The little package of radiant energy known as the infrared heat lamp is fast becoming one of the farmer's best friends. It gives off heat that warms like sunshine does so many jobs around the farm that it's like an extra hired hand. And it's boosting farm production and farm profits all across the country. Farmers find the most profitable use for the infrared chicks, pigs, lambs, calves, all lamp in brooding . kinds of livestock. Here the heat lamp lowers losses of newborn animals, reduces the labor needed to care for them, raises healthier stock, gets them ready for helps earn bigger profits. market faster Because the infrared lamp is so safe, clean and easy to handle, it finds many other uses around the farm' Providing spot heat for doing chores in outbuildings' Protecting water pipes from fteezing - or thawing them out when frozen. Removing old paint - or drying new paint. Heating livestock fountains and feeders, dehydrating fruits and vegetables, warming car and tractor engines, and other uses inside as well as outside the farmhouse. For outside use, a heat-resistant hard-glass bulb is available which helps prevent breakage when spattered by liquids. The purpose of this booklet is to show you' how Lo and various ways you can use - the practical, use useful, versatile infrared heat lamp. And like most farmers, you'll probably discover plenty of additional uses for heat lamPs, too.




You can screw the infrared lamp into an ordinary light socket. But while it gives you some light, nearly 90/o of its energy turns into radiant

heat. This is exactly the same as the heat you get from the sun, which also is infrared energy. And, like sunshine, the heat lamp's infrared rays pass through the air without losing much heat because they don't warm the air, only the objects they fall on. However, the heat lamp should not for il won't give be confused with a sun lamp you a tan. But it will give you controlled heat, 24 hours a day, in any weather. This makes the infrared lamp an economical heat source for brooding poultry and Iivestock because it warms the animal and not the air of the building. And animals respond to infrared lamp brooding in the same way as to natural sunshine with faster healthier development.


The visible light you get from a heat lamp, small as it is, turns out to be another big advantage. Especially when heat lamps are used for brooding. Chicks for instance, grow faster because they can see to eat and exercise longer. The infrared's visible light also cuts down on the amount of care and supervision chicks require. Their behavior and development is easy to observe at all times. Sick ones can be quickly spotted and removed before illness has a chance to spread.

An infrared lamp consumes no more electricity than an ordinary light bulb of the same wattage. If you burn a 250-waLt infrared lamp continuously f.or 24 hours, it will use only 6 kilowatt-hours of electricity. Depending on power rates in your locality, it will cost you about 10c to 15c for 2L-hoar operation. For continuous operation of a number of lamps as in chick brooding, there are controls of various types which can cut costs further.

rally heat lamps are f.ar less of a fire hazard than any type of open-flame heating-such as the coal, wood, oil, or gas stoves widely used in chick brooding for instance. And for odd-job use, the heat lamp makes a much safer substitute than the dangerous blowtorch sometimes used for thawing pipes or removing old paint. You need to take only simple precautions when using a heat lamp. It should be hung for continuous use at least a foot away from combustible material-

with ordinary care, the infrared lamp is one of the safest sources of heat available. Xatuused


- more than six 2b0-watt lamps at one operate time, you should check with your power supplier to make sure your transformer and wire sizes are adequate. Remember, your electrical wiring must supply the power you need for regular farm usage, as well as the additional power you may require for brooding. Be sure to avoid overloading your circuits. It's not only a fire hazard but wastes electricity, and lowers the energy output of your heat lamps. your power supplier or electrical contractor will be glad to recommend proper wiring for any additional electrical installation you may need for brooding.

