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MechanicsofLaminated CompositeStructures

NachiketaTiwari IndianInstituteofTechnologyKanpur

Lecture1 Introduction

ReferencesforthisCourse
1. Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Agarwal, B.D. and Broutman, L. J., John Wiley & Sons. Mechanics of Composite Materials, Jones, R. M., McGraw Hill Structural Analysis y of Laminated Composites, p , Whitney, y, J. M., Technomic

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LectureOverview
Whatarecomposites? composites ? Importanceand dareasof fapplication li i Classification Advantagesoffiberreinforcedcomposites

Whatarecomposites?
Composite:Twoormorechemicallydifferent constituents tit t combined bi dmacroscopically i ll to t yieldausefulmaterial. Examplesofnaturallyoccurringcomposites
Wood:Cellulosefibersboundbyligninmatrix Bone:Stiffmineralfibersinasoftorganicmatrix permeatedwithholesfilledwithliquids Granite:Granularcompositeofquartz,feldspar, andmica

Whatarecomposites? composites ?
Someexamplesofmanmadecomposites
Concrete:Particulatecompositeofaggregates (limestoneorgranite) granite),sand sand,cementandwater Plywood:Severallayersofwoodveneerglued together Fiberglass:Plasticmatrixreinforcedbyglassfibers Cemets:Ceramicandmetalcomposites Fibrouscomposites:Varietyoffibers(glass,kevlar, graphite,nylon,etc.)boundtogetherbya polymericmatrix

Thesearenotcomposites!
Plastics:Eventhoughtheymayhaveseveral fillers,theirpresencedoesnotalterthe physicalpropertiessignificantly. significantly Alloys:Herethealloyisnotmacroscopically heterogeneous,especiallyintermsofphysical properties. Metals M l with i h i impurities: i i Th Thepresenceof f impuritiesdoesnotsignificantlyalterphysical properties i of fthe h metal. l

Wherearecompositesused?
Automotiveindustry:Lighter Lighter,stronger stronger,wear resistance,rustfree,aesthetics
Carbody Brakepads Driveshafts Fueltanks Hoods H d Spoilers

Wherearecompositesused?
Aerospace:Lighter Lighter,stronger stronger,temperature resistance,smartstructures,wearresistance
Aircraft:Nose Nose,doors doors,struts struts,trunnion, trunnion fairings, fairings cowlings,ailerons,outboardandinboardflaps, stabilizers, ,elevators, ,rudders, ,fintips, p ,spoilers, p , edges Rockets&missiles:Nose,body,pressuretanks, frame,fueltanks,turbomotorstators,etc. Satellites:Antennae,frames,structuralparts

Wherearecompositesused?
Sports:Lighter Lighter,stronger stronger,toughness toughness,better aesthetics,higherdampingproperties
Tennis Bicycles Badminton Boats Hockey H k Golfing Motorcycles l

Wherearecompositesused?
Transportation&Infrastructure:Lighter Lighter, stronger,toughness,damping
Railwaycoaches Bridges Shipsandboats Dams Truck T kbodies b di and dfl floors RVbodies

Wherearecompositesused?
Andmanymoreindustrysectors
Biomedicalindustry Consumergoods Agriculturalequipment Heavy H machinery hi Computers Healthcare H lh

ClassificationofComposites
Engineered Composites

Particulate

Fibrous

Random Orientation

Preferred Orientation

SingleLayer

MultiLayer

Continuous& LongFibers

Discontinuous &ShortFibers

Laminate

Hybrid Laminate

Unidirectional

BiDirectional

Random O i t ti Orientation

Preferred O i t ti Orientation