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Energy Conversion and Management 51 (2010) 360364

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Energy Conversion and Management


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Fuel and energy saving in open pan furnace used in jaggery making through modied juice boiling/concentrating pans
S.I. Anwar *
Division of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226 002, UP, India

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
In this paper the concept of ns has been used for heating purpose for improving efciency of open pan jaggery making furnace. Pan is the integral part of these furnaces where boiling/concentration of sugarcane juice take place. Parallel ns were provided to the bottom of main pan and gutter pan of IISR Lucknow 2-pan furnace. Choice for type of ns was based on movement of ames and hot ue gases generated due to combustion of bagasse. Fins helped in more heat transfer to the sugarcane juice being concentrated. Considerable improvement in heat utilization efciency (9.44%) was observed which resulted in saving of fuel and energy (31.34%). 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 6 May 2008 Received in revised form 21 February 2009 Accepted 30 September 2009 Available online 25 October 2009 Keywords: Energy saving Jaggery making furnace Sugarcane bagasse Heat transfer Fins

1. Introduction Sugarcane is grown in an area of about 4 million hectares of land in India with an average yield of 66 tonnes per hectare. With this about 273 million tonnes of sugarcane is produced annually. This sugarcane is processed for making sweeteners like sugar, jaggery or khandsari. Out of total sugarcane produced, 66.7% is used for making sugar and 20.7% is utilized by jaggery and khandsari under the decentralized sector. Remaining is used for seed, feed, chewing or raw juice drinking purposes [1]. Sugarcane juice concentration, while processing sugarcane for above sweeteners, is one of the important unit operations. This is done quite efciently in multi-effect evaporators in well-equipped sugar mills. Evaporation of water takes place under vacuum at lower temperature. This helps in reduction of sugar loss due to burning and also helps in reduction in colour development. Jaggery and khandsari, on other hand, are manufactured in decentralized units, which are located mostly in rural areas. Due to technological limitations of these units, they employ open pan furnaces for juice concentration. Sugarcane bagasse is the primary fuel used in jaggery making furnaces, which is obtained during the process of juice extraction/ cane crushing. It mainly contains bres, sugars and water and its net caloric value is the result of caloric value of its constituents (bre 19259 kJ/kg, sugar 16747 kJ/kg and water nil) [2]. Manohar rao [3] reported that wet mill bagasse has moisture 50%, bre 47%, sugar 2.5% and mineral 0.5%. Before using it as fuel,
* Fax: +91 522 2480738. E-mail address: sianwar@rediffmail.com. 0196-8904/$ - see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2009.09.033

bagasse is dried in counter-current type tunnel driers in most of the sugar mills but is normally sun dried in jaggery units. Many types of jaggery making furnaces have been developed in India [4]. Main variation in designs was due to number and size of pans, size of combustion chamber, size and geometry of ue gas channel, height of chimney, provision for air supply, etc. Hemispherical bottom pans are generally in use with these furnaces. Shortage or even no saving of fuel is very common with these furnaces due to low heat utilization efciency. The bres of sugarcane rind are excellent source of raw material for paper and pulp industries; the pith portion may effectively be converted and utilized as animal feed. So saving of bagasse may lead to the way for extra revenue generation for jaggery manufacturer. Lower efciency also results in increased processing time of sugarcane juice so the product quality and productivity are also affected. Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow (India) has also developed a 2-pan furnace. Juice is boiled/concentrated in circular at-bottom main pan and a rectangular gutter pan has been provided over the ue gas passage for preheating of juice to be concentrated in the subsequent lot. The furnace with all of its components is shown in Fig. 1 [5]. There has been limited effort made to improve the energy receiving component of the system, especially to improve the energy transfer efciency from the ame to the pan. In normal cooking, when a pan is placed over re heat transfer takes place through convection and radiation. Combustion products and air form an insulating layer below the pan bottom resulting into poor heat transfer. Fins are useful in breaking the insulating layer and provide additional metallic area for heat transfer. In jaggery