TARGE-SCAIE USE REQUIRES ADEQUATE POWER Suppose you're planning to use a number of heat lamps for brooding, for instance. If you expect

ONIY SIMPTE FIXTURES NEEDED For most odd jobs around the farm, you,ll find it convenient to use a simple clamp-on lamp fixture with a porcelain socket and a supported heavydutycord. But when you plan to use the lamp for long periods, use porcelain sockets or lampholders as ordinary ones may overheat. And like any electric bulb, the heat lamp should not be hung by its own cord might pull electrical connection loose - as this or damage insulation and cause a short circuit. Instead, a chain or sturdy wire should be used to suspend the lamp at proper height. It's also wise to provide the heat lamp with ventilated metal shielding. This protects it from being accidentally struck or spattered with water
and reduces the rate at which dust collects on the bulb.



used successfullv for -1.ears b5' farmers with sma1l flocks and stale agricul'uural col1eges. 13ut lateiy, poultry raisers have found there's no limit io ihe nr-rmber oI birds ] ou can brood with infrared heai iamps. And chicks thrive on thc trc-:atmeni in aii seasons ancl ali par'Ls of the country" Up r-rnti1 the la,s't fe'w ) ears, chicken raisers largei3'luse'd woocl or r:oli1 heaters. This meanl cheap fuel but high labor cost to tend fires and remo\re ashes' Aiso cianger from fire and fumes' Farmers looking for a better method foLrnd it in inlrareci brooding' Tests of infrared heating made by agricultural colleges show that its saving in trabor costs and the low initiai investment it requires' more than offset any they slightly higher op'crating cost" Farmers flnd .because feeri costs in savit-rgs fLrrther make can infrarecl-broo.led chicks generaliv gain rnore rapidly, are reacly for mat"keL faster. Also because fewer chicks are lost during thc brooding period. That's why in the hr-rge $400,000,000 chickenraising industryn infrared is increasingiy popular lvith large nnd small pouitry growers. Botli flnd infrared broocling offers the same aclvantages of increased prociuction, gteai;er elficiency and larger proflts"

Infrarecl chick brooding isn't new.




thing lo brooding'"vith the mother hen. Chicks can eat


. . the nearest

nt i n#


i;,f:' HsiS

Ti'l?'i illi:



go o-rlt 0n 1,he range earlier.

Lower instsllation cnd equipment cosl
Lobor snd msinlenonce reduced lo o minimunr Chicks crre



mosl types of chicken hor.rses


Adoptoble lo broods of cnY size
Keeps brooding orec drier, heolthier

st oll times


sgdg6s5 sEls

Cuts chick losses fronn crowding, smolhering, ccnnibolisrn
Encouroges foster growlh onC feclhering
Reduces fire hszord cnd donger frorn fumes

No hovers lo occupy floor sPoce
Porioble brooding units eosily slored or relocoled

Allows cold room brooding even in winler
Quickly regulaled for greoler chick comforl

lnslonl conlrolled heot eosily odiusied for
seosonol chonges

You'll find that healthy chicks, proper care anci good conditions are just as necessarl- for successful results with infrared as with any other type of brooding. And as you'd expect , the same good management on your part is needed to handle problcms of housing, ventilation, sanitation, moisture and disease. The operating suggestions on this and the foilowing two pages will help you raise successful broods with infrared.
srzE oF FtocK Depending on winter, spring or summer brooding you can count on allowing from 60 to 100 chicks per 250-watt lamp. For instance it's recommended that you use 4 iamps for 200 chicks in severe weather 6 lamps for 500 chicks in moderate weather. However, these are averages and you'll find it necessary to adjust them to



2so.WAtt R-40 This new lamp, specifically
designed for brooding, provides more uniform heating over a wider area. Comes


in 250-watt




25o-WATI R-4(,

suit your local climate. I.AMP PTACEMENT

Scandard lamp with medium skirted base. For eontinued use wbere added strength is needed and where sockets may develop excessive heat.

You can mount the infrared lamp at an angle or point it straight down. At the beginning of the brooding period, start lamps at 18 inches above the chicks. Raise lamps approximateiy 2 inches per week until they reach 24 inches above chicks. Leave them there liil end of the brooding period.

