee. You may be able to have this refunded. Your unemployment fund or job centre will be able to tell you more about this. For bilingual citizens If you are not sufficiently proficient in Danish to take part in a course, it is possible to take special courses. In this event, one or more adult vocational training programmes will be combined with tuition in Danish. It is also possible to take an adult vocational training programme in Danish which is not combined with other forms of educational programmes.

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Recognition of foreign qualifications
S C H O O L A N D E D U C AT I O N

Can you use your qualification in Denmark? If you have completed your education outside Denmark, you need to find out whether you can use it as it is, or whether you first need to retrain in order to work in Denmark. Help in assessing foreign qualifications CIRIUS is the central body in Denmark to whom you can apply if you wish to have your foreign qualification assessed in relation to the Danish education system and job market. We refer to www.ciriusonline.dk/anerkendelse for further details.

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Most people work
In Denmark, the vast majority of people work. This is true for both men and women. Most are salaried employees working for private or public companies. But there is also a large self-employed business community with own businesses, restaurants, companies or agricultural activities. Division of employees according to occupation In Denmark, a little over 2.8 million (2,815,000) people work. They fall into the Percentage following occupations: (rounded up) Agriculture, fisheries and raw materials Industry Energy and water supply Building and construction Commerce, hotels and restaurants Transport, postal services, telecommunications Finance, business services, etc. Public and personal services In total
Labour Market Survey, Statistics Denmark, 2007

Finding work
E M P LOYM E N T

Before starting to look for work, you can seek advice from a careers adviser at your municipal authority job centre. If you are a member of a trade union or an unemployment fund* (a-kasse), you can seek help and advice there. Job centres The primary task of job centres is to help you find a job. This is also where you register if you are unemployed. Job centres have PCs which you can use to search for work, and job centre staff will help you prepare a job plan. You can find job centre addresses by logging onto www.jobnet.dk. Many ways of finding work You can actively seek employment by: • Sending applications in response to job ads in the newspaper and trade journals. • Send unsolicited applications to those companies where you would like to work, or apply to the company direct. • Use your network of contacts already in the job market. • Seek employment through private employment agencies. • Search for jobs on the Internet (libraries and job centres provide access to the Internet). • Place your own ad in a newspaper or on the Internet. What skills do you already have? Whether you should start with further training or immediately begin seeking work will depend on your skills and age. If you have no training, you can start by doing unskilled work, possibly after taking a few short courses.

3 16 1 7 18 6 13 36 100,0

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Training and work If you have an education and speak Danish, your chances of finding a good job are excellent. And in many cases, speaking Danish as well as your native tongue will prove an advantage. If you have few qualifications and speak little Danish, finding a job can prove very difficult. But there are various options open to you that can improve your chances of finding work. You can take a language course, gain on-the-job experience in a company or take a subsidised job in the public sector, for example. Later, you will be employed under normal conditions. Application and job interview It is easier to find work if you have a reasonable command of Danish. But even with good qualifications, finding a job can take time. It may require many applications and job interviews before the right opening comes along. Written applications Most employers ask for a written job application. Your job centre, your trade union or unemployment fund can all help you with your written job application. An application should fill a single page, and should include why you are applying for the job, your qualifications and experience, and a little information about yourself. It is a good idea to enclose your CV, i.e. an overview of your educational qualifications, professional experience and leisure interests. It is also a good idea to enclose copies of examination certificates and references from former employers, work placements and job activation programme activities.

Qualifications are necessary To find a job in Denmark, you will require qualifications and skills that match the job opportunities that exist. Many jobs require a short- or long-term period of study. Nearly all jobs require special skills or the willingness to acquire them. This also applies to jobs where there are no major educational requirements, such as cleaning or factory work, for example, where you may have to learn a wide range of job functions. The same is true if you want to run your own shop or business. Important to get started Your first job may not be your dream job and may not pay a very high salary. But it is nonetheless important that you get started in the job market. For once you have a job, it is easier for you to develop your skills and qualifications so you can look for a better job.

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Job interviews If you are called for a job interview, it is important to be well prepared. The employer will expect you to explain what you are good at, why you are right for the job and how you will contribute to the development of the company. Use the interview to ask about things you would like to know about the job, the company and its expectations of you. There will probably be more than one person present at the job interview. One of them might be an employee representative.

Employers place importance on the following: • A good command of Danish. • Relevant professional experience. • A clear and well-formulated written application. • That you have the ability and willingness to work independently and with others. • That you are good at taking initiatives and responsibility. • That you are flexible and open to new ideas.

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If you become unemployed
E M P LOYM E N T

Contract of employment When you are hired, you will receive a contract of employment. This contains information about the most important terms and conditions of employment. These might be: • • • • • Job description Salary and working hours Holidays Work times Period of notice

Unemployment insurance When you start working, it is a good idea to join an unemployment fund*, a so-called a-kasse. This enables you to get help and financial assistance, unemployment benefit*, if you become unemployed. Unemployment fund contributions are tax deductible. As an unemployed person, you must fulfil certain conditions to qualify for unemployment benefit. You must have been a member of an unemployment fund for one year and had a certain amount of work. Your unemployment fund must inform you about the exact details. Apply to the job centre If you lose your job, you must apply to the job centre in your municipal authority on the first day of being out of work. Here, you will be registered as a job applicant. If you are a member of an unemployment fund, you will be given a benefit card which you will need to claim unemployment benefit from your unemployment fund. If you are not a member of an unemployment fund, you may qualify for cash benefit or start aid. You are entitled to cash benefit if you have resided in Denmark in seven out of the last eight years. If you have not, and are unable to provide for yourself, you will receive start aid. Start aid is less than cash benefit. Looking for work As quickly as possible, and no later than one month after becoming unemployed, you must prepare a CV outlining your educational qualifications, professional experience, personal interests and skills. Your CV will be placed in the job centre’s national database, jobbanken, at www.jobnet.dk. You must prepare your own CV and are responsible for the information it contains. But your job centre or unemployment fund can offer advice and help you to prepare it.

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The Danish labour market
E M P LOYM E N T

You must make yourself available to the job market. You must make yourself available to the job market. This means that you must look for work and accept a job offer as soon as there is one. If you can not find a job, the job centre will help you to find one. You must attend those job interviews to which you are summoned. And accept those job offers which your municipal authority gives you as part of their job activation programme*. Job activation may include courses, on-the-job training or subsidised employment. If you are in any doubt, consult your job centre or unemployment fund.

Agreements - the Danish model In Denmark, many wage and working conditions are agreed between the employee and employer organisations. This takes place in collective agreements which are signed by the trade unions and employers’ associations. Collective agreements contain regulations regarding your salary, working hours, training, pension and rules governing salary during illness and terms of notice. Denmark does not have a tradition of legislating in this area. This is why we talk about the “Danish labour market model”. No-strike agreement in the settlement period Once a settlment has been reached, a no-strike period comes into force. Among other things, this means that employees are not allowed to strike or lock-out during the period of the settlement. If conflicts arise, they must be resolved by the labour market parties themselves without the state becoming involved in negotiations or finding a solution. 37 hours a week Normal, full-time employment is 37 hours a week. As an employee you earn the right to paid holiday. All employees have the right to five weeks’ holiday a year. Both men and women have the right to maternity leave. There are strict rules governing health and safety at work. Children under 13 are not allowed to work outside the home.

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Trade unions
A tradition In Denmark, there is a tradition for employees to be a member of a trade union. The trade unions safeguard the interests of their members in relation to employers, ensuring reasonable salary and working conditions. A trade union is not the same as an unemployment fund. Ensures orderly conditions There is also a tradition for employers to be members of organised associations. Most employers and their associations are happy to work together with trade unions. They see it as an advantage that employees thrive and feel satisfied in the workplace. At the same time, collective agreements ensure stability and orderly conditions in relation to wage increases, strikes and working hours. Freedom of association In Denmark, the principle of freedom of association applies. This means that it is up to the individual employee to decide whether to become a member of a trade union. For this reason, an employer may not demand trade union

affiliations in connection with the hiring or dismissal of an employee. Nor can colleagues demand that a person join a particular trade union. Many employees decide to become a member of the trade union that has a collective agreement with their employer. Typically, trade unions are divided up according to occupation and work area. Your choice of trade union will ultimately depend on your education and field of work. As a trade union member you must pay a membership fee.

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Life in the workplace
E M P LOYM E N T

The workplace plays a central role for most people Workplaces differ greatly in Denmark. However, common to them all is the fact that they play a central role in most people’s lives. A good working life with friendly colleagues and a positive working environment is a key part of any meaningful life. The importance of collegial relations To a great extent, it is up to the employees themselves to make their workplace a pleasant place in which to be. Here, collegial relations plays an important role. Parties and alcohol in the workplace At most workplaces, the consumption of alcohol is prohibited during working hours. On trips and at parties, however, it is accepted practice to drink alcohol. Responsibility and initiative Most employers expect their employees to work independently and show initiative. It is common for individual employees to be responsible for their own work areas. In many workplaces, employees work in teams to decide how they will solve tasks and distribute the workload.

Problems in the workplace
Various problems can arise in the workplace. Health and safety regulations may not be in order. Insufficient consideration may be given to the health of the employees. There may be a poor work atmosphere or you may even experience harassment, derision or threats. This is, of course, unacceptable. Most workplaces have a trade union representative* Most employees elect a trade union representative to represent their interests to the employer. The trade union representative is the trade union’s representative in the workplace. If you are experiencing problems at work or feel badly or unfairly treated, contact your trade union representative. He or she will then raise the problem with your employer or trade union. A trade union representative is protected against dismissal and can therefore act as a mediator in conflicts. If you do not have a trade union representative, you will have to contact your trade union or speak to the management. Monitoring health and safety at work Safeguarding a safe and healthy working environment is a responsibility that falls jointly to the employer and employees. The employer is responsible for providing and maintaining proper health and safety conditions for employees. The employees have a duty to comply with the safety regulations that apply to their place of work. Workplaces with more than 10 employees must have a safety organisation that comprises employee and management representatives and which assumes responsibility for daily health and safety at work. In workplaces with fewer than 10 employees, the employer and employees assume joint responsibility for health and safety at work.

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Health and safety representative* Many workplaces elect their own health and safety representative. The health and safety representative helps monitor health and safety to ensure that employees do not work on dangerous machinery and equipment, or work with hazardous substances without the correct safety equipment, or become stressed as a result of their work. Speak to your health and safety representative if you feel that your working conditions are not as they should be. As in the case of the trade union representative, the health and safety representative is protected against dismissal. Occupational injuries must be reported All employers must insure their employees against occupational injuries and ensure that any such injuries are reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority* and the National Board of Industrial Injuries*. It is the employer’s insurance company that pays out employee compensation. You are always free to report an injury to the National Board of Industrial Injuries* in the event of a work accident. It is important that you report the incident within one year of the event. Otherwise you may lose out on compensation.

Discrimination It is against the law to discriminate on the grounds of sex, age, disability, race, colour, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, nationality or social or ethnic origin. The Danish Parliament has passed a law establishing an equal opportunities commission that deals with sexual discrimination. We refer to www.ligenaevn.dk for further details. The Institute for Human Rights has appointed a complaints committee for ethnic equality. Its task is to deal with discrimination on the grounds of ethnic origin. We refer to www.klagekomite.dk for further details. All discrimination cases can be brought before the ordinary courts. If you are a member of a trade union and are experiencing discrimination at work or in connection with seeking new employment, you can contact your union and ask them for help.

