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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING- II

Part A (5*2=10)

1. What are the types of treatment processes?

2. What are the merits of chemical precipitation?

3. What are the factors that affect the precipitations?

4. What do you mean by chemical precipitation?

5. What are the users of Baffle?

Part B (1*8=8)

6.a) Describe the types of screens with need sketch. OR

6.b) Design a detritus tank if the dry weather flow of a separate system of sewage scheme is 130 l/s.
Assume

(i) The maximum flow to be three time to average
(ii) The definition period as 45 seconds
(iii) The velocity as 30 cm/s
Part C (2*16=32)

7.a) Explain classification of Treatment processes? OR

7.b) A grit chamber is designed to remove particles with a diameter of 0.2mm, specific gravity 2.65.
Settling velocity for there particles has been found to range from 0.016 to 0.22 m/sec, depending on
then shape factor, A flow through velocity of 0.3 m/s. Will be maintained by proportioning weir
determine the channel dimensions for a maximum waste water flow of 10,000 cum/day.

8.a) Design in a preliminary treatment unit the screen and the detritus tanks for 50,000 people. The dry
weather flow is 110 lit / h / day. Assume the maximum flow as 3 times the DWF. Assume suitably the
data not given OR

8.b) What do you understand by unit operations and processes? What is its importance in water and
waste water treatment? Elaborate various types of unit operations used for waste water treatment.



ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING- II

Part A (5*2=10)

1. What is means by screening?

2. Define Communicators?

3. Define unit process?

4. What are the functions involved in the chemical unit processes

5. Draw a general layout for sewage treatment process?

Part B (1*8=8)

6.a) Estimate the screen requirement for a plant treating a peak flow of 60 million liters/day of sewage.


OR

6.b) Design a detritus tank for a DWF of 350 ips in a separate sewage system. Make suitable
assumptions wherever required.

Part C (2*16=32)

7.a) Design a suitable grit chamber cum dexterities for a sewage treatment plant getting a dry weather
flow from a separate sewerage system @ 400 l/s. Assume the flow velocity through the tank as 0.2 m/s
and detention period of 2 minutes the maximum flow may be assumed to be three times of dry weather
flow. OR

7.b) Describe the skimming tanks with neat sketch?

8.a) Design of circular settling tank unit for a primary treatment of sewage at 12 million lit per day.
Assume suitable values of detention period (Presuming that trickling filters are to follow the
sedimentation tank) and surface loading.

OR

8.b) What do you understand by physical unit operations? Write a note on application of various
physical unit operation employed in waste water treatment.







ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING- II

Part A (5*2=10)

1. What are functions of aeration in ASP?
2. What is meant by sludge bulking?
3. What do you mean by secondary treatment?
4. What are the disadvantages of trick long filters?

5. Write the formula for recirculation factor?

6. What are the advantage of increment 8 and filters?
7. What is the necessary of Recirculation in T.F?
8. What are the demerits of conventional trickling filters?
9. What is the range of sand particle in the filtering mtier?
10. Write the formula for finding the efficiency of single high rate trick long filter?
Part B (1*8=8)

11. Design a septic tank for the following data Number of people = 100

Sewage / capital/day = 100 lit

De sluding period = 1 year

Length = width = 4 : 1

12. The sewage is flowing @ 4.5 million liters per day from a primary clarofver to a standard rate
trick long filter. The 5-day BOD of the influent is 160 mg/l. the value of the adopted organic
loading is to be 160 gm / m3/ day and surface loading 2000l/m
2
/dag. Determine the volume
of the filter and its depth. Also calculate the efficiency of this filter unit.

13.Explain Ecken folder trickling filter equation. Determine the BOD of the effluent from a loco
rate trickling filter that has a diameter of 35 m and a depth of 1.5 m, if the hydraulic loading is
1900 m
3
/day and the influent BOD
5
is 150 mg/l. Assume the rate consistant as 1.89 d
-1
and =
0.67

14.A single stage filter is to treat a flow of 3.79 M.L.d of raw sewage BOD of 240 mg/l.It is to be
designed for a loading of 11086 kg of BOD in raw sewage per hence fare metre, and the
recirculation ratio is to be l. what will be strength of the efficient, according to the recommendation
of the National Research Council of U.S.P

Part C (2*16=32)

15. Estimate the size of a septic tank [ C l/w = 2.25) liquid depth 2m with 300 mm free board).
Desludging intervals in years, and the total trench area (m
2
) of the perlocation field, for a small
colony of 300 people. Assume water supply of 100 lit/cap/d, waste water flow of 80% of water
consumption, sludge production of 0.04 m
3
/cap/year and the refention time of 3 days at start up.
Deluding is done when the tank is one-third full of sludge A per collation test indicated an
allowable hydraulic loading of 100 per square metre per day
16.Why sewage is to be treated? What are the primary and secondary treatment given to
wastewater?


b) Explain the following

(i) Surface loading rate of primary settling.

(ii) Proportional flow weir in a grit chamber?

17.Determine the size if a high rate trickling filter for the following data.