S.I. Anwar / Energy Conversion and Management 51 (2010) 360364

361

Nomenclature

gHu
Mev L

heat utilization efciency, % mass of water evaporated, kg latent heat of evaporation of water, kJ/kg

mb Cb

mass of bagasse consumed, kg caloric value of bagasse, kJ/kg

making furnaces, ames and hot ue gases drift towards exit and therefore get a longer path and duration for effective heat transfer. This feature has been applied in IISR furnace. Malekzadeh et al. [6] have done shape optimization of nonsymmetric, convectiveradiative annular ns. It was shown that by using fewer grid points, highly accurate results are obtained. Malekzadeh and Rahideh [7] also did an incremental differential analysis (IDQ) of the two-dimensional non-linear transient heat transfer analysis of variable section annular ns. Less computational efforts of the method with respect to the nite difference method is shown. Naphon [8] studied the heat transfer characteristics of the annular n under dry-surface, partially wet-surface, and fully wet-surface conditions. The mathematical models were developed and solved by the central nite difference method to obtain temperature distribution along the n. Thermal analysis and optimization of longitudinal and pin ns of uniform thickness subject to fully wet, partially wet and fully dry surface conditions were carried out by Kundu [9]. From the results, it was also highlighted that for the same thermo-geometric and psychometric parameters, a longitudinal n gives higher efciency than the corresponding pin n irrespective of surface conditions. Rosario and Rahman [10] presented the analysis of heat transfer in a partially wet annular n assembly during the process of dehumidication. Calculations were carried out to study the performance of the heat exchanger. The computed results included the temperature distribution in the wall and the n and the n efciency. Khaled [11] modeled and analyzed analytically the heat transfer through joint ns. The work showed that the design of machine components

such as bolts, screws, and others can be improved to achieve favorable heat transfer characteristics in addition to its main functions such as rigid xation properties. Lin and Jang [12] did a twodimensional analysis of combined heat and mass transfer in elliptic ns and found that both the fully dry and wet elliptic n efciencies are up to 48% greater than the corresponding circular n efciencies having the same perimeter. An analysis was carried out to study the efciency of straight ns of different congurations when subjected to simultaneous heat and mass transfer mechanism by Sharqawy and Zubair [13]. Analytical solutions are obtained for temperature distribution over the n surface when the n is fully wet. The effect of atmospheric pressure on the n efciency was also studied, in addition to n optimum dimensions. Huang and Shah [14] presented a critical assessment of different idealizations and some specic design recommendations were made for the determination of the n efciency for plate-n heat exchangers. Although, usage of ns is not new but such concept for heating purpose in jaggery making open pan furnaces has not been tried yet. 2. Experimental set-up and procedure Main pan and gutter pan of IISR furnace were modied in which ns were provided to the bottom of these pans. For simplicity in fabrication, mild steel ats of 40 5 mm size were welded at 60 mm spacing to the bottom of main juice boiling pan and gutter pan. These were welded lengthwise in the direction of movement

Fig. 1. IISR Lucknow furnace used for jaggery making.

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S.I. Anwar / Energy Conversion and Management 51 (2010) 360364

of ue gases and thus have been named as parallel ns. Chain welding was done in two passes to avoid bending of ats and also to have continuous welding throughout the length of ats providing better contact. Nineteen ats (size; 130.8, 263.6, 385.0, 497.0, 5107.5, 6114.5, 7120.0, 8124.5, 9126.5, 10126.7, 11126.0, 12124.0, 13120.0, 14113.8, 15106.6, 1695.0, 1784.0, 1865.0, 1931.2 cm) were welded to main pan and 10 ats of 122 cm each were welded the bottom of gutter pan. The increase in area of heat receiving surface due to ns was calculated as:

gHu

M ev L 100 mb C b

2.2. Test with modied pans Similar method was followed with modied pan except the quantity of bagasse taken was 75 kg and the feeding was done for 90 min (feed rate 0.83 kg/min). Experiments were replicated thrice for each system and average values were calculated. The experimental error has been evaluated in terms of per cent uncertainty (internal + external) [15]. Following two equations have been used for internal uncertainty:

Increase in area 2 total length of flat provided width of flat


Effect of ns on area of heat receiving surfaces is given in Table 1 and modied main pan and gutter pan are shown in Fig. 2. The performance of furnace was evaluated with conventional and modied pans by water boiling test as mentioned below: 2.1. Test with conventional pans One hundred and fty litres of water was lled in main pan and in gutter pan. Hundred kilogram of bagasse was weighed using electronic balance (Decibel make: platform type, 1000 kg capacity, least count 0.1 kg) and was burnt in the furnace for 120 min maintaining a uniform feed rate (0.83 kg/min). Water temperature in main and gutter pan was noted down by using mercury-in-glass thermometer (ZEAL make: range 0110 C, least count 1 C) at 5min interval. After consuming the weighed quantity of bagasse in the specied time, water was allowed to remain in the pans for next 2 h. This was done to facilitate utilization of maximum amount heat and the water to cool down for ease in its measurement. Water left in both the pans was measured with measuring cylinder (glass type, capacity 1 l, least count 0.01 l). Total quantity of water evaporated was calculated by subtracting water left in both the pans from the total water lled. Based on total quantity of water evaporated and the quantity and caloric value of used bagasse, heat utilization efciency was calculated using Eq. (1).

U1

q 2 2 r2 1 r2 rN N

where r is the standard deviation and is given as

s P X X 2 r N0

and X X is the deviation of observation from the mean and N and N0 are the number of sets and number of observations in each set, respectively. The per cent internal uncertainty has been determined using the following expression:

% internal uncertainty

U1 Average of total number of observations 100 4

External uncertainty has been calculated by considering least count of instruments used in recording data. Therefore, the possibility of errors in taking measurements of bagasse weight, water quantity and temperature has been considered. 3. Experimental results and discussion Temperature prole of water in main pan and in gutter pan for both the systems i.e. with conventional and with modied systems have been shown in Fig. 3.

Table 1 Effect of ns on area of heat receiving surfaces. Main pan Conventional Modied Increase in area 12667.69 cm2 27561.29 cm2 118% Gutter pan Conventional Modied Increase in area 7442 cm2 17202 cm2 131%

Main Pan (conventional) Gutter Pan (conventional)

Main Pan (modified) Gutter Pan (modified)

100 90 80

Temperature (C)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time (min.)
Fig. 2. Modied main pan and gutter pan. Fig. 3. Temperature prole of water in conventional and modied main pan and gutter pan.

S.I. Anwar / Energy Conversion and Management 51 (2010) 360364 Table 2 Results of water boiling test with conventional pans. Sl no. Particulars Experiment number I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Weight of water in main pan, l Weight of water in gutter pan, l Total water taken, l Time of operation, min Bagasse used, kg Total water evaporated, kg Water evaporated/kg of bagasse, kg Bagasse used/kg of water evaporated, kg Heat utilization efciency, % 150 150 300 120 100 148.76 1.48 0.68 20.08 II 150 150 300 120 100 149.35 1.49 0.67 20.16 III 150 150 300 120 100 148.92 1.48 0.68 20.10

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Average 150 150 300 120 100 149.01 1.483 0.67 20.12

Table 3 Results of water boiling test with modied pans. Sl no. Particulars Experiment number I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Weight of water in main pan, kg Weight of water in gutter pan, kg Total water taken, l Time of operation, min Bagasse used, kg Total water evaporated, kg Water evaporated/kg of bagasse, kg Bagasse used/kg of water evaporated, kg Heat utilization efciency, % 150 150 300 90 75 164.59 2.19 0.46 29.63 II 150 150 300 90 75 164.31 2.19 0.46 29.58 III 150 150 300 90 75 163.82 2.18 0.46 29.49 Average 150 150 300 90 75 164.24 2.19 0.46 29.56

It can be seen that there is advancement in time of boiling in the main pan in the modied system and the water started boiling 6 min earlier than the conventional pan. The effect of ns is more pronounced in gutter pan where water temperature reached to 81 C in just 90 min with modied pan as compared to 76 C that too in 120 min with conventional pan. Experimental results with conventional and modied pans have been summarized in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. It may be seen from above tables that about 15 kg more water was evaporated by using modied pans that too with 75 kg bagasse. Water evaporation per unit weight of bagasse is shown in Fig. 4. It is more (0.71 kg) with modied pans. Therefore about 48% more water is evaporated in case of modied pans. The effect of modied pans on bagasse consumption has been shown in Fig. 5. It is 0.46 kg per kilogram of water evaporated in case of modied system against 0.67 in case of conventional system resulting in reduction by 0.21 kg for modied pans. Therefore, energy and fuel saving of 31.34% was achieved by using modied

Bagasse consumed per kilogram of water evaporated, kg

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0


Conventional Modified

0.67

0.46

Pan
Fig. 5. Effect of modied pans on bagasse consumption.