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Starting your own business
E M P LOYM E N T

Rules and regulations Starting your own business requires a good amount of forethought and preparation. There are a number of laws and regulations with which you need to be familiar. The purpose of these is to protect citizens and employees against poor hygiene and occupational injuries, and to ensure that businesses do not commit tax and VAT fraud. Seek advice and guidance before you begin. You can get help from your local business development centre, from a start-up consultant, from SKAT (the Danish

tax authorities) and your job centre. The Internet can also provide you with an overview of advice options as well as information regarding laws, regulations, financing and other topics relevant to starting your own business. We refer to www.virk.dk for further details. Your unemployment fund can also advise you about how starting your own business will affect your ability to claim unemployment benefit*.

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Company registration As a general rule, all companies must register with the Danish Commerce and Companies Agency. This is optional, however, if your annual earnings are less than DKK 50,000. Once the company has been registered, you will receive a CBR-number (Central Business Register), which is the company’s identification number. You will need your CBRnumber, for example, when it comes to completing your tax and VAT declaration. You can register your company by logging onto www.eogs.dk. Trade and drinking licence All companies that sell more than DKK 50,000 of foodstuffs per year must be registered in a special business register. In this connection, foodstuffs are taken to mean any kind of foodstuffs, beer, wine, soft drinks and other foodstuffs regardless of whether they are in sealed packaging. The Danish Catering and Restaurant Act applies to all self-employed businesses that serve food and drinks. Such businesses might be restaurants, bars, discotheques, pizzerias, grill bars or hot dog stands. The Danish Catering and Restaurant Act stipulates which regulations must be complied with when persons or companies apply for a trade or drinking licence. If you apply for a drinking licence, you must meet certain age requirements and be able to provide a financial business plan.

The police are responsible for issuing trade licences to businesses without a drinking licence, whereas municipal authorities are responsible for issuing drinking licences. In Copenhagen, however, it is the municipal authority that issues trade licences. A restaurant can apply for a drinking licence, and the restaurant kitchen must live up to certain requirements from the health authorities. Tax and VAT You must file trading and business accounts with the Danish tax authorities, also known as SKAT. Insuring employees If your company employs staff, you must take out employer’s liability insurance to cover them.

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“I thought about it for a number of years before deciding to become selfemployed. I thought it might be a problem that Danes weren’t used to seeing an immigrant as a self-employed mason. But that hasn’t been the case. Customers are happy as long as you are good at your job and do the best you can. My work brings me into close contact with a lot of people, so I’ve discovered that Danes are just as different as everyone else. Now I have two employees, a Dane and a Vietnamese, and I enjoy being an employer. My advice is: be yourself. Many immigrants are scared of failure; there’s no need. There’s room for us.”

I now have two employees
E M P LOYM E N T

Mansur Sheik emigrated from Somalia to Denmark in 1993. He trained as a mason and is now self-employed.

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Managing your personal finances
ECONOMY AND CONSUMPTION

Income and expenses Your personal finances consist of any assets you may have, your income and your expenses. Income may be salary, self-employment income or state aid. Expenses may be rent, heating, electricity, food, clothes and whatever else you may need. You must pay income tax and tax on own company earnings.

Bank accounts
Electronic transfers An ever increasing number of payments are made to payee bank accounts using electronic transactions. This applies to salaries, cash benefit, child maintenance payments and pensions, for example. This is why you need a bank account. Automatic payment of bills You can go into any bank and set up an account. If you have a bank account, you can arrange to have your bills paid automatically from your account. For example, you can set up a budget account to pay fixed overheads such as rent, heating, electricity and telephone. Cash card When you open a bank account, the bank will issue you with a cash card which you can use to withdraw money in the bank and the bank’s cashpoint machines.

Dankort payment card* If the bank gives you a positive financial assessment, you will be issued with a Dankort payment card. You can use the card to withdraw money from all the bank’s cashpoint machines and in most shops, and you can use it to pay for goods in most shops. You will be sent a PIN number which you will need in order to use the card in cashpoint machines and shops. Some shops require a signature on a Dankort card receipt. Many banks offer a combined Visa/Dankort card. With a Visa, you can pay for goods and services and withdraw money in most parts of the world.

Bank loans and credit facilities
You will need a reasonable, regular income Banks provide loans and credit facilities to their customers. But they require customers to have a stable income and sound finances. The bank will assess your personal finances and ask to see copies of salary slips and your final tax settlement from SKAT. Bank loan or overdraft? If your personal finances are based on a regular income but you have a short-term need for extra cash to buy furniture, for example, then a bank loan is usually the best answer.

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If you are a self-employed business owner with an irregular income, it might be an advantage to open an overdraft facility. An overdraft is an agreement between you and your bank which enables you to withdraw a certain amount of money from your account even if there is not money in the account to cover it. You should be aware that overdraft facilities command high interest rates. Shop around to check out the possibilities Credit facility and loan prices vary from bank to bank. And the amount of interest will depend on the type of loan you take out. This is why it is worth shopping around to find out where you can get the cheapest loan.

Financial advice
Most banks offer financial counselling. Even though your bank will probably give you sound financial advice, it is worth remembering that they are not independent advisors but a private, commercial enterprise whose job it is to make a profit. Accountants for complicated personal finances If you have complicated personal finances because you are self-employed or run a business, it is a good idea to speak to an accountant.

May not demand Danish citizenship Banks are not allowed to demand that you are a Danish citizen before lending you money. Shops are not allowed to demand that you are a Danish citizen before you can rent or buy on credit. They are, however, allowed to demand that you have a regular income and a fixed address in Denmark.

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Hiring and buying on credit
ECONOMY AND CONSUMPTION

Many shops offer customers the possibility of hiring goods, especially expensive ones. These may be refrigerators, freezers, television sets and computers. If you leave the country before settling your debts, companies can collect the outstanding amount through the debt collection agencies with whom they collaborate. Charge card Many shops have account systems that enable customers to buy on account. It is the individual shop that assesses whether they will issue you with a charge card. Buying on credit Other shops offer customers the possibility of buying on credit. In principle, this means you are borrowing money at a fixed rate of interest. You should be aware that these interest rates can be very high. At the same time, you have to pay a charge for setting up the credit loan. Check the contract carefully If you hire or buy on credit, you will have to sign a contract outlining the terms and conditions. It is important that you read the contract carefully - or have someone else explain - the contract to you so that you avoid any unpleasant surprises. Breach of contract If you fail to pay the interest payments or your instalments, you risk being listed as a bad debt. This means that you can not hire or buy on credit again - either from the person to whom you are in debt or anywhere else.

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Insurance
ECONOMY AND CONSUMPTION

Private insurance You can protect yourself and your family by taking out private insurance. There are many insurance companies and many different types of insurance. From life, accident and liability insurance to household, health and motor insurance. Prices and terms and conditions vary from company to company, making it difficult to gain an overview. The most expensive insurance is not always the best. You should give careful consideration to which types of insurance and how much coverage you need, as well as the amount of excess you want to pay. Compulsory insurances Some types of insurance are compulsory by law. You must have fire insurance if you are a homeowner. And you must have liability insurance if you own a dog, car, motorbike or moped. Liability insurance covers accidents to others than yourself. Family insurance All insurance companies offer family insurance which covers all family members living at the same address. It also provides coverage for children under 21 living on their own. A family insurance includes contents, liability and legal aid.

Contents insurance Contents insurance provides coverage in the event that the family’s furniture, clothes or computers are stolen, damaged by water or fire or are destroyed by vandalism. Liability insurance Liability insurance covers you in the event that a member of the family causes injury to a third person(s) and their possessions. Legal aid insurance Legal aid insurance sometimes provides coverage of legal costs in connection with private court cases. Find out more by logging onto www.forsikringsoplysningen.dk

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Consumer rights
ECONOMY AND CONSUMPTION

Complaints within 24 months As a consumer, you have certain rights to protect you from being cheated. In accordance with the Sale of Goods Act, you have the right to have a defective article - or one that does not live up to the assurances of the seller - exchanged or repaired. All you have to do is approach the seller within 24 months of the purchase date. You must bring the purchase receipt. And you must not be responsible for the defect. Guarantee When you buy an electrical appliance or something larger, for example, you may be issued with a guarantee. This is a service provided by the dealer, and in no way does it replace the terms and provisions of the Sale of Goods Act. But the dealer can choose to issue you with a guarantee. A guarantee must put you in a better position than the right of complaint provided by the Sale of Goods Act, which ensures the right of complaint for two years and possibly the right to have the item exchanged or repaired. If you change your mind You do not have the right to exchange an item simply because you regret having bought it. Having said this, it is still possible to do so in many shops. Some shops will also refund your money. While others will issue you with a credit note for the amount or the possibility of exchanging the item for something else in the shop.

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Declaration and labelling
You have the right to know the manufacture date of the foodstuffs you buy as well as their storage life. There are several schemes for the labelling and control of foodstuffs. For example, this may be a guarantee that a product has been organically manufactured. Non-foodstuff products are labelled to show whether they are environment-friendly or energy-efficient, for example. Ø-mærket (the Danish Ø-label) The Ø-mærket (the Danish Ø label) is used in connection with foodstuffs and plants. The Danish Ø-label indicates that the product is guaranteed by state-control to be organic in origin. This means that no pesticides have been used in the production process, with a few exceptions such as sulphur, for example. Artificial fertlizer is prohibited if at least 80% of pet fodder is organic.

Energy labelling Energy labelling is a mandatory, joint European labelling of different white goods, electric ovens, cars and light sources, i.e. electric light bulbs, halogen lamps, fluorescent lighting, etc. The A-label shows that the product has the lowest energy consumption compared to corresponding products.

Possibilities for complaint
Svanen (the Danish Swan label) Svanen (the Danish Swan eco label) is the Nordic Council of Ministers’ eco label for non-foodstuff products such as detergent powder, cleaning agents and toilet paper. The label indicates that the products are the most environmentally sustainable in the relevant product category. If you feel you have been unjustly treated by a shop or seller when you have complained about their product, you can contact the Consumer Complaints Board* or a private complaints and appeal board. You will have to pay a fee when you register your complaint. If the board finds in your favour, you will get a full refund. You can find out more about your complaint possibilities by logging onto www.forbrug.dk.

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The Danish tax system
ECONOMY AND CONSUMPTION

Everyone pays tax Everyone who lives in Denmark must pay tax if they receive an income. This also applies if you are: • Unemployed and receive cash benefit from the state or unemployment benefit from your unemployment fund. • A student and receive SU, the state education grants and loan scheme. • A pensioner who receives a state pension. • Work abroad or have an income from abroad but live in Denmark. • Have your own business. To the state and the municipal authorities The Danish tax system works in such a way that all private persons pay income tax to the state and municipal authorities. If you are a homeowner you must pay property tax. Members of the Danish National Church have to pay church tax. Companies have to pay corporate tax. If you have a capital income, from securities for example, you have to pay tax on these as well. Indirect taxes In addition to income tax, we also pay indirect taxes in the form of VAT every time we buy a product or service. We also pay tax on a number of goods such as cars, petrol, alcohol and tobacco.

Possibilities for allowance Some costs can be deducted from income before the tax authorities calculate your tax contribution. These include interest costs on debts, trade union membership costs, unemployment insurance and child maintenance, and transport costs in connection with work. The latter, however, will depend on how far you have to your place of work. In addition, you will receive a personal tax allowance which is not linked to any particular cost. Tax return If you are an employee, your tax will automatically be deducted at source before you receive your salary. Every year you must complete a tax return which contains information about your income and the allowances to which you are entitled. You will receive your tax return in March, and if you have any changes to make, you must hand it in no later than 1 May. You can make changes using a form that accompanies the tax return, and send it off to SKAT. You can also make changes over the phone or the Internet at www.skat.dk. Later, you will get an annual tax return which indicates how much tax you have paid and whether you have to make an additional payment or whether you are entitled to a tax refund.