250.WATI n-4(,


Red bowl produces same amount of heat as clear glass but reduces visible



glass reduces possibility of

with animals. Made in
25O-watt size only.

breakage from contact with spattering liquids or direct contact


375-WATT R-40

Higher wat,tage bulb with reinforced base. Has same
ad vantages as heat-resistant glass described above. Where




muiLi-lamp applications of heat-resistani giass are desired, two 375-watt lamps will provide as much heat,as three .250-watt lamps at only slightiy more than 24 the investment. Caution: use proper spacing so each lamp covers )S more arca.

At50 r25;WAIT AND 375-WalT Slzts
CoiltelJ U.S. Dept. of Agricultare





toR mutn-tArp BRooDtNcuNtrs . , . a hortzontal baffle to mount above the iamps is easy to construct. A baffie treduces dralts around chicks and helps protect lamps.

For use wherever wattage requirements are lower or higher than standard 250-watt size provides.

NO NEED FOR HOVERS Infrared lamps may be used with hovers but you'll find it's a decided advantage not to use them. By eliminating hovers, you save valuable floor space, cleaning and maintenance are easier. Most important at all times so you can quickly re- chicks are visible move sick ones before epidemics have a chance to start'

ton smAlt scAtE cHlcK BRooDING . . . infrared is especially .u.y a.td economical. You may need only- a supp,orted rub-ber extension cord with porcelain socket and one infrare<l lamp to start 100 chicks. And you ean use the same equipment for brooding pigs, lambs, caives'

For the first 5 to 10 days, a chick guard or floor will keep chicks from stacking in corners and wandering too far from heat. The chick guard also prevents floor clrafts which might cause colds and other sicknesses. The guard should enclose a space about 12 feet in diameter under the brooder unit and 12 to 18 inches high. Sheet metal or corruga,ted cardboard will serve




the purpose. The chick guard can be moved farther away from the brooder as the chicks grow. It's a good idea to keep feed ancl water inside the guard and always available' The visible light from the infrared lamps will encourage the chicks to eat at night, too, and develop faster'



You'll find that straw, sawdust, ground corncobs' sancl or any types of litter used with other methods of
chick brooding are entirely satisfactory with infrared'

These sturdy metal reflectors, widely used to shiel.d outdooi fu.- iight*, k"ep infrared lamps from collecting dust. Also plotect th-e hot bulb from-.breakage due to

accidental brimping or spattering with liquids.




Various manulaeturers offer 3 and 4Jamp metal brooder units such as this. Some have a multiple switch for turning ofi individual lamps.
Others provide automatic

thermostat control.


Larse melal hood completely shields lamps lrom moisture and-helps reduce draits and heat loss. Available in 4 and 6ld.mp models, also with multiple switch or autosupply complete brooding unit kits ior home assembly.


IJ.S. Dertt. of


matic theimostat control. Some manuiacturers


HottE-l,lADE 5-LAilP BiooDER . . . This one has sturdy supporting legs and uses curtains made of feed sacks

for'quickly idjustable extra draft protection
cold weather


w!. .-"t:it;tflt9l!.


You'li get best resuits by using litter plentifully -up to 6 inches deep in cold climates" Deep litter
by providing a warm fioor that stays dry longer. This saves you labor bccause it docsn't have to be changed so often. And note that lilter in the lamp area remctirts dry.
increases chick comfort





Since infrare:d energy hcats the chicks but not the air the onl)' praclical guide for regulating the hcat - thc from iamps is the comiart of thc chicks. Thermostats shoulcl be set oni3r aiter carefttilr. observing chick

Coartet Beacot



Co, Inc,,

and "Eliltrit;4

on tbe Farm"


Where thermostats are not used, 1.'ou can raise or lower the heat b1' adjusting lamp height. If chicks cluster directly beneath, lower lamps. If the:' spread too much from the center, raise lamps. And listen as well as watch, for as -vou know contented chicks chirp softly.

ctilcK BRooDING . . . with automatic waterels, feeders and fan ventilation infrared brooding makes it possible for one man to care for at lead!,'611,000 chicks -when started at the rate of 20,000 chicks every 4 weeks,



Unless yor-l use three or more lamps in your brooding units, the expense of a therrnostat is not usually justified. But for three lamps or over, thermostats arranged to switch off one or two lamps at a time can help -You save on electricity. An alternative is to substitute a Sylvania l2l-watt infrared lamp for the 250-watt as less heat is needed. Depending on weather anci chick age, this may be instailed for economy latcr on in the brooding period.

