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General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics Equations

Ioana Dut an
IMPRS Students Workshop Berggasthof Lansegger, Austria, 28-31 Aug 2006

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Introductory remarks
(General) Relativistic (Magneto)hydrodynamics a (G)R (M)HD code is used to compute the ow of gas around strong eld gravity sources used to study supernova collapse and formation of BH, BH-BH binaries, NS-NS binaries, pulsar wind nebulae, accretion disks, relativistic jets from AGN and microquasars, etc.

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Introductory remarks
Propose of this material to introduce or review some aspects of GR to introduce the 3+1 decomposition of the spacetime (in the Eulerian formulation) to provide a small derivation of the conservative systems of the hyperbolic PDE of the GRHD Notes on the level of this material if it is too easy, just treat it as review, perhaps from a different perspective if it is too fuzzy, concentrate on the concepts...

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General relativity background


metric element:
ds2 = g (x )dx dx

for a at spacetime of special relativity:


ds2 = dt2 + dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2
ds2 < 0, interval is timelike; ds2 > 0, interval is spacelike; ds2 = 0, it is null

1D curve x () in spacetime describes a series of events timelike curve (worldline) is parameterized by the proper time

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General relativity background


4-velocity is dened as:
u =
dx ( ) d

in SR, the 4-velocity components are


1 u = (u , u , u , u ) = (W, W v ), where W = 1 v2
0 1 2 3

imagine 2 particles with worldlines that meet at point A, having 4-velocity u and v ; their product is an invariant (it can be evaluated in an arbitrary reference frame)(Fig. 1) in particular, in the Lorentz reference frame comoving with u you have
u = (1, 0, 0, 0), and then u v = u v

= v = W
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General relativity background

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3+1 Eulerian formulation


3+1 decomposition spacetime is foliated into a set of non-intersecting spacelike hypersurfaces, parameterized by a parameter usually called time t, s.t., the evolution between these surfaces is described by two kinematic variables metric can be written in a particular way
ds2 = g dx dx = 2 dt2 + gij (dxi + i dt)(dxj + j dt)

which in a component form is


g00 gi0 g0j s s 2 = gij i j , ij
where

ij = gij i, j = 1, 2, 3

ij = 3-metric induced on each spacelike slice


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3+1 Eulerian formulation


j ik kj = i ; gymnastics of indices i = ij j

decomposition of the volume associated with the 4-metric into the volume associated with the 3-metric
g = , g = det(g ), = det(ij )

lets consider 2 close spacelike hypersuperfaces (t) and (t + dt) (Fig. 2) lapse function describes the rate of advance of time along a timelike unit vector normal to the hypersurface spacelike shift vectors i describe the motion of coordinates within a surface
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3+1 Eulerian formulation


4-vector n is the unit normal vector to the (t)
n = (, 0, 0, 0),
i 1 n = ( , )

Eulerian observers are observers having n as 4-velocity, at rest in the slice (t) and moving to this slice with clocks showing proper time i.e., the basis adapted to the Eulerian observer frames is:
e() = {n, i }

4-vector u is the 4-velocity of some particle

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3+1 Eulerian formulation

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3+1 Eulerian formulation


Lets translate the 4-velocity of a particle from the arbitrary coordinate frame (S ) to the Eulerian frame (S )
S P Q R (t, xi ) (t + dt, xi i dt) (t + dt, xi + dxi ) S (t , x i ) (t + dt, x i ) (t + dt, x i + i dt + dxi )

4-velocity = vector P R / proper time in the coordinate frame S : u = in the Eulerian frame S :
u

(dt,dxi ) d

dt dxi d , d

i i (dt, i dt + dxi ) u = = (u0 , ui + i u0 ) = u0 (1, 0 + ) dt u

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3+1 Eulerian formulation


Lorentz factor as seen from S is: W = n u = u0 3-velocity of particle in Eulerian frame: v =
vi = ij v j = ij uj j + u0 = i ui u0

1 ij (uj + j u0 ) = 0 u 1 1 ui j 0 0 j = ( u + u ) = ( g u + g u ) = ij i i0 ij u0 u0 u0

1 = g u u = 2 (u0 )2 + ij (ui + i u0 )(uj + j u0 )= i i uj j u + + = 2 (u0 )2 (1 ij v i v j ) = 2 (u0 )2 1 ij 0 0 u u

Normalization:

Lorentz factor: W = u0 = (1 ij v i v j )1/2

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General relativistic hydrodynamics


GRHD equations consist of the local conservation laws of the matter current density and the energy-momentum (stress-energy tensor) + uid equation of state rest mass ux (proportional to the baryon number ux) is:
J = 0 u
0 = rest mass density (baryon number density times average rest mass of the baryons); u = uid velocity

stress-energy tensor of an ideal uid (without non-adiabatic


processes, s.a., viscosity, magnetic eld, radiation)

