A colection of all the calculations required for IB Chemistry, including the Human Biochemistry and Medicines and Drugs optional units.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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A colection of all the calculations required for IB Chemistry, including the Human Biochemistry and Medicines and Drugs optional units.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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You are on page 1of 53

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this presentation, is to collect all the calculations you need for IB

It will not help you to master themthe only shortcut to mastery is many hours of

dedicated practice.

Good luck!

PURPOSE:

The Calculation = n = the quantity in moles N = the number of particles L = Avogadros constant, 6.02x1023 Notes

When calculating numbers of atoms

within molecules, multiply the number of particles (N) by the number of atoms in the formula rearrange to: N = n.L

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation =

Notes

Mr has no unit as it is a relative value

( . )

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

To determine the mass of a given = . To determine the molar mass of a given

= n = the quantity in moles m = the mass of substance you are given in grams

mass of a substance:

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

1.

Notes

You can follow the same method if you

2.

3.

Multiply all answers to Step 1 to remove any obvious fractions

a. If there is a .5 multiply everything by 2

3 etc

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

This and the previous calculation are

= . ( ) Fm = molecular formula Mr = relative molecular mass Fe = empirical formula m(Fe) = empirical formula mass

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

USE MOLE RATIOS TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF B THAT CAN BE MADE FROM A

Notes

The second term in this equation is the

= .

mole ratio

You must use a fully balanced equation This is the central step in many

stoichiometry calculations

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

n/a

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

You would often then need to use mole

Smallest value limiting

Largest value excess

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

Actual and theoretical yield must have

% = . 100

rearrange this equation, or use it to work backwards from this to find the amount of reactant you started with.

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

Only applies when temperature and

1 2 = 1 2 V1 = the initial volume of gas n1 = the initial quantity of gas in moles V2 = the final volume of gas n2 = the final volume of gas in moles

Units of V do not matter. But must be the This is really a special case of the Ideal

Gas Law where the pressure, temperature and gas constant terms cancel each other out.

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

Only applies at standard conditions:

273 K (0oC) 101,000 Pa (1.00 atm)

= 22.4 n = quantity in moles V = the volume of gas in dm3 22.4 is the molar volume of an ideal gas at 273K and 101,000 Pa

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

In practice, you can often use:

V in units of dm3

Pa in units of kPa

T = temperature in Kelvin (OC + 273)

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

1 1 2 2 2 2

1 1

Boyles Law, at fixed temperature: 1 1 = 2 2 V1 and V2 are initial and final volume P1 and P2 are initial and final pressure T1 and T2 are initial and final temperature

ideal gas law, where the remaining terms just cancel each other out.

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

MOLAR CONCENTRATION

Notes = c = concentration in mol n = the quantity in moles V = the volume in dm3 (litres) dm-3

Units are pronounced moles per

decimetre cubed

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

CONCENTRATION BY MASS

Notes = c = concentration in g dm-3

Units are pronounced grams per

decimetre cubed

rearrangement of this equation like this, you should convert it into a molar concentration before proceeding.

STOICHIOMETRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation =

Notes

% abundance may be given in the

% ( . ) 100

question, or you may need to read it from a mass spectrum decimals (i.e. 0.8 for 80%, 0.25 for 25%), there is no need to divide by 100.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

Ar, Ia and Ib will be provided in the

If there are two isotopes, label one of them a and one b. Now: =

+ +

question, so you can plug the numbers in, and then rearrange to find x.

However, since x+y = 100%, y = 100-x so: = Ar = relative atomic mass Ia = the mass of isotope a Ib = the abundance of isotope b x and y is the abundance of each isotope

+(100) 100

know the abundance of at least one in order to find the other two. You would also need to subtract the abundance of this one from the 100, before doing the rest of the sum.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

Be careful of the units of massyou may

= q = the heat change in Joules m = the mass of substance in grams c = specific heat capacity in J K-1 g-1

capacity, if it is J K-1 kg-1 you will need to convert your mass into kg.

T = temperature rise in K or OC

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

The minus sign is needed to ensure that

= H = the enthalpy change in Joules m = the mass of solution in grams c = specific heat capacity of water: 4.18 J K-1 g-1 T = temperature rise in K or OC

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

See the Energetics PowerPoint for

1. 2.

Write the relevant H onto each arrow Multiply each H in accordance with the stoichiometry

3.

To do your sum, add when you go with an arrow, and subtract when you go against one.

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

It is more reliable to use Hess cycles

and you can easily forget whether it is reactants products or vice versa. in Table 10 of the data booklet.

that broken and made. If a bond, for example a C-H is present at the start and finish, you can ignore it.this can save time in exams.

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

It is more reliable to use Hess cycles

() ()

and you can easily forget whether it is products reactants or vice versa. states is zero.

Hof for elements in their standard Hof values for many compounds can

to take a state change into account, if standard states are not used.

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

It is more reliable to use Hess cycles

() ()

and you can easily forget whether it is reactants products or vice versa.

Hoc for CO2 and H2O is zero. Hoc values for many compounds can

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

n/a

You need to build a Born-Haber cycle.see the Energetics PowerPoint for help.

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation =

Notes () Units are J K-1 mol-1

So values can be found in Table 11 of

()

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

Units are J or kJ mol-1

() ()

and you can easily forget whether it is products reactants or vice versa. states is zero.