A centrallv located voltage control s1'stem will keep power consumption at a minimum in large commerciai chicken houses. Heat outpnt of the lamps is reduced by thermostatically reclucing voltage. And thermostats have been developed which provide up to flve levels of heat automatically.
For help on lamp control problems in

brooding installations, refer to 1'our county agent, state agricultural college, or power supplier.

For odded sofely, hcve s quolified elee*rieion moke your brooding instollotion lo meet s?qndord fire


Your eleclricion should check copacily of eircui!s, enlronce swilch ond olher conditions lo rnake sure you get efficient use of eleclricity.
Your inslollolion should be in occordonce with lhe Nnlionol Eleclricol Code os q minimurn slandord of sofely. Hove roughed-in ond finol wiring inspecled.
Use odequole size feeders, service enlrqnce equip-

Flexible cords shculd be he<rvy duly rubber or plostic covered lype, ond not over I feet in !ength. The code recommendctions slrould be followed for wire sizes in relElion Sc lhe number of lonrps connecled lo o single cord.
Plqn for ern cdeqr.lcte *umber of circuils ond ouilels of *he proper type ond vohoge, os well qs convenien? swifehing crrcngemenls. Frovide for economiecl exponsion of lhe inslolloiion by instciling cdequole iniliql service enlronce. A rneler pole with meler loop of odequole size conduclor is highly desiroble. Tlrne deloy fuses, or circuil breokers, should be instolled in lhe systern"

menl ond #12 whe bronch .circuit conduclors !o keep volloge losses ol o minimum.

Farmers everywhere are putting the infrared lamp to another profitable use in brooding newborn livestock. They find that using a heat lamp can pay for itself many times over out of the added profits from a single litter. The infrared lamp helps save many more pigs, lambs and calves in the critical period just after birth them a healthier faster start for market. -gives Just as baby chicks do, newborn livestock enjoy warming themselves under the heat lamp - which on a is like warming themselves in the sunshine chilly day in some sheltered spot. The infrared lamp offers a number of benefits. Turned on before birth, its radiant heat helps to quiet the sow or ewe through the shock period during birth. The heat lamp provides an easy rnethod of drying and warming the newborn animals. It improves their living conditions by helping to keep their bedding dry as weli as warm. And it supplies enough iight to show them where to go.

A HEAT LAi^p...makes farrowing much easier. It takes the place of inconvenient time-taking methods of drying and warming and usualiy makes any handling of the pigs at

birth unnecessary.

Over 50'ii of newborn pig losses occur during the first 24 hours. Becattse pigs chiil easii;' at birth, farmers flnd additional heat at farrowing time can
save an average of


pigs per litter.




This is important because you need an average five pigs per litter just to cover your costs. Using heat iamps for cold weather brooding gives you a much better chance to raise enough pigs for a profit. The trvo greatest Cangers to nervborn pigs are chilling and crushing from the weight of the sow. An infrared lamp in a protected corner of the pen away from the sow will give new pigs the heat they need. They are far iess likely to be crushed than by crowding up to the sow to get warm. Heat lamps also encourage faster development. 'Ihe young pigs can use more food for pork production, need less of it to create body heat.


t,. ,






I l



Preferred for brooding livestock

tion against accidental knock-


gives greater Protec-

The 125-watt, 250-walt, or 375-

ing or splashing. Be sure there are ventilation holes around the socket. Use supported rubber extension cords, porcelain sockets and wire lamp guard.

watt sizes can be used for brooding livestock - depending The on weather conditions.

standard glass types require shielding with a metal reflector

easy to build an open-type infrared lamp brooder for your farrowing pen. Naii together a stout board partition about 4 or 5 feet wide and 30 inches high. Put a metal hasp on each inside corner. Then attach the partition across a sheltered corner of your farrowing pen. Allow a one-foot clearance above the floor for creep space' Or you can use simple open fencing like that shown in the photo above. The heat lamp should be hung behind this partition where the sow cannot reach it -- about 30 inches above the floor.



of the type shown. The hard glass types do not need it.



type of bedding or Iitter should always be with a heat lamp brooder. Wheat or rye straw, short or chopped hay, ground corncobs and shredded corn fodder are ali suitable.