Flow = 4.5 m/d

Recirculation ratio = 1.4

BOD of raw sewage = 250 mg/l

BOD removed in primary clarifier = 251

Final efficient BOD derived = 50mg/l

Calculate also the size of the standard rate tricklong filter to accomplish the above requirement

18. Distinguish between standard rate filters and high rate filters.

19. What is the classification of treatment process for sewage and briefly discuss any 2 of them.
20.The decoyn flow of sewage is 3.8 mile l p day and the BOD of the raw sewage is 300 mg/l
Design a single stage Bio filter to produce an effluent having a BOD of 45 mg/l or Less.


21. i)Discuss the factors which influence the working of a trickling filter. Also state the effect of
recirculation on trickling filter with the help of sketches?

ii)Explain the principle involved in the sewage purification of activated sludge process?
Discuss the different methods of aeration?

22. A town having a population of 30,000 persons is produced the following sewages:

(i) Domestic sewage @ 120 L.P.C.d having 200 mg/l of BOD

(ii) Industrial sewage @ 3,00,000 L.p.c.d having 800 mg/l of 30D

(iii) Design high rate single stage trick long filters for treating the above sewage. Assuming that
the primary sedimentation removes 35% of BOD. Allow all organic loading of 10,000
kg/ha.m/day (excluding recirculated sewage). The recirculation ratio is 1.0; and the surface
loading should not exceed 170 mc/ha/day (including recirculated sewage). Also determine
the efficiency of the filter and the BOD of the efficient





























ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING- II

Part A (5*2=10)

1. What are the advantage of increment 8 and filters?
2. What is the necessary of Recirculation in T.F?
3. What are the demerits of conventional trickling filters?
4. What is the range of sand particle in the filtering mtier?
5. Write the formula for finding the efficiency of single high rate trick long filter?
Part B (1*8=8)

6. a) Explain Ecken folder trickling filter equation. Determine the BOD of the effluent from a loco
rate trickling filter that has a diameter of 35 m and a depth of 1.5 m, if the hydraulic loading is
1900 m
3
/day and the influent BOD
5
is 150 mg/l. Assume the rate consistant as 1.89 d
-1
and =
0.67

OR

6. b) A single stage filter is to treat a flow of 3.79 M.L.d of raw sewage BOD of 240 mg/l.It is to
be designed for a loading of 11086 kg of BOD in raw sewage per hence fare metre, and the
recirculation ratio is to be l. what will be strength of the efficient, according to the
recommendation of the National Research Council of U.S.P

Part C (2*16=32)
7. a) What is the classification of treatment process for sewage and briefly discuss any 2 of them.

OR
7. b) The decoyn flow of sewage is 3.8 mile l p day and the BOD of the raw sewage is 300 mg/l
Design a single stage Bio filter to produce an effluent having a BOD of 45 mg/l or Less.

8. a) i) Discuss the factors which influence the working of a trickling filter. Also state
the effect of recirculation on trickling filter with the help of sketches?
ii) Explain the principle involved in the sewage purification of activated sludge
process? Discuss the different methods of aeration?
OR
8. b) A town having a population of 30,000 persons is produced the following sewages:
(iv) Domestic sewage @ 120 L.P.C.d having 200 mg/l of BOD
(v) Industrial sewage @ 3,00,000 L.p.c.d having 800 mg/l of 30D
(vi) Design high rate single stage trick long filters for treating the above sewage. Assuming that
the primary sedimentation removes 35% of BOD. Allow all organic loading of 10,000
kg/ha.m/day (excluding recirculated sewage). The recirculation ratio is 1.0; and the surface
loading should not exceed 170 mc/ha/day (including recirculated sewage). Also determine
the efficiency of the filter and the BOD of the efficien
CE 2354 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING II MODEL TEST I

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 2 = 20 marks)

1. What do you mean by time of concentration? State its significance in sewer design.

2. State the pollution control board norms for effluent discharge into streams.

3. List the factors influencing the fixing of design period.

4. Give the design flow value for separate, combined and storm sewers.

5. What is grey water and grey water harvesting?

6. Distinguish between grit chamber and plain sedimentation tank.

7. State the objective and functioning principle of a secondary treatment unit.

8. State the advantages of VASB reactors.

9. Define the treatment sludge conditioning.

10. List out the methods of minimizing sewage sickness.

PART B (5 *16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) (i) Explain the factors influencing the dry weather flow. (8)

(ii) Brief about sewage flow fluctuations and discuss the importance of studying them. (8)

(b) (i) B.O.D. of a sewage incubated for one day at 30C has been found to be 120 mg/l. What
will be its 5 day 20C BOD, if K at 30C is 0.16 per day (base 10). (10)

(ii) What is population equivalent? State its uses. (6)

12. (a) A town has a population of 1,00,000 persons with a per capita water supply of 200 litres per
day. Design a sewer running 0.7 times full at maximum flow condition. Take N =
0.013 at all depths of flow, slope= 1 in 500 and peak factor of 3.