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TAX on most things Particularly in the case of employees, the tax authorities (SKAT) already have much of the information they require, as they obtain this information from companies, banks and the like. This also usually applies to those costs which are tax deductible. But it may be necessary for you to inform the tax authorities about certain tax deductible expenses - such as transport costs, for example. If you have just arrived in Denmark If you have just arrived in the country, you need to contact your tax centre and obtain a preliminary income assessment and a tax rate and deduction card. There are about 30 tax centres spread around the country. Log onto www.skat.dk to see which tax centre you belong to. Amount of tax How much tax you have to pay will depend on your income and tax allowance. In addition, the rate of taxation varies from municipal authority to authority. Rate of taxation increases with size of income The Danish tax system is progressive. This means that the more a person earns, the higher their rate of taxation - i.e. the percentage of their income on which their tax base is calculated. The purpose of this system is to ensure that those who earn most contribute most towards the implementation of common tasks in society.

Self-employed If you are self-employed, you must ensure that you pay your tax. You have to complete a tax return which must be handed in before 1 July. You are also required to file accounts which have been approved by an accountant. If you are self-employed and VAT registered, you must pay VAT and tax on the products you sell. You must make sure you keep accounts and have them approved by an accountant.

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“In the beginning, I was very confused because so much was different to the system I knew in Macedonia. But I like the Danish system where you pay tax and in return have access to free healthcare and schools. The Danish school system is really excellent. The children enjoy a great deal of co-determination. That’s a good thing because it makes them more independent and responsible towards themselves and society.”

I like the Danish system

Nevzat Ibisi emigrated from Macedonia to Denmark in 1990. He is a trained teacher and teaches children from a multitude of ethnic backgrounds.

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CULTURE AND LEISURE TIME

Lots of opportunities
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Denmark has a wide range of cultural and recreational activities. These comprises everything from music, theatre, cinema, art, museums and exhibitions to lectures, voluntary education, sport and many different kinds of associations. The municipal authorities collaborate with associations regarding activities in the local community. You can find out more by logging onto your municipal authority’s website. Some activities and events are free, while others cost a lot of money. Pensioners and students are eligible for discounts in many places. You can find information on current cultural events around the country by logging onto www.kultunaut.dk. Start at the library The library is a good place to start if you want to know more about Danish society or find out what is happening in the municipal authority in which you live. Help is at hand In Denmark, libraries are free. You can borrow books, music, DVDs and computer games from the library. You can also gain access to the Internet, read the day’s newspapers and get help to find specific information or materials. Among other things, you can find lots of useful pamphlets from organisations and public authorities.

Many libraries have clubs for young people, arrange exhibitions, screen films and organise children’s theatre performances and invite guest speakers. Many also offer homework assistance, language stimulation activities and various integration events. Books in several languages At the library you can also get help to find books and journals in different languages. If the library does not have the books and journals you are looking for, they can order them for you.

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The media and public debate
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The right to think and speak freely The right to think and speak freely is an important part of Danish democracy. This manifests itself in the free press and the public debate. Media for citizens of immigrant origin Danish daily life is characterised by numerous TV and radio stations, newspapers and periodicals and extensive communication via the Internet. Numerous media are specially aimed at citizens of immigrant origin. Find out more by logging onto www.finfo.dk. The broad media picture A large part of the media concerns itself with pure entertainment. But the cultural, political and remaining public debate takes up a lot of space in the news, and this helps to centre focus on problems and solutions that are important to society. Media licence* Danmarks Radio and TV2 are public service* stations. It is their job to provide a wide range of radio and TV programmes of interest to all sections of the population. Among other things, the basis for public service media programming is a charge known as a media licence*. This is a charge you have to pay if you want to receive radio and

TV programmes, regardless of whether you listen to them on the radio, TV, mobile phone or your computer. A media licence is paid twice a year. It is the Danish Parliament that regulates the media licence fee. You can register for a media licence* by logging onto www.dr.dk. You can also subscribe to and pay for various private cable TV schemes.

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Active in your leisure time
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Together with others In Denmark, many people use their leisure time to improve their skills within a given field or subject, develop their creativity or attend lectures. They do so by attending night school, folk high schools and as association members. Meeting and being together with other people is an important part of these activities.

If you do not want to stay or do not have the possibility of staying at a high school, you can live at home and simply attend as a day student. Find out more about high schools at www.hojskoler.dk. For young immigrants The association of folk high schools in Denmark organises special courses and stays at high schools for immigrants. One example is the “Sommercamp” (summer camp), a threeweek high school course for young people. “Sommercamp” will be held from 2007 to 2009. Participants receive tuition in school and general subjects and are thus able to improve their academic skills during the summer holidays. Find out more about “Sommercamp” at www.campsommer.dk. You may be eligible for financial aid in connection with your high scool stay. Find out more by logging onto www. emph.dk

Folk high schools
General education In the middle of the 19th century, a tradition for general education was established that to this day characterises Danish society. In essence, it encompasses the ideal that everyone should have access to social knowledge and learning. As a result of this cultural movement, the Danish folk high school came into being*. Today, there are folk high schools, usually just called “high schools” spread across the country. High schools offer courses in everything from creative subjects to academic subjects and more general social studies. Academic and personal development At a high school, people can improve and develop both academically and on a personal level, and at the same time get to meet different people. You can also use a high school stay to discover whether you have the necessary motivation to complete vocational training, a youth education programme or higher education. Cultural activities You live and eat at the school for the duration of the course. Courses may range from one week to one year. In addition to tuition, the stay forms a framework for a number of cultural activities: excursions, parties and lecture evenings.

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At high school I have friends from all over Europe

“Being a student at high school is an experience I will never forget. I have made friends from all over Europe and I’m learning languages and lots of things about Danish society. I’m improving my knowledge the whole time. In our leisure time we have fun watching movies, playing football or basketball. You are never lonely here.”

Ali emigrated from Afghanistan to Denmark in 2003. He is a student at the European high school in Kalø. Afterwards, he wants to enrol on the social and healthcare assistant course in order to become a radiographer.

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Association activities
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Night schools
Tuition in many subjects Many people attend night school where they receive tuition in many different subjects. This may take the form of language tuition or other academic subjects. But subjects may also include philosophy, history, bringing up children and talks about cultural topics. There are also classes in body and motion, cookery, sewing, mailing, singing and a great deal more. Many night schools offer special courses to new citizens. As a general rule, night schools are run by an educational association* such as AOF (the Workers Education Association), LOF (the Liberal Adult Education Association) or FOF (the Adult Education Association). The courses are not free but given the fact the schools receive subsidies from the municipal authorities, participants do not have to pay the whole amount. Log onto your municipal authority’s website to find out more about night school activities in your local area.

People who share a common interest Denmark is one of the few countries in the world where the majority of its citizens are members of an association. Here, people who share a common interest meet. This may be an interest of an academic, political or cultural nature. Many different kinds of interests Denmark has innumerable associations, organisations and clubs. Sport, political party, housing, art, music, immigrant, religious associations and associations for those with a special hobby - to name but a few. Check under “associations” in your local telephone directory. And your municipal authority website. Some work for a cause Some associations work towards safeguarding the interests of different groups such as the disabled, various patient groups, the eldery or homosexuals. And some also work towards a specific political goal, such as the environment or animal welfare. Meeting places Finally, there are also meeting places, clubs and club houses which are usually associated with a residential area where people play cards, hold debates, pursue a leisure interest or listen to talks and lectures. Anyone can start an association Everyone has the right to start an association. All that is required is that you hold a meeting - a statutory general meeting - where you decide on and note down the aims

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of the association and the articles of association that are to apply. Articles are rules relating to who can be a member of the association, how many members the board should have, when the annual general meeting should be held, etc. A standard version of association articles can be found at www.familieadvokaten.dk. You can play a part An association can be a good way of meeting other people and actively participating in your local community. Associations are managed by a board elected by association members. As a member, you can put forward suggestions for association work and stand for election to the association board.

Associations for new citizens There are a number of associations that may be of special interest to new citizens. Such associations are for specific nationalities, friendship associations and associations that focus on integration and cultural contact. We refer to www. finfo.dk for further details.

Sport and exercise
If you want to do sports or exercise together with others, you can become a member of a sport club. Here, for example, you can play football, handball, tennis, badminton, swim and gymnastics. Limited fee Nearly all forms of formalised exercise and sport are run by associations or organisations that people can join. You have to pay to become a member, but in some cases the municipal authority will contribute towards the cost so that the fee remains low. Parents help out Many children and young people do different kinds of sport in their spare time. It is common for parents to support their children, for example, by paying their membership fees, ferrying the children to and from their activities and by participating at events.

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Religion
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Everyone is free to practise their religion In Denmark, everyone is free to practise their religion or pursue their outlook on life as long as they respect the law. Everyone is free to change their beliefs or religious affiliations - for example, by leaving one religious community to become a member of another. Denmark embraces many religions, beliefs and outlooks on life. Some people believe in a divine being; others do not but base their outlook on life on secular, humanitarian or other values.

The Danish National Church*
Performing services for society In accordance with the Danish constitution, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark* is the Danish National Church and is officially supported by the government. The Danish National Church performs a number of tasks and services for society as a whole. This includes the registration of births, christenings and the registration of deaths. Most people are members of the Danish National Church The majority of Danes belong to the Danish National Church. Most became members when they were christened as children. If you have moved to Denmark from abroad and would like to join the Danish National Church, there are several options open to you: • If you are a member of another Evangelical Lutheran community other than the Danish National Church and make this clear, you will be registered as a member of the Danish National Church at the same time as you are registered in the Danish national register. • If you have been christened but not by an Evangelical Lutheran religious community, you can become a member of the Danish National Church by contacting the priest in your local community. • If you have not been christened, you can become a member of the Danish National Church by allowing yourself to be christened. If you do not want to become a member of the Danish National Church, you can cancel your membership by contacting the priest in your local community.

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Church tax Members of the Danish National Church have to pay church tax. This money is used run the churches and maintain the cemeteries. Churches hold services and perform church ceremonies such as christenings, weddings and funerals. You can find out more about becoming a member of the Danish National Church by logging onto the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs’ website at www.km.dk.

Eleven religious communities have been approved trossamfund in accordance with former regulations. This means that they can perform christenings and marriages. They can also issue certificates with the same validity as those of the Danish National Church. Both approved and recognised religious communities can obtain permission to build a cemetery. Membership fees are tax deductible. Members of approved and recognised religious communities have the right to deduct their fees and religious community gifts from tax once the tax authorities have approved the religious community’s right to do so. No property tax is due on religious community churches or cemeteries. Nor do approved and recognised religious communities pay any form of land tax for any land on which there are buildings of religious worship. You can find out more about religious communities by logging onto the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs’ website at www.km.dk.

Other religious communities
150 different religious communities There are about 150 different religious communities, large and small, in Denmark. The right to erect buildings Religious communities have the right to employ priests, imams, rabbis or appoint religious community leaders. Religious communities also have the right to erect buildings that can be used for religious worship. All that is required is that they follow the normal planning rules and regulations. Religious communities can also run their own voluntary education for children and young people. Approved and recognised religious communities More than 100 religious communities, including the Islamic, Buddhist and Hindu communities, are approved in the sense that their priests have the right to or can obtain the right to perform marriages.