Tests show that weaker pigs chill in temperatures of 40"F. and lower. So plan to use heat lamps when pen temperature is around 45oF. or lower. In mild weather the 125-watt heat lamp may be sufiicient. In colder weather use the 250-watt or 375-watt sizes. If the lamp is not the hard glass type it should be shielded with a metal reflector.

at least 42 inches from the floor" The heat will tend to soothe and quiet the sow and make her less nervous. It also dries and warms the pigs as soon as they are born. Anywhere from 12 to 24 hours after birth, the heat lamp can be moved to the corner brooder. By this time the pigs have become used to the heat lamp and after nursing wili return to it remaining - sow. Heat there witho,"lt danger of crushing by the lamps should trurn for several days to prevent chilling, and to prevent crushing by the sow, up to several weeks longer depending on the weather.

Shortly before farrowing, one or more heat lamps should be turned on directly over the sow. Lamps should be well out of the sow's reach when standing-

FoR rAt$B BnOoDtNc . . . A simple fenced-off area in the Iambing pen is easy to buitd "i be ".;tl;;b;..'-e"r'rr."i Iamp brooding of any livestock sure tne excess corals carefully taped up or fastened out of reach of the animal.

FOR LAMB BROODING Each year 15f6 to 3Ao/o of newborn lambs are lost, due to cold, dampness, disowning and other causes" Llsing heat lamps during their birth and for a short
time after can help you send more lambs to market. The lamb brooder should be of open fencing. It should keep the ewe away from the heat lamp, but should not separate her from the lambs as this might



cause disowning. The fencing should have an opening 18 inches high so the lambs can easitry enter and leave the brooder. Any of the various kinds of iitter suggested for pig brooding are suitable here. As with pig brooding, you need to shield the lamp with a metal reflector unless it is of the hard glass type. And be sure to hang it a good 42 ta 48 inches above the floor, or lambs may get their wooi scorched. A lamb that is weak or chilled should be placed in the brooder under the heat lamp until it is dry and warm. In general, you'll find a lamb needs only one dav under the brooder.


CALF BRooDtNG too...Not only pigs, lambs and chicks, but turkeys, geese, ducklings, calves and even puppies

for calf brooding. The heat lamp should be hung behind an enclosed brooding area the calves - but should be able to move in and out freely. Lise a 250-watt hard glass heat lamp or a standard giass lamp protected by a reflector. For best results, keep the lamp burning 24 hours daily and hang it
well out of reach of the largest calf.

There is increasing interest in the use of heat lamps

have been successfully brooded under infrared heat lamps.

Listed below are more than a score of jobs you can do with an infrared lamp. Some of them are just odd jobs for which the heat lamp comes in mighty handy both inside and outside the house. Others are steady chores where the infrared can save you time and labor. And in some cases the heat lamp can help you avoid considerable expense by doing real rescue work in emergencies. You'll want to keep heat lamps around for all three reasons. Whenever you use the heat lamp, it's just as important to keep the hot lamp shielded, use porcelain sockets for continuous operation, and be careful to keep the lamp at least a foot away from combustibie materials if you burn it for any length of time. For short-time odd jobs, you'll

flnd a portable heat lamp fixture


But the most important precaution of all is to use heat your own good judgment - in adjusting the lamp to the different conditions of each job.

(See photo) Place one heat lamp at least a foot away from frozen pipe to warm area in generai. Run another heat iamp along the frozen pipe length to

start thawing uniformly and prevent bursting. To preuent freezing, keep lamps burning at trouble spots
during extreme cold spells.