(b) (i) Explain the method of laying sewer line for the designed/desired alignment and gradient. (8)

(ii) Compare the formation, advantages and disadvantages of one pipe and two pipe
plumbing systems. (8)

13. (a) (i) Design a bar screen for a peak average flow of 30 million litres per day. (8)

(ii) Describe the on-site sanitation methods. (8)

(b) (i) Determine the settling velocity of spherical particle of specific gravity 2.65, diameter 0.18

mm. Take kinematic viscosity of water as 1.01 6 10 2 m /sec. (6)

(ii) Design a rectangular sedimentation tank for treating 4.5 million litres per day adopting L
: B ratio as 2, overflow rate 20 3 2 m /d.m and detention time of 3 hours. (10)

14. (a) Define and explain the different loading criteria, based on which aeration tank of ASP
is operated.

(b) Determine the size of a high rate trickling filter for the following data


Sewage flow = 4.5 million litres per day

Recirculation ratio = 1.5

BOD for raw sewage = 230 mg/l

BOD removal in PST = 30%

BOD of treated effluent required = 25 mg/l.

15. (a) A town discharges 14 million litres per day sewage at a temperature of 23C into a river having
flow of 1.7 m3/sec and water temperature of 20C. BOD at 20C for the waste water is 160 mg/l and
k(base 10) is 0.1 per day. If R is 0.2 per day what is the critical oxygen deficit and the distance at
which it occurs. Assume the stream as 92% saturated with oxygen before the sewage addition the
solubility of oxygen at 20C as 9.0 mg/l and river flow velocity as 0.12 m/sec.

(b) (i) Describe the anaerobic sludge digestion process and explain the effects of pH and
temperature on it. (10)

(ii) State the Indian standards for sewage disposal on land and conditions favoring it. (6)
CE 2354 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING II MODEL TEST I

PART A (10 2 = 20 marks)

1. Distinguish between dry weather flow and wet weather flow?

2. State the necessity of waste water characterization

3. A sewer has to be designed considering both minimum velocity and maximum velocity
of flows- state true or false justify the answer?

4. What do you understand by sewer appurtenances? Enumerate various
appurtenancescommonly used?

5. Mention various methods of onsite sanitation.

6. State the objectives of preliminary treatment of sewage?

7. Distinguish between an oxidation ditch and oxidation pond?

8. How advances treatment of sewage is different from conventional treatment system?

9. Name the methods of disposal of sewage by land treatment?

10. State the objectives of sludge thickening?


PART B (5*16=80)
11.(a) i) calculate the combined flow discharge of sewage for the following data
Area to be served = 150 hectares
Population of the locality = 50000
Time of entry = 5 minutes
Time of flow = 20 minutes
Rate of water supply = 135 litres /capita/day
Impermeability factor = 0.45
Assume 80 % of water suppied turns into sewer as peak factor as 1.5. (10)
ii) discuss the methods of estimation of storm runoff (6)


(b) i) define the terms BOD and COD. Differentiate between first stage BOD and second

stage BOD. (8)
ii) the BOD of a sewage incubated for two day at 30
o
c has been found to be 135 mg/l.
what will be the 5 day BOD at 20
o
c? Assume BOD rate constant K = 0.21d
-1
at 20
o
c (8)

12. (a) Determine the diameter of a separate sewer section running 0.7 times full at maximum
discharge for a population of 50000 persons. Water is supplied at a rate of 140 liters per ca[ita

per day. Assume 80 % of water supplied turns as sewage. Take peak factor as 2.25 and
mannings constant N=0.013 at all depths of flow. The permissible slope is 1 in 700.
b) (i) Discuss with neat sketch a drop manhole and indicate where it is used. (8)

(ii) with help of a neat sketch discuss various systems of plumbing used fro drainage. (8)


13. (a) with the help of neat sketch discuss the component parts, functioning, advantages and
disadvantages of a septic tank. Discuss various methods of disposal of septic tank effluent

(b) (i) Explain the working of grit chamber and their types. (8)

(ii) discuss in brief the various types of settling and design considerations of sedimentation

tanks. (8)

14. a) (i) explain with sketch the treatment of sewage by activated sludge process. Mention the

advantages and disadvantages of the process. (10)

(ii) explain briefly the working principle of waste stabilization ponds.mention their

classifications (6)

b) (i) Design a single stage trickling filter to yield an effluent BOD s of 30 mg/l. the influent BOD

following primary clarification is 175 mg/l and the flow is 15000 m
3
/d. maintain a hydraulic loading

rate of 20 m
3
/m
2
/d and a filter depth of 2 m. Assume a recirculation ratio of 1.5. (10)
(ii) state various advantages and disadvantages of conventional trickling filter. (6)

15.a) (i) Discuss the principle of the self-purification process of stream and factors influencing the

process. (8)
(ii) Explain about oxygen sag curve and its importance (8)

b) Enumerate various processes involved in sludge treatment and disposal. Explain the mechanism
of anaerobic and aerobic sludge digestion with their relative merits and demerits.