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Parties and social togetherness
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In recreational life, you will come across those traditions and customs that relate to city life, neighbourliness, friendship, social gatherings and birthday parties. Many schools, day care centres and sports clubs hold parties and social events. Many towns, cities and residential areas have their own traditions for holding parties and social gatherings. Children’s birthday parties Many parents with children at nursery and school invite their child’s friends or classmates to the child’s birthday party. Some only invite the boys or the girls. Layer cake, buns, chocolate milk and soft drinks. Singing birthday songs and playing games is an integral part of a a traditional Danish children’s birthday party. Children who are invited to a birthday party are expected to being a birthday present along. If you are unsure how expensive a gift to buy, ask the other parents.

Parties and social gatherings In Denmark, parties are held in connection with numerous events such as: weddings, christenings, confirmation, birthdays and religious festivals. People also hold parties when they purchase a new home, finish their education, are about to set off travelling - or simply because they feel like it. Then, they invite friends, family or work colleagues along for food, music and dancing. If you are invited to a party or a dinner, it is a good idea to being along a small present for the hosts. A bottle of wine, a bouquet of flowers, chocolate or something similar. If you are invited to a birthday party, you are expected to buy a present.

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11

HEALTH AND SICKNESS

The Danish health service
H E A LT H A N D S I C K N E S S

Your GP When you register with the national register in your municipal authority, you can choose which GP you want; whether you prefer a male or female doctor, for example. Access to the public health service is through your GP. Your GP can treat some health problems immediately. Others may require a referral for further examination or treatment by a specialist or treatment at a hospital. You do not need a referral from your GP if you need to go and see a dentist or if you are in acute pain and need to go to hospital emergency or require immediate hospitalisation. Danish health insurance card The health insurance card sent to you by your municipal authority is your proof that you are entitled to public health treatment. The card states your name, address and personal identification number and the name and address of your GP. Provides coverage when travelling in Europe You must take your health insurance card with you when you visit the dentist, hospital emergency or in the event of hospitalisation. You must also have it with you when you travel outside Denmark. The health insurance card provides cover if you fall ill or have an accident while travelling in Europe as long as the trip is for pleasure and you are away for less than a month. Find out more by logging onto www. sundhed.dk

In Denmark, visiting your GP is free. Visiting your GP is free, as is hospitalisation. The costs are borne by the tax payer. Things you have to pay for You have to pay towards the cost of medicine, dental care and physiotherapy, for example. But you may also be eligible for a subsidy.

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At the doctor’s
H E A LT H A N D S I C K N E S S

Make an appointment If you need to see your doctor, be sure to call and make an appointment. Most GPs have office hours from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., daily. You will be given an appointment no later than five days after the time of your call. If you are feeling very unwell, your doctor will probably make room to see you the same day. Examination, treatment or referral The doctor will examine you and decide on the next step. You may be given a medical prescription. The doctor can also refer you for further examination or treatment by a specialist - for example, a dermatologist or a gynaecologist. Visits to a specialist are also free. Your doctor may refer you for a form of treatment for which you are required to pay some of the costs. This might be treatment by a physiotherapist or a psychologist. Finally, your doctor can arrange for you to be hospitalised, if this is deemed necessary. Interpreter Your doctor must ensure that you understand each other. If you do not speak the same language, the doctor must call for an interpreter. Find out more about using an interpreter in Chapter 4, New Citizen in Denmark. Visiting your GP • Be on time. • Call ahead of time if you are unable to keep your appointment. • Your doctor may be busy with another patient so that you will have to wait a little when you arrive for your appointment. • Come by yourself or with one other person. Make the doctor aware in advance that you will need an interpreter.

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Psychological problems
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“Emotional heartache and distress” In Denmark, it is not uncommon to suffer from psychiatric problems. Feeling emotionally distressed is not the same as being mentally ill. Many Danes seek help and get treatment for psychological problems. If you have arrived in Denmark to escape war or persecution, there may be several reasons for suffering mental problems that you would not have had under normal living conditions. Psychiatric problems can result in physical pain Visit your doctor if you are experiencing psychiatric problems and need help. Psychiatric problems can also lead to physical pain. If, for example, you are suffering from back pains, stomach pains or headaches without any obvious physical cause, or you are sleeping badly, you should visit your doctor. Your doctor will examine you to determine whether there is a psychiatric cause. Asking about your problems Your doctor might ask you if you are worried or have a lot on your mind. Whether you are experiencing marital problems. Or whether you miss your family and native country. Or whether you have been exposed to traumatic experiences such as war and torture or been held in prison. Your doctor has to observe secrecy Your doctor must observe secrecy, so you are not at risk talking to him or her about your problems. Whatever you say will remain between you and will not be passed on to the authorities, unless you wish it.

Psychological counselling Your doctor may feel that your symptoms can not be treated using medicine alone. You may, therefore, be referred to a psychologist who can help you. If you are experiencing mental anguish as a result of war or torture, your doctor will refer you to a centre for traumatised refugees. Children can also feel poorly You should be aware that your children may also be suffering from after affects and require help. You can talk about this with your doctor, case officer, health visitor, teachers or personnel at your child’s nursery, crèche or after-school recreation scheme. They can advise you on how to proceed.

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Emergency doctor service
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Emergency 112
In an emergency If someone suddenly collapses, can not breathe, suffers an accident or is attacked, you must call the emergency call centre immediately on 112. At the emergency call centre, you will be asked your name, address and the phone number from which you are calling. The call centre will then make sure that an ambulance or the police or some other form of help is sent immediately.

Outside normal consultation hours If you need the doctor after 4 p.m. on weekdays, around the clock at weekends and public holidays, you must call the emergency doctor service. You can find the telephone number of your emergency doctor service in your telephone directory or by logging onto your municipal authority’s website or www.sundhed.dk. Questions When you call the emergency doctor service, the on-duty doctor will ask you how you are feeling. Or if you are calling on someone else’s behalf, they will ask how he or she is feeling. They will ask you questions like: Do you have a fever and if so, how high is it? Are you experiencing any pain? If it is an injury, the doctor will ask questions to determine how serious it is. Based on the answers, the doctor will assess whether you should visit your own doctor the next day, whether a doctor should visit you at home, or whether you should drive over to the emergency doctor service or go to hospital emergency. You will also be asked for your own or the patient’s personal identification number. Only use the emergency doctor service when it is absolutely necessary Only call the emergency doctor service when it is absolutely necessary or if you are in doubt as to how sick you or your child may be.

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Children’s examinations and vaccinations
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Nine examinations From the age of five weeks to 15 years, your child will be given nine preventive health examinations by the doctor. The first seven will take place before the child begins school, the last two when the child begins and leaves school. Examination programme The examination follows a fixed programme. The purpose is to monitor your child’s well-being and development. In this way you and your doctor can determine whether your child has any problems and take action where necessary. Make an appointment You must make an appointment with your doctor for the first seven examinations. Free vaccinations All children can be vaccinated against a number of diseases. The vaccinations are free. It is your doctor who vaccinates your child. This may take place at the same time as your child receives a normal health examination. It is the Danish health authorities that decide which diseases your child can be vaccinated against. These are diphtheria(Di), tetanus(Te), whooping cough(Ki), polio(Pol), measles, mumps, German measles(MFR) and meningitis(Hib).

German measles If you contract German measles during pregnancy, you risk your child being born with a handicap. For this reason you should be vaccinated before becoming pregnant if you are a woman and have not had German measles, or if you have not been vaccinated against this disease. Children in Denmark are vaccinated according to the following programme: Age Three months Five months Twelve months Fifteen months Five years Twelve years Vaccine Di-Te-Ki-Pol-Hib Di-Te-Ki-Pol-Hib Di-Te-Ki-Pol-Hib MFR I Di-Te-Ki-Pol MFR II

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Other vaccinations If you are the mother of a child and have hepatitis B, the child will be vaccinated against this disease. The child will receive the first vaccination immediately after birth. The child will receive following vaccinations when it is four to five weeks old, two months old and at 12 months. If a member of your family has been infected with hepatitis B, the rest of the family can be vaccinated against the disease free of charge by your GP. Vaccinations before travelling If you need special vaccinations in connection with travel abroad, you must pay for these yourself.

Tell and ask Health and disease are sensitive and personal issues. At the same time, we also perceive health and disease differently according to our cultural upbringing. For this reason misunderstandings can easily occur when different cultures’ health perceptions meet. Especially if it is difficult to understand each other. Hospital health personnel will tell you about your treatment, your rights and duties as a patient. It is important that you listen carefully to what they say, and respect the way things are done. But it is equally important that you tell them about your wishes and expectations. And ask questions when there is something you do not understand.

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At the hospital
H E A LT H A N D S I C K N E S S

Examinations and treatment You can be admitted to hospital if you suddenly suffer an injury or fall ill. Or you can be referred by your own doctor for an examination or treatment at the hospital. Many examinations and a lot of treatment take place before you are admitted to hospital. This allows you to go home the same day. Free choice of hospital In relation to many treatments, you can choose which hospital you wish to be admitted to. If you choose a hospital outside the region where you live, you many not be admitted due to a lack of available bed space. Talk to your doctor about your choice of hospital. Multi-patient wards If you are admitted to hospital, you will stay in a ward together with two or three other patients. Men and women lie in separate wards.

Rules governing food and visiting hours
Peace and quiet People who are ill need peace and quiet. This is why most hospitals have fixed visiting hours. And hospitals expect visitors to be quiet and show consideration towards all patients. The hospital provides meals, clothes and bathing facilities The hospital makes sure that patients are fed, bathed, wear clean clothes and that their various needs are met. Visitors are allowed to bring fruit along, but may only bring food into the hospital after consultation with hospital personnel.

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Children in hospital
Parents can spend the night with their children Most hospitals provide stay-over facilities for the parents of hospitalised children. Parents of sick children may also stay at the hospital outside normal visiting hours.

Psychiatric hospital
Interviews and medical treatment People who suffer so much from a psychiatric illness that they can no longer function in their daily lives may be admitted to a psychiatric ward until they feel better. Here, patients can talk about their problems and receive medical treatment. In many cases, patients take an active part in planning their own treatment. At many psychiatric hospitals it is possible to be admitted to a private ward. Psychiatric hospitals have open and closed wards. Compulsory hospitalisation People who are suffering from severe psychiatric illness and who pose a danger to themselves or others should be admitted to a psychiatric ward. If the person refuses, he or she may be committed if the doctor deems this necessary. Compulsory hospitalisation always takes place in closed wards.

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Dental care
Dental care for children
Free dental care from 0 to 18 All children in Denmark are entitled to free dental health care from the age of 0 to 18. They attend regular dental check-ups. Here, they learn how to look after their teeth, and their teeth are treated and adjusted where necessary. Look after milk teeth Your child will be asked to attend a dental appointment before the age of two. Even though the child does not have any teeth, it is still a good idea to keep the appointment. And even though milk teeth fall out during the child’s early years, you still need to take good care of them while they are there. Otherwise you risk damaging the permanent teeth that follow. Many municipal authorities have dental clinics that are affiliated to schools. Some smaller authorities have an agreement with a private dentist. But here, too, children’s dental care is free. School dental care When your child begins school, it will automatically be called for a dental check-up. Dental healthcare workers also visit schools to teach children how to look after their teeth.
H E A LT H A N D S I C K N E S S

Adult dental healthcare
It is a good idea for parents to accompany children to the dentist’s while the children are small. If the child requires major treatment, the parents will first be consulted. Find your own private dentist Adults over 18 must find their own private dentist, for example, by looking in the local telephone directory. You have to pay for check-ups and treatment, but the state pays part of the cost. This amount is automatically deducted from your bill.