2.5

35
2.19

Water evaporated per kilogram of bagasse, kg

30 2 25 1.5
1.48
20.12

29.56

HUE, %

20 15 10

0.5

5 0 Conventional Modified Conventional Modified

Pan
Fig. 4. Effect of modied pans on water evaporation.

Pan
Fig. 6. Effect of modied pans on heat utilization efciency.

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S.I. Anwar / Energy Conversion and Management 51 (2010) 360364 [2] Paturao JM. By products of cane sugar industry. Amsterdam-Oxford-New York: Elsevier Scientic Publication Company; 1982. [3] Manohar rao PJ. Industrial utilization of sugar and its by products. New Delhi: ISPCK Publishers and Distributors; 1977. [4] Roy SC. Monograph on the Gur industry of India. New Delhi: ICSC; 1951. [5] Baboo B, Anwar SI. Recent developments in jaggery (Gur) research, Tech Bull. No. IISR/JKS/94/91995. Lucknow: Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research; 1995. [6] Malekzadeh P, Rahideh H, Setoodeh AR. Optimization of non-symmetric convectiveradiative annular ns by differential quadrature method. Energy Convers Manage 2007;48(5):16717. [7] Malekzadeh P, Rahideh H. IDQ two-dimensional nonlinear transient heat transfer analysis of variable section annular ns. Energy Convers Manage 2007;48(1):26976. [8] Naphon P. Study on the heat transfer characteristics of the annular n under dry-surface, partially wet-surface, and fully wet-surface conditions. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer 2006;33(1):11221. [9] Kundu B. Performance and optimum design analysis of longitudinal and pin ns with simultaneous heat and mass transfer: unied and comparative investigations. Appl Therm Eng 2007;27(56):97687. [10] Rosario L, Rahman MM. Analysis of heat transfer in a partially wet radial n assembly during dehumidication. Int J Heat Fluid Fl 1999;20(6):6428. [11] Khaled ARA. Maximizing heat transfer through joint n systems. J Heat Transfer 2006;128(2):2036. [12] Lin Chien-Nan, Jang Jiin-Yuh. A two-dimensional n efciency analysis of combined heat and mass transfer in elliptic ns. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2002;45(18):383947. [13] Sharqawy MH, Zubair SM. Efciency and optimization of straight ns with combined heat and mass transfer an analytical solution. Appl Therm Eng 2008;28(1718):227988. [14] Huang LJ, Shah RK. Assessment of calculation methods for efciency of straight ns of rectangular prole. Int J Heat Fluid Fl 1992;13(3):28293. [15] Nakra BC, Chaudhary KK. Instrument measurement and analysis. New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw Hill Publication Company; 1991.

pans. Due to saving of bagasse there would be reduction of undesirable generation of CO2 also. The saved bagasse can be diverted to subsidiary industry like paper and pulp for extra revenue generation and the whole economics of the system would improve. Effect of modied pans on heat utilization efciency is shown in Fig. 6. It increased to 29.56% from 20.12% in case of conventional pans. Therefore, an increase of 9.44% was achieved. In other terms per cent increase in heat utilization efciency was 46.92. The values of the per cent uncertainty ranged between 19% and 27% for all the cases. 4. Conclusions The heat utilization efciency of jaggery making furnace increased considerably by using modied pans having ns. Modication resulted in saving of fuel and energy. The saved bagasse can be diverted to paper and pulp industry for extra revenue generation. Improvement in efciency would also be helpful for quality enhancement of the product due to less time requirement for sugarcane juice concentration in jaggery making. References
[1] Anon. Co-operative Sugar. India: National Federation of Co-operative Sugar Factories Ltd.; 2007:38(6).