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

If H is in kJ mol-1, you will need to

divide S by 1000 to convert it to units of kJ K-1 mol-1 S using Calculations 23 and 24.

S = Entropy change

ENERGETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

Units are mol dm-3 s-1

[] [] = = [R] = change in reactant concentration [P] = change in product concentration t = change in time

KINETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

Used for calculating rate from graph of

KINETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

1.

Notes

Sometimes, you cant find two cases

Identify two experiments, where the concentration of x has changed, but all others have remained the same. Compare the change in [x] to the change in rate:

a. If doubling [x] has no effect on rate,

2.

where only [x] has changed, in which case you may need to take into account the order of reaction with respect to other reactants.

then 0th order. b. If doubling [x] doubles rate, then 1st order.

3.

KINETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

Reactants with a reaction order of zero

= [] [] [] k = rate constant (see below) [A/B/C] = concentration of each reactant x/y/z = order of reaction with respect to each reactant

need to calculate the value of the rate constant if given rates, concentrations and reaction order, or the expected rate given the other information.

KINETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

If you cant understand this, try to

3 1 = (3 )

mol and dm-3 terms on the top and the

memorise:

1st order: s-1 2nd order: mol-1 dm3 s-1 3rd order: mol-2 dm6 s-1

KINETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

1 .

Where:

+ ln

line in the form y=mx+c where: y is ln k; x is 1/T; m is Ea/R; c is ln A temperatures and calculate ln k, then: Draw a graph with 1/T along the x-axis, and ln k on the y-axis Draw a straight line of best fit. Determine the gradient of the line Then: =

k = rate constant A = Arrhenius constant e = exponential constant Ea = activation energy R = gas constant, 8.31 T = temperature in Kelvin

Units of Ea are kJ mol-1 From the graph, you might also be asked

to calculate A:

KINETICS

PURPOSE:

The Calculation For the reaction:

Notes

Only applies to reactants for which there is a

concentration:

wA + zB yC + zD

[] [] = [] [] Kc = equilibrium constant

At SL, you only need be able to construct the At HL, you may need to calculate Kc from the

expression and suitable data, or to determine reactant equilibrium concentrations of reactants, given Kc and suitable information.

EQUILIBRIUM

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

At SL, you do not need to be able to

multiply [H+] by 10

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

At standard conditions, Kw = 1.00x10-14

= + . [ ] So: +

= [ ]

And:

= [ + ]

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

With strong acids, you can assume [H+]

= 10 [ + ]

[+ ]

10

is the same as the concentration of the acid (adjusted for the stoichiometry) calculate [H+] using Ka or pKa.

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

With strong bases, you can assume [OH-

= 10 [ ]

[ ]

10

] is the same as the concentration of the acid (adjusted for the stoichiometry) calculate [OH-] using Kb or pKb.

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

This is useful when trying of determine

= . So:

the strength the conjugate base of a weak acid, and the conjugate acid of a weak base.

And:

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

This is useful when trying of determine

= + So: = And:

the strength the conjugate base of a weak acid, and the conjugate acid of a weak base.

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

This is useful to quickly and easily

= + So: = 14 And:

= 14

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

We assume that [HA] is equal to the

+ 2 []

concentration stated in the question, as only a very small amount has dissociated. work out Ka:

[ + ] = 10

Then: =

+ 2 []

. []

= 10 [ + ]

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

+ [ ] = []

2 = []

concentration stated in the question, as only a very small amount has dissociated. You may need to work backwards from pOH to work out Kb: [ ] = 10

So: [ ] = Then: . []

Then:

= 10 [ ]

2 = []

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

+ [ ] = [] Now [H+] is not equal to [A-]: So: [+ ]

You may need to use your stoichiometry

. [ ] = []

to calculate the [HA] and [A-] in the buffer solution first. Since additional A- is added, we now need to use the concentration of A- from the buffer as our [A-]. [HA] should either be that stated in the question, or that calculated via stoichiometry, depending on the context.

For alkali buffers, do the same process

Then: = 10

[+ ]

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

CALCULATE EOCELL

Notes

The value should always be positive, so

= (anode)

if you get it the wrong way round, just take off the minus sign.

Eo can be found in the data booklet. You do not need to take the

stoichiometry of the reaction into account, just use the Eoas they are in the data booklet.

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

.100

relative uncertainties

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

This only works when adding and

= ( )

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

For use when you are

= ( )

PURPOSE:

The Calculation Use:

Notes

You may need to convert the energy

=

q = the heat change in Joules m = the mass of substance in grams c = specific heat capacity in J K-1 g-1 T = temperature rise in K or OC

value into a value per mole by dividing q by the number of moles of substance burnt.

HUMAN BIOCHEMISTRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes

100

(2 ) = 2 . ()

N(I2) = the iodine number m(I2) = the mass of iodine reacting in g m(lipid) = the mass of lipid involved in

HUMAN BIOCHEMISTRY

PURPOSE:

The Calculation

Notes N(I2) = the iodine number

Calculate the quantity in moles of I2 corresponding to the iodine number: (2 ) (2 ) = (2 ) Calculate the quantity in moles of lipid in 100g: 100 () = () Then the number of double bonds is: (2 ) = ()

n = quantities in moles

Mm = molar masses

HUMAN BIOCHEMISTRY

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