T = ( + p)u u + pg
= total mass-energy density; p = pressure
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General relativistic hydrodynamics


useful relations:
u0 =
W , ui W

vi

i ,

ui W

= vi

CONSERVATIVE VARIABLES are measured by the Eulerian observers, being dened as:
D = J n = 0 u n = 0 W, rest mass density

Sj = T n (j ) = T 0 j = ( + p)u0 uj = 2 uj = ( + p)W = ( + p)W 2 vj , momentum density W E = T n n = 2 T 00 = 2 [( + p)u0 u0 + pg 00 ] = 1 = ( + p)W p 2 = ( + p)W 2 p, energy


2 2

derived conservative variable: = E D


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General relativistic hydrodynamics


T 00 T 0i 1 = 2 1 = Si T 0i T ij
i i 1 = ( + P )W 2 (v i ) + P 2 i i i = Sj (v ) + P j

differential form of baryon number conservation (continuity equation) 1st GRHD equation
1 1 J ; = ( gJ ), = ( g0 u ), = g g i 1 W 1 g0 W (v i ) = 0 + = g ,0 g ,i 1 1 i i =0 = ( D),0 + D v g g ,i

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General relativistic hydrodynamics


(T
(e )

); = T

; (e )

+T

(e ) ; = T

For = 0: (T
(e0 )

(e ), (e )

);

1 00 i0 ( gT ),0 + ( gT ),i = (T n ); = (T ); = g ( ) i i 1 1 ( 2 T 00 ),0 + ( + P )W 2 (v i )+p 2 g = g ,i ( ) i 1 g E (v i = ( E ),0 + ) + pv i g ,i


0

` 0 0 0 0 = T (ln ), + T (e0 ), (e0 ) = T , + T ( E ) + t xi i i g E (v ) + pv i ` T = T 0 (ln ), + 0


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1 g

2nd GRHD equation

General relativistic hydrodynamics


For = j : (T
(ej )

);

o 1 n` = (T j ); = gT j , g 1 0 i ( gT j ),0 + ( gT j ),i = g ( ) i 1 i ) + pj g Sj ( v i ( Sj ),0 + = g ,i

(ej ),

(ej )

=T

g (ej )

g (ej )

=T

gj, gj

1 g

( Sj ) + t xi

i i i ) + P j gj, gj =T g Sj ( v

3rd, 4th, and 5th GRHD equations

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General relativistic hydrodynamics


GRHD equations can be written in a conservation form as
1 g
D 6 7 7 U=6 4Sj 5 2 3 2

( U) + i ( g Fi ) t x

6 7 i i i i 6 F = 4Sj (v ) + pj 7 5 i ) + pv i (v i uxes

D (v i

i )

6 =6 4

0 T ` T 0 (ln ), 0 T source term ` gj, g j

conservative variables

7 7 5

for curved spacetime, there exist source terms, arising from the spacetime geometry for Minkowski metric = 0 and g = = 1; strict conservation low is possible only in at spacetime
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General relativistic hydrodynamics


IMPORTANT!! Recovering the primitive variables from the conservative ones, P = 0 , v j , p
for conservative formulations, the time update of a given numerical algorithm is applied to the conservative variables after this update, the vector of the primitive variables must be re-evaluated as those are needed in the Riemann solver the relation between the 2 sets of variables is not in closed form and hence, the recovery of the primitive variables is done by using a root-nding procedure (Newton-Raphson scheme)

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General relativistic MHD


One have to include: evolution equations for magnetic eld (Maxwell equations divergence free magnetic eld and induction equation) + frozen-in condition
T = T f luid + T elmagm

D 6 7 6S 7 6 j7 U=6 7 6 7 4 5 Bj

7 6 6S (v i i ) + p i 7 6 j j7 Fi = 6 7 i 6 (v i ) + pv i 7 5 4 i B j v j Bi v uxes

D (v i

i )

0 6 7 7 6 T `g j, gj 7 6 =6 ` 7 6 T 0 (ln ), 0 T 7 5 4 0 source term

conservative variables

Primitive variables: P = 0 , v j , p, B j
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Remarks
GRMHD simulations of jets formation from Kerr BH Y. Mizuno, K. Nishikawa, and S. Koide Koide et al. (1998) rst 3D GRMHD simulations of jets formation

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References
1. Font, J. A. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity, http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2003-4 2. Font, J. A. General relativistic hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics and their applications, Plasma Phys. Control. Fussion 47, B679-B690, 2005 3. Koide, S. Magnetic extraction of black hole rotational energy: Method and results of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations in Kerr space-time, Phys. Rev. D, vol. 67, Issue 10, 2003 4. Mizuno, Y. et al. RAISHIN: A High-Resolution Three-Dimensional General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics Code, astro-ph/0609004

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