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Medicine
H E A LT H A N D S I C K N E S S

If you have private health insurance, you can get extra financial assistance to pay for regular and special treatment or major dental operations. Visit your dentist regularly It is a good idea to visit your dentist on a regular basis and not just when you have a dental problem. Your dentist may discover a cavity before it starts to cause pain. And the treatment will be less extensive and costly. You should make arrangements with your dentist about how often you should come for check-ups. Make an appointment You have to make an appointment and arrive at the appointed time. If you want to attend regular check-ups, your dentist will send you a reminder with an appointment for your next check-up. Dental healthcare for people with physical and mental disabilities The municipal authorities provide dental healthcare for people with severe physical and mental disabilities. And the state pays most of the cost. Outside normal dental hours If you suddenly experience severe toothache outside normal dental hours, you can visit a 24-hour dental emergency service. You will find the number listed in your local telephone directory.

With and without a prescription Some types of medicine can only be bought with a medical prescription. Others can be bought without. At the chemist’s you can buy all kinds of medicine. Medicine requiring a doctor’s prescription can only be bought at a chemist’s. Medicine for light headaches, a sore throat and products designed to help people stop smoking can also be bought in supermarkets, at grocery stores and at some petrol stations. Subsidised medicine The state can give a subsidy towards certain types of medicine. This will depend on the finances of the individual and the amount of medicine taken in one year. Consult your doctor or chemist.

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Healthy diet and exercise
H E A LT H A N D S I C K N E S S

Important for avoiding disease Food provides energy and nutrition which the body needs to function. A healthy diet includes lots of fruit and vegetables and only a small amount of fat and sugar. Movement and exercise are important for a healthy life and avoiding a number of the diseases we are exposed to in our modern society. Diabetes, heart disease and cancer Diseases like type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer are called lifestyle diseases because they are attributable to the way in which we live. Today, we have machines to do most of the tasks that previously

required physical labour. Most people have jobs where they are seated for most of the day and which involve driving to and from work. Many people lead a busy day and find it is easier to buy ready-made food instead of cooking their own healthy meals. At risk Food that contains too much fat or sugar, too little physical activity, smoking and too much alcohol increase the risk of lifetsyle diseases. Genes can also play a role. If your parents or siblings have type 2 diabetes, for example, you are also at risk of contracting the disease. You must therefore be especially mindful of eating healthy food and doing exercise.

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Good advice about health
H E A LT H A N D S I C K N E S S

You can do a lot to reduce the risk of contracting a lifestyle disease. Lead a healthy life. This means: do not smoke, drink alcohol in moderation and follow eight tips from the Danish health authorities. The eight tips are listed here: Eat fruit and vegetables - at least 600 grams a day. If you eat at least 600 grams of fruit and vegetables a day, you will reduce the risk of getting heart disease, diabetes and cancer. If you eat an apple, orange, banana and a carrot every day and if you use vegetables in your hot meal, you will easily consume 600 grams a day. Nuts and dried fruit can also be included. Eat fish and fish products - several times a week Fish is healthy because it contains fish oil, vitamin D and selenium. Most other foods contain little of these ingedients. You can eat fish cooked, as a starter or on sandwiches. You can also eat herring, mackrel or tinned tuna, for example. Eat potatoes, rice, couscous or pasta - every day Bread, flour and corn products are healthy and contain little fat. Whole-grain bread and oatmeal are particularly healthy because they contain lots of fibre and vitamin B. Choose bread that contains little sugar and rye bread rather than white bread. White bread contains less fibre and therefore fills you up less than courser bread.

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Eat only a little sugar - especially in soft drinks and cakes Sweets contain lots of calories and very few healthy ingredients. Too many sweets leave little room for healthy food. Eat only a small amount of fat - especially in dairy products and meat Your body needs fat but not too much of it. It is best to use plant oil and reduce your intake of animal fat. Choose lean meats and remove extra visible fat. Choose low-fat milk, yoghurt and cheese. Eat a varied diet - and maintain your normal weight Eat different kinds of bread, fruit, vegetables, meat and dairy products every day. This will give you all the vitamins and minerals your body needs. If your weight increases, eat smaller portions and exercise more. It is easier to maintain your weight if you are physically active every day. Quench your thirst in water Your body needs between 1 and 1½ litres of water every day. Ordinary tap water is best because it quenches your thirst and does not contain calories. Stay physically active - at least 30 minutes a day Use the stairs, go for a walk. Your body needs at least 30 minutes of daily exercise. And it is a good idea to do sport once or several times a week. Children should stay active for at least an hour every day. All kinds of physical activity are healthy for children and adults, young and old. It is good for your body and general disposition, and it makes it easier to maintain your ideal weight. Find out more by logging onto www.altomkost.dk and www.helse.dk.

Diet supplements
Vitamin D If you have dark skin, spend most of the day indoors or ensure your skin is covered so that it does not receive much daylight, you should take a vitamin D supplement. You should take a supplement of 10 micrograms a day. Ask your chemist how best to cover your need for vitamin D. Babies and small children should be given vitamin D drops. Ask your health visitor. The body produces its own supply of vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight. But if you spend all your time indoors or in the shade, your body will find it more difficult to produce vitamin D, and few foodstuffs actually contain this vitamin. If your body does not get enough vitamin D, you may end up experiencing pain in your arms and legs and having weak muscles. Calcium If you do not drink enough milk or eat enough dairy products then you need to take extra calcium, between 500 and 1000 grams a day.

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12 PUBLIC HOLIDAYS AND RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS

Customs and red-letter days
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In Denmark, people celebrate a number of public holidays, red-letter days and customs throughout the year. On some of these days, children are given the day off from school and adults the day off from work. Shrovetide Fastelavn (Shrovetide) is another word for “Carneval” - a spring festival, which can be traced as far back as Ancient Greece. In Denmark, Shrovetide originally marked the commencement of fasting according to the Christian faith. According to ancient custom, children dressed up in fancy dress and beat a barrel. In ancient times, the barrel contained a cat. Today, the person who breaks the barrel is called the cat king. Shrovetide falls 49 days before Easter. 8th March 8th March is International Women’s Day and is celebrated with events around the country. Easter Easter is the Christian religious festival that marks the crucifixion, death and resurrection of Christ. In Denmark, Easter is often a time of family celebration. From ancient times, there persists a tradition of giving each other chocolate easter eggs. The egg is an ancient symbol of fertility. Easter falls each year between March and April.

1st May 1st May is International Workers’ Day and is celebrated with processions and events across the country. Whitsun According to Christian faith, Whitsun commemorates the coming of the Holy Spirit to Earth. Originally, Whitsun marked the end of seven weeks’ easter celebration. At Whitsun, there is a tradition of rising early to watch the sun “dance”, and many people eat a Whitsun picnic in the forest. Whitsun falls each year in May or June. Constitution Day 5th June is Constitution Day, where people hold meetings and speeches to commemorate Denmark’s democratic constitution, the constitution of the Kingdom of Denmark. Denmark celebrated its first constitution in 1849. Midsummer Day In Denmark, Midsummer Day is commemorated on the evening of 23rd June. Midsummer Day has its origins in heathen folk tradition and Christianity. The celebration marks mid-summer, and according to ancient custom, dolls signifying witches are burnt atop blazing fires. Midsummer Day also commemorates John the Baptist’s birthday on 24th June.

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Christmas Christmas celebrates the birth of Christ. Christmas Eve is on 24th December. Here, the family gathers to eat and give each other presents. Most people dance around the Christmas tree and sing Christmas carols and other songs. Many people attend a church Christmas service. And at Christmas, all the shops and streets are decorated with lights, hearts and spruce. Pixies, small fantasy creatures which are part of the heathen tradition, also have an important part to play at Danish Christmas celebrations. In December, many workplaces hold Christmas lunches, and at nursery, schools and after-school recreational centres, children make Christmas presents. Many children have a Christmas calendar just like the ones they see on the Christmas calendar TV programmes. These calenders count down the days to Christmas Eve. On the 25th and 26th December, which are called Christmas Day and Boxing Day, many families gather for a Christmas lunch. New Year New Year’s Eve falls on 31st December, and across the land people celebrate the coming of the new year by setting off fireworks. On New Year’s day, 1st January, nearly all shops and places of work remain closed.

Other religious festivals and red-letter days It line with the growing trend of global cultural “imitation”, and as more and more Danes of foreign origin have taken their place in Danish society, a number of alternative customs and red-letter days have been adopted. • Some schools celebrate Ramadan - the Muslim month of fasting. • In many places, the American tradition of Halloween is celebrated on 31 October. Children dress up as witches and ghosts, for example. Pumpkins are gouged out, given a mouth and eyes and a lighted candle is then placed inside. • In many parts of the country, people hold carnivals mimicking the traditional South American celebration with samba music and processions. The biggest carnivals are held in Copenhagen at Whitsun.

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13 REPATRIATION

Advice and financial aid
R E PAT R I AT I O N

If you are considering returning to your home country, you can seek advice and guidance from the Danish Refugee Council. You may also be eligible for financial aid in returning to your native country or former country of residence. This, however, does not apply to citizens of the EU or Scandinavia. It is up to the municipal authority If you are considering returning to your native country or former country of residence, you must inform your municipal authority. Based on your grounds for residence, your authority will assess your financial situation and any financial aid you might receive. Financial aid can cover travel costs, help towards the transportation of personal effects, re-establishment aid, help towards the purchase and transport of business equipment, help in paying for health insurance and prescribed medicine. You must travel together If you arrived in Denmark as a result of family reunification, you can only receive financial repatriation aid if you are repatriated together with the person with whom you were originally reunified. This, however, does not apply in cases where you have divorced or your spouse is deceased. Only once It is possible to receive repatriation aid, or aid in returning to the former country of residence, once. Right of revocation If within 12 months of leaving Denmark and being repatriated in your home country you regret your decision, it should be possible for you to return to Denmark. Right of revocation only applies once, however.

Re-integration assistance If you have turned 60, or if you have turned 50 and are unable to work, you are eligible for a special type of assistance. This is called re-integration assistance. This is a monthly payment that is made for a period of five years. You also have the possibility of opting for a lifelong payment where you are paid a slightly smaller amount each year. A precondition for receiving this allowance is that you have permanent residence in Denmark and have resided in the country for the past five years. We refer to the Danish Refugee Council’s website at www. flygtning.dk.

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Practical information
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Emergency In acute life-threatening emergencies such as fire, grievous bodily assault and acute illness, call 112. Chemists At the chemist you can buy prescription and non-prescription medicine. Many supermarkets and petrol stations sell various kinds of non-prescription medicine such as painkillers and cough medicine. Chemists are normally open between 09.00 and 17.30 on weekdays, with the exception of Saturday when the majority close at 13.00 or 14.00. In addition, chemists take turns in offering 24-hour service. You can find out which chemists operate a 24-hour service by calling your nearest chemist or by logging onto www.sundhed.dk. You will have to pay a charge for buying medicine outside normal opening hours.

Banks Banks are open on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday from 10.00 to 16.00. On Thursdays, banks stay open longer, until 17.30 or 18.00. Many banks have cashpoint machines where it is possible to withdraw money using a Dankort card or credit card. Libraries All municipal authorities have libraries where you can borrow books, CDs and videos and gain free access to the Internet. Most main libraries are open on weekdays from 10.00 to 19.00, and from 10.00 to 13.00 or 14.00 on Saturday. Local libraries usually have shorter opening hours. Check your municipal authority website for local library opening hours.

