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USEFUL GUIDELINES

Basic principles 1 Student and Teacher 1. Learning is more important than teaching. 2. Teach the students, not the book. 3. Involve students in the learning process. 4. Don't tell students hat the! can tell !ou. ". #ho !our reactions to hat students sa!. $. #tudents need practice, not !ou. %. Don't emphasi&e di''iculties. (. )ar! hat !ou do, and ho !ou do it. *. #elect+ 1, -ctivities and relationships in the classroom change. 11. #tudents need to learn ho to learn. 12. .se'ul and 'un is better than either alone. 13. /e all learn best hen e are rela0ed. 14. #tudents can be silent but still involved. Basic principles 2 Language and Language Learning 1. Language teaching is teaching language. 2. Languages are di''erent. 3. Language is hat, ho and h!. 4. 'Level' is a comple0 idea. ". 1no ing the language is not enough. $. 2atural language has a place in all courses. %. 3ost language skills can be divided into sub4skills. (. 5ear, speak, read, rite is a good se6uence. *. Language learning is c!clical. 1,. Language is used 'or di''erent purposes in the classroom. 11. Do not be a'raid o' the students' mother tongue. 12. 3otor skills need practice. 13. Distinguish clearl! bet een accurac! and 'luenc! practices. 14. Interesting communicative tasks increase motivation. 1". 7ou learn to speak b! listening. Classroo !anage ent and General Tips

1. -rrange the seating to help. 2. #tand up hen !ou're directing activit!. 3. Look at the students. 4. .se !our hands to encourage and direct students. ". .se the back o' !our hand to point. $. .se pauses to punctuate hat !ou sa!. %. )ar! !our voice. (. 1eep !our language to a minimum hen students are doing something. *. Don't commentate. 1,. Don't be a'raid o' silence. 11. Don't be a'raid o' noise. 12. .se pair ork to increase student talking time even i' it seems chaos. 13. .se group ork to increase student talking time. 14. 8e e0plicit. 1". Don't ask 9Do !ou understand9.

1$. Don't go 'round the class' i' individuals can prepare particular e0amples. 1%. -dmit !our ignorance. 1(. :onsult colleagues. 1*. :onsult students. 2,. Demonstrate, rather than e0plain, ne activities. 21. ;0ploit real events. 22. Divide the blackboard. 23. .se the overhead pro<ector to control hat students see. 24. 3achiner! ill not solve all !our problems. 2". ;0pand, don't clutter. "reparation 1. =repare !oursel'. 2. :ourses and lessons need an overall structure. 3. Don't let the book dictate. 4. Do not prepare too much or too rigidl!. ". =reparation must be concrete. $. -ids are onl! aids i' the! help. %. 2ever ignore the practical di''iculties. (. - good lesson has a beginning, a middle and an end. Techni#ues Listening 1. Listening can be divided into sub4skills. 2. Direct students' listening, particularl! i' it is taped. 3. Listening to a tape>:D is di''icult. 4. Let students hear 9the real thing9 'rom earl! in their course. ". 3ake sure students can hear the di''erence bet een similar sounds. $. .se a variet! o' 'listen and respond' activities. Techni#ues Speech$or% 1. Do not distort hen giving a model. 2. The model must remain the same. 3. .se choral pronunciation. 4. :onduct choral pronuncioation decisivel!. ". 3ove around the room hen doing choral pronunciation. $. 1eep !our language to a minimum in pronunciation practices. %. )ar! !our criterion o' 9good9 in pronunciation practice. (. -rticulation is an imortant 'irst step in practice. *. It is help'ul to do articulation practices more than once. 1,. 8ring variet! to 'sa! a'ter me'. 11. #omething hich is not a real ord sometimes helps. 12. There is no such thing as the 'c4h sound'. 13. The main criteria 'or pronunciation are consistenc! and intelligibilit!. 14. Teach intonation b! back4chaining. 1". Don't e0plain intonation, demonstrate. 1$. #ho stress, pitch and intonation visuall!. 1%. ?e'er to stress and intonation even hen not speci'icall! teaching it. Techni#ues Structure 1. ;ncourage students to see patterns. 2. @ood rules can help students.

3. .nderstanding involves e0ample, e0planation, and practice. 4. Terminolog! can help or hinder. ". Ailling in a 'ill4in e0ercise is not enough. $. #tudents need to practise 'orm as ell as use. %. There is a place 'or oral and ritten practices. (. .se 'gimmicks' to combat popular mistakes. *. .se beehives ith large classes. 1,. 3ost language games are structure practices. 11. Aree situations are important. 12. @rammar can be 'un. 13. @rammar is a receptive skill, too. 14. Teach ord grammar as ell as sentence grammar. Techni#ues Correction 1. 3istakes are a natural part o' the learning process. 2. @ive students the chance to correct themselves. 3. Involve the class. 4. Isolate the problem. ". The student must use the correct language. $. There are man! kinds o' mistakes. %. :orrecting register and appropriac! needs tact. (. :orrect promptl! 'or accurac!, a'ter ards 'or 'luenc!. *. Don't over4correct. 1,. ?e'ormulation is o'ten better than correction. 11. .se a code to correct ritten ork. 12. .se class discussion as a basic method o' correcting ritten ork. Techni#ues &oca'ular( 1. - 'vocabular!' item can be more than one ord. 2. Do not discuss the structure o' le0ical items. 3. There is a di''erence bet een active and passive vocabular!. 4. ;0plain di''erence o' meaning, not meaning. ". /ords are o'ten best taught in groups. $. )ar! the a! !ou e0plain. %. /ords can link grammaticall! as ell as thematicall!. (. ?ecord ords together hich occur together. Techni#ues Te)ts 1. Di''erent te0ts have di''erent uses. 2. Too man! ne ords make a te0t impossible. 3. 2othing is 'interesting' i' !ou can't do it. 4. .se pre4activities to 'ocus students' attention. ". Distinguish bet een intensive and e0tensive reading. $. Do not ask students to read aloud unseen. %. )ar! the method o' reading. (. .se short 6uestions during intensive reading. *. Don't ask 9/hat does B meanC9, use de'inition 6uestions. 1,. #tudents cannot use hat the! cannot sa!. 11. 'Di''icult' ords are not the same as long ords. 12. ':orrection 6uestions' prompt student language. 13. 2ot all comprehension 6uestions check understanding. 14. .se comprehension and conversation 6uestions together.

1". I' !ou read a dialogue, distinguish the t o speakers clearl!. Techni#ues Con*ersation 1. ;0ploit opportunities 'or short spontaneous conversations. 2. Don' 'log a dead horse. 3. ;ncourage contributions ithout inter'ering. 4. :onversation does not need to be about serious issues. ". =rovocative statements are o'ten better than 6uestions. $. =roblem solving is o'ten an e0cellent basis 'or 'conversation'. %. ;ncourage active listening.