Heat lamps can be strung at intervals in lines over rows of plants to prevent freezing. Heat lamps also are used to warm hot beds, and to dry seeds.

with a non-oil base, help make a stronger

Heat lamps speed drf ing of glue, plaster and paints

entire surface. Use one 375-watt lamp or two 250watt lamps.

bond. Hold lamp about 5 inches arvay and move slowly back and forth. For larger surfaces, place several lamps farther away, changing location frequently to cover

(See photo) With clean convenient infrared lamps there's no danger of miik contamination, as is possible with other heating methods. Excellent for temporary warmth while doing chores in any unheated farm buildings. Screw into regular light fixtures or use portable fixtures. Be sure to use hard glass lamps.
Corttetj lvett Penil
Pau et Co.

Heat iamps are widely used for this purpose bethey provide more efficient and economical heat. Simple open-type dehydrators allowing easy escape of water vapors are easy to construct. Heat lamps are aiso used to assist in drying seed and grain.

Soothing infrared heat rays may help to relieve congestion and muscular pain in animals as well as people.

Hold heat lamp a comfortable distance from cow's udder or part to be treated. Be guided according to
animalrs reaction


and veterinarian's advice.

putiy. Oid paint quicktry blisters and scrapes olf easily rvith a putty kni{e. A heat lamp also softens adhesive for removing oli linoleu.m and rubber tiling
from floors.

Hold lamp 2 or 3 inches away froni old paint er

A heat iamp quickly melts hardened oil anrl g1'sas€. Useful for thinning oll in vehicles when toc rhiek ior compression to seal. Especiaily helpfui when a kit,rrlerr sink becomes grease ciogged. Hold lieai, lairip riihi-;; 2 or 3 inches of trap to rnelt greasec sFcccliij,'.

Heat lamps supply borh heat arrd. iigti cver {eeller.s and founlains in colcl rveather-lncre:iLse rgg proiiuction }:y encouraging heas lo eat inore. Alsc preyent freezing of rvatererg and iee tl ircuglts for crther' ]ir.estock,

leave iamp on cr.ernight beneath vehicles to kecp oii tluiCt for Ii;st starts"

oiipan. Also good for warming up any tools or machinery parts an,:i clrying our ignition, In extreme weaiher

(See phoio) For warming up cars, trucl<s and tractors, place lamp beneath motor, directing heat on

Doctors often prescribe soothing infrared heat, therapy to relieve i.i:re pairi of sprairis, sore muscles, inseci i:ites, congesl,ion. Fneat {rom tire inlrared lamp is more uniforrn and mor€ penetrating than that from hot water i:ottles ancl electrlc pads.

To defrost frozen foodso piace heat lan'ip in portable fixture and d-irect iL on piate coniaining lrozen {ooe,l-. Turn fooil from side t,:r si.le untii r-hail.ed. To defrost refrigerat+rs hcld lamp close enough to freezing unil to melt covering of lrost arrcl ice" .h.oicl coniaci of de{roste,i liquids rvith ?roi buib"



Heat larnps pror. icle quick temporary heat for the bathroom, kitciteu, workshop or other cold spots. Also for n'arming bab1.'s piaypen" Mount lamp on upper pari of tr.all anC direct heat where you want it"

d $


ing the dishes or: small articles o{ cloihing. -&lso for drying hair and nail polish use coalioiz rvhen - but handling heat iamp near face. To cry rvet photographic films and prints, hang between trvo lamps a foot away on each side. Watch to at'oid crirrkling.

Flace heat lamp a {oot or more away io speed ciry-


Consult the engineers of your iocal eiectric power supplier. They'll give you advice on methods, fixtures, and any special wiring necessary. You can get further information from your county agent, state agricultural college and the lI. s. Department of Agriculture.

For an instant, inexpensive, portable source of radiant heat when you want it and where you want it not even the sun can surpass a Sylvania Infrared Heat Lamp. Sylvania Infrareds wiil give you long, economical lamp life because they are manufactured under the highest lighting standards known. For the finest in Infrared insist upon Sylvania.



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