Borger.dk (citizen.dk) Borger.dk is a portal that deals with public authorities in Denmark. Here you can find information on all public authorities and their respective areas of responsibility. The website also provides information on what you can do yourself, and who to contact to find out more. There are many self-service options, for example, how to notify authorities when you move or how to find your nearest GP or chemist. Shops All shops are allowed to stay open Monday to Saturday from 06.00 to 17.00. Shops must normally close on Sundays, public holidays, Constitution Day, Christmas Day and after 15.00 on New Year’s Day. Shops with a small turnover, however, may also stay open on Sundays and public holidays.

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All shops are also allowed to stay open on six Sundays a year. Two of these Sundays must be in July or August. In addition to these six Sundays, shops are allowed to stay open on the first Sunday of each month as well as all Sundays in December leading up to Christmas Day. Most small shops are open Monday to Thursday from 10.00 to 18.00. They stay open longer on Friday and close earlier on Saturday. Many of the major supermarkets and department stores are open from 08.00 or 09.00 to 20.00 or 21.00 in the evening. Museums There are about 850 museums and collections around the country. One hundred and forty are national museums or receive grants from the state. Some of these charge an admission fee, but children and youngsters under 18 have free admission to national and stateapproved museums in Denmark. Adults also have free admission to the National Museum and Statens Museum for Kunst, and certain other museums offer free admission on selected days.

Danish museums include the major national museums of art and history as well as the smaller museums of local history and those with special themes such as maritime, trade and fishery. Denmark also has special prison museums and museums of medicine and medical knowledge, not to mention toy, chocolate, bicycle, potato and bottle ship museums. Find out more about museums by logging onto www.borger.dk and clicking on “Culture and leisure time”. Public authority offices Most public authority offices have fixed office hours and times when they are open to the public. Many stay open longer on Thursday and close early on Friday. Municipal authorities, regions and ministries have their own websites with information and selfservice options. We refer to www.borger.dk for further details.

Public transport Denmark has a well-developed public transport system, both national and locally. You can buy a monthly travel card and a discount card for buses and trains. Ask at your train or bus station, or ask your municipal authority if you need further information. Or log onto www.rejseplanen.dk. Post Some kiosks and newsagents sell stamps, which are otherwise sold at post offices. Post offices dispatch letters and packages, and handle domestic and overseas payments. You can also notify the authorities of a change of address at your local post office. Here it is also possible to buy tickets for the theatre, concerts and various sports events. National and overseas mail must be placed in the red letterboxes that you will find almost everywhere. Collection times are posted on the letterboxes. Local post offices have different opening hours but most are open daily from 09.30 to 17.00. Post offices close at 17.30 on Thursday and 13.00 on Saturday. Log onto www.postdanmark.dk for a complete list of postcodes and post office opening hours.

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Telephone Telephone boxes are to be found in many public places. Here you can use coins or a special pay card, which is available from newsagents and post offices. All local areas have their own telephone directory which is distributed to all households. In addition to telephone numbers, it contains a good deal of practical information about your municipal authority, the emergency doctor service, the police, associations, museums, a map of the local area and the “yellow pages” which provide information on local businesses. You can also find telephone numbers by calling “directory enquiries” on 118, or by logging onto www.degulesider. dk, www.krak.dk or www.eniro.dk, for example.

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Places to find more information
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Internet www.borger.dk A complete overview of state, regional and municipal authority information and self-service options. In Danish. www.finfo.dk Information about Danish society in a number of languages. Here you can also find a list of ethnic and cross-cultural associations in Denmark. www.denmark.dk Information about Danish society in English, German, French and Spanish. www.workimport.dk Information about seeking employment in Denmark. In Danish, English, German, Swedish and Polish. www.workindenmark.dk Information for foreign knowledge workers about living and working in Denmark. In English. www.studyindenmark.dk Information about living and studying in Denmark. In English.

Telephone 1881 - here you can get help to find relevant public information regarding Danish society, authorities or self-service options Service in Danish and English If you are calling from abroad, you need to dial: 70 10 18 81 Your local library Your local library can help you find information and information searches. Most libraries have their own computers that provide Internet access for information searching. Your municipal authority Your municipal authority is the first step towards gaining a foothold in Danish society. Here you can seek help and advice about housing, education and employment. At www.kl.dk, Local Government Denmark’s (KL) website, you can find municipal authority addresses, website and e-mail addresses, telephone numbers and a great deal more. You can also contact KL on 33 70 33 70 to obtain this information.

Factsheet Denmark A series of information sheets with general information about Denmark’s history, politics economy, culture, etc. in English, German, French and Spanish, which can be obtained from the following link: www.um.dk/da/servicemenu/Publikationer/DanmarksinformationPaaAndreSprog You can also obtain them by contacting: Udenrigsministeriet (the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Asiatisk Plads 2 1448 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 92 08 89 E-mail: ke@um.dk

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Overblik (Overview) - in simple Danish Overblik is published 10 times a year. The publication contains eight pages of current articles about Denmark, international affairs, culture and sport. The publication can be ordered from: Notat Grafisk Nordkystvejen 2F 8961 Allingåbro Telephone: 86 48 08 54 Website: www.paaletdansk.dk E-mail: adm@pptekst.dk

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Organisations and institutions of special importance to new citizens
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Ministeriet for Flygtninge, Indvandrere og Integration (the Ministry for Refugees, Immigration & Integration Affairs) Holbergsgade 6 1057 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 92 33 80 Website: www.nyidanmark.dk E-mail: inm@inm.dk Deals with matters relating to general immigration and integration policy as well as citizenship. Acts as an appeals body for Immigration Service decisions on family reunification, visas and employment residence permits or permits issued on special grounds, including those issued for humanitarian reasons. Udlændingeservice (The Immigration Service) Ryesgade 53 2100 Copenhagen Ø Telephone: 35 36 66 00 Website: www.nyidanmark.dk E-mail: udlst@udlst.dk Processing of cases dealing with immigrant access to residence in Denmark,

including asylum cases, family reunification, residence and work permits, and visas. Acts as an appeals body in cases dealing with residence and work permits in accordance with special EU/EEA regulations. Flygtningenævnet (the Refugee Board) St. Kongensgade 1-3 1264 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 92 96 00 Website: www.fln.dk E-mail: fln@inm.dk The Refugee Board deals with complaints regarding Immigration Service decisions on immigrant citizens’ requests for asylum in Denmark. Rådet for Etniske Minoriteter (the Council for Ethnic Minorities) Ministry for Refugees, Immigration & Integration Affairs Holbergsgade 6 1057 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 92 27 90 Website: www.rem.dk E-mail: rem@inm.dk

Advises the Minister for Integration on important questions relating to immigrants and refugees. Elected from amongst representatives of the municipal integration councils. Statsforvaltningen (the State Administration) There are five regional state administrations in Denmark. These administrations deal with cases relating to separation, divorce, spousal support, child support payments, custody, co-habitation cases and names. They also deal with cases relating to residence and work permits in accordance with special EU/EEA regulations. Website: www.statsforvaltning.dk Job centres Every municipal authority has its own job centre. Each job centre has its own website featuring local information for job seekers and employers. The main job centre website contains further information about job centre services and individual job centre contact details. Website: www.jobnet.dk

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Dansk Flygtningehjælp (the Danish Refugee Council) Borgergade 10, 3rd floor Postboks 53 1002 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 73 50 00 Website: www.flygtning.dk E-mail: drc@drc.dk A humanitarian organisation that helps refugees, supports voluntary integration work and advises on the possibilities for immigrant and refugee repatriation. The Danish refugee Council also provides homework assistance and social activities such as women’s clubs and communal eating. Dansk Røde Kors (the Danish Red Cross) Blegdamsvej 27 2100 Copenhagen Ø Telephone: 35 25 92 00 Website: www.drk.dk E-mail: info@drk.dk Humanitarian organisation that provides voluntary integration assistance. Danish Red Cross activities include homework assistance and bicycle training for adults, women’s groups and cross-cultural events.

Ungdommens Røde Kors (the Danish Red Cross Youth) Borgergade 10, 2nd floor 2200 Copenhagen Ø Telephone: 35 37 25 55 Website: www.urk.dk E-mail: info@urk.dk An independent humanitarian youth organisation under the Danish Red Cross. Danish Red Cross Youth activities include homework assistance cafés for children and young people. Institut for Menneskerettigheder (the Danish Institute for Human Rights) Strandgade 56 1401 Copenhagen K Telephone: 32 69 88 88 Website: www.humanrights.dk E-mail: center@humanrights.dk An institute that gathers knowledge on human rights in Denmark, Europe and international human rights. In addition, the institute handles individual complaints about racial discrimination outside the labour market.

Klagekomitéen for Etnisk Ligebehandling (Complaints Committee for Ethnic Equal Treatment) Strandgade 56 1401 Copenhagen K Telephone: 32 69 89 44/ 32 69 89 45 Website: www.klagekomite.dk E-mail: klagekomite@humanrights.dk The Complaints Committee’s task is to handle individual complaints of discrimination on the basis of race or ethnic origin. It does not cost anything to file a complaint and anyone can register a complaint with the Complaints Committee.

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Political parties
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List of parties eligible to stand for parliamentary election as of 1 October 2006 (in alphabetical order). Dansk Folkeparti (the Danish People’s Party) Christiansborg 1240 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 37 51 99 Website: www.danskfolkeparti.dk E-mail: df@ft.dk Enhedslisten - the Red-Greens Studiestræde 24, 1st floor 1455 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 93 33 24 Website: www.enhedslisten.dk E-mail: landskontoret@enhedslisten.dk Konservative Folkeparti, Det (the Danish Conservative Party) Nyhavn 4 Postboks 1515 1051 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 13 41 40 Website: www.konservative.dk E-mail: info@konservative.dk

Kristendemokraterne (the Christian Democratic Party) Allégade 24 A, 1st floor 2000 Frederiksberg Telephone: 33 27 78 10 Website: www.kd.dk E-mail: kd@kd.dk Radikale Venstre, Det (the Danish Radical Left Party) Christiansborg 1240 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 37 47 47 Website: www.radikale.dk E-mail: radikale@radikale.dk Socialdemokratiet (the Danish Social Democratic Party) Danasvej 7 1910 Frederiksberg C Telephone: 72 30 08 00 Website: www.socialdemokraterne.dk E-mail: info@socdem.dk

Socialistisk Folkeparti (the Danish Socialist People’s Party) Christiansborg 1240 Copenhagen K Telephone: 33 37 44 44 Website: www.sf.dk E-mail: sf@sf.dk Venstre, Danmarks Liberale Parti (Venstre, Denmark’s Liberal Party) Søllerødvej 30 2840 Holte Telephone: 45 80 22 33 Website: www.venstre.dk E-mail: venstre@venstre.dk

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Explanation of words
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Access to records In accordance with the Public Records Act, everyone has access to records held by the state and municipal authorities. Authorities can deny access to safeguard the privacy of others, state security or the financial interests of the state. If you party to a case, you have expanded right of access to case records. Activation If you are claiming introductory benefit, cash benefit or unemployment benefit, you must have help and guidance to begin an education or find employment. This is called activation and may take the form of courses or on-the-job training. It is both a right and a duty to participate in activation as well as a precondition for receiving financial assistance.

Building management office The owner of a building hires staff to manage the building. They handle rental contracts, collect rent, hire caretakers and maintain contact with tenants. Citizens' list A citizens' list is a list of non-party candidates at a municipal election. Citizens' lists represent special local interests. Consumer Complaints Board, The The Consumer Complaints Board is a state institution that deals with consumer complaints relating to goods and services. The National Consumer Agency of Denmark is secretariat to the Consumer Complaints Board. Custody Custody is the parents' duty to care for their child and make personal decisions on the child's behalf that serve the best interests of the child. Parents who are married have joint custody of their children. If the parents are unmarried, the mother will be awarded custody unless the parents decide otherwise. If the parents are separated or get divorced, they are normally awarded joint custody.

Council of Europe, The The Council of Europe is an inter-governmental political organisation founded in 1949. The Council has 47 member states that work together to promote democracy and human rights. It is the Council of Europe that is responsible for drawing up the European Convention on Human Rights of 1950. Danish Parliament, The Folketinget is the Danish National Parliament. Folketinget has 179 members, two of whom are from Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Members are elected to serve for a four-year term. The prime minister can call for a general election before the end of the four-year term. Elections are held using proportional representation. This means that the parties running for election are given a number of mandates in the Danish parliament corresponding to the number of votes they received. Danish Working Environment Authority, The The Danish Working Environment Authority is a public body whose task is to create a safe, healthy and progressive work environment in the workplace. To achieve these goals, the authority carries out regular inspection of companies, draws up rules and regulations and

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publishes information about occupational health and safety. The Danish Working Environment Authority has offices around the country. We refer to www.at.dk for further details. Dankort payment card The Dankort card is a special Danish payment card issued by the banks. Dankort cards are accepted in most places. You will be given a PIN code which must be used when withdrawing money from cashpoint machines. Some shops require a signature on a Dankort receipt. Democracy The word "folkestyre" means democracy. District court The district court is the court of first instance in the Danish judicial system. District courts deal with civil cases and the majority of criminal cases. Educational association An educational association is an organisation that coordinates and manages education work, especially in connection with vocational education.

EEA, The The EEA is an abbreviation of the European Economic Area. This is an agreement between the EU member states and Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. The agreement came into force in 1994 and deals with the free movement of labour, goods, people, services and capital as well as uniform rules of competition. EU, The Up until 1993, the European Union was known as the EC (the European Community). Cooperation has gradually evolved since the first six countries signed the Treaty of Rome in 1957. Denmark became a member of the EC following a national referendum in 1972. The EU now comprises 27 European member states. These are Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Holland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary and Austria.

European Parliament, The The European Parliament has 785 members who are elected by the citizens of its 27 EU member states. Members are elected to serve for a five-year term. The number of members depends on the size of the country. Denmark has 14 members. Evangelical Lutheran The Danish National Church is an Evangelical Lutheran Church. This means that it belongs to the Christian Church, which split off from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation in the 16th century. Folk high school The folk high school - commonly referred to as the high school - is a special form of boarding school for adults and young people. High schools came into being in Denmark in the mid-nineteenth century. The idea behind the high school is to give young people and adults an insight into history, culture and social life. High schools offer courses in music, art, sport, philosophy and social studies. Tuition does not lead to formal qualifications and pupils do not sit exams.

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General education General education is tuition and education for adults in general subjects, and is not work-related. General education is especially managed by high schools, libraries, cultural, ecclesiastical or political organisations. Health and safety representative A health and safety representative is elected by work colleagues to represent their interests in relation to the employer in questions regarding health and safety in the workplace. A health and safety representative is elected for a two-year term in the same way as a trade union representative, and must receive special training. High school We refer to Folk high school for further details. Homeowners' association A homeowners' association is an association formed by private homeowners in a given residential area. The association deals with matters of common interest - such as the maintenance of pavements and roads, for example.

Immigration Service, The The Immigration Service is part of the Ministry of Integration, but its decisions are independent of the ministry. The Immigration Service deals with numerous matters relating to immigrant entry and residence in Denmark, including asylum, family reunification, visas and work permits, for example. The Immigration Service makes its decisions on the basis of specific applications, and provides information on entry end residence conditions. Industrial Court, The The Industrial Court is a special court that rules in cases dealing with the interpretation and violation of agreements and accords between employers and employees. Judges are appointed by the Minister of Employment. Kingdom of Denmark, The The Kingdom of Denmark is an economic, judicial and linguistic community that unites Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland together into one kingdom under the Danish constitution. Within the confines of the agreement, Greenland and the Faroe Islands are largely self-governing.

Maritime and Commercial Court, The The Maritime and Commercial Court is a court that deals with commercial matters and accidents at sea. The Maritime and Commercial Court consists of a president, one or more vice president(s), a judge and a number of experts. Maternity wards A maternity ward is a hospital ward where women are admitted together with their newborn babies immediately after birth. Media licence A media licence is the user fee you pay when you own a radio, a TV or a computer that can receive radio and TV programmes. This is a fee for the right to receive radio and TV programmes. The media licence is used to finance Danmarks Radio - both its radio and TV departments - and TV2. Both stations have a so-called public service duty. Mortgage provider A mortgage is a loan which is secured against real property. When you take out a mortgage your house acts as a security for the loan. Mortgage lenders and mortgage credit institutes provide this kind of loan.

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Municipal authorities As of 1 January 2007, Denmark is divided into 98 municipal authorities. A municipality is a public authority that performs a number of services in the local community. The municipal authorities are free to make their own decisions in most areas. Municipal authorities are run by municipal councils which are elected every four years by the citizens living in the authority. Municipal waste recycling centres It is the job of the municipal authorities to ensure that as much waste as possible is recycled. For this reason, authorities have municipal waste recycling centres where people can grade their waste and place it in special containers for cardboard, glass, metal and garden waste, for example. Hazardous waste is delivered separately.

National Board of Industrial Injuries, The The National Board of Industrial Injuries is a neutral body that determines whether an injury or illness can be recognised as an occupational injury. The board also decides whether you are entitled to compensation. It is the employer's insurance company that pays out employee compensation. We refer to www.arbejdsskadestyrelsen. dk for further details. National Church, The According to the Danish constitution, the Evangelical Lutheran Church is the National Danish Church. The word "national" signals that the majority of the population belongs to the Church, and that it has a closer association with the state than other religious communities. In accordance with the constitution, the state must support the National Church, and parliament sets the guidelines for the administration of church affairs, and the state does not normally interfere in ecclesiastical matters. Danish National Church services are open to the public, and church members can freely avail themselves of church ceremonies such as christenings, confirmations, marriages

and funerals. National Church priests and parish clerks are responsible for registering all births in Denmark, a tradition that dates back to ancient times. One exception, however, is Southern Jutland, where a person's registrar is responsible for registering births. National Church priests also act as a funeral authority, and as such must grant permission before the deceased can be buried or cremated. National referendums A national referendum gives the population the opportunity to vote on a specific decision that the Danish Parliament has made or is about to make. National referendums can either be binding or of an indicative nature for parliament. In accordance with the Danish constitution, changes to the constitution and questions regarding loss of sovereignty to supranational authorities must be decided by national referendum. The last time a national referendum was used was in connection with Denmark's membership of the EU.

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NATO NATO is an abbreviation for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, which is a western defence organisation formed in 1949. NATO is based on the Atlantic Treaty, which was signed by 12 countries. Today there are 26 member countries and the organisation collaborates with Russia. Night school Night school is voluntary education that takes place in a person's leisure time. Tuition covers a wide range of subjects such as languages, history, IT, philosophy, drawing and physical exercise. The classes do not lead to qualifications and there are no exams. Night school classes are normally run by an educational association*. Non-prescription medicine Various kinds of medicine can be bought over the counter, i.e. without a doctor's prescription. Chemists stock both non-prescription and prescription medicine.

OECD OECD is an abbreviation for the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. This inter-governmental organisation numbers 30 member countries. It was founded in 1961. Its goal is to ensure a high standard of living and economic growth for its member states. Probate Court, The The Probate Court is a division of the district court. It deals with estates, bankrupt estates and questions regarding the distribution of spousal assets following divorce. Public prosecutor A public prosecutor represents the state in criminal cases tried by the high courts. Public service Public service is a term for radio and TV channels whose purpose it is to broadcast programmes of interest to the general

public. Danmarks Radio (DR) and TV2 are public service stations. They have a duty to broadcast balanced, cultural and informative programmes. Regional councils As of 1 January 2007, Denmark is divided up into five regions, each of which manages regional tasks such as hospital administration, public transport and regional development tasks. Regions are run by regional councils comprising 41 members who are elected every four years by the citizens living in the region. Remanded in custody To be remanded in custody simply means that a person who is suspected of having committed a crime is kept in prison. Rent control board All municipal authorities must have rent control boards. Many municipal authorities have a joint rent control board. The rent control board deals

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with complaints about the amount of rent, the condition of the apartment and other matters relating to tenancy conditions. Representational democracy A representative democracy is a form of government whereby the people elect members to a representative body. In Denmark, these bodies consist of the Danish Parliament, the five regions and the municipal authorities. Resident association A resident association is an association formed by residents who are tenants of the same building association. The association represents the interests of the residents in relation to the landlord. Schengen Agreement, The The Schengen Agreement is a collaborative agreement between the EU member states, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Holland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Germany and Austria and Norway, which is not a member of the EU. According to the provisions of the Schengen Agreement,

member state citizens can freely cross each other's borders without border control. Denmark has been a member since 1997. Schengen information system, The One of the central features of the Schengen Agreement is the establishment of an electronic network that enables all police authorities and consulates in Schengen member countries to have access to information about reported persons and missing articles and vehicles. SSP scheme The SSP scheme is a collaborative effort involving schools, municipal social authorities and the police. Its aim is to prevent crime amongst children and young people. State administration, The The state administration consists of regional state bodies whose duties include a number of tasks in connection with

separation, divorce, custody and child visiting rights. The state administration also handles adoption complaint cases, and rules on municipal authority decisions concerning work and social matters. In areas where there are no special regulatory authorities, the state regional administrations monitor the municipal authorities to ensure that they observe the laws particularly relating to public authorities. Subsidised housing association A subsidised housing association builds and rents out state-subsidised housing. Municipal authorities have a certain number of subsidised apartments at their disposal that can be allocated to local residents. Everyone over the age of 15 can have their names put down on a waiting list for a subsidised apartment. There is a small charge for this service. In many cases, finding a subsidised apartment can take many years.

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Trade union representative A trade union representative is elected by and from among work colleagues for a two-year period. The trade union representative must represent the interests of the employees in relation to the employer. It is also the job of the representative to represent the trade union in the workplace. UN, The The UN is an abbreviation for the United Nations, the United Nations Organisation of 1945. The organisation's goal is to maintain international peace and security, and to cooperate internationally to resolve international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian conflicts and promote respect for human rights. The UN has 192 members and six main organs. These are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice and the Secretariat. The UN headquarters are in New York.

Unemployment benefit Unemployment benefit is financial assistance given to unemployed who are members of an unemployment fund (a-kasse). Unemployment fund An unemployment fund or a-kasse is a private association of employees or independent business owners, and its purpose is to provide financial assistance to its members if they become unemployed. Unemployment funds are closely associated with trade unions but you can become a member of an unemployment fund without being a member of a trade union. WHO WHO is an abbreviation for World Health Organisation, (Verdenssundhedsorganisationen), which is an organisation that was founded in 1948 under the UN. Its goal is to monitor infectious diseases and implement health programmes.

Yellow pages, The The yellow pages are pages in a telephone directory that provide information on businesses. The yellow pages can also be found at www.degulesider.dk. Youth education counsellor Youth education counsellors (UU) can be contacted at special centres in your municipal authority. Here, people under 25 can seek educational advice and counselling.

164

INDEX
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24-hour dental emergency service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140

A
Abortion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Access to records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,158 Accountant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Activation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103,158 Adult education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Adult vocation training (amu) . . . . . . . 95 Advisory centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Aerial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Aerial association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Aerial scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 After-school centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105,141 Allowance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Annual meeting, association . . . . 46,125 Application, asylum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Application, job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Asylum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Body passport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Building administration office . . . 49,159 Building association . . . . . . . . . . 43,49,158 Burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71,128 Burial assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Burial sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71,128 Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

C
Capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Capital punishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Careers advisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Caretaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Case history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Cash benefit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 CBR number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Cemetery, Muslim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Chemist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140,15 Child placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Child support payments. . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Childminding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29,58,64 Children's birthdays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Choice of hospital, free . . . . . . . . . . . .137 Christening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Christian studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Christmas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Christmas lunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Church tax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117,128 Circumcision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Cirius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Citizens' lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,159 Citizens test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Citizenship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Citizenship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

B
Ballot paper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,111,150 Bank account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Bi-lingual children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Birth certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Birth certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Birth certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Birth preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Boards, approved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Cohabitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Colleagues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Common rooms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Company, establishing a . . . . . . . . . . .107 Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53,106 Complaint guidelines, housing . . . . . . 46 Complaints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 Comprehensive school . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Compulsory education . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Compulsory hospitalisation . . . . . . . .138 Compulsory hospitalisation . . . . . . . .138 Constitution Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 Constitutional rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Consultancy, company. . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Consultancy, financial . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Consumer Complaints Board . .116,161 Consumer rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 Continuation school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Conventions, International . . . . . . . . . . 21 Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Cooperative housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Cooperative housing member . . . 46,52 Cooperative Housing Society . . . . 46,52 Council of Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,16 Courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,19 Credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Criminal record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Crisis aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Crisis centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Crisis help line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Customs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 CV (curriculum vitae) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Cyclists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

165

D
Danish Alien Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Danish Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Danish education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Danish Education Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Danish National Church. . . . . . . . . 127,16 Danish Refugee Council . . . . . . .149,156 Danish tuition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37,81 Danish Working Environment Authority . . . . . . .106,159 Dankort payment card . . . . . . . . .111,159 Danmarks Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122,162 Day care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Day-care centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Day-care subsidy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Death certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Death report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Debate, public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,163 Democratic society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Democratic society founded on law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Dental care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 Dentist, private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 Deportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Deposit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Deposit, housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Development Co-operation, international . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Diatery supplement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 District court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,14,159 Divorce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Drinking licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Drinking licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Duty of secrecy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,33,133
P R A C T I C A L I N F O R M AT I O N

E
Early retirement pension . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Easter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Education, foreign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 EEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,16 Elderly council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Elections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Emergency doctor service . . . . . . . . .134 Employment contract . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Employment interview . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Enrolment, higher education. . . . . . . . 91 Entry requirements, education . . . . . . 91 Estate agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 EU (the European Union) . . . . . . . 21,159 European Convention on Human Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 European Parliament . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,159 Evangelical Lutheran church . . . . 127,16 Exam, foreign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Exam, municipal primary and lower secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

G
General education . . . . . . . . . . 73,123,161 General elections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 General practitioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,18 Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78,91 Green Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,27

H
Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131,142 Health and Safety Representative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106,163 Health insurance, private . . . . . . . . . . .140 Health Service, the Danish . . . . . . . . .131 Health visitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Healthcare card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33,131 Healthcare centre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Hf (higher preparatory examination). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85,93 Hhx (higher commercial examination). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 High Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 High school. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123,16 Homeowner's association . . . . . . . 49,161 Homework assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Homosexual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Hospital, rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 House rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Housing office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Housing, exchange of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Housing, sheltered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Htx (higher technical examination. . . 85 Human rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,156

F
Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55,67 Family insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53,114 Family reunification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Family types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Fee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,117 Fine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Fire insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Folketinget, the Danish Parliament . . 13,161 Forced marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29,56 Free Legal Aid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Free place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Freedom of association . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Freedom of speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

166

I
Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 Immigration service. . . . . . . . . 28,155,164 Infidelity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Informative consumer labelling . . . .116 Institution, integrated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53,114 Integration contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Integration council. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interpreter assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Introductory payment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Introductory programme . . . . . . . . . . . 37

J
Job centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99,102,155 Job training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Joint property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

K
Kingdom of Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . 9,163

L
Labelling, consumer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Labour market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Legal Advice Bureau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Legal aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Leisure time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 Liability insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121,150,153 Lifestyle disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Loan, bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,111 Loan, property purchase . . . . . . . . 48,162

Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Marriage, physical abuse . . . . . . . . . 30,58 Maternity leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Maternity maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Maternity ward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Maternity ward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59,159 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 Media licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122,162 Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Mentally ill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Midwife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Ministeries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Monarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Mortgage credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,162 Mortgage lender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,162 Mothers groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Mother-tongue teaching . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Municipal authority . . . . . . . . . . 13,17,162 Municipal primary and lower secondary school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Municipality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Museums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151

O
Occupational health & safety . .105,159 Occupational injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,162 Offices, public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 Ombudsman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Outdoor nursery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Overdraft facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Owner occupied housing . . . . . . . . . . . 47
P R A C T I C A L I N F O R M AT I O N

P
Parent board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Parent meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Parental custody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56,161 Parental leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Partnership, registered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Party. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105,129 Party. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,157 Passport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Pension savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Period of notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Personal contents insurance. . . . . 53,114 Personal identification number . . . . . . 33 Police . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Possibilities for complaint . . . . . . . . . .116 Postal service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 Power, executive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Power, judicial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Power, legislative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Practical training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Pre-retirement benefit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Pre-school class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

N
Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 National Board of Industrial Injuries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106,158 National Consumer Agency of Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 National referendum. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,16 NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) . . . . . . . . . . . 22,162 Night school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123,158 Nordic Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Nursery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Nursing home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

M
Making an appointment, dentist . . .140 Making an appointment, doctor . . .132 Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56,128

167

P R A C T I C A L I N F O R M AT I O N

Prescription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Preventive health exam, child . . . 60,135 Primary and lower secondary school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Prime Minister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,161 Prison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Private employment agency . . . . . . . . 99 Probate Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71,163 Production school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Property tax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Prosecution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Psychiatric hospital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Psychological counselling . . . . . . . . . .133 Public holidays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 Public Prosecutor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,163 Public service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122,162 Pupil councils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Remand in custody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Rent Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Rent Control Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50,162 Rent lease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Rent subsidy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Rent subsidy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Rent subsidy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Rented accommodation . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Residence permit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,3 Resident association . . . . . . . . . . . . 49,159 Resident democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Retirement age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Right to vote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Right to vote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Royal Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

S R
Rate of taxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Rate of taxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Recreational club . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Recreational life. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Recycling centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51,161 Red-letter days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 Refugee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,28 Refugee Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29,155 Refuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Regional council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,163 Registrar of the State Church . . . . . 59,71 Registration card, for EU citizens . . . . . 25 Re-integration allowance . . . . . . . . . .149 Religious festivals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Schengen Agreement . . . . . . . . . . 25,163 School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 School camp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 School dental care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 School start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Self-government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,163 Self-redress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Senior housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Senior policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Sentence, suspended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Sentence, unsuspended. . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65,66 SFO (After-school care facility) . . . . . . 83 Shop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 Sibling discount. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Social and Healthcare Training Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Social studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Special Court of Final Appeal . . . . . . . . 15 Special education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Special pay cardt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 Specialist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Sport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Sport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Sports association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 SSP Scheme (schools, social authorities and police) . . . . . . . . 20,163 State administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 State Administration. . . . . . . . . . . .155,164 State pension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Student councils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 SU (State Education Grant) . . . . . . . . . 84 Sub-letting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Supreme Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

T
Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Tax allowance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Tax return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73,75 Teenagers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Tenant areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Tenants Association Board . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Tenants Complaints Board . . . . . . . . . . 50 Tests, national . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Theft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,53

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Trade licence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Trade union. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Trade union representative . . . . .105,164 Traffic, public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,151 TV 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122,162

W
Waiting list, childminding . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Welfare state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Whitsun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 WHO (World Health Organisation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,164 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Work permit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Working hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Written pupil plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

U
UN (the United Nations) . . . . . . . . . 22,16 Unemployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Unemployment benefit . . . . . . . .102,158 Unemployment benefit . . . . . . .102,158 Unemployment fund (akasse) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99,102,158 Unemployment insurance . . . . . . . . .102 Upper secondary school . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Y
Yellow pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 Youth culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Youth education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Youth school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Youth, crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

V
Vaccination, children. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 Vaccination, foreign travel . . . . . . . . . .136 VAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108,117 Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Visa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Visiting hours, hospital. . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 Vocational education and training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Vocational upper secondary education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Voluntary education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Vuc (Adult Education Centre) . . . . . . . 90

169

Colophon
Title: Citizen in Denmark - a handbook for new citizens in Danish society. Published by: Ministry for Refugees, Immigration & Integration Affairs Ministeriet for Flygtninge, Indvandrere og Integration Holbergsgade 6 1057 København K Telephone: 33 92 33 80 E-mail: inm@inm.dk Editorial team: The Ministry for Refugees, Immigration & Integration Affairs in collaboration with Commitment Kommunikation ApS. This information was correct at the date of going to print - 30 May 2007. ISBN, printed edition: 978-87-91850-02-8 ISBN, electronic edition: 978-87-91850-42-4 2. edition, 1st print run: Danish language edition, August 2007. Copies: 10,000. Copy: Annie Hagel in collaboration with the Ministry for Refugees, Immigration & Integration Affairs. Project management: Commitment Kommunikation ApS Nitivej 10 2000 Frederiksberg. Telephone: 70 22 07 10 E-mail: post@commitment-aps.dk Website:www.commitment-aps.dk Graphic design and layout: Mark Gry Christiansen. Printers: PrinfoHolbæk-Hedehusene A/S Picture editor: Michael Daugaard. Photos: Per Morten Abrahamsen: 134. Mark Andersen: 139. Lars Bahl: 31, 47, 52, 73, 93 and 129. Ole Christiansen: 8 and 142. Jacob Dall: 24. Michael Daugaard: Front and back page, 10, 15, 16, 27, 28, 32, 35, 36, 41, 44, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53, 55, 58, 63, 66, 68, 75, 77, 80, 82 88, 92, 94, 100, 104, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 119, 122, 124, 126, 137, 140 and 148. Anne-Li Engström: 54. Per Folkver: 132. Linda Henriksen: 85. Sonja Iskov: 61. Ulrik Jantzen: 141. Stuart McIntyre: 120. Kissen Møller-Hansen: 60, 76, 79 and 130. Morten Nilsson: 20 and 96. Heine Pedersen: 127. Kristian Juul Pedersen: 13. Jørgen Schytte: 65, 72, 144 and 147. Niels Aage Skovbo: 83. Stig Stasig: 67. Søren Svendsen: 70. Mikkel Østergaard: 12, 18, 42, 87, 98, 101 and 138. Map of Denmark: Kampsax/Cowi: 11. Healthcare card: Danish Regions